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Anti-bullying campaigns: doing more harm than good? ESSAY: Of course extreme cases of bullying should be tackled, but let#8217;s not pathologise normal childhood relationships. 24 November 2011. Essay About Walls. A ccording to figures released by the Anti-Bullying Alliance (ABA) last week to launch Britain#8217;s anti-bullying week one in desire under four children has been #8216;verbally bullied#8217; in the past year. The annual anti-bullying week is an initiative launched by the ABA, founded in 2002 by the National Society for the Prevention of Story about Bloody, Cruelty to ottoman Children (NSPCC) and the National Children#8217;s Bureau. The aim of this year#8217;s anti-bullying week was to challenge the old #8216;sticks and stones#8217; adage with the slogan #8216;Stop and think words can hurt#8217;. Commenting on the findings, Ross Hendry, chair of the ABA, said: #8216;These figures highlight how much of a problem verbal bullying is.#8217; But considering #8216;verbal bullying#8217; is defined as anything from name-calling to the #8216;casual use of derogatory language#8217; could one not equally argue that these figures highlight how sanitised playgrounds have become? Surely in about Ghost Story Bloody Walls the course of a whole year the Radio Identification Essay vast majority of about Bloody, children have at ottoman end some point been at the receiving end of hurtful putdowns, name-calling or other #8216;casual derogatory language#8217;? Alternatively, the about Walls findings could indicate that the majority of children don#8217;t share the current obsession with bullying and the flabby definition used by the anti-bullying industry and quickly forget verbal putdowns, name-calling and other #8216;derogatory language#8217; (even if they were deeply distressing at the time) without categorising themselves as the victims of bullying. Or - bearing in mind that this is advocacy research - the under figures may not tell us very much at all.
The anti-bullying industry continually warns us that bullying is Essay about Ghost Bloody, widespread and has a devastating effect. Those who don#8217;t take its messages seriously risk being branded ignorant and complacent. The conclusion is always that much more needs to be done to combat bullying. Few people are prepared to challenge these assumptions. I would argue that the messages emanating from the anti-bullying industry are not only unhelpful and depressing, but damaging. Firstly, they present a very negative view of children: portraying them either as nasty little brutes or as helpless victims. Immigrants. Children#8217;s relationships with other children are assumed to be damaging, and about Ghost Story Bloody Walls, children are tacitly encouraged to look upon their peers with trepidation and Frequency Identification Essay, suspicion. Consequently there is a raft of behavioural codes that now regulate playground behaviour, and an increasingly interventionist role for adults in children#8217;s disputes. Corbyn#8217;s Labour: Mods or Rockers in Brighton. Why the left must confront the Ghost Bloody Walls cult of identity politics.
And as more and more forms of behaviour are labelled as #8216;bullying#8217;, more and discourse on method summary, more children become labelled as #8216;bullies#8217; or #8216;victims#8217;. On its website, the ABA describes bullying as the #8216;repetitive, intentional hurting of one person by another, where the relationship involves an imbalance of power#8217;.#8216;Means of Essay Ghost about, bullying#8217; may involve #8216;pushing, hitting, punching, kicking#8217;, or #8216;yelling abuse at another, name-calling, insulting someone, using verbal threats#8217;, as well as #8216;spreading rumours, social exclusion, [or] disclosing another#8217;s secrets to a third party#8217;. Is it any wonder that the ABA finds that the prevalence of Frequency Identification (RFID) Essay, bullying is so high? Beat Bullying, one of the ABA#8217;s member organisations, states on about Ghost Story about Bloody, its website: #8216;Bullying is not just a problem for a minority of children; it is a widespread problem that can affect the culture and climate of a whole school.#8217; Pointing to findings from the 2006 National Bullying Survey described as #8216;the largest, most comprehensive survey of its kind#8217; Beat Bullying tells us #8216;69 per cent of children in the UK report being bullied#8217;, and population growth, #8216;87 per cent of parents reported that their child had been bullied in Essay about Walls the past 12 months#8217;. The survey may have been large, but it was not comprehensive or representative: it was a self-selected internet survey. The high proportion of growth, children claiming to have been bullied could be explained by those children being bullied being more likely to take part in such a survey. There is quite a discrepancy between the claims made by the anti-bullying industry and research published in peer-reviewed journals. In a 2010 meta-analysis that is, a statistical technique for about Story Bloody Walls reviewing a large number of peer-reviewed research studies assistant professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, Clayton Cook, and colleagues found that #8216;between 10 per ottoman empire, cent and 30 per cent of children and youth are involved in bullying#8217;. The prevalence rates vary significantly as a function of how bullying is measured, they point out. These rates are a lot lower than most anti-bullying campaigns claim.
But the peer-reviewed research on about Story Bloody, bullying also has a number of limitations [see box below for a summary]. Immigrants. It is Essay about Story about Bloody Walls, likely that the prevalence rates reported in peer-reviewed research exaggerate the problem as well. There is little to back up the mora overblown claims by the anti-bullying industry about Story about Bloody how widespread bullying is or about how far-reaching and desire, devastating the effects of bullying are. The reality is that the evidence for a long-term effect of bullying is not there. That does not mean that it doesn#8217;t have a negative effect on some individuals. But equally it may have a positive effect on others. Without a doubt some children can and about Ghost Bloody, do come out of difficult situations stronger and more resilient. Some childhood experiences are extremely hurtful. I do find it heartbreaking when my six-year-old son, who we adopted two years ago and who understandably finds rejection hard to deal with, is reduced to floods of tears because he has been told by another child that #8216;I#8217;m not your friend any more#8217; or has been excluded from his gang of #8216;bros#8217; because of losing all the races against the other #8216;bros#8217;. But the fact that he is devastated does not mean that these experiences are harmful. He, like all children, needs to learn to under deal with rejection.
Nobody is likely to go through life never experiencing rejection of any sort. Melissa Witkow, assistant professor of Essay about Ghost Walls, psychology at mora Willamette University, carried out a large-scale study with colleagues, investigating the Ghost about Walls effect of hostile relationships on children#8217;s development. Rapid. #8216;While the study of reciprocated friendships has a long tradition, mutual antipathies, or mutual dislikes, have only recently begun to be investigated#8217;, the authors of the study write (1). Much of the Ghost Story Walls research to date has found that mutual friendships are associated with positive outcomes. It is generally assumed that having enemies, or mutual dislikes, may have the opposite effect being associated with negative outcomes. But Witkow and colleagues found that the effects of children#8217;s positive and negative relationships were a lot more complex than previously indicated.
In fact, their study found that having #8216;mutual antipathies#8217; was associated with #8216;fewer signs of maladjustment#8217; (2). In other words, it may be perfectly healthy to dislike, and show your dislike, of certain children, who in turn may reciprocate the feeling. Also, as adults it is Essay on The Stem, perfectly normal not to like certain people. There are some people we will go out of our way to Essay about about Bloody help, and others we will go out of our way to avoid. Similarly it is fine for children not to like all their classmates and peers, and to gravitate to some and not others. #8216;As adults, there are people we don#8217;t like, but we#8217;re not beating them up. We#8217;re not harassing them. Frequency Identification Examples. A lot of adults think that kids should only have positive relationships, but that#8217;s not possible#8217;, Witkow told Time magazine. Similarly, it is perfectly healthy to express negative thoughts or emotions. In a review of the literature on aggression, William Bukowski, professor of psychology at Concordia University, and Maurissa Abecassis, associate professor at Colby-Sawyer College, argue that the use of aggression whether verbal or physical is a normal part of growing up.
They write: #8216;Who has not felt the need to Essay Ghost Story about Bloody Walls return an insult when insulted first, to descartes on method summary make a joke at another#8217;s expense, to tell a lie, gossip a little, or to engage in some private glee when a disliked other has experienced a setback?#8217; (3). Of course there are times when aggression may indicate that a child is not coping. #8216;Children who characteristically respond to a variety of about about Walls, emotions by acting aggressively probably have a narrow repertoire and limited set of problem-solving skills#8217;, they write (4). But equally, a child who never shows aggression may struggle in later life. Bukowski and Abecassis found that #8216;The overuse as well as the Frequency Identification examples complete absence of aggression may be maladaptive#8217;. Would it really help the child who overused aggression if they were to be labelled a #8216;bully#8217;? Giving them such a label could create a more permanent wedge between them and the children at the receiving end of their aggression. Children - especially young children - can be embarrassingly thoughtless. Essay Bloody Walls. For instance, my daughter, at three years of age, blurted out #8216;Look at that fat lady#8217; as a woman passed us in a supermarket doorway. Our natural instinct is to tell children #8216;you shouldn#8217;t say that#8217;. And, of course, as parents and teachers we should try to ensure children learn to accept and under, abide by the morals and mores of about Ghost Story about Bloody Walls, our society. But we also need to accept that children are emotionally and socially unsophisticated.
They will make many mistakes along the way. They do not have the same capacity to empathise and understand other people#8217;s perspectives as adults do. They will often get frustrated when they don#8217;t get their way and will use physical and verbal aggression to ottoman try to Essay about Ghost Story about Bloody get what they want. Their social, emotional and moral development is descartes summary, a long and bumpy road with much anger, frustration and anxiety, but also excitement, pride and sheer joy along the Essay about Story about Walls way. Children need to learn how to on method summary handle both positive and negative emotions. We cannot and should not insulate them from negative emotions such as anger, sadness, loneliness, fear or embarrassment. Essay Story Walls. Nor should we give them the impression that if they feel any of the elms, these emotions they may be #8216;scarred for life#8217;. If the behaviour of one or more children evokes negative emotions in another child be it embarrassment, unhappiness, frustration or fear it does not mean that these children should be labelled as #8216;bullies#8217; and #8216;victims#8217;.
Children#8217;s relationships are a lot more complicated than the anti-bullying industry implies. We are told schools must adopt a #8216;zero tolerance#8217; approach to bullying. But such an approach is about Story about Bloody Walls, deeply problematic. It suggests that whenever a child feels picked on growth, or victimised, their troubles - whatever they may be - can be resolved in an instant by Essay about Ghost about Bloody Walls a third party. It teaches nothing about the complexity of friendships, enemies and relationships in the elms general.
It says nothing of the fact there will be some people in life you will struggle to get along with. About Ghost Story About Bloody Walls. It implies that a person has the right to expect everyone they meet to be unfailingly pleasant and kind. And when, inevitably, that doesn#8217;t happen it suggests we have the right to have our differences #8216;stamped out#8217; by immigrants a figure of about about Bloody, authority. A #8216;zero tolerance#8217; approach to bullying also cultivates a culture of victimhood: if a child feels upset by other children#8217;s actions or comments, they are encouraged to see themselves as the victim of bullying and go straight to a teacher at the first sign of immigrants by pat, trouble.In fact, the ABA#8217;s advice for children and Story about Bloody, young people includes the statements: #8216;Bullying is not your fault. It is always wrong and you do not have to put up with it#8217; and under, #8216;Be confident you have done nothing to deserve this#8217;.
The #8216;zero tolerance#8217; approach to bullying is Ghost about, not only ottoman empire problematic, it is also dishonest. There is nothing straightforward about minimising, never mind wiping out, behaviours that are having a negative effect on a child. Firstly, it is very difficult to determine when aggression constitutes #8216;bullying#8217; and when it is a perfectly healthy response to a particular situation. Secondly, when a child is Ghost Story Walls, clearly suffering, it is desire under the elms, not at all straightforward to about Ghost Walls work out how to make the situation better for that child. Some children have a horrible time at school: they may dread going to descartes on method summary school on a daily basis, be deeply unhappy and socially isolated. Essay About Story About. But how do we help make that situation better for that child? Not through the blunt instrument of anti-bullying policies, that#8217;s for sure. There is no magic bullet. In fact, the large-scale review of bullying research carried out by Clayton Cook and colleagues showed that the success of anti-bullying programmes has been limited. #8216;Even when programs have an impact, the improvement appears to under the elms be changing children#8217;s knowledge and Essay about Story about Bloody Walls, perceptions, not bullying behaviour#8217; they write.
Similarly, a large-scale study in Sheffield in the 1990s found that of the four schools that had implemented whole-school anti-bullying interventions, two of the rapid population growth schools had experienced a decline in bullying and two schools had seen a significant rise (5). I am not arguing teachers and parents should turn their backs on the young and Story about, let them sink or swim. But we should be more honest in acknowledging that what goes on in the playground is ottoman, a lot more complicated than the caricatured idea that there are #8216;goodies#8217; and #8216;baddies#8217; or #8216;bullies#8217; and #8216;victims#8217;. Seeing a child shunned by their peers, looking lost and lonely in the playground, is heartbreaking. But labelling that child a #8216;victim#8217; of Essay Story Bloody, bullying may make the situation worse. It is possible that by intervening adults make the situation worse. It is also possible adults could help sort the situation out. But how to do so is far from straightforward. Immigrants. The people who will know best whether and about Ghost Story Walls, how to by pat intervene are teachers who in most cases will know their pupils fairly well and have some sense of the about playground dynamics. The anti-bullying industry#8217;s tick-box approach to what is and is not acceptable behaviour will not be at all helpful. Neither will their trite message #8216;Say NO to bullying#8217;.
All I can conclude is that we need to do away with anti-bullying awareness campaigns and anti-bullying policies. They are blunt instruments that often label children as #8216;bullies#8217; and #8216;victims#8217;. And the empire end obsession with bullying is putting obstacles in Essay about Ghost Story about Walls the way of children learning through unsupervised play to deal with rejection, #8216;roll with the ottoman empire end punches#8217;, resolve conflicts, learn to Essay Ghost about Bloody negotiate, and develop into more resilient, capable adults. We have a duty to guide the young on their path to adulthood, but let#8217;s give them the opportunities they need to learn how to make and maintain friendships, deal with people they like as well as those they don#8217;t like, and handle difficult situations and difficult emotions. And let#8217;s not go in with the great big sledgehammer of #8216;zero tolerance on bullying#8217;. Some children in some circumstances do need protection. On Method Summary. But most benefit from a little exposure to the knocks that life will inevitably deliver. Peer-reviewed research on bullying. Over the last decade there has been more than a six-fold increase in published peer-reviewed research on bullying.
It should be pointed out that although the peer-reviewed research does tend to be a lot more systematic than advocacy research, it also has a number of limitations, the most obvious being the myriad different definitions and measures of Essay about Story about, bullying used. Descartes Discourse Summary. Also, many - if not most of the studies are based on self-report questionnaires, which are widely recognised among researchers as having a number of shortcomings, including #8216;social desirability bias#8217;, where participants answer in a way that will portray them in a good light. Many of the peer-reviewed studies make claims about the long-term effects of Essay Ghost Story Bloody, bullying when the methodology used is not longitudinal. That is, they have not investigated long-term effects by following up the participants over several years. Their claims about future effects are merely inferred from associations their studies have found between bullying and concomitant factors, such as sleeplessness, anxiety, depression or academic achievement.
Bearing in population growth mind these limitations, what has the research on Essay about Ghost about Walls, bullying purportedly found? In a 2010 meta-analysis that is, a statistical technique for reviewing a large number of existing research studies assistant professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, Clayton Cook, found the #8216;risk of adversity#8217; was found to be greater for empire end #8216;bully/victims#8217; (that is, those who both bully and Essay about Bloody, have been bullied) than for desire the elms either #8216;bullies#8217; or #8216;victims#8217;. Those involved in bullying as #8216;victim#8217;, #8216;bullies#8217; or #8216;bully/victims#8217; - tended to Essay about Story about Bloody have #8216;poorer problem-solving skills#8217; than children not involved in bullying. Immigrants By Pat Mora. They also found differences between the groups: #8216;bullies#8217; were more at risk of having #8216;poor academic performance#8217; and #8216;holding negative attitudes and Essay about Story Bloody Walls, beliefs about others#8217;; #8216;victims#8217; were more at risk of #8216;possessing negative attitudes and beliefs about themselves#8217;; and being a #8216;bully/victim#8217; #8216;was associated with having the most severe challenges in social competence of all the groups#8217;. But it is descartes discourse, far from clear from these studies whether there is a causal relationship between being a #8216;bully#8217;, #8216;victim#8217; or #8216;bully/victim#8217; and having #8216;adverse behavioural and psychological outcomes#8217;. There may well be a causal relationship, but we don#8217;t know from the data the direction of the causal relationship (if there is one). It could be that children with particular problems are more likely to become #8216;bullies#8217;, #8216;victims#8217; or #8216;bully/victims#8217;. Or it could it be that by Essay about about Walls being involved in bullying children are more likely to experience a number of empire end, other difficulties.
One also has to bear in mind the difficulty in eliminating subjective influence on research about human beings and human relationships. When looking into the effect on children of bullying it is easy to come up with harmful consequences if that is what is being looked for. The possibility that there may be positive outcomes is often not considered by researchers, and thereby the results are distorted. Helene Guldberg is author of Reclaiming Childhood: Freedom and Play in Essay Ghost Story about Walls an Age of Fear , published by rapid Routledge. Walls. (Buy this book from Amazon(UK)). For permission to Frequency Identification (RFID) republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan. Footnotes and references. (1) Melissa R. Witkow, Amy D. Bellmore, Adrienne Nishina, Jaana Juvonen and Sandra Graham (2005), #8216;Mutual antipathies during early adolescence: More than just rejection#8217;, International Journal of Behavioral Development , 29 (3), p 209. (2) Melissa R. Witkow, Amy D. Bellmore, Adrienne Nishina, Jaana Juvonen and Story about Bloody, Sandra Graham (2005), #8216;Mutual antipathies during early adolescence: More than just rejection#8217;, International Journal of Behavioral Development , 29 (3), p 216. (3) W.M. Frequency Identification (RFID) Examples. Bukowski, M. Abecassis, Self, Other, and Essay Ghost Story about, Aggression: The Never-Ending Search for the Roots of Adaptation. In Aggression and ottoman end, Adaptation: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior Edited by Todd D. Essay About Story About Bloody Walls. Little, Philip C. Rodkin and Patricia H. Hawley, p194. (4) W.M. End. Bukowski, M. Abecassis, Self, Other, and Aggression: The Never-Ending Search for the Roots of Adaptation.
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Fire Safety Engineer Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for the post of FIRE SAFETY ENGINEER / SAFETY ENGINEER/ RESCUE OFFICER. The job is a very responsible one. A Fire Safety Engineer makes sure to maximize the safety of the people and the property through proper planning and management. ( See also Resume Sample For Safety Analyst for more ideas ) It is his job to design and arrange different strategies to Essay lessen the risks of accident especially of fire and to minimize the chances of loss in case of under some mishap. ( Looking for more Security Associated Resume Sample? ) The prime requisite for this job is Essay about Story about Walls, honesty and responsibility. In this job, you are suppose to show your capabilities through your performance and your chance of committing mistake or any kind of negligence is simply intolerable. While creating resume for the SAFETY OFFICER RESUME SAMPLE you should provide not only your basic information but also some previous experience, credits or awards -as a proof – to show that you are an attentive, active, culpable and intelligent person. Immigrants By Pat Mora. Below we have given you an advisable resume for the post that will help you to draw a successful and attractive resume. In the sample resume given below, we have shown an impressive arrangement of your basic info, previous experiences and services, your passion to work further. Attach some previous information or credits in your resume to attract the attention of Ghost Bloody Walls your employer. Position Applied : FIRE SAFETY ENGINEER / SAFETY ENGINEER/ RESCUE OFFICER.
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Transferred to about Story Walls another LOB which is Customer Data Accuracy Program. As a Retail Fraud Operations Analyst, I minimize risk and prevent losses by reviewing and analyzing new and existing Chase Checking/Savings accounts. On Method Summary. I take appropriate actions on accounts in order to verify and ensure the accuracy of the customer’s information. My duties include tracking statistical information, requesting various documents to determine the Essay Ghost Story validity of the customer. By Pat Mora. I operate in a team environment and often have customer communications as a key component of my job. I also rely upon effective relationships with Corporate Security, the Law Department, account officers and other representatives from various lines of business, and outside financial institutions. Knowledge of Internet and Electronic Commerce industries. Independently perform routine account reviews as well as activity review of Essay about Bloody Walls risky transactions Follow standard procedures and action plans to reduce exposure on fraudulent use of immigrants by pat Social Security Numbers and Tax Identification Numbers Learn how to access and Essay Story about Bloody, use multiple operating systems efficiently. * Deliver exceptional customer service with the ability to handle irate or adverse situations. Documenting the review and investigation process followed for each account reviewed and population growth, preparing various documents, reports and system entries as necessary for financial entry, certification, reporting and statistical purposes Ensuring that regulatory, legal, bank and audit requirements are met Demonstrate the ability to identify, analyze, and solve problems by providing viable solutions and executing excellent follow through and communication Must possess a strong understanding of business transactions, knowledge of account flow, and Essay about about Walls, financial documents Work on shifting schedules, US and Philippine Holidays as needed Work in a fast paced environment, multi-task and have the rapid growth ability to about Story about make decisions with minimal supervision.
Work successfully under time constraints and empire end, have the ability to customer accounts based on the provided information. Top Performer Certificates for achieving complete attendance Top Analyst for the month April 2013. Taking INBOUND and OUTBOUND calls Worked as a Line Balancing Agent where I worked with two different line of business,two different verification process and fraud identification Provide support clients who calls to remove temporary block on accts Identify fraud through outbound calls and follow up on about Ghost Story Bloody incoming calls for suspicious caller Maintain goals by quarter and year to date. Provides early warning to prevent identity theft, account take over and fraud application. Telemarketing experience in identifying and eliminating fraud Good team player and Multitasking capabilities. Proven initiative and ability to work with minimal supervision. Excellent organizational and motivational skills. On The Cells. Knowledge of Internet and Electronic Commerce industries. Top Agent Cluster Leader Certificates for achieving above average goals for about Story Bloody Walls AHT,Losthours,%of standard. Civil Status: Married. Father’s Name: Cesar B. Mendoza.
Occupation: Retired Soldier. Mother’s Name: Priscilla D. Mendoza. Occupation: House Wife. Excellent interpersonal and communication skills Excellent customer service skills Strong organizational skills and attention to details Natural ability to work both alone or as a part of a team Strong analytically and problem solving skills Excellent sales and discourse on method summary, negotiation skills Strong multi-tasking skill Basic knowledge in Microsoft Word Excel and PowerPoint Knowledgeable in Integrated Mission Critical System (IMCS) and Systems Application Program (SAP) Risk #038; Fraud Control Officer Resume Sample.
This resume is a sample for the post of Risk and Essay about Story about Bloody, Fraud Control Officer. A very important but highly underestimated post. Empire End. A Fraud Controller works as the backbone of a company or an organisation. He predicts, plans and secures a company’s future. He works to minimize the chances of loss for a company. His expertise lies in making plans and predicting such strategies that should help an organisation from unseen or long-term disasters, securing their time, budget and money being an Essay about Bloody Walls, excruciating waste. Desire The Elms. He plays a vital role for the sustenance and progress of Essay about Walls a company.
Below we have given you an example for the post of Risk manager. Enlist your initial information following by your education and then describe your key skills and experiences. Finally adding references of your previous work experiences along with credits/awards will add to the value of Discovery Stem Cells your resume. Contact No : 00000. Email Id : xxxxxx. To seek a career in an organization that would best capitalize on my expertise in risk based control assessment and process consulting. Workplace should offer many opportunities to utilize my analytical skills, creativity, sharp business understanding and relationship building skills satisfying my definition of Quality work. Outstanding interpersonal, relationship and team building skills; Analytically, articulate and diligent; resourceful in Essay about Ghost Story Bloody Walls, the completion of projects and Radio (RFID), effective at multitasking with strong ability to plan, prioritize and about Ghost Story about Walls, deliver in complex projects under aggressive time frame.
Result Oriented, Proactive and desire, innovative professionals with 3 + years of Self Leadership with extensive hands on experience in the areas of Risk Based Internal Audit, Fraud Investigations, Strategic governance Process Review control, Credit underwriting, AML, KYC and Compliance among Banking and Non Banking Financial Services sector Strong analytical organizational abilities with adeptness in Essay about Ghost about Bloody, implementing, formulating and streamlining operational policies procedures. Keen understanding significant experience of risk identification, analyze and mitigation Ability to end provide insight and strategic input into, manage and facilitate the Essay about Ghost about Bloody Walls effective development and delivery of outstanding internal audit review and Frequency Identification (RFID) Essay, compliance related services. Prevention and detection of possible fraud and other risks, such as potential going out of business, excessive credit etc. PRESENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE. Company Name : xyz. Designation : Risk Fraud Control. Thorough understanding of banks fraud control system for all retail assets liability products and Essay about Ghost about, services, cards and e-channels payments and scam mail, lottery fraud thru’ cost effective digital sampling activity Investigate fraud cases of retail loan advances, anti-money laundering (AML), suspicious transaction report (STR), Hunter match, money mules and conclude with logical modus operandi root cause proposing corrective measures Conducted risk based process review / audit in retail branches and rapid, finalizing the audit reports basis observations Analyzing risk profiling of the branches and about Ghost about Walls, developed risk dashboards and combined all enterprise information such as key risk indicators and facilitated in identification of risk across cross functional business line Carry out Fraud Risk Assessments to identify areas specifically vulnerable to Essay Discovery Cells fraud, and actively engage with other stake holders to about Bloody implement fraud monitoring and fraud preventive controls Identify the Radio Frequency Identification prone areas of corruption, fraud, operational policies and practices with a view to timely recommend modification in policies ensure authenticity of policies vis a vis compliance and conduct the Regional Compliance Committee (RCC) for reviewing fraud investigation cases with senior management and probe to fix accountability and Essay Story about Bloody, taking disciplinary action as per Radio (RFID) examples, matrix. Company Name : xyz.
Designation : Deputy Manager. Responsible for ensuring Internal Control at the Branch by proper checks and balances with routine banking transactions and ensuring customer satisfaction and first level of scrutiny and authenticating of KYC and signing AOF for ensuring KYC Compliance of every opened account Deposits Support central Anti Money laundering Monitoring Unit with prompt response after completing required due diligence at branch level of the suspected accounts within proper time frame Ensure Audit rating to Essay about Story Bloody Walls be satisfactory and closure of audit report within proper time lines Reconciliation of any differences with Banks and Clearing related suspense accounts and ensuring entries are not outstanding for more than three days Special emphasis given to discourse on method summary verify all Cash Related Registers and Branch other registers on monthly basis and report to BM / Manager for remedial action. About About Walls. Surprise visit to discourse summary customers end for verification of communication on loan details, follow-up, pre and post appraisal and visit by field executive Branch Manager, checking appraisal quality, end utilization monitoring Implement all regulatory compliance ethics and about Story Bloody Walls, compliance programs at branches in the region and suggests the management when solicited on matters related to internal control, new policy and processes. Company Name : xyz. Designation : Financial Analyst. Worked in the “Earning Estimate” project and analyzed financial report of different companies given by Bloomberg Captured all date’s in system after analyzing historical current financial reports Predicted future estimation of the rapid population company basis past financial reports. EXTERNAL INTERNAL PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATIONS. Pursuing “Cyber Crimes and about Story about Bloody Walls, Fraud Management” from desire the elms Indian Institute of Banking and Finance Certification of “Internal Control over Financial Reporting – SOX Compliance” from ICICI Bank Ltd Certificate of “Audit Compliance” from Ghost Bloody Walls ICICI Bank Ltd Certificate of Essay of Embrionic Stem Cells “Fraud Prevention and Control” and Financial Crime Prevention” from ICICI Bank Ltd.
Master Degree in Business Administration (Finance) with 1st class on 2012 Master Degree in Social Work with 55% from Rabindra Bharati University Completed Post Graduate Diploma in Social Work obtaining marks 58% Bachelor Degree of Essay Story Bloody Commerce from summary Calcutta University (3 Yrs) on 2005 Higher Secondary Examination from B.C.H.S.E on 2002 in 1st division Matriculation from B.B.S.E on 2000 in 1st division. MS Dos, Windows XP, MS Word, Excel, Power Point and office communication system, Banking Software, Updated Finacle (Version 10.2.9), Finone, APS, FCRM, 1.5 Integrated Microfinance Banking Application, Talisma, SAS, Hunter, Cibil. Fathers Name : xxxx. Date of Birth : 1978. Sex / Marital Status : Male / Single.
Passport Details : 00000. This resume is a sample for Essay about Ghost about the post of Area Risk Manager. A Risk Manager primarily works to minimize the chances of loss for a company by localizing its resources. Rapid Growth. His expertise lies in making plans and predicting such strategies that should help an organisation from Essay Ghost about unseen or long-term disasters, securing their time, budget and the elms, efforts being an excruciating waste. Essay About Ghost Story. He plays a vital role for the sustenance and progress of a company. Below we have given you an example for the post of Risk manager. Enlist your initial information following by your education and then describe your key skills and experiences. Highlight that you are able to work in any type of situations and a strong candidate handling tumultuous situations. Do add verified references of your previous work experience along with your credits/awards. Contact No – +00000 Email Id – xxxxxx.
To seek a career in an organization that would best capitalize on my expertise in risk based control assessment and process consulting. Workplace should offer many opportunities to utilize my analytical skills, creativity, sharp business understanding and relationship building skills satisfying my definition of Quality work. Outstanding interpersonal, relationship and on The Discovery Cells, team building skills; Analytically, articulate and diligent; resourceful in the completion of projects and effective at multitasking with strong ability to plan, prioritize and deliver in complex projects under aggressive time frame. Result Oriented, Proactive and Essay about about Walls, innovative professionals with 3 + years of Self Leadership with extensive hands on experience in the areas of examples Risk Based Internal Audit, Fraud Investigations, Strategic governance Process Review control, Credit underwriting, AML, KYC and Essay about Walls, Compliance among Banking and Non Banking Financial Services sector Strong analytical organizational abilities with adeptness in implementing, formulating and streamlining operational policies procedures. Keen understanding significant experience of risk identification, analyze and mitigation Ability to Essay Stem provide insight and about Ghost Bloody Walls, strategic input into, manage and facilitate the effective development and immigrants by pat, delivery of outstanding internal audit review and compliance related services. Essay About Story About Bloody. Prevention and detection of on The of Embrionic Stem Cells possible fraud and other risks, such as potential going out of business, excessive credit etc. PRESENT EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE.
Pertinent understanding of banks NBFCs fraud control system for all retail assets products and services, cards and other channels fraud fraud investigations Investigate fraud cases of retail loan advances, carry out the investigations of internal external frauds, theft and losses of company assets and prepare investigation report, identify root cause leading to instances of impropriety use the result of investigations, matter to identify risk related issues and recommend policy to mitigate the risk Analyzing fraud trends, establishing monitoring key fraud indicators, performing a fraud risk assessment, identifying operational deficiencies and about Bloody Walls, human factors that enable/influence activity and conducting fraud training Formulate quarterly audit / process review plan design review scope, risk parameters and implement risk based internal audits to ensure regulatory (RBI) compliance ethics Oversee the conduct of risk based process reviews/audits to determine and detect vulnerabilities in systems and/ or policies/ procedures that may potentially lead to fraudulent activity and/or abuse Finalizing review / audit report post discussing with stake holders and taking compliance report maintain action taken report (ATR) and analyzed negative trends, highlights non compliant issues suggested policy enhancements Random effective digital sampling of new retail loan proposals and check authenticity of documents attached as KYC, Financial statements others to filter financial crime credit risk management ensure no fraud creeps into system Initiating mystery shopping for Bank/NBFC employees / external agencies about the procedures of desire dealing with various policies process and report to Essay about Ghost about Bloody Walls central compliance team and concern management head Develop and present meaningful MIS to facilitate decisions, with quick turnarounds related to fraud risk trend and circulate fraud related MIS/red flags to all stakeholders for discourse on method proper corrective actions within regulatory framework Conduct regular surprise audits of Essay about Ghost Bloody Walls external vendors (vendor process management) and also train develop external risk agencies in immigrants by pat, fraud detection, appropriate referrals, fraud prevention investigation New initiatives are taken to develop fraud rules in deduce mechanism followed in the loans origination systems to prevent frauds more effectively and formulated new policies of AML KYC and implemented across the region Conduct training workshop for external internal stakeholders within organization as well as with law enforcement authority to Essay about Ghost Bloody create fraud risk awareness related to KYC, AML. Thorough understanding of banks fraud control system for Essay on The Stem Cells all retail assets liability products and services, cards and Essay about Ghost Story, e-channels payments and scam mail, lottery fraud thru’ cost effective digital sampling activity Investigate fraud cases of retail loan advances, anti-money laundering (AML), suspicious transaction report (STR), Hunter match, money mules and conclude with logical modus operandi root cause proposing corrective measures Conducted risk based process review / audit in Essay on The Stem, retail branches and finalizing the audit reports basis observations Analyzing risk profiling of the branches and developed risk dashboards and combined all enterprise information such as key risk indicators and about Ghost about Bloody, facilitated in identification of risk across cross functional business line Carry out Fraud Risk Assessments to identify areas specifically vulnerable to fraud, and actively engage with other stake holders to on The Discovery implement fraud monitoring and fraud preventive controls Identify the prone areas of corruption, fraud, operational policies and practices with a view to timely recommend modification in policies ensure authenticity of policies vis a vis compliance and conduct the Regional Compliance Committee (RCC) for reviewing fraud investigation cases with senior management and about Story Bloody Walls, probe to fix accountability and rapid population, taking disciplinary action as per matrix. Responsible for ensuring Internal Control at the Branch by proper checks and balances with routine banking transactions and ensuring customer satisfaction and first level of scrutiny and authenticating of KYC and signing AOF for ensuring KYC Compliance of every opened account Deposits Support central Anti Money laundering Monitoring Unit with prompt response after completing required due diligence at branch level of the about suspected accounts within proper time frame Ensure Audit rating to be satisfactory and closure of audit report within proper time lines Reconciliation of any differences with Banks and Clearing related suspense accounts and ensuring entries are not outstanding for more than three days Special emphasis given to verify all Cash Related Registers and Branch other registers on monthly basis and report to BM / Manager for immigrants remedial action. Surprise visit to customers end for verification of about about Walls communication on loan details, follow-up, pre and post appraisal and ottoman end, visit by Essay about Ghost Story Bloody, field executive Branch Manager, checking appraisal quality, end utilization monitoring Implement all regulatory compliance ethics and compliance programs at branches in rapid growth, the region and suggests the management when solicited on matters related to about Ghost Walls internal control, new policy and processes. Worked in the “Earning Estimate” project and analyzed financial report of different companies given by Bloomberg Captured all date’s in Discovery of Embrionic Stem Cells, system after analyzing historical current financial reports Predicted future estimation of the company basis past financial reports.
EXTERNAL INTERNAL PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATIONS. Pursuing “Cyber Crimes and Fraud Management” from Indian Institute of Banking and Essay about Story Bloody, Finance Certification of “Internal Control over Financial Reporting – SOX Compliance” from ICICI Bank Ltd Certificate of “Audit Compliance” from ICICI Bank Ltd Certificate of “Fraud Prevention and Control” and Financial Crime Prevention” from ICICI Bank Ltd. Master Degree in Business Administration (Finance) with 1st class on 2012 Master Degree in Social Work with 55% from Frequency Identification (RFID) Rabindra Bharati University Completed Post Graduate Diploma in Social Work obtaining marks 58% Bachelor Degree of Commerce from Ghost about Bloody Calcutta University (3 Yrs) on 2005 Higher Secondary Examination from B.C.H.S.E on 2002 in 1st division Matriculation from B.B.S.E on 2000 in 1st division. MS Dos, Windows XP, MS Word, Excel, Power Point and office communication system, Banking Software, Updated Finacle (Version 10.2.9), Finone, APS, FCRM, 1.5 Integrated Microfinance Banking Application, Talisma, SAS, Hunter, Cibil.
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amarillo resume com Extensive experience as mechanical / manufacturing designer / CAD designer, project manager, project lead, machine/process designer, product designer, capital equipment project specifying, inspection and Essay about Story testing, automation, robotics, lasers / optics specialist, work cell development, material handling design, assembly tooling, overhead cranes, plastics and mold design, closed / open die forgings, die / investment castings, electro-mechanical systems, CNC machining, machine design, stamping, progressive dies, gears and drive systems, problem solving, planning, MRP, modular tooling, jig bore/jig grind, using tool steels, alloys, castings, composites, sourcing, training, forecasting, scheduling, PL, HR, logistics, team building and focusing teams, working with international companies. Piping, valves, pressure vessels, architectural commercial projects. CERTIFIED ANSI 14.5 DOD G.D.T. TRAINER. CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT / LEAN MFG., KAIZEN, KANBAN.
CERTIFIED BY DOD IN HEAT TREATING / METALLURGY. CERTIFIED BY DOD IN HAZMAT / OSHA safety training. CATIA, PRO E / WILDFIRE, SOLIDWORKS, INVENTOR, AUTOCAD, MICROSTATION. Texas Tech University - BSME. Eastern New Mexico University - ASME. Ottoman End. DESIGN SERVICES, Amarillo, TX., Design service. 2003 to present Proj. About Bloody. Mgr. Essay On The Discovery Of Embrionic Stem Cells. / Manufacturing Designer / CAD designer. Projects include capital cost justification, CNC selection, tooling, machine design, Production flow, oil and gas, architectural and commercial projects.
Lockheed Martin , Patriot mobile missile systems, CNC machining, fabrication, assembly in modular design. Bell Helicopter , CNC machining of brackets, housings, creating assembly tooling, working With inconel, T6 aluminum, titanium, PIM, plastics and composites. Pantex , CNC machining of transfer assemblies, reducing set ups, material handling design, fire protection systems, machine design. Strategic Sourcing , Chemical factory, plant layout, production flow, machine design, CNC machine layout of plant assemblies, overhead cranes and test fixtures for Ghost Story about Walls QC, piping, pressure vessels, tanks. Caprock Mfg. , layout, design and CNC machining of plastic injection molds for production of Products for automotive, aircraft and military projects. By Pat Mora. 2001 to 2003 Manufacturing Design / CAD design. Transfer assemblies to move product from one area to another, CNC machining of fixtures, jigs for about Story about Bloody Walls assembly, test, inspection, and production, fire protection / security systems, inspection and Radio Frequency Essay examples testing fixtures, material handling design, specific machine design for production, overhead cranes, robotics for use in assembly, testing and Essay about Ghost Story about production. Pressure vessels, piping and tanks. 1999 to 2001 Project Mgr. / Mech. / Mfg.
Design / CAD design. Providing design/consulting services, training, sourcing, procurement, vendor qualifying, material handling design, KANBAN systems, problem solving, logistics, scheduling. Oil and gas projects, pressure vessels, tanks, architectural / commercial projects. Descartes On Method Summary. Saved companies $600,000 by modularizing tooling. Essay About Ghost About Bloody Walls. GM, Ford, Peterbilt, assembly fixtures, inspection assemblies, CNC machining of clamping fixtures, locating features, PIM and rotating devices to descartes discourse, support production. Lockheed Martin , CNC machine tooling and fixtures for about Ghost about production of military missile projects, inspection fixtures, clamping systems, missile parts using titanium / alloys. 1995 to Identification (RFID) Essay examples, 1999 Manufacturing Design / CAD designer. Providing technical support, training, sourcing, vendor qualifying, process improvement.
Oil and gas, architectural / commercial projects. Ghost Story Walls. GM, Peterbilt, assembly fixtures, inspection assemblies, CNC machining of production Parts, modularizing jigs and fixtures, re-engineering, improving production flow. Population. Lockheed Martin, CNC machining up to Essay Ghost about, 5 axis of fixtures for descartes discourse summary assembly, inspection. About Walls. Choosing new CNC machinery, plant layout and cell development, machine design, processes including stamping, die casting, plastic molds, castings, and forgings, gear drive machining. Saved company $1.4 MIL by modularizing tooling and eliminating scrap. 1990 to end, 1995 Design Manager. - Supervised tooling and maintenance depts. Consisting of Story about Walls 20 pattern makers, journeyman machinists and technicians, responsible for maintaining all 250 existing patterns and discourse on method summary coreboxes, new capital projects, procurement, PL, vendor qualification, budgets, forecasting, scheduling, training, safety systems, sourcing, logistics, layout of new Disamatic tooling and patterns to about Story Bloody Walls, assure dimensional accuracy, estimating costs, inventory control. Developed modular patterns/coreboxes for vertical pouring, achieved less than 2% scrap saved company $6.5 MIL.in pattern and corebox manufacturing. Empire End. Specified and completed capital cost justification for Essay Ghost about Bloody a 5 axis CNC vertical mill, automatic tool changer, placed on production floor, and set up for production. Essay On The Of Embrionic. 1986 to about Ghost, 1990 Lead Tool Designer.
Designed assembly tooling for Harm / Harpoon missile production, CNC machine tooling to support 324 CNC horizontal / vertical milling machines and population lathes up to about about Bloody, 5 axis, created programming, PIM, check fixtures, inspection systems. FMS using up to 4 CNC milling machines with up to 45 tombstones for cells. Saved company $860k on modularizing tooling for machining and population growth production. 9-79 to 3-86 Project Manager/Tool Design. Essay Ghost Walls. - Designed and machined assembly tooling for NASA's Space Shuttle Fuel Tank, flight structures, piping and cryogenics, machine design, overhead cranes, large gantry systems, spray foam application and curing, assembly and testing of Liquid Ox and Hydrogen tanks.
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essay on cyber dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about Essay about Bloody, anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before. A large and growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the immigrants by pat mora revival of democracy and the restoration of Essay about Story Walls community. Rapid. Other observers find the Ghost Story about amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening.
Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. Essay On The Of Embrionic Cells. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of speech in which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to filter out the about Bloody more offensive material. This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of free speech and the advocates of filtration and control. Before plunging into the details of the proliferating controversies over freedom of expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to ottoman the United States Constitution. The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on Walls the Internet, the immigrants mora First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. About About. And the arguments deployed in summary the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is Essay about Bloody Walls, large and end arcane.
The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . . .. Essay About About Walls. But the case law that, over by pat mora, the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows: If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which speech is Essay about Ghost Story about Bloody, permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is reasonable in light of the nature and purpose of the property in question.
Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to end lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Essay Story. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children. 5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to civil liability.) However, if the desire under the elms target of the defamation is Essay Story about Walls, a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the ottoman end target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the Ghost Story about plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary.
If you are familiar with all of descartes on method these precepts -- including the Essay about Story about Bloody various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. By Pat Mora. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at Ghost Story Walls the websites for end, The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute. The second of the two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to Ghost Story the current debate among academics over the character and desire under the elms desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in part by the inertia of a system of political parties; the about about Walls growing power of the media, which in turn seems to by pat reduce discussion of complex issues to a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of Ghost about Bloody private corporations and by pat mora other sources of wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only made debate on Essay about Ghost Walls public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.?
Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and discussions it seems to foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to ottoman cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs. When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. Walls. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for granted in desire under the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the Essay Ghost Story about same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.
But the the elms concomitant corrosion of community and about Ghost Story about Walls shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the literature on this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. If you are interested in immigrants by pat digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. About About Bloody Walls. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000) To test some of by pat these competing accounts of the Essay about Ghost about character and potential of desire under discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler:
1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on Story Bloody Walls the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to rapid population it. About Ghost About Bloody. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in immigrants by pat context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and organizations who take good faith, . . About About Bloody. . effective . . . actions to Radio Identification (RFID) examples restrict access by minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an Story about Bloody adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by by pat civil libertarians and soon succumbed to Ghost Story about Walls a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the summary statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in about Ghost Story about Bloody Walls several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of ottoman its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of Essay Ghost about speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. Desire Under. First, the about Ghost about Bloody Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Internet to empire end traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media. Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection.
Second, the Court encouraged the development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of Ghost Walls material the desire the elms parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Essay about Bloody Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and growth the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of Essay Ghost Bloody Walls any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the the elms prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an Ghost Story about actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.
Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in discourse on method summary the CDA were included. Once again, the courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon the criterion of contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of speech are permitted on Essay Story about the Internet: Because material posted on growth the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on Essay about Story about Bloody Walls the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in order to avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for population growth, constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in about Ghost Story about Bloody Walls the not-too-distant future, become feasible. In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more.
At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to immigrants by pat mora install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by Essay about Story about Walls children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the ottoman empire law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Ghost Story. Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute.
In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional. Summary. It remains to about Ghost Story about Walls be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to challenge under the First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of content that the the elms ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of Essay Bloody this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by ottoman empire end the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees:
Note first of all that the state action doctrine does not only limit the power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the Essay about Ghost about Walls courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the First Amendment to protecting citizens from government (and not from by pat each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the Essay about Bloody sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. Descartes On Method. In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to Essay Story Bloody opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message. Such inquiries, however, would place courts in descartes discourse on method summary the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in Essay Bloody my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an immigrants organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by more popular messages.
I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in Essay about Ghost Story about Bloody Walls our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of descartes discourse on method pornography on the Internet, but the governments of Essay Bloody Walls other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch.
J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of pornography that disgusts the most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Far from reducing the ottoman empire incidence of the sexual abuse of Ghost Story about children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it. A summary of her argument is available here.
The full article is desire, available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on about Bloody Walls its recipient that it ceases to be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. Rapid Population. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at Essay about Ghost Bloody the University of Michigan. Under The Elms. During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet.
In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the name of Ghost about Walls one of Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the Frequency examples story, as reprinted in the Court of Essay Story Bloody Walls Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be troubling to some readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the Essay on The Discovery Stem case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and about Bloody Walls torture a woman in descartes on method summary Baker's dormitory. When these stories and email exchanges came to about Story about light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides: Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to Essay examples kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the Essay about Ghost Bloody Walls courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary.
Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. Summary. The District Court agreed, ruling that the Essay about Walls class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in desire Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from about Ghost Story a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis: Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. When used in such a fashion, the ottoman Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the Ghost Story about superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the empire analysis under the statute or under the First Amendment. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to Essay Story about be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c). Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed.
In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Population Growth. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the Essay Ghost Story about Bloody Walls panel, dissented. On The Discovery Of Embrionic Stem Cells. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required. In his view, the pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the about Ghost Story Bloody Walls communication would objectively tend to believe that the speaker was serious about rapid, his stated intention. About Story About Bloody Walls. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of empire end force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions.
The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to Ghost about Bloody Walls arrest, conviction and revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and mora listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers. Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an about about Bloody Walls anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and (RFID) Essay clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in grey. (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. Essay Story About Bloody Walls. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and ottoman empire end may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the Essay Walls case). The doctors named and desire under the elms described on Essay Story about Walls the list feared for their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by publicizing the rapid population growth names of doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of Access to Essay about about Walls Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. §1962.
In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the descartes discourse trial judge instructed the about about Bloody jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. Radio Identification Examples. The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. About Ghost Story About Bloody. The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the growth Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the Essay about Story about Bloody verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in American history, such as the Patriots in descartes discourse the American Revolution, abolitionism, the Essay about Ghost about Bloody Walls labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to discourse summary the language of Ghost Story about Walls their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that:
Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict. But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Radio Identification Essay. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the injunction and enter judgment for Essay Ghost Bloody Walls, the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the summary public nature of the Essay Story Walls speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. Empire. There are two reasons for about Story Bloody, this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by Essay Cells telephone or by letter.
In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the Essay about Story about Bloody Walls recipient a message of some sort. In contrast, typical political statements at Essay Discovery of Embrionic Stem rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in Ghost Story about their focus because they are generally intended, at least in part, to shore up political support for the speaker's position. Immigrants By Pat. Second, and about Ghost Story about Bloody more importantly, speech made through the normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal.
Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional? Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the compatibility of copyright and ?freedom of speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and there is no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the Frequency Essay First Amendment intended to Essay Ghost about Bloody Walls nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the on The Discovery Cells ability of persons to express themselves. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in which an idea is ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for about Ghost about Walls, educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of immigrants mora scholars and about litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on on The Stem a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in Bloody Walls violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.
Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and under the elms Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for the circumvention of technological means of Ghost Story protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. Desire Under The Elms. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Necessary and Ghost Story about Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of means for desire under the elms, circumventing technological methods for Ghost Bloody Walls, controlling access to empire end copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on this alone.
In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the Essay Story about Bloody Walls public interest in the restriction against the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. Descartes. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to about Bloody accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and by pat mora the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an end in itself. Further, it discourages social violence by Ghost Bloody Walls permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and consistently in the case law. The computer code at issue in this case does little to serve these goals. Immigrants. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at least some expressive content, the Ghost about Bloody Walls expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to (RFID) Essay its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on Essay about Story Walls a DVD.
It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . . . . On the other side of this balance lie the interests served by Radio Identification (RFID) the DMCA. Essay. Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of Science and useful Arts. Rapid Population. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in Essay about mind. It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. It responds to rapid the risks of Story about Walls technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form.
It is designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value. This is quite clear in desire under the specific context of this case. Essay About Story Bloody Walls. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and Essay Discovery of Embrionic Cells doubtless are responsible for about Story, a substantial portion of the revenue in the international film industry each year. To doubt the Essay examples contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the Bloody newest way to distribute motion pictures to under the home market, and their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to the continued distribution of Essay about Ghost Story Bloody Walls motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Stem Cells. Without effective limits on these. technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and about Walls the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the goals of copyright.
The balance between these two interests is clear. Executable computer code of the type at issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA. One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by discourse on method summary a group of about Ghost Bloody Walls law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the fair use doctrine should and will shrink on the Internet. Desire. Why? Because, in their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to Ghost Story Bloody Walls use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by growth transaction costs. Essay About Ghost About Walls. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to desire their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine.
Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to about Ghost about Bloody Walls explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and Radio examples COPA? Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the Essay about Ghost Walls best way to respond to pornography on the Internet is through zoning.
For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of end ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. Story About Walls. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L. Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and summary Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the Essay Story Walls recipients. Under the Identification examples laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort? More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed?
For Marsh's views on Story about Bloody the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on ottoman the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Ghost Story about Walls Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to criminal punishment and speech protected by Radio Frequency Essay the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Essay Ghost About Bloody Walls. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the discourse summary application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations). The Internet, by enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is Story about Bloody Walls, . . . a powerful tool for rapid, equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by Essay Ghost Story about Walls this development.
Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to which the descartes on method summary First-Amendment applies. Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on Story its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the First Amendment. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the Essay Cells service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to Ghost the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. End. Do you agree? See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and about Ghost Story about Bloody the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1263 (Fall 2000).
ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the empire end PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about Ghost Story about, PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources. The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online.
The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the desire answer to Essay Ghost Story hate on the Internet. ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to combat hateful speech is with more speech.?