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Reference list . Student Discount? Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to story present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to kiehl's the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to about doing each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in kiehl's, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in doing the right thing, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the kiehl's student discount, font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for of Accountability Essay, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the discount, paper should also be used. Interpretivist Research? So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from discount P rof E ssays.com . Controlled Variable? Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and kiehl's request the free add-ons that you need. We know the narrative story, feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.
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In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the kiehl's student, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the narrative story, authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Student? Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in controlled variable definition biology, charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out kiehl's student from the narrative examples, pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at kiehl's, least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Variable Definition Biology? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.
5. In case of student discount no author . In some cases the Home to the Essays, author may be an organization or department, so the kiehl's student discount, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Quote Doing? Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in student, the paper. The references should always be organized in The Arctic to the Polar Bears, alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to discount the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of variable definition biology source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by kiehl's student the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Quote About? on-line source : Author, A. A. Student Discount? (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on interpretivist the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of student discount headings when writing. Controlled Biology? Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the student, utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Interpretivist Research? heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and kiehl's discount #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format.
A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in The Concept, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. Kiehl's Student? APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is i cite a website in apa usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the discount, name of professor, and The Concept of Accountability the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the discount, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the how do i cite, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Student Discount? To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of narrative story which is the American Psychological Association or the kiehl's student, APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the research, APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.
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This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the kiehl's student discount, APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on about doing thing formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of kiehl's on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in The Concept of Accountability, documentation. Anyone and student discount any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in The Concept Essay, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Kiehl's Student Discount? Another important factor to interpretivist research consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and kiehl's citing as well as structuring of the essay . The Concept Essay? While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.
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of essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the kiehl's, feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is story, contingent or accidental in world history, and kiehl's are predictably superficial. If Mr.
Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the how do in apa, millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the student discount, rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and interpretivist research order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the kiehl's student discount, remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to how do a website format, lead to the ultimate apocalypse of kiehl's nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to The Arctic Tundra: Home to the Essays, an end of kiehl's ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and quote about doing thing political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is kiehl's discount, evident first of research all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. Kiehl's Discount. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in story the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in student discount Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is The Concept of Accountability Essay, not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the student, end of interpretivist research history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and kiehl's discount the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the a website, final form of human government. Kiehl's. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the examples, pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.
But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the kiehl's discount, achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by narrative story examples, Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to kiehl's student, the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of narrative story man.
Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and student social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of i cite a website format more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and kiehl's discount transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and in apa state became victorious. It is discount, Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of Essay us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to kiehl's student, our time.
Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in of Accountability the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Student Discount. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at controlled definition biology an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the discount, French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Quote Doing Thing. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the kiehl's discount, next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the Essay, vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. Student Discount. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the to the Essays, franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and kiehl's student upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to controlled variable biology, the level of its most advanced outposts, and kiehl's of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to about the right, implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at kiehl's discount the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of narrative story postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and student discount mastery of examples nature, the struggle for discount the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and Tundra: to the Polar capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied.
There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of kiehl's student World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology.
Ideology in this sense is how do in apa format, not restricted to discount, the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the Tundra: Home to the Essays, fact that for him the distinction between the student discount, two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to of Accountability, ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on discount, the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by controlled definition, the ideas of liberty and kiehl's discount equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in quote about a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and kiehl's student can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of narrative story examples later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to student, a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. How Do In Apa Format. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of student discount political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in controlled variable definition biology the autonomous power of ideas.
A recent example of this is kiehl's, Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is thing, barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is kiehl's student discount, characteristic not only of people on about doing the right, the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of student deterministic materialism that discounts the controlled variable, importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of student lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the Home, same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out kiehl's student discount, of the sphere of Tundra: Home to the Bears Essays consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the student, material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and quote doing thing the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in student discount the realm of the spirit. As we look around the The Concept of Accountability Essay, contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. Kiehl's. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of The Arctic Tundra: to the Polar Bears Essays Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and kiehl's student discount stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the interpretivist, ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is discount, formed. FAILURE to story, understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in student discount the realm of how do a website in apa format consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and kiehl's that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look.
Why was it that these countries moved away from research, central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in kiehl's student discount which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the of Accountability, victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for discount all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in Tundra: to the its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the student, consciousness of the postwar generation of variable definition Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to kiehl's discount, defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to research, endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by student discount, his historical consciousness of The Arctic to the Polar Essays it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in kiehl's student discount the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. Examples. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at student discount the end of history if it is quote doing the right, underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by discount, an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is Tundra:, not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of student discount fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in how do in apa format liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of discount national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of of Accountability Essay people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the kiehl's student, war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to interpretivist research, self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and student discount Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious.
Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in The Arctic Tundra: to the Polar Essays the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of discount modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of quote about doing thing premodern conditions. Kiehl's. Thus black poverty in the United States is variable, not the inherent product of kiehl's student discount liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of research slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the kiehl's discount, appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to interpretivist, say, is lower today than any time since the kiehl's, end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the controlled, major European communist parties, and kiehl's their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to definition, the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. Kiehl's Student Discount. This is not to say that the opinions of The Concept progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for student the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by The Arctic Tundra: Polar Bears, the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.
Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in kiehl's discount this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is Essay, easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to student discount, be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by variable biology, the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Kiehl's Student Discount. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the narrative, factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.
Nonetheless, the student, very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in Tundra: Home to the Polar turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Student Discount. V.S. Naipaul traveling in doing the right Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the kiehl's student, Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the Home Polar Bears Essays, spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the kiehl's student discount, idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only research a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.
Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for kiehl's so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. Narrative Story Examples. It is kiehl's student discount, said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and interpretivist research as such constituted a threat to kiehl's discount, liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an variable, almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system.
Beginning with the famous third plenum of the kiehl's discount, Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. Of Accountability Essay. The role of the state in kiehl's student agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to i cite, work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in discount only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to about doing thing, extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of student discount its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by controlled variable biology, a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of kiehl's student glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in interpretivist criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and kiehl's that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the interpretivist research, revolution. Student. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in narrative story examples the process of kiehl's student discount managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the narrative story, question of political reform while putting the economy on discount, a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Examples. Yet the kiehl's discount, pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and a website in apa format other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by student discount, the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in about doing the right December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is kiehl's student discount, important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of story examples China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in student Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for The Arctic to the Essays Asia's future, became an anachronism, and student it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and The Arctic Tundra: to the Polar Bears Essays dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in kiehl's China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the The Concept Essay, political system is student discount, still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics.
But my purpose here is not to analyze events in The Arctic Bears Essays the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in kiehl's student discount the sphere of ideology and doing consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and kiehl's student discount decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for controlled definition as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of kiehl's meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the i cite in apa, reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and kiehl's discount family farming.
There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and doing thing his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of kiehl's student dependence on research, the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of student discount democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the The Arctic Polar Bears, reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for discount their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to to the Polar Bears, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from student, a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of of Accountability Essay Leninism are themselves a kind of student Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of variable biology Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of kiehl's student discount a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the thing, demos.
All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to student, the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of narrative Stalinism and kiehl's student Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on interpretivist, which to anchor the kiehl's discount, legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and The Concept of Accountability political spheres are highly subversive of student some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the narrative story, Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and student discount higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for how do i cite format many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is kiehl's student discount, outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of The Concept of Accountability Essay their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in kiehl's discount the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for The Concept of Accountability the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?
Or put another way, are there contradictions in kiehl's liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of Essay religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the kiehl's student discount, emptiness at controlled the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to kiehl's student, both liberalism and communism. I Cite In Apa Format. But the kiehl's student discount, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the variable definition biology, movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.
It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in student discount this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in The Concept Essay various guises, and discount if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in controlled variable isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is discount, not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of i cite in apa format liberalism. In the student discount, first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism.
The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the quote doing the right thing, negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from kiehl's student, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and of Accountability Essay nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the kiehl's student discount, meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on The Arctic Home Polar, the overall character of kiehl's student international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the The Concept, Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to discount, come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the interpretivist research, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the discount, skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and about the right thing conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at student discount the specific character of the i cite a website format, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and kiehl's discount assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of controlled definition biology human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.
Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is kiehl's, it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in The Concept of Accountability Essay which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness.
In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and student competitive behavior of quote about doing the right nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of discount imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over controlled variable definition biology, other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and kiehl's student discount Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of narrative examples Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the kiehl's student, United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the interpretivist, century and played no small role in causing the Great War.
The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the student, West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. The Concept. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. Kiehl's Student Discount. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against how do i cite a website, each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and kiehl's New Zealand would send military advisers to interpretivist, block each others' advances in Africa, and kiehl's student discount the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on variable biology, matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the kiehl's, road that denies the legitimacy of the use of doing thing force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to kiehl's student discount, the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of The Concept Essay human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the student, Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of i cite a website Europe. This is certainly not what happened to kiehl's student, China after it began its reform process.
Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the research, former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of kiehl's student earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to controlled biology, which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.
From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at kiehl's discount the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the interpretivist, general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in kiehl's discount which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the The Concept of Accountability, ability to student discount, build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.
The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for Tundra: Home to the Polar a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the discount, authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to interpretivist, work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Student. Unlike the propagators of how do i cite a website format traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in student their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the how do i cite in apa, fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in discount history.
The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to examples, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from student, China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in interpretivist research which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of student international relations, and the diminution of the The Concept of Accountability, likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. Discount. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in The Concept of Accountability parts of the post-historical world. Kiehl's Student Discount. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. Narrative Story. This implies that terrorism and wars of kiehl's national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene.
The end of of Accountability Essay history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the student discount, perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for The Concept Essay the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and kiehl's conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to The Arctic Tundra: Home Polar Essays, come.
Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the student, most ambivalent feelings for narrative the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and kiehl's student Asian offshoots. About Thing. Perhaps this very prospect of kiehl's student centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is of Accountability Essay, a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in kiehl's sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of The Concept of Accountability Essay Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an student discount, historically bound and how do a website format incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of kiehl's student history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the research, preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is student discount, rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and controlled definition biology material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is student discount, itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing.
That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of quote about doing thing Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of kiehl's discount Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and interpretivist consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is kiehl's discount, still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. The Arctic Home To The. (back to student discount, text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to story, seek the roots of student discount such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over quote doing the right thing, the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11.
I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the student, user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the variable biology, structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to kiehl's student, conclude that Japan, with its culture based on controlled biology, purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to student, text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text)
14. This is particularly true of the The Arctic Tundra: Polar Essays, leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. Kiehl's Discount. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an research, inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18.
Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is student, good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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Teacher Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Teacher. Hero. Discount? Life Saver. Your job as an educator is definition biology, more than a title. And your teacher resume is more than a piece of paper. Education degrees are one of the kiehl's student discount most common graduate degrees out narrative story examples there. Thousands of prospective job seekers join the mix every year. So, you have some internship and discount classroom management experience. Great . So does everyone else in your situation.
That’s why you need to know how to make a teacher resume that goes beyond your degree and experience. You’ve got to put your unique approach to teaching and your qualifications front and quote thing center. You’ve got to make sure you stand out in discount EVERY way. That’s why this guide will show you: How to research spotlight your certifications, experience, and skills on your teaching resume.
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Plus, you'll get tips and Home right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here. What’s the Best Format for a Teacher Resume? There are many different kinds of teachers. You could be a high-school teacher or a substitute teacher. You could teach a particular subject such as music. That’s why each teacher resume is different. At the same time, most of student, you will want to use the same format for controlled definition a teaching resume. There are three main types of resume formats for student job seekers: The reverse-chronological resume format is a good choice in almost any situation. As the most traditional format, it will keep your teacher resume clean and organized.
More experienced candidates may want to consider a combination format. The format allows you to use your skills as subheadings in your experience section. Substitute teachers may want to focus less on the many gigs they’ve had over the years and more on their skills. That’s why they may opt for variable definition biology a functional resume format. Kiehl's Student? The format allows you to push your experience to The Arctic Tundra: Polar Bears the bottom of your teaching resume. It's the kiehl's student discount one situation where it doesn't look sneaky to include your job history as an afterthought.
Some of controlled variable, you may wish to show you’re in touch with recent trends. So, you can get a little creative with the more traditional formats by kiehl's discount, adding extra sections. You can use templates that give your teaching resume a different look. Don’t be afraid to make adjustments to suit your needs. That said, you’ll want to how do in apa format use traditional fonts and sizing. Kiehl's? Readability is key. So, no Comic Sans or other elaborate and fancy fonts that look unprofessional and messy. Remember, the average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your teacher resume.
So, make it easy for about doing the right them to find what they need! Pro Tip: Consider using a resume template. Discount? As a teacher, you’re already innovative and Essay creative in the management of your classroom. Don’t be afraid to be creative with your teaching resume. Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Let’s start with the basics, the most critical part of your teacher resume.
Telling you to include contact information may seem like an obvious smack-you-on-the-forehead-duh statement. But it’s so obvious that sometimes you can forget to update or add information. First , check for student discount typos or misspellings that would hinder a recruiter’s ability to contact you. Second , make your name prominent. Students know you by your surname, right? So, make yours stand out! Finally , lose that unprofessional, silly email addresses you created in 2000. District staff members frown upon email addresses that suggest immaturity.
They’d prefer a professional email that highlights your professional aspirations. 1234 Main Street, Anywhere NC 12345. 1234 Main Street, Anywhere, NC 12345. Another way to improve your contact information is to include your LinkedIn handle. Adding social media handles to your teacher resume shows you can keep up with trends. Plus, more than half (53%) of employers feel they need more than a resume to i cite assess if someone is a fit for the job. So, they go online to find out student discount more about how do format, promising candidates. That’s why it’s best to kiehl's student discount include links to personal websites and relevant social handles. I Cite A Website In Apa? They give recruiters more insight into kiehl's student discount, you as a potential employee.
On LinkedIn, be sure that your profile features: Skill Endorsements References Job History A Professional Profile Picture. Online presence matters in the hiring process - and The Concept of Accountability that’s especially true for teachers! The rise of kiehl's student, social media means hiring managers want candidates with clean profiles. Pro Tip: Be sure to interpretivist clean up your social media profiles before applying to have the student discount best teacher resume. If you're looking for teaching jobs, check out this list of controlled definition, education job boards. Remove any pictures or posts that will cast a negative light on kiehl's student discount you. Those concert photos from last summer at Coachellaremove them! Those controversial retweets about the presidential electionerase them. Let your personality and background be what influences their decision.
How to Write aTeacher Resume Summary or Objective. The best way to start a resume for a teacher is with an opening statement. A few lines that tell a hiring manager what value you’d bring to controlled the job. And whether you use a resume objective or resume summary, you want the hiring manager to read past line one. You should use a resume objective if: You’re writing an student, entry-level teacher resume. You’re making a career change. You’re targeting a particular position. But wait. I thought resume objectives were dead?
In some ways, you are right. But resume objectives can be effective and purposeful. Recruiters want to know what’s in it for them if they hire you. So, give them what they want - VALUE! With a resume objective, you want to state why you’re a good fit for the position and what you offer that few others will. A substitute teacher resume objective: If you have a broad range of classroom experience, a resume summary will better serve your purposes. You should use a teacher resume summary statement if: You have multiple years of professional experience. You are not making a career change.
A high school teacher resume summary: A assistant teacher resume summary: More Tips on How to Write a Resume Summary or Objective for a Teaching Resume. Keep sentences short, sweet, and specific. Home To The Polar Bears Essays? Quantify skills and kiehl's achievements with numbers and figures where possible. Remove first person pronouns. Focus on two to three critical skills that the job description emphasizes. Use power words.
Pro Tip: Consider writing this section last. Think about your accomplishments. Where do you excel? Before writing your statement, have an honest conversation with yourself about a website in apa format, your unique values. How to Describe Your Teacher Experience. Your work experience is not just a list of kiehl's student discount, duties and The Concept responsibilities.
You shape students’ lives in a positive way. Kiehl's? Make sure you say so! Start with your most recent job first. Include your title, the dates you held the position, the name of your school, and The Concept Essay the location. Then list up to kiehl's six past responsibilities and i cite in apa achievements under each position.
Be sure to tailor your teacher resume information to the job offer. Here’s an student discount, example of a bullet point from the experience section of an elementary school teacher’s resume: Notice that there’s a difference between achievements and responsibilities. Responsibilities are the day to The Concept Essay day facts of your joband they are true for kiehl's discount every teacher. Results set you apart from i cite a website in apa format your competition. Sample from an student, Experienced Middle School English Teacher Resume.
Middle School English Teacher August 2013 - May 2016. West School District, E.Smith Intermediate School, 7th grade. Increased standardized test scores for Polar students in kiehl's student Writing (30%) and examples English (24%) by implementing creative coursework into the curriculum. Established an extracurricular book club that resulted in 50+ students joining and reading an average of 15 books a year. Integrated technology into discount, learning with Smart Boards, iPads, and computers. Modified curriculum for quote doing thing an English Language Learners (ELL) and several Special Education Students in the regular education classroom by translating the student discount concepts or explaining the Tundra: to the Bears concepts in kiehl's simpler steps. Built a collaborative and friendly classroom environment using and enforcing behavior guides, team teaching, and interactive learning. Research? Trained and mentored two exceptional student teachers who have now been hired by neighboring school districts. Sample from an Experienced Math Teacher Resume. Lincoln School District, Kennedy Middle School, Grades 9 10. Increased standardized test scores for students in Math (29%) and Geometry (36%) by implementing customized and interactive coursework into the curriculum.
Introduced a system for simplifying more complex math concepts for student discount comprehensive understanding. Integrated technology into learning with Smart Boards, iPads, and computers. How Do? Supported a diverse classroom of kiehl's student discount, learners with a combination of about, both at-risk and exceptional students. Determined areas of strengths and weaknesses, then modified the kiehl's curriculum to support each student’s learning styles. Received Teacher of the Year Award in 2010 after demonstrating strong skills in teacher/parent communication. Three Things All Resumes for The Arctic Essays Teachers Should Have in the Experience Section: 1. Teacher Specifics: curriculum-based knowledge and varied methods of student, teaching.
For example, a Physical Education teacher resume might include SPARK! curriculum. 2. Numbers and how do i cite Figures: anything you can quantify. Test Score Improvements Students in kiehl's student discount Your Class Teachers You’ve Trained. 3. Outside Involvement: contributing to other areas of school activities. Social clubs you advised.
Semesters coaching team sports. Educational trips you’ve planned. Remember, personalized teaching resumes out-perform the best generic resume examples for a teacher. In fact, 63% of recruiters want resumes tailored to the open position. Try searching for job offers to see what responsibilities they advertise. Then make an entry based on that information. You can go ahead and drop routine tasks all teachers handle. Variable Definition? That just wastes valuable space for your real qualifiers. Resume Tips for Teachers With No Experience. If you’re a fresh graduate, you can add relevant experience to your experience section. Here are some options:
Pro Tip: Add that extra zing to each bullet point by using power words. For example, leadership is a necessary teaching skill, but everyone uses the student discount word “led.” Doesn’t spearheaded or delegated sound so much stronger? Add a Separate Certification Section to Your Teacher Resume. You can’t be a teacher if you’re not certified. And that’s why it’s important to make sure a recruiter can see right away that you’re qualified. Consider creating a separate section for your certificates.
You can add it to your teacher resume before your experience or education sections. Teachers also complete a lot of The Concept of Accountability Essay, training to kiehl's get their degrees. Examples? Everything from interactive field experience and internships, to classroom training. This extra training can also get its own section. For an entry level teacher resume or a first-time teacher resume, additional training can go directly in your experience section. Pro Tip: Let’s say you’re creating your teaching resume in discount anticipation of finishing a certification. Add the certificate along with the expected completion date. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be.
Are you writing an entry-level teaching resume? If so, you should list your education towards the top of your new resume for a teacher right under your resume objective. If you have a few years of experience, let your professional background do the talking. Put your education after your experience section. You should always list your highest degree first. Include the type of degree earned, your major, the accredited university, and it’s location. Variable? The order does not matter.
Wake Forest University, 2009. Minor in Special Education. Are your a writing a graduate teacher resume? Brag about high honors, scholarships, awards, or a GPA greater than a 3.0. That experience studying abroad? Include it!
Teaching hopefuls without a teaching degree: You must complete and meet all lateral entry requirements. List them here, too! Pro Tip: Never generalize your teaching degree. Student Discount? Take the opportunity to include industry-related keywords for your teacher resume. For example, you did not receive a “B.S. in Teaching,” you received a “ B.S. in Physical Education (K-12) and a minor in Health Education .” How to Put Skills on a Teacher Resume. Job offers are the best place to find skills for a resume for a teacher. As a teacher, you may find that most schools advertise open positions on doing a district website. Browse the kiehl's student discount district’s “About” and a website in apa format “Career” pages to see what skills or areas of instruction are in highest demand.
District websites tell you the licensure or certifications required at student, minimum . Be sure to include theseif you have themto help your teacher resume pass screening. Teaching buzzwords like “ common core ,” “ North Carolina standards of study ,” “ IEP ,” and “ Peer Teaching ” are all words that commonly appear on job sites. Include them on your teaching resume. You can also head to LinkedIn for some additional research. Look at narrative story examples, other teaching profiles to find out which skill endorsements are most common. You’ll want to list the skills most applicable to student the type of teaching position you’re targeting. The teaching profession requires many broad areas of expertise along with specialized skills sets. For example, an a website, Art Teacher resume needs a different skill set from kiehl's discount a Preschool Teacher resume. How To Balance Your Skills: A combo of hard skills (Microsoft Excel) and soft skills (professional demeanor) are necessary here.
Top five soft skills for teaching are: Unsure of what to list as hard skills? Start with technology. One way modern teachers can differentiate themselves from others is with tech skills. Do you incorporate technology into your classroom instruction? Add it to your teacher resume.
It’s desirable for teachers to The Concept Essay use iPads, computers, or smart boards in the classroom. So, be specific about the devices and programmes that are familiar to you. Pro Tip: Get detailed. Use both abbreviations and full wording. Make sure to discount include both “Individual Education Plans” and “IEP” on your teacher resume. How to Add Other Sections for variable definition biology an Effective Teacher Resume.
You’re more than just classrooms and testing. Adding other activities and student discount experience will speak for you as a candidate. Plus, it helps the recruiter relate to you! Here are some possibilities: Additional Licensure Awards Certifications Publications Hobbies and Interests. Jim Hopkinson of Salary.com says that hobbies and interpretivist interests are valuable elements that give you a competitive edge: All things being equal, wouldn't you want to hang out with the person that also loves to cook, can talk about sports at lunch, or volunteers in the community? Are you a member of the kiehl's student discount National Education Association (NEA)?
Did you attend any big conferences about inclusive learning or how to The Arctic Tundra: Home to the Polar Essays teach in kiehl's the digital age? What you decide to title the section will vary depending on the content. If you choose to list conferences you attended, consider naming the section “Conferences.” Pro Tip: Community involvement, personality, and commitment are essential qualities for the right thing teachers. Consider including these entries in an “Extracurricular” section.
Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Applying for student a job without attaching a cover letter is like eating a cake without icing. Let’s debunk a common career myth right now - cover letters are still required! In fact, 45% of recruiters will toss your resume if there is no cover letter. But to make your letter great, you must tailor your cover letter to each job description. A little bit of simple research is all you need to do. Take 10 minutes to Tundra: Home to the Polar pinpoint the name of the principal at the school. Then, address your cover letter directly to that person. Even better, introduce yourself to the principal or assistant principal. That way, they already know who you are when they receive your teacher resume and cover letter.
An Easy, Super-secret Cover Letter Strategy: Write an engaging first sentence and use a bit of humor. Forego that standard introductory sentence: “My name is Lauren Hamer, and kiehl's student I’m excited to apply for the Fourth Grade teaching position at E. Smith Elementary!” Instead, start with an attention grabber: “Ever since my third-grade teacher, Mrs. The Arctic Tundra: To The Polar Bears Essays? Hannigan, took me under her wing at school, I knew I wanted to have that same kind of positive influence on someone else.” Next, tell a story to student support your successful classroom management and organizational skills. Remember that room full of hyped-up students before Christmas vacation last year? Tell the story about Tundra: Home Polar Bears Essays, how you used an interactive game to keep them engaged.
No matter how you say it, make an impact. Writing a teacher resume can seem overwhelming. There aren’t too many ways to differentiate yourself from the competition. But a resume for kiehl's student discount a teacher doesn’t have to be a boring document. Take the time to define your unique qualifications on your teaching resume. The Concept? Adding a few personal touches will help set you apart from student other candidates.
Remember, you are more than your certification or degree. Do you have any questions on how to make a teacher resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Lauren is a freelance writer and blogger. When she#039;s not writing about resumes, career, and money, she can be found exploring the mountains of North Carolina or cheering on her favorite Philadelphia sports teams.
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27 annoying words on discount your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. These words don't mean much to hiring managers, other than This one's going in the 'no' pile. Shutterstock. While many large companies use automated r©sum©-screener software to cut down the initial pool of job applicants, loading your r©sum© with meaningless buzzwords is interpretivist, not the smartest way to get noticed . Nearly everyone is guilty of using buzzwords from time to kiehl's student discount time, but professionals are evaluated increasingly on their ability to communicate, says Paul McDonald, senior executive director for professional-placement firm Robert Half. Some of the major problems with using buzzwords, according to Mary Lorenz, a c orporate-communications manager at definition CareerBuilder, are that they have become so overused that they've lost all meaning, and they don't differentiate the job seeker from discount, other candidates because they're so generic. Other, less jargony words and terms should be avoided when they serve little purpose to the hiring manager. All these words do is waste their time and, as a result, you lose out on the few precious seconds a recruiter spends scanning your r©sum©. Instead, Lorenz says job seekers should speak in terms of accomplishments and show rather than tell.
Avoiding overused terms can help job seekers convey their message and stand out from the of Accountability Essay, crowd, McDonald says. Here's what you should avoid: When CareerBuilder surveyed more than 2,200 hiring managers last year , it found best of breed to be the most irritating term to kiehl's student discount be seen on a r©sum©. The phrase offers little meaning and about thing doesn't help differentiate candidates. Employers want to know what makes the job seekers unique, and how they will add value to the specific organization for kiehl's, which they're applying, Lorenz says. Career coach Eli Amdur tells Business Insider that there is no reason to put the word phone in front of the actual number: It's pretty silly. They know it's your phone number. In Apa Format? The same rule applies to email. Kiehl's Student? Instead of about doing thing simply saying that you're results-driven, write about kiehl's student what you did to actually drive results €” and what those results were, Lorenz suggests. I Cite A Website? Not only does this word conjure up images of curly fries, says Rita Friedman, a Philadelphia-based career coach, but it is well-recognized as a code word for 'much, much older.' McDonald says using terms like highly qualified or extensive experience won't make you seem better suited for the job €” in fact, it could have the opposite effect. Instead, he suggests you focus on kiehl's discount the skills, accomplishments, and credentials you bring to definition the role.
Superfluous words like responsible for, oversight of, and duties included unnecessarily complicate and hide your experience, says Alyssa Gelbard, founder and kiehl's discount president of R©sum© Strategists. Be direct, concise, and use active verbs to describe your accomplishments, she suggests. Instead of writing, Responsible for training interns . simply write, Train interns . Vicky Oliver, author of Power Sales Words and Tundra: Home Bears Essays 301 Smart Answers to Tough Interview Questions, says you should spell out any acronyms first and put the initials in parentheses. For example, NYSE would read New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). For starters, acronyms are capitalized, and all caps are harder to read than upper and kiehl's student discount lower case, she says. It's also really difficult to narrative story examples wade through a piece of paper that resembles alphabet soup. 8. 'References available by request' This outdated phrase will unnecessarily show your age, Gelbard says: If you progress through the interviewing process, you will be asked for personal and professional references. Of course you would never say you're 'lazy' either, but calling yourself ambitious doesn't make any sense on a r©sum©, Friedman says. It can imply that you're targeting this job now, but will quickly be looking to kiehl's move up in i cite in apa format the company because you won't be satisfied in the role, leaving the employer stuck with doing a new job search in the very near future. Kiehl's Discount? Who doesn't want to story be a team player?
If you're not a team player, you're probably not going to get the student discount, job, McDonald says. But using this term isn't going to make you stand out from other candidates. Instead, use an The Concept Essay, example of discount how you saved a company time, money, and resources on interpretivist research a team project or in collaboration with others. Yes, you and everyone else. It's assumed that you have a basic proficiency in Microsoft Office, Gelbard says. Unless you have expert proficiency, there's no need to include it on your r©sum©.
Words like this make you sound like an automaton, Oliver says. Most recruiters would rather meet with a human being. Keep your verbs simple and student streamlined. It's true that a company is less likely to consider you if you haven't worked hard or don't come across as someone who will put in what it takes to how do format get the kiehl's, job done, but that doesn't mean writing hard worker will convince hiring managers of your efforts. Give concrete examples of how you've gone the i cite a website in apa format, extra mile, rather than using a non-memorable clich©, McDonald suggests. Speaking of the word hard, using it to describe your work tasks can also have a negative effect. ZipRecruiter hosts a database of more than 3,000,000 r©sum©s, which small businesses, individual employers, and recruiters looking for candidates can rate on a scale of kiehl's one to five stars (one being the lowest, five the highest).
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The expression is unnecessary and doesn't add value. Discount? A recruiter isn't going to narrative story be able to place you if you're not eager to start the job and you aren't committed. Avoid using personal pronouns like I, me, my, we, or our, Gelbard says. A person reviewing your r©sum© knows that you're talking about your skills, experience, and expertise or something related to the company for which you worked, so you don't need to kiehl's discount include pronouns. Quote About The Right Thing? ZipRecruiter also found people who use me or myself on their r©sum© had up to a 79% greater likelihood of receiving the lowest rating from student discount, hiring managers. And while you're at The Arctic Tundra: Home to the it, don't bother including your career objectives. Kiehl's Discount? All they do is research, send the message that you're more concerned about yourself, writes career and workplace expert J.T.
O'Donnell. When the first thing a recruiter sees on discount your r©sum© is what you want from them, they're turned off, TopResume job-search expert Amanda Augustine tells O'Donnell. It's generally assumed that you were successful at definition whatever you are including on kiehl's student your r©sum©, Gelbard says. There is no need to say that you successfully managed a marketing campaign or successfully led annual budget planning. Subjective words like creative, innovative, and exceptional, are your own opinion and have little bearing for a recruiter, O'Donnell writes. Even worse, these words make you sound cocky. Augustine tells O'Donnell that a good test is to ask yourself if you'd say these things when speaking face to face with a recruiter. Unless these activities are in examples some way related to the job you're applying for, no one really cares what you do in your spare time when they're skimming your r©sum©. Student? Not only is this word superfluous, just like phone, but Augustine says you shouldn't include your mailing address at all.
Nobody needs to have that on their r©sum© anymore, she says. And to how do i cite a website format be quite honest, it's a security concern. It's more about identity theft than anything else. Another reason not to include your mailing address: You don't want hiring managers trying to contact you in five different places €” that just makes more for you to keep track of. Honesty is one of student those things you have to show, not tell, Friedman says. It's not as if there are some other candidates out interpretivist there vying for the job who are describing themselves as 'duplicitous' or ' dishonest,' she says. Once you're out of discount school, your grades aren't so relevant. The exception is if you're a recent college graduate and you have a stellar GPA. But if you're more than three years out of school, or if your GPA was lower than a 3.8, ditch it. ZipRecruiter also found the word learning to have a strong correlation with one-star reviews, as it may give employers the impression that you're inexperienced and require a great deal of The Arctic Bears training. SEE ALSO: 30 things you should remove from your r©sum© immediately.
DON'T MISS: 32 things you should never say to your boss. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 27 annoying words on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. Student Discount? While many large companies use automated. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.
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