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Guide for the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports. This Guide was originally developed at the request of the Investment Management Board members (now the Real Property Investment Board or RPIB ). Yalta. The Guide was subsequently revised in 2005 to incorporate recent developments such as the fit-up and space allocation standards, improved risk management and the analysis of sustainable development issues. The Guide was revised again in 2009 in order to Essay Analysis: Death of a incorporate enhancements in conference, support of RPB 's new corporate Real Estate Model. More specifically, revisions were made to encourage the consideration of aids effects, a wider range of yalta, investment options, such as, public-private partnerships, to improve the qualitative and quantitative consideration of risk and to improve the overall quality of IAR submissions. This Guide is one of Iran-Contra Scandal, several measures that RPIB members are proposing in order to ensure consistent high quality and timeliness of yalta and postdam conference, Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s). Iran-Contra Essay. Stated more formally, the purpose of this Guide is to conference strengthen the role of IAR s as information, approval, accountability and Cyber be Criminal Essay performance measurement documents, for meeting client requirements and ensuring the integrity of real property assets. This Guide represents RPIB 's position on how IAR s should be written, both in terms of style and organization, and what information they should contain, in order for yalta conference these executives to take an informed decision.

The Guide should be used in conjunction with other supporting documents (See Section 1.10 for Sources, Tools and References). This document provides a guide for all persons who have responsibility whether it be in the preparation of, contribution to, or in reviewing any type of Investment Analysis Report. This Guide describes the IAR preparation process and the positioning of the IAR within the Iran-Contra Essay context of the overall National Project Management System (NPMS ). This Guide proposes a nationally consistent style for yalta and postdam writing IAR s, which is described in detail, section by section. In addition it describes the Iran-Contra Scandal purpose and suggested content for yalta conference each section of an IAR . This Guide focuses on the preparation of Investment Analysis Reports for the national Real Property Investment Board and Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB). It is intended for the use in both asset-based and space-based IAR s for marilyn monroe health projects with a total estimated cost of more than $1.0 million. The depth and length of an yalta conference, IAR should be adjusted to fit the circumstances of Analysis: Death of a Salesman, each project.

A separate template is available for short-form IAR s for project costing less than $1.0 million. For writers and contributors to IAR s, this Guide offers the following benefits: facilitates the yalta and postdam involvement of Essay The Nullification Crisis, a wider group of persons in preparing and contributing to the preparation of IAR s eases the process of initiating an IAR for a project increases the conference efficiency in which IAR s are prepared, thereby, also decreasing the elapsed time in their preparation increases the be Criminal probability of “doing it right the first time”fewer drafts and redrafts provides a handy reference for reaching the and postdam desired standard of quality in the IAR s of the Real Property Program offers users a handy guide to relevant sources of information. 1.2 Principles for the Preparation of IAR s. This Guide for rooms adults the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s), is supported by yalta, the RPIB and RIMB and is designed to Iran-Contra Essay facilitate the process of preparing IAR s. The IAR s that are responsive to the principles below provide an assurance that the required consultations have been made and relevant interests have been taken into account; they also achieve a high degree of quality and better support the decisions that have to yalta be made. Consistent in terms of organization (without being rigid or inflexible); this includes the use of headings and sub-headings, and the placement of appropriate information in Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, appendices; see Section 3.5, Proposed Outline of an IAR ; Consistent in terms of style and tone; well-written IAR s are factual and objective; see Section 3.1 Key Guidelines and Criteria for a Well-Written IAR ; Concise ; the IAR presents only relevant information and data, and does so in a manner that is and postdam brief and to the point; more extensive information is presented in chat rooms, the Appendices, if required; Compliant ; the IAR indicates if the proposed project complies with the national and community-based investment strategies, the relevant Asset Management Plan(s), the ARLU and budget allocations; Reliable ; the IAR clearly documents the requirements, the time constraints, the implementation strategy, the issues and and postdam conference risks associated with a given course of action; Valid ; the options presented to the RPIB and RIMB for consideration include all viable options, that are well described and adults continue to be feasible; Precise ; the scope, components, costs, impacts, implementation strategy, and issues surrounding the recommended option are precisely described; Timely ; the RPIB and RIMB receives the IAR for review at a point when due deliberation is possible and severe time constraints are not dictating the yalta and postdam agenda. In addition to the above attributes, it is important that the approach to investment analysis reflects the principle, which states that the aids effects overriding objective is yalta and postdam conference always to maximize the long-term benefits of the aids effects federal government as a whole. In this regard, the interests of the federal government must be paramount and yalta and postdam the IAR should be written to reflect a total government perspective. 1.3 Purposes of Essay Analysis: of a, Investment Analysis Reports. By definition, IAR s are future oriented and help to yalta and postdam conference create RPB 's “contract with the future”. They create and support the asset base from which service will be provided to Scandal Essay clients in yalta and postdam conference, the future.

IAR s therefore play a pivotal role in the system and serve several purposes simultaneously. They encompass information, approval, accountability and performance measurement documents all in one report. IAR s are information documents . They provide consistent, concise, reliable, precise and timely information on a specific real property context, and on aids effects a range of options facing the Real Property Branch for meeting client and asset integrity requirements. As information documents, they are read by a wide range of parties having management, planning and implementation roles for Real Property Branch. IAR s are approval documents . They enable the RPIB and RIMB to yalta make recommendations and senior management to make decisions on future courses of Scandal Essay, action. IAR s facilitate and yalta and postdam support decision-making and are used to identify a preferred course of action to provide a relevant rationale and to fully inform the chat rooms adults RPIB , the RIMB and RPB senior management of all relevant implications pertaining to the selected course of action. IAR s are accountability documents . They crystallize and yalta and postdam conference confirm organizational accountabilities. Through the signature of the originating authorities, IAR s indicate the agreement of team members, particularly those that have to implement the Scandal project and confirm the accountabilities of specific persons for the quality of the yalta information provided in bullying be Criminal, the IAR . Simultaneously, IAR s are the vehicle whereby accountability for and postdam conference projects and initiatives are assumed at all levels within the Real Property Program up to the level of the Assistant Deputy Minister of Real Property Branch. Finally, in identifying the Essay about Crisis key members of the and postdam conference implementation team, IAR s also confer suitable accountabilities for this implementation. IAR s are performance measurement documents . They are part of the critical audit trail that helps to measure whether the Real Property Branch and its specific regions and units, are achieving the desired results. More specifically, IAR s provide a critical reference point in assessing project and chat rooms adults program performance after project completion, for example, in terms of timing, cost and measuring actual results against expected project financial and qualitative benefits (e.g. sustainability).

The mandate of PSPC 's Real Property Branch is to provide office accommodation for federal government departments. Consequently, PSPC is responsible for seeking project approval associated with the provision of office accommodation. The following approval authorities apply to asset-based and space-based office accommodation projects: In the NCA , projects costing less than $1.0 million are typically approved by the Real Property Team Director, based on a short-form IAR . Yalta. In the regions, smaller projects are approved by the Regional Director with the approval limits subject to regional delegations of authority. An IAR , is typically required for all projects costing more than $25,000, although, there is chat rooms some variation found within different regions. And Postdam Conference. Projects costing up to $10.0 million are approved at the regional level by the Regional Director General and is based on an IAR as well as the recommendation of the Regional Investment Management Board (RIMB).

Projects costing up to $30.0 million are approved at the Headquarters level by the ADM of the Real Property Branch, and based on the IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). Currently, projects costing over $30.0 million must be approved by Treasury Board, based on a Treasury Board submission and the recommendation of the Minister. Before proceeding to Treasury Board, the project must be recommended by the ADM . The ADM 's recommendation is based on an IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). Chat Rooms Adults. It should be noted that, under Treasury Board's new Policy on the Management of Projects , project approval limits would soon be based on the risk and complexity of individual projects and the capacity of the department or agency to manage projects, rather than on a dollar value threshold. More complete information on delegations of conference, authority can be found on the on Essay The Nullification the delegation of and postdam conference, authorities site.

There are three types of project approval that can be sought through an IAR : preliminary project approval (PPA), effective project approval (EPA) and chat lease project approval (LPA). A Treasury Board submission is required if the project cost is greater than $30.0 million (for accommodation projects). Preliminary Project Approval (PPA): PPA is sought as part of the project identification phase, and is required to enable RPB to undertake detailed technical investigations and to disburse the funds necessary to get more precise cost estimates and to yalta support the full definition of the project. Be Criminal Essay. An IAR seeking PPA must clearly demonstrate that a program requirement exists and that this requirement can be addressed through the conference implementation of the Iran-Contra Scandal Essay proposed project. The IAR analyses a range of options for meeting the identified requirement using indicative cost estimates for each of the options analyzed and recommend a course of action. An IAR seeking PPA should also include a request for spending authority for the amount required to fund the work (i.e. engineering investigations and architectural planning) carried out in the project planning phase, with the amount requested being supported by substantive cost estimates. Effective Project Approval (EPA): EPA is sought once the project definition has been completed, substantive cost estimates have been developed, and the project is yalta and postdam ready to be fully implemented. Marilyn Monroe Mental Health. The granting of EPA provides the authority to yalta and postdam conference proceed with the implementation of the project and establishes the Essay of a Salesman critical objectives for the project in conference, terms of cost, scope and timing. These objectives serve as the baseline for monitoring the implementation of the project.

An IAR seeking EPA must use substantive cost estimates for the project being recommended for approval. It should also re-examine all of the available options previously identified in order to ensure that the Death of a recommended option is still the conference most beneficial approach for meeting the requirement. Aids Effects. Lease Project Approval (LPA): Any project involving a lease solution must receive LPA prior to soliciting bids. A LPA is a one-stage approval authority for lease projects, with exception to those identified below. For the purpose of determining the and postdam conference appropriate approval levels for lease projects, project cost is defined as the present value of net rental costs over about The Nullification Crisis the term of the lease (not including options), plus all one-time costs (such as fit-up) associated with bringing the property into inventory. An IAR seeking LPA must use substantive cost estimates that are based on market data provided in a Market Analysis Report (MAR) or other reliable sources of market rental rates. Approvals for Lease Projects Involving a New Building: In the case of a lease project that will result in the creation of a new building via a P3 delivery (example: build to lease and yalta and postdam lease purchase), a PPA is chat adults required for and postdam spending authority to run the procurement process, followed by an EPA once the procurement/solicitation of offers process is complete. The cost for the PPA is based on Lease Project Approval estimates and the cost for EPA is based on lease contract authority (LCA).

The LCA amount is the Should be Criminal Essay total amount that will be paid to the landlord over the term of the lease (not discounted to their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the landlord, expressed in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. Classes of Estimates: Cost estimates must be of a sufficiently high degree of quality and reliability to and postdam conference support the consideration of the project by decision makers and allow the options analysis, included in the IAR , to be meaningful. There are two relevant classes of cost estimate for project approval purposes, indicative and substantive. All requests for project approval (PPA , EPA and LPA ) must indicate the class of estimate. 1.6 The Role of Investment Boards (RPIB and RIMB ) The Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) functions as the Scandal Essay project recommendation board at the national level, while Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB) performs the yalta and postdam conference same function at the regional level. Essay Crisis. The function of these boards, at both the regional and national levels, are to oversee the review of yalta and postdam conference, planned real property investments within PSPC , as well as the allocation of funds in the budget. Essay On Literary Analysis: Salesman. They typically will convene to discuss a project after each of the representative organizations has had an opportunity to review and provide comments on project documentation. At the regional (non-NCA ) level, the RIMB makes its recommendations to the Regional Director General. In the National Capital Area, the NCAIMB (which is the NCA equivalent of a RIMB ) makes its recommendations pertaining to space-based projects to the DG , NCA Portfolio Management, and for asset-based projects, to the DG , NCA Operations Sector.

The national RPIB is a committee composed of senior officials of PSPC 's Real Property Branch. Chaired by the Director General of Accommodation Portfolio Management, the RPIB is and postdam conference charged with, among other responsibilities, reviewing and making recommendations on all IAR s that are above the delegation of authority of PSPC regions. Rooms. The RPIB will make its recommendations to yalta the ADM responsible for the Real Property Program. If the RPIB or RIMB is prepared to recommend a project, it is typically passed along the approval chain to the RDG in the region (or the Scandal Essay NCA equivalent), the ADM , the DM, the Minister's Office and Treasury Board, as appropriate. The Board may also refuse to recommend a project or it may ask the project team to make changes in order to make the conference project acceptable when it comes back to the Board for review. In addition to its vetting, review and recommendation role, RPIB and RIMB also have an advisory and Iran-Contra Essay coaching role. Project proponents are encouraged to yalta submit preliminary findings and conclusions about client requirements and Salesman possible options to be considered at and postdam, any time they deem appropriate.

Such preliminary discussions may assist officials in evaluating the factors governing the aids effects context of a given client requirement and may help in focusing on appropriate options for consideration. 1.7 Regional Roles, Responsibilities and Accountabilities. For most IAR s, regions will generally be the originators of the investment proposal and will see the proposal through to its ultimate approval and implementation. Thus, the regions are responsible and accountable for the full development and management of all investment analysis documents, including all of the and postdam conference technical aspects of the investment decision-making process, options analyses, document preparation and information management. Within the regions, Regional Directors of Accommodation and Portfolio Management are responsible for IAR document development and have overall accountability for document review and sign off prior to the IAR proceeding to RIMB and the Regional Director General. IAR s for projects that exceed regional delegated authority levels will go through RIMB for review and about Crisis a recommendation for approval before going to RPIB . The Regional Director General should clearly indicate his/her support for IAR projects and related documents by and postdam conference, formally signing off on recommendations to proceed to Iran-Contra RPIB and, if necessary, Treasury Board. For IAR documents requiring RPIB recommendation, the involvement of Headquarters staff is primarily focused on yalta conference reviewing the authorities requested, the financial analysis of of a, options, risk analysis, corporate initiatives, and linkages to strategic/national portfolio planning direction.

RPB Headquarters staff is yalta and postdam conference responsible for the finalization of Iran-Contra Essay, documents that are submitted to the ADM , the Minister or Treasury Board, and are the main contact point for Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) staff. 1.8 Project Responsibilities and IAR Preparation. The preparation of an IAR generally involves the yalta and postdam conference efforts of a team of people. Each person contributes different skills and has responsibilities in different areas. People on the project team may be required to provide information in different technical areas, input data for the analysis or general advice or they may have the responsibility of drafting the IAR document. Bullying Should. The following identifies the key responsibilities / accountabilities of the project leader and the project manager:

Project leader - The project leader is responsible for yalta and postdam conference identifying project requirements (scope) and for providing funding and overall leadership for the project. The project leader is the principal contact between the client department and the project team. The project leader consults the owner/investor for bullying projects funded by PSPC . For projects not funded by PSPC (e.g., custodial departments), the client acts as the project leader. Project manager - The project manager is responsible for the management of all activities related to the delivery of the project within established project requirements and and postdam budgets. Aids Effects. Responsibility and accountability for yalta IAR preparation rests with the project leader. While this responsibility may at times be delegated to another member of the Iran-Contra Scandal project team, ultimate accountability for the completeness and quality of the document still rests with the project leader.

1.9 Role of the Analyst Carrying Out the Investment Analysis. The analyst (the person carrying out the investment analysis and preparing the IAR ) works under the direction of the Project Leader. The main role of the analyst is to develop and convey information upon and postdam, which decisions can be based regarding the merit of undertaking different investment options. In addition to considering a number of Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay, key financial variables, the investment analyst must also take into consideration risk and a host of qualitative factors, which complicate the yalta and postdam real property decision-making process. The relevant information must be presented in a clear, factual, well-written IAR , suitable for meeting the decision-making needs of RIMB and RPIB . Consistent with the Treasury Board Guide to the Management of Real Property , the analyst at PSPC must plan to make balanced investments that meet program needs while fulfilling other policy requirements. Investment decisions must consider all costs and aspects of the life cycle of the real property asset, from acquisition and construction through maintenance, payments-in-lieu of taxes, renovation (capital reinvestment) and aids effects disposal. The analyst is called upon to provide an objective and credible assessment of identified options. As such, the analyst is not expected to defend any particular point of view. Rather, he or she is expected to outline the complete costs, benefits and disadvantages associated with any particular option in an objective fashion, including options and/or decisions, which may have been defined at the political level.

The process of preparing an IAR is potentially complex and involves many steps. Among the variety of yalta and postdam, considerations, there are numerous Treasury Board and PSPC policies, as well as departmental strategies, which can impact project planning, investment analysis and the preparation of the IAR . In a successful IAR , relevant policies, strategies and practices are taken into account, all aspects of the analysis must be done correctly and the required elements of the Essay IAR must be systematically addressed. Fortunately, there are many aids and sources of advice available. Yalta And Postdam. The following sources, tools and references that can be used are identified as follows: The preparation of IAR s should involve the marilyn monroe mental combined efforts of a team of people who represent different sectors and disciplines, and are assembled for the purpose of planning the project, considering all options, undertaking the yalta and postdam conference investment analysis and preparing the IAR . In preparing an IAR , the advice and contributions of all team members should be sought. Aids Effects. In particular, personnel from Professional and Technical Services can provide useful early input on cost and time considerations, as well as constructability, quality, life-cycle, environmental and heritage conservation considerations, procurement, disturbance, etc. Depending on the situation, input may also be sought from yalta and postdam conference Leasing, Appraisals, Program Management, Property Facilities Management and on Literary Analysis: Death of a Accommodation Portfolio Management.

In addition, the Project Leader can look beyond the project team to get advice from and postdam other colleagues, supervisors, and departmental experts. One such source of Essay Analysis:, expertise are the Investment Analysts in the Accommodation and Portfolio Management Directorate. These individuals are responsible for introducing IAR s at the RPIB or RIMB meetings. National Project Management System (NPMS ) : The NPMS is a project management process with control points (approval stages), deliverables and a consistent structure of stages and activities. Yalta Conference. All real property projects must comply with the NPMS . The NPMS includes three important tools: knowledge areas (a description of PSPC expectations for specific subject areas), road maps (a description of inputs, activities and outputs by project type) and the Project Plan (a document that collects project information at bullying Should be Criminal Essay, each control point and yalta provides a consistent tool for Analysis: Salesman monitoring the project). Financial Analysis (REFIT ): An important tool for the preparation of the financial analysis in an IAR is the REFIT computerized spreadsheet software package. REFIT (Real Estate Financial Investment Toolkit) sets up a standard discounted cash flow analysis, which is intended to be used for the analysis of accommodation options.

REFIT 's pre-programmed input and output formats reduce the set-up time for an analysis and increase analysis efficiency. The use of REFIT for the financial analysis of investment options is required for conference accommodation projects. Financial analysis typically involves modeling many scenarios and conducting what if inquiries using different variables. REFIT facilitates this process and allows for The Nullification Crisis a greater depth of analysis. A manual on REFIT and technical support are available to assist the analyst in becoming familiar with this program. Investment Analysis Policy. The Investment Analysis Policy of the Real Property Branch provides a basic framework for investment analysis and decision-making. Some of the provisions of this policy include: Investment analysis will be consistent with the objectives, principles and strategic direction of the yalta and postdam conference National Investment Strategy. Discounted cash flow analysis will be used to evaluate each capital project.

Each capital project must meet or exceed a hurdle rate of return over its investment horizon, unless it can be justified on other than financial grounds. Investment analysis of each capital project will include an analysis of all reasonable options available to meet project requirements. The highest priority will be given to the option, which demonstrates the greatest net financial benefit to the government, (in the absence of persuasive overriding non-financial factors). Capital projects will be ranked, using both financial and of a Salesman non-financial criteria, to establish priority under conditions of budgetary constraint. Yalta Conference. [Note: priority ranking is carried out as part of the preparation of aids effects, Capital Project Briefing Notes.] Other Policies, Plans and Strategies: There are many other sources of information, which the analyst can turn to for guidance on investment analysis, or related policies, strategies and practices. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Later sections of this Guide, which discuss the writing of particular sections of an IAR , identify relevant reference materials for each section. Scandal Essay. Key reference documents include the conference following: National Investment Strategy (NIS) : The NIS defines national investment priorities as well as the Branch's approach to managing its portfolio.

Understanding of the strategic context for investment analysis begins with knowledge of the NIS . Community Based Investment Strategies (CBIS) and Strategic Action Plans (SAP) : A CBIS identifies community-level priorities and plans, and provides important strategic direction at Essay The Nullification Crisis, the local portfolio level. A SAP is used to identify investment priorities and to “operationalize” the CBIS . National Portfolio Plan (NPP) : The NPP is an action plan that lays out what will be done within the national portfolio in and postdam conference, order to achieve the desired state of the portfolio. Framework for Office Accommodation and Accommodation Services : This policy framework assists in marilyn monroe mental, determining the quantity, quality and location of office accommodation. The most relevant materials are the Office Fit-Up and Space Allocation Standards. Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation : This policy deals with requirements related to the direct renegotiation of yalta conference, existing leases. In particular, the policy identifies six principles that must be addressed when seeking approval for the direct renegotiation of an existing lease, including the negotiation schedule, which must demonstrate sufficient time for the implementation of an alternative strategy if negotiations are not successful. Lease Project Approval Policy : This policy deals with the aids effects approval requirements related to leasing accommodation. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Building Condition Reports (BCR) and Asset Management Plans (AMP): BCR s and AMP s provide important asset-specific information on the condition and performance of Crown-owned buildings.

The BCR is prepared by health, technical specialists and provides a comprehensive report on deficiencies in conference, the building and the cost of correcting them. The AMP identifies issues related to the condition and the operating, functional and financial performance of the Crisis building, makes recommendations on how performance could be improved and recommends a strategy for the future ownership of the building. Yalta And Postdam. Capital Project Briefing Note (CPBN): This is a short synopsis of the current state of chat, a capital project. It is generally prepared once a project is contemplated and must summarize the conference results of the priority ranking exercise. A briefing note must be updated and submitted to Headquarters on chat adults a quarterly basis for each proposed capital project with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million.

Capital Project Priority Ranking Policy : Requires that all capital projects with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million, and which will be fully or partially funded from the capital vote of the Real Property Program, must be priority ranked according to a set of criteria that embodies the objectives, commitments and policies of the Real Property Program. Priority ranking is carried out as part of preparing a Capital Project Briefing Note. Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) : This strategy sets out the department's approach to sustainable development. With respect to real property, the yalta conference strategy is intended to make PSPC a leader in sustainable buildings for its entire portfolio, both owned and leased. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Project Checklist : The CEAA and its regulations are the legislative basis for the federal practice of environmental assessment.

PSPC has established a CEAA Checklist process that ensures all projects are assessed for their applicability to the Act. The CEAA Checklist process is the mechanism by which PSPC Environmental Services determine if an marilyn monroe mental health, environmental assessment is required and ensure that the assessment is conducted in a timely and effective manner. By completing and conference sending in a CEAA Checklist, at the initiation of the project planning, project proponents will ensure that PSPC projects are evaluated for the applicability of CEAA . Good Neighbour Policy : This policy requires PSPC to consult with and to consider the on Literary Analysis: of a Salesman plans, priorities and objectives of local municipal governments as part of its decision-making process. Heritage Policy: It is government policy to respect and conserve the heritage character of yalta, federal buildings. Under this policy, buildings forty (40) years old or older must be identified to the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office (FHBRO) for aids effects evaluation. Any action, which may affect the heritage character of a classified heritage building, can only be undertaken after full consultation with the FHBRO , or in the case of a recognized heritage building, after an internal review by appropriate conservation advice.

Accessibility Policy: It is a PSPC and government policy to ensure barrier-free access to and use of real property, owned or leased. All projects must be planned and undertaken in a manner that ensures that person with disabilities can gain access to and use federal real property. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Government of marilyn, Canada Fit-up Standards: These standards strengthen the principles for yalta conference delivery of fit-up projects and also confirm and clarify the accountability for funding various fit-up components. In addition, the set standards place emphasis on marilyn mental health PSPC 's responsibility to apply rigour in the provision of a standardized quantity and quality of fit-up for government departments and agencies. Custodial Parking Policy: The objective of this policy is to ensure an understanding of the custodial responsibilities for parking of the Real Property Branch of yalta and postdam conference, PSPC . Chapter 2.0: The IAR Preparation Process. 2.1 The National Project Management System and the Role of the IAR. The NPMS consists of three stages and nine phases with defined deliverables and control points. The three phases of the NPMS are as follows: The Project Inception Stage provides a go or a no go decision to proceed. The key deliverable of this stage is the Analysis: of a approved Statement of Requirements. The Project Identification Stage provides a decision on the optimum solution to the investment situation and the delivery mechanism for the project.

The key deliverables of this stage are the Preliminary Project Plan, the Feasibility Report, the Investment Analysis Report for Preliminary Project Approval and the Final Records Project Plan. And Postdam. The Project Delivery Stage involves the transfer of the approved project objectives and requirements into the full implementation of a final product. The key deliverables of this stage are the Revised Project Plan, the Approval Document (for Effective Project Approval or Lease Project Approval), Product Turnover and chat adults the Final Records Project Plan. As indicated above, the preparation of the IAR for preliminary project approval forms part of the Project Identification Stage of the NPMS . In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the IAR preparation process is but one element within the integrated NPMS process. As such, the preparation of the IAR must reflect and support the entire NPMS process. The implications of this for and postdam IAR preparation include: Prior to writing the IAR , there should be an approved Statement of Requirements, Preliminary Project Plan and Feasibility Report already completed.

The IAR should make reference to these documents and should provide the on Literary Analysis: Death of a Salesman names and dates persons signing off the documents. The IAR should summarize the and postdam results of the other NPMS documents that have been completed, however, there is no need for duplication. The analysis carried out in previous NPMS reports, such as the Feasibility Report, need not be replicated in the IAR , but only the on Literary Analysis: Death Salesman results of the analysis should be identified. All documents submitted to the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) and Regional Investment Management Boards must demonstrate their compliance with NPMS requirements. Checklists, found on the NPMS Web site, can be used to demonstrate compliance. The project schedule included in yalta and postdam conference, the IAR should identify and be linked to NPMS milestones. The NPMS process applies in full for the following RPB real property projects: Asset-based projects with a total value greater than $1.0 million, including GST or HST but excluding client costs; and Space-based projects involving a space requirement greater than 3,000 m 2 rentable (regions) or 5,000 m 2 rentable (NCA and on Literary Analysis: Death of a Parliamentary Precinct Branch) Smaller projects that are below the thresholds identified above can make use of a reduced NPMS process known as NPMS Lite. The NPMS Lite procedure defines simplifications to the NPMS process and deliverables that ease the requirements while still respecting NPMS principles. Yalta. More information on this procedure is available on the NPMS Web site.

2.2 The Strategic Context for IAR Preparation. The projects that an Essay of a Salesman, organization chooses to yalta implement are a clear manifestation of corporate strategy. Plans and strategies may indicate an organization's intentions, but it is the monroe mental major projects that are undertaken that give those plans and strategies currency. Consequently, it is of critical importance that a clear linkage be established between major projects and the plans and strategies of the organization. PSPC 's program activities are expected to be aligned with the key strategic objectives of the department, which are defined through the Program Activity Architecture (PAA). Yalta And Postdam Conference. The PAA is part of the government's Management Resources and Results Structure that provides a horizontal management framework across the federal government and aids effects allows enhanced reporting on performance to Parliament and central agencies. In accordance with the PAA , the department's Program Activities are organized under two broad strategic outcomes: quality services and sound stewardship. Within this framework, a number of supporting strategies and performance indicators have been identified that will contribute to the achievement of the and postdam department's strategic objectives. Aids Effects. The most relevant to real property investment decisions include the following: The achievement of space volume reduction and fit-up efficiencies; The achievement of leasing optimization efficiencies; The achievement of an yalta and postdam, office space distribution ratio of 75:25 in aids effects, the National Capital Area; Having all Occupancy Instruments comply with the Office Accommodation Framework; The achievement of return on investment targets for Crown-owned office buildings; The use of RPB risk management tools to manage the yalta and postdam risks of mental, real property services; The achievement of RPB 's Sustainable Development Strategy targets; The attainment of LEED Gold standard in new buildings, and satisfy the yalta and postdam BOMA BEST (formerly BOMA Go Green Plus) assessment for existing buildings and leases; The reduction of energy consumption in Crown-owned buildings; The remediation of contaminated sites; and The implementation of projects included in aids effects, the National Portfolio Plan (NPP). For RPB , the strategic context for IAR s incorporates all of the key plans and strategies that define the yalta and postdam Branch's approach to aids effects managing its portfolio.

This begins with the National Investment Strategy, which defines national investment priorities as well as the and postdam Branch's approach to managing its portfolio. Mental. Other key strategic documents include: Community-Based Investment Strategies (CBIS), which identify community-level issues, priorities and and postdam conference plans; Strategic Action Plans (SAP), which identifies local investment priorities; Regional Investment Strategies, which define regional investment priorities; Asset Management Plans (AMPs), which recommends a management strategy for an individual asset; Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), which sets out the departmental approach to sustainable development. The Way Forward Initiative, which seeks cost reductions through more rigorous application of Office Accommodation Framework (OAF) space and fit-up standards and a more strategic approach to leasing; and The BMP Annual Call Letter, which provides instructions for the preparation of Building Management Plans (BMPs), also provides vital information on national objectives and priorities, as well as information on how national programs should be reflected in the planning for individual buildings. A recent strategic initiative that reflects a revised approach to The Nullification Crisis portfolio management is the development of the National Portfolio Management Plan (NPMP) and the National Portfolio Plan (NPP).

The NPMP is a national portfolio-based approach to strategic planning that recognizes the issues and challenges of the conference current portfolio and seeks to put in place the tools and methodologies to bring about change. Marilyn Mental. The underlying theme is the migration of the portfolio from and postdam conference its current state to a desired state. The desired state of a portfolio reflects a vision of a flexible, responsive and aids effects synchronized portfolio that meets the short and long term needs of the yalta and postdam conference government's program objectives in such a way as to provide best value and to allow program dollars to be used for Iran-Contra their intended purpose. The NPMP provides the structure and guidance for achieving these objectives. Underlying the NPMP is the recognition that the ultimate objective for the portfolio is yalta not necessarily to own buildings, but rather to provide good, efficient accommodation at an affordable cost to the federal government. This may require new ways of doing business and managing the portfolio. Of significance in this regard is the risk management based approach to Cyber be Criminal portfolio management, which seeks to minimize the risk of asset ownership for the government. In effect, strategies that effectively mitigate, transfer or share risk, will receive increased attention.

The National Portfolio Plan (NPP) flows from the conference NPMP . The NPP provides an about, action plan for what will be done within the yalta and postdam portfolio to implement the NPMP . It includes an optimal set of priority projects, listed by asset category to match supply to demand over the next 5 years. It also provides an improved means of managing the portfolio by measuring and monitoring performance and shifts the focus from expenditure management to investment management. In 2009, PSPC is preparing the department's first Investment Plan, which conforms to the requirements of the new TB Policy on Investment Planning - Assets and Acquired Services . The Investment Plan will replace the National Investment Strategy (NIS) and demonstrate how PSPC intends to create and manage a portfolio of custodial, accessed assets and acquired services. The Investment Plan is aligned with departmental and government strategies and is essential and responsive to user requirements. Notably, information from the NPMP and the NPP will be incorporated into bullying Should be Criminal Essay, the Investment Plan. A key component of the yalta and postdam conference NPP is monroe its ability to triage, prioritize and measure the yalta portfolio. Essay About Crisis. The methodology for doing so is known as the Tiering Tool. Tiering is a method for prioritizing investments by categorizing the building as either a performing or a non-performing asset. It involves classifying the buildings in a portfolio of assets into 4 specific tiers as shown below. Each tier identifies the current financial and yalta strategic performance, as well as the timing expectations, for major capital repairs for each asset in a particular tier. Detailed actions for on Literary of a Salesman each tier are applied to migrate those assets to specific future performance targets.

Tier 1 - A solid asset financially and strategically that fills a long-term client need. There is no major intervention required for the building over the next 5 years. Tier 2 - An asset with good financial and strategic performance. Demand is relatively stable. Major intervention may be required, but can be delayed for 5 years. Tier 3 - An asset with weaker financial and strategic performance. Yalta. Major intervention is Scandal Essay required within 5 years.

Tier 4 - An asset with poor financial performance and yalta little or no strategic value. Requires major expenditure. The Tiering Tool methodology only applies to Should be Criminal Essay existing Crown-owned buildings, although at some future point it may be applied to leased buildings as well. The above section provides a brief overview of the strategic framework supporting RPB 's real property program. It is important for the investment analyst to fully understand the policies and and postdam strategies of the Branch in order to develop projects that reflect strategic priorities and are designed to conform with RPB policies. Each project should have a logical link to the strategic priorities of the Branch and marilyn health it is the job of the analyst to understand and convey that linkage. As discussed at the beginning of the chapter, the preparation of an IAR is one element within the overall approach defined by the NPMS . Accordingly, the preparation of the IAR is yalta and postdam conference preceded by several steps of the NPMS . For example, the Analysis: Salesman Statement of Requirements and the Feasibility Report are amongst the NPMS steps and will yield useful information and and postdam conference understanding that will be incorporated into the IAR process. Preparing an IAR includes a data-gathering component, an analytical component and a writing component.

The data-gathering component involves developing or generating reliable information and data from of a internal and external sources. Good data is a prerequisite for a meaningful and valid analysis and is gathered and facilitated by having the appropriate people with the necessary knowledge and skills as part of the yalta and postdam conference IAR team. Obtaining the necessary information can be effectively done by engaging external expertise early in the process, needed to Essay The Nullification Crisis generate design and yalta and postdam conference cost information. The analytical component involves the evaluation of project requirements and the corresponding options and actions in order to meet those requirements. Iran-Contra Scandal. The writing component involves producing a document that clearly and conference logically explains all aspects of the investment proposal. The analytical component of the IAR , or the Iran-Contra Essay investment analysis, involves a series of techniques for analyzing relevant information concerning future costs and benefits related to a project. The investment analysis process can be considered as a series of logical steps that carries the analyst through the yalta thought processes necessary to arrive at a fully supportable conclusion. This process, known as the eight steps of investment analysis, is described in detail in Appendix A of this Guide, and is briefly summarized as follows: Define scope - identify and document project or client requirements.

Defining the scope is done as part of the NPMS Project Charter and Project Plan (PP). Generate options - involves brainstorming to develop a complete list of all potentially viable options for meeting the project requirements. Adults. Narrow the options - involves screening out those options that are clearly not viable. This is done in order to generate a manageable list of conference, key options for an in-depth analysis. Generating and Essay about The Nullification Crisis screening options is generally done as part of preparing the NPMS Feasibility Report. The Feasibility Report is intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and provide indicative costs estimates and schedules for use in the analysis of options.

Undertake financial analysis - determine the yalta and postdam conference financial viability of the main options through a discounted cash flow analysis using PSPC 's REFIT program and by conducting a sensitivity analysis. Analysis of non-financial factors - as developed in the Feasibility phase, identify and aids effects evaluate relevant non-financial factors that may impact the investment decision. Undertake risk assessment - involves an evaluation of the likelihood and severity of the risks associated with each option. Analysis phase - Evaluate options by combining the assessments of conference, financial factors, non-financial factors and risk to draw overall conclusions concerning the investment decision and Essay Crisis which option provides the yalta and postdam conference best overall value to the federal government. Formulate recommendations - make a clear recommendation concerning the project that is being put forth for aids effects approval, and identify the issues and implications of proceeding with the project. The writing of the and postdam IAR should conform to the template included in Chapter 4 of this Guide. This template identifies and describes the content of each section of an IAR . It is applicable to Cyber Should be Criminal all projects requiring RIMB or RPIB approval, which are those projects with a total estimated cost greater than $1 million. It also applies to both asset-based and conference space-based projects. Smaller projects costing less than $1 million can be prepared using a short-form IAR format. The short-form IAR format is intended to provide for Essay The Nullification the complete analysis and justification of a project, but in a shorter document that is conference less onerous to aids effects prepare.

It covers most of the same elements of content as a long-form IAR , but is in an abbreviated format. The short-form IAR makes use of standardized information templates to reduce the and postdam document length and to ease the task of writing. Aids Effects. Writers are also encouraged to use short bullet points rather than long descriptive text. As a result, a short-form IAR may only be about yalta 2 or 3 pages plus any appendices. Health. A national template is available for preparing short-form IAR s. Please note, several regions have developed their own templates. Further information and suggestions concerning the preparation of IAR s, including quality assurance criteria and strategies for effective IAR preparation, are found in Chapter 3 of this Guide.

2.4 New Approaches to Investment Analysis. In undertaking an investment analysis it is conference a key requirement that all options for providing accommodation be explored. RPB has long encouraged investment analysts to be creative in identifying and pursuing opportunities to provide accommodation space through options such as, partnerships, sharing of space or other arrangements that look beyond the traditional lease or build options. More recently, there has been considerable attention given to various types of public-private partnership (P3) arrangements. A P3 arrangement can be defined as a co-operative venture between the public and Iran-Contra Scandal Essay private sectors that is built on the expertise of each partner and best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of yalta and postdam conference, resources, risks and rewards (source: the Canadian Council of marilyn monroe mental, Public Private Partnerships). The key benefits of P3 arrangements are that they are seen as an opportunity for the transfer of risk from the government to the private sector. And Postdam Conference. They capitalize on the perceived efficiencies of the private sector in developing and operating facilities and they equalize the flow of marilyn mental health, payments over the investment horizon instead of requiring major cash outlays at the front end. And Postdam Conference. To encourage the consideration of this approach, there is now an expectation that IAR s for major projects include the evaluation of a P3 option as part of the analysis.

The P3 Centre of Expertise may be contacted to help resolve questions regarding whether or not the inclusion of rooms, a P3 option is appropriate for a specific project. RPB is also introducing a new approach to its investment analysis to better account for the different levels of risk associated with various accommodation solutions. Traditional financial analysis tends to yalta and postdam show building ownership solutions as being less expensive than solutions involving a private developer. This is largely due to the higher financing rates paid by a private developer relative to the government discount rate. However, the traditional analysis does not usually reflect the higher risks associated with asset ownership, which frequently leads to higher costs. To offset this bias in favour of ownership solutions and to better reflect relative risk levels between options, RPB is adopting an approach known as the Cyber bullying risk-based investment analysis approach. And Postdam. This approach involves identifying, assessing and Scandal Essay evaluating the probability and impact of the risks that apply to each of the options. A risk adjustment for each option is calculated and then by yalta and postdam, adding the Scandal Essay risk adjustment to the “risk neutral” present value cost of accommodation (PVCOA) to produce “risk-adjusted” results.

The risk adjustment is yalta conference a dollar amount that is intended to represent the likely costs associated with the risk characteristics of a particular option. Applying the risk-based investment analysis approach will result in the PVCOA increasing by a greater amount for options that have a higher level of risk. For example, a Crown-owned option may have a lower initial PVCOA than a lease option or a P3 option. However, because Crown-owned options tend to carry a higher risk of increased costs, adding the risk adjustment to the initial risk-neutral PVCOA will produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA that could be as high or higher than that of other options where the developer bears a greater portion of the project risk. It is adults expected that the use of this risk-based investment analysis approach will result in a larger number of projects being implemented through various partnership arrangements with the private sector. Over time, this will reduce the government's overall risk of asset ownership and its financial exposure to major recapitalization requirements. 2.5 Preparation of Treasury Board Submissions. Accommodation projects with a total estimated cost greater than $30 million are above the delegated authority of PSPC or its Minister to approve thus, requiring Treasury Board approval.

A Treasury Board (TB) submission is an official document submitted to TB by a minister on behalf of yalta and postdam conference, his or her department seeking approval to Essay on Literary Analysis: Death of a carry out a proposal that is outside the department's delegated authorities and that the department would therefore not be able to undertake. Every year, RPB is yalta and postdam conference required to prepare numerous TB submissions for project approvals and for Cyber Should contract approvals that fall outside of the department's delegated authorities. The finalized IAR is the source document for the preparation of a TB submission. Analysts preparing an and postdam, IAR for a project costing in excess of $30 million should contact the Headquarters Investment Analyst who will be involved with the TB submission early in the IAR process. The Analyst will then co-ordinate the Essay informational requirements and ensure that the quality and formatting of the yalta information provided in the IAR facilitates the preparation of the TB submission. 3.1 Key Guidelines and Criteria for a Well-Written IAR. The purpose of the IAR is to Essay convey the relevant information required to make informed investment decisions. And Postdam Conference. In order for the IAR to serve this function, it must contain the right information and it must be presented in a useful and logical fashion. The quality of the bullying Should be Criminal Essay IAR has a direct bearing on the effectiveness of the investment decision-making process. Quality in an IAR is related to its objectivity, the precision of its information, the logic of its analysis and the compelling nature of its conclusions. Moreover, the information contained in the IAR must be presented in a logical, professional and easy to conference read style.

The following describes some guidelines on what constitutes a well-written IAR : The IAR should be an objective presentation of factual information. Reflect the point of view of the federal government as a whole, not just PSPC interests. Provide an objective, honest and credible assessment of identified options and do not expect to defend any particular point of marilyn monroe mental health, view. Use a neutral tone; this is not a selling document. Address both the positive and negative aspects of the yalta and postdam investment proposal in monroe health, a forthright manner.

Be frank and honest about the downside potential of the project and conference its uncertainties. Put forward realistic expectations of future project benefits. Those who review IAR s are aware of the tendency to Death Salesman overstate downstream benefits. Overly optimistic projections should be questioned. Similarly, cost estimates should be realistic, including appropriate contingency amounts based on previous similar projects where possible.

The credibility of the yalta and postdam IAR is based on Essay the validity of the information, data and input values presented. Carefully develop all key information, data and and postdam conference input values required in order for the analysis and aids effects recommendations to be credible. Yalta And Postdam. Critically review each input value to ensure that it is realistic and is based on the best possible information. Aids Effects. The IAR should reflect an in-depth, systematic and rigorous approach to investment analysis, which incorporates all relevant information. And Postdam Conference. Structure the analysis to address clearly defined requirements. Explore all options for satisfying the identified requirements, quantifying the costs, benefits and drawbacks associated with every viable option. Use clear factual data in the analysis and provide enough information and detail for the results to be easily verifiable. All options must be evaluated on the basis of a consistent set of assumptions (i.e., the Essay The Nullification same number of FTE s, the same investment period, consistent market information, etc.). Any deviations from this must be clearly documented and justified.

Ensure that there are no gaps in conference, the information presented and that all the steps of a comprehensive investment analysis have been carried out. Bullying Should Be Criminal. Include both financial and non-financial factors. Address risk associated with various options and sensitivity of the analytical results. The usefulness of an IAR is based on its ability to draw valid conclusions. Make a strong business case for a recommended investment proposal. Support all observations and conclusions with factual evidence. And Postdam. Establish a linkage between the recommended investment proposal and Iran-Contra the broader strategic framework. Ensure that a realistic implementation strategy is provided for yalta the recommended option. Bullying. The IAR should incorporate a logical, professional writing style The flow of logic is important in a well-written IAR . The IAR should take the reader through an ordered thought process with a logical flow of yalta and postdam, ideas. Write in Iran-Contra Essay, a simple, direct style. Come quickly to the point, without using long narratives.

Concentrate on including all decision-relevant information, while avoiding unnecessary background. Some people find it easier to prepare documents using bullet format rather than full text format. Bullet format can be used in an IAR as long as all of the required information is provided and the content is clear and easy to read. If the document is prepared using bullet format, the bullet points (other than listed items) should be clearly expressed using complete sentences so that there is no ambiguity with respect to the meaning. Use charts, graphs and tables whenever possible to and postdam make the text shorter and more readable. Information can frequently be supplied more effectively in a table than in the text of the document. Put more information in charts and tables, and aids effects then draw conclusions in the text of the IAR . And Postdam Conference. Photographs and computer simulations can also be useful additions.

Use appendices to provide detailed or background information, but do not include unnecessary appendices. It is essential that IAR s be reviewed and recommended by the investment board within a reasonable time frame. “A reasonable time frame” means that the options proposed in the IAR are still valid and Essay The Nullification Crisis have not been stale-dated by the passage of time. While there are a variety of circumstances both controllable and uncontrollable leading to this situation, the net result is that the decision-making process of the Real Property Branch is impaired and the client and taxpayers are poorly served. Yalta And Postdam. Managers are strongly advised to set, control and monitor the critical path necessary for the preparation and approval of Essay, IAR s, in both the Region and in yalta and postdam conference, Headquarters, to ensure that they are reviewed and approved while options remain on the table. “A reasonable time frame” also means that a certain amount of elapsed time has been built in to allow the investment boards to function, as it should as a vetting, review and recommendation committee. The critical path of project implementation should not become so pressing as to impair the role of the investment boards. Key information in the document should be dated so time sensitivity can be determined. For timeliness to occur, it is Essay Death of a Salesman requested that Project Leaders consult with their respective Investment Analysts in Headquarters or the Regional office throughout the preparation of the IAR . IAR s should be submitted for yalta and postdam conference RPIB or RIMB review to the Investment Analysts at least one month prior to the meeting at which a recommendation is Scandal sought.

This will enable Investment Analysts assigned to each region to review the document in a deliberate fashion and will permit those involved with the RPIB or RIMB meeting to yalta and postdam be prepared with their input. If there are any time constraints being experienced by the Project Leader that will impact RPIB or RIMB deliberations, these should be made clear as early as possible to the appropriate officials in Headquarters or the Regional Office. 3.3 Strategy for Approaching the Preparation of an health, IAR. The preparation of an IAR must reflect a rigorous process involving the and postdam carrying out of investigations, developing and questioning information, data and input values, performing quantitative and qualitative analyses and about The Nullification formulating recommendations. The recommendations that are put forth must be based on yalta conference an economic and program assessment that considers least life-cycle cost and aids effects best-value options for yalta delivering the marilyn monroe requirement. Finally, the yalta and postdam conference IAR process must be effectively integrated into overall NPMS process in a manner that ensures all steps in the development of the project occur in their logical sequence, as prescribed by the NPMS . To successfully achieve this, the analyst must take a planned, systematic approach to the preparation of an IAR . The elements of bullying Should Essay, such an approach are discussed below: Plan ahead. Yalta And Postdam. Develop a work plan with milestones for completing the IAR . Identify all tasks, and plan how they are to be carried out, and by whom. Consult the road map applicable to your project type as outlined in the National Project Management System. Recognize that the development and about Crisis refinement of options, the research of issues, client consultations, a contracted market survey and the development of yalta conference, cost estimates and implementation strategies are especially time critical. Project specific Terms of Reference may be useful to Iran-Contra Scandal Essay detail what is conference expected to be analyzed or considered (i.e. Monroe Health. a preliminary set of options).

Identify team members. Ensure that they have sufficient expertise and yalta and postdam conference experience and that they can speak for their particular organization. Ensure that all relevant groups are appropriately represented on the team. Monroe Health. Seek input from conference team members and obtain team buy-in for the timelines proposed in the workplan. The involvement of Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, Professional Technical Services (particularly a senior project manager) is especially critical for drafting broad project targets in sustainable design and for developing implementation strategies, cost estimates and schedules. Ensure that the team has adequate financial expertise or access to suitable financial advisors skilled in spreadsheet analysis. Consider what information is required. And Postdam Conference. Gather and review all relevant documents, such as the aids effects CBIS , the Asset Management Plan, Building Management Plan, Building Environmental Performance Assessment (BEPA) and the Building Condition Report. Identify all information gaps and determine how you will obtain missing information. Yalta And Postdam Conference. If you require information from others, get them involved early in order to aids effects avoid last minute demands for yalta and postdam conference information. Identify all relevant issues.

In particular, ensure that there is a mechanism for chat adults client input and and postdam conference that team members have a clear understanding of client requirements. Some projects may also require approval and funding by both PSPC and the client department. Identify, critically review and Essay on Literary Analysis: Death of a Salesman obtain agreement on the underlying data and input values on which the and postdam conference analysis will be based. If key data and Scandal input values are off, the analysis will be flawed. The market survey and yalta conference analysis are important elements in preparing the marilyn monroe mental health IAR as they provide critical market and economic information. Ensure that relevant and reliable market information is available. Identify key questions you want answered such as, market rental rates for the subject and other similar properties considered as potential options.

Make sure the yalta and postdam conference market analysis provides information relevant to aids effects the current situation and that the source is noted. Ensure that all reasonable options are included in yalta and postdam, the analysis and that they are considered in an unbiased fashion. Avoid preconceived notions as to the “best” option before the analysis is carried out. Take the time to map out the full array of potentially viable options while taking into consideration that each section of an IAR must be able to stand alone without reference to a recommended solution. Ensure that there are no gaps in the analysis and that all key elements get appropriate attention. For example, risk and sensitivity analyses sometimes require special attention to ensure that they are adequately handled. Exercise quality control in Death of a Salesman, the analytical process.

Be sure that there is agreement by all key parties on and postdam the IAR . Essay. Keep people informed at conference, the early stages of the project to avoid last minute surprises. In particular, alert RPIB early if there are any special issues or problems pertaining to the project. Allow for realistic timing in preparation of the IAR . The Nullification. Get started early, an IAR cannot be pulled together at the last minute. For instance, a complex project could take several months of effort. 3.4 IAR Quality Assessment Criteria. Is the project scope completely and clearly identified, and consistent with the NPMS Project Plan and Project Charter? Are the needs of the client fully and fairly reflected in and postdam, the statement of the Essay Analysis: Death of a project scope? For space-based projects, is the amount and type of space identified and consistent with the Office Accommodation Framework?

Does the IAR relate the project and/or the project scope to the broader RPB strategic context? Is the relevant history of the project clearly presented? Are NPMS control points referred to? For projects involving existing assets, has all pertinent information been given concerning the yalta conference asset's condition and performance, including identifying other project requirements related to the asset? For projects involving existing assets, does the IAR address the future utilization of the Iran-Contra assets? For space-based projects, has the IAR considered the ability of existing inventory to meet the requirement? For space-based projects, does the yalta conference IAR include relevant information on the local real estate market? For space-based projects, does the IAR present meaningful conclusions regarding the analysis of demand and supply?

Does the IAR identify a full range of options for meeting the Essay identified project scope, including the and postdam status quo option? Are all of the chat rooms adults options adequately developed with appropriately detailed cost estimates? Is the financial analysis of options clear and and postdam complete and does it conform to RPB conventions? Does the Cyber bullying Should be Criminal Essay financial analysis include consideration of all of the life-cycle costs of the project? Has a sensitivity analysis been included in conference, the analysis? Has a risk assessment been carried out and does it adequately evaluate all relevant areas of risk? Does the mental health analysis consider all non-financial factors that have a bearing on yalta the investment decision? Have meaningful conclusions been drawn which consider all aspects of the analysis? Does the recommended solution address the bullying problem statement in the Statement of Requirements? Does the IAR clearly state the approvals that are being sought? Does the IAR present the yalta and postdam correct class of aids effects, cost estimate for yalta conference the type of approval being sought?

Has the client's point of view been adequately reflected in the submission? Does the IAR address potential environmental impacts and mental has a statement on yalta conference environmental impact been included? Does the Iran-Contra Scandal Essay IAR identify funding requirements, the source of funds, the yalta Vote that the costs will be charged to as well as the expected project cash flow by year? Have all implications and Cyber bullying Should issues related to the approval been identified and discussed? Does the IAR contain a well thought out implementation plan that will minimize client disruption? Is the implementation plan consistent with the yalta conference NPMS ? Does the IAR conform to all policy requirements, strategies and RPB practices? Is the information, data and analysis relevant, reliable, unbiased and complete (no gaps)? Is the document well written and concise and does it contain a good flow of chat, logic? Has the conference IAR been submitted in a timely fashion with adequate time for RIMB and, if applicable, RPIB to consider all options? Does the IAR include a well-written and concise Executive Summary that summarizes all key issues? Problem/Opportunity Definition Background 2.1 Project History 2.2 Building Condition 2.3 Tenant Considerations 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis Project Scope Identification Analysis of marilyn health, Options 4.1 Options Considered 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis 4.3 Analysis of yalta and postdam conference, Non-Financial Factors 4.4 Risk Assessment 4.5 Conclusions Strategic Impact Recommendation Approval Authorities and Funding Implementation Plan Project Team Signatures Appendices.

The purpose of the Executive Summary is to provide a brief overview of the most essential and decision-relevant information concerning the aids effects project. While the contents of this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear statement of the proposal that is being recommended for approval. This includes a brief project description with a definition of the project scope, costs and timing. For space-based projects, identify the usable and rentable square meters. Identify the following: estimated project cost, including any risk allowance, the type of approvals that are being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval, and the appropriate delegated authority required for project approval. Conference. The estimated total project cost should include only items funded or controlled by PSPC . Marilyn Mental. GST should be included and then shown separately. IAR s requesting PPA should also identify the amount of spending authority (based on substantive cost estimates) requested to and postdam conference fund activities until EPA . Identify the source of funding for PSPC costs related to this project. Is funding available at the regional level or will funds be requested through banking day? What vote will the costs be charged to? Is the funding considered to fall under Capital or Operating?

Identify the client costs related to the project, indicating that the client agrees with these costs and Essay The Nullification has the required funding to yalta and postdam pay for them. Essay The Nullification. These client costs should not be included as part of the yalta and postdam project costs for which approval is being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. Essay On Literary Analysis: Salesman. For capital projects, state whether or not the yalta conference project has been included in the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. GST should be shown separately. State the class of cost estimate.

For IAR s seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided. Identify and provide details of any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements of relevance to this project. This would include previous RPIB , RIMB or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and interdepartmental agreements, such as Memorandums of Agreement or Memorandums of Understanding. Iran-Contra Scandal Essay. Identify any related recent or ongoing projects, especially those in conference, the same building. Include a summary of the marilyn mental rationale for undertaking this project. This should clearly define what factors or issues are driving the initiation of the project and how the yalta conference project addresses these issues. Marilyn Monroe Mental Health. A statement may be included regarding the impact of not proceeding with this project. Identify the options that were analyzed.

Illustrate the results of the financial analysis in the form of yalta conference, a table showing the PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA (if calculated) for each option. Clearly state and summarize the rationale for selecting the recommended option, identifying the financial, non-financial and risk factors that contribute to making this the best value approach. For space-based projects, identify the projected utilization rate for Essay the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. State whether or not the project will generate savings. Summarize client liaison activities throughout the development of the project while demonstrating some alignment with the recommended option. Identify any client concerns related to the project. Identify any special issues that need to be brought to the attention of RIMB /RPIB . These issues may pertain to and postdam risk management, potential political considerations, timing, legal issues, client issues, issues regarding the department's sustainable development targets, heritage conservation considerations or areas of public sensitivity with respect to the project. Write in a simple, direct style, avoiding long passages. Try to limit the Iran-Contra Scandal section to a maximum of two pages, using a point form approach wherever possible. The Executive Summary should summarize the most decision-relevant information found in the IAR , avoiding background information or details. Only state in the Executive Summary what is fully supported in the body of the Investment Analysis Report.

On no account should the Executive Summary contain new information. Write the Executive Summary after the rest of the document is complete. The purpose of this section of the yalta conference IAR is to briefly identify the problems or issues driving the IAR . Describe the key issues that the proposed project is addressing. Projects may be launched for a number of reasons, such as: to meet a client requirement; to maintain or improve an asset; or to take advantage of an opportunity. Make reference to any portfolio planning considerations that may be driving the requirement for bullying Should be Criminal the project. This section should clearly define what factors or issues drove the initiation of the yalta project. The content of this section should closely resemble the Problem/Opportunity Definition section of the NPMS Statement of Requirements. If applicable, describe any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements that drove the initiation of the project.

This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and interdepartmental agreements. Identify and describe any special involvement of Essay The Nullification, another department, for example, the IAR is on behalf of yalta, another department; the IAR deals with a joint undertaking; the initiative will be funded in part by the client department. This section should give the reader a clear understanding of why the project is being proposed and should include a short description of Essay Analysis: Salesman, why the project exists. However, care should be taken not to burden the reader with details. This section should be kept very short. It identifies the key problems or issues that are driving the project and provides an introduction to the rest of the document. Information included in the NPMS Statement of Requirements can be used to write this section of the IAR . The problem/opportunity definition included in Section I of the SoR may be sufficient for yalta and postdam the content of this section. The purpose of this section is to provide the reader with the necessary background to fully understand the investment situation. This section generally consists of the following: a project history, building condition, tenant considerations, inventory supply and real estate market analysis.

The contents of this section may vary depending on about The Nullification Crisis the actual situation. Yalta Conference. Not all of the sub-section topics suggested below will apply to every project and the writer should feel free to omit any sub-section that is not relevant. Iran-Contra. The writer may also wish to change the order of the yalta and postdam topics if this provides an improved flow of logic and greater clarity for the situation that is being described. Provide a short description of the relevant history of the Essay project. Describe any relationship to other projects or larger programs. Yalta Conference. If applicable, describe any previous approvals or decisions, that are related to the project. Aids Effects. This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, and Cabinet or Ministerial decisions. It is a requirement that IAR s demonstrate that the development and implementation of the project are compliant with the NPMS . Yalta Conference. Include a statement indicating and describing this compliance. Describe the progress in completing other NPMS deliverables. Identify NPMS control points and deliverables that have been completed and provide the names and dates of persons signing off on these documents. A NPMS compliance checklist, available on the NPMS Web site, may be used to demonstrate compliance.

This sub-section will generally be most relevant for asset-based projects. Space-based projects that make use of an Scandal Essay, existing leased or owned asset should also include information on building condition for that asset. Provide a brief description of the yalta and postdam building. It is generally appropriate to health provide the yalta and postdam details of the building description in an appendix with only a general overview and the most significant points included in aids effects, the text of the IAR . And Postdam. Elements of the building description may include: the age, area, location and other main characteristics of the Essay about Crisis building; the nature of any recent renovations that have been undertaken; detailed information regarding those features of the building of specific relevance to the project being proposed; building environmental performance assessment; whether this is a heritage building and whether there are any heritage considerations related to this project; description of the strategic value of the building; and whether the building is being managed by an Alternative Forms of Delivery (AFD) contractor and any implications this may have for the project. Identify any future plans pertaining to the use of the yalta building. Monroe. This may include information on the remaining useful life of the and postdam conference building or how long PSPC may be planning to bullying Should be Criminal keep the building. And Postdam Conference. Include a statement as to the overall condition of the building and its main building systems, including any limitations it may have. Cyber Bullying. Identify the building's Facility Condition Index (FCI), if it is yalta available. Identify upcoming requirements for the building, omitting those associated with the current project.

This information can be summarized from the Asset Management Plan or the Building Condition Report. Briefly discuss the operational, financial, environmental and functional performance of the building and Essay about Crisis whether the performance targets for the building are being met. This information can be summarized from the Asset Management Plan. For asset-based projects, discuss any building-related problems or issues that may be driving this project. Identify the impact that these problems or issues are having on yalta the operation of the building. For asset-based projects, this sub-section addresses the impact of the project on PSPC 's tenants.

For space-based projects, this sub-section provides background information on the tenants and the nature of their programs. This section should not include tenant space requirements; this is addressed in detail in Section 3, Project Requirements. Identify the impact that the identified problems or issues are having on PSPC 's tenants. Are tenant operations currently being disrupted because of these issues? Identify the Essay about The Nullification likely impacts of the project on yalta and postdam the tenants such as additional tenant costs, disruption or required relocation. What are the key client concerns related to the project?

Describe the client liaison activities undertaken throughout the development of the project and how client concerns are being dealt with. Mental. In situations involving more than one client, the effective co-ordination of the Client Consultancy group should be demonstrated. 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis. This sub-section provides information on the availability of accommodation space within the existing government inventory, as well as in the local real estate market. This section is not required for asset-based IAR s for which the conference size or scale of the project precludes consideration of replacing the building as an option.

Identify the availability of any under-utilized government facilities and the suitability of these facilities in Iran-Contra Scandal, comparison to client demand. In identifying under-utilized facilities, consider the entire federal inventory, including PSPC custodial facilities, facilities of yalta and postdam conference, other government departments, and leased facilities. Summarize the relevant data that has been collected on the local commercial real estate market. Market information can be obtained from a market survey report (MSR) or from a market analysis report (MAR). A MSR is usually commissioned to collect more general market data for the development of an The Nullification Crisis, IAR , while a MAR is yalta and postdam building specific and is used to determine the appropriateness of proposed rental rates. A MAR is typically required for an IAR seeking LPA in order to determine the applicable market rental rates, if there is no other reliable source for these rates. Although each IAR requires market data, a separately commissioned report may not be necessary if reliable information is available from other sources (e.g., another relevant MSR or MAR). In summarizing the on Literary Analysis: of a results of a market report, the yalta conference analyst should note who carried out the report and when, the classifications of comparable buildings surveyed (A, B, or C class), vacancy rates (emphasizing properties having the required type and size of space), the effective rental rates for suitable accommodation and trends in the local commercial real estate market. It may also be useful to identify the number of properties within the relevant geographical boundaries that could potentially meet the identified requirement.

Describe the conclusions that have been reached based on the analysis of demand and supply as provided in Iran-Contra Essay, the sections above. The conclusions should address the following questions: Is there likely to be suitable accommodation space within the existing government inventory? What is the and postdam conference vacancy rate and availability of suitable space in the local commercial real estate market? Are there any existing or proposed developments that could meet the demand for space? What are the anticipated effective rental rates for suitable accommodation (i.e., rental rates adjusted for inducements)?

Tips on writing the background section: There will likely be a considerable amount of Essay about Crisis, detailed information associated with this section of the IAR . As much as possible, the analyst should present numeric information in the form of tables, charts or appendices. The NPMS Feasibility Report may include background information on the project that can be summarized in this section. Supporting details that are found in the Feasibility Report do not need to be replicated in and postdam, the IAR . Appendices associated with this section may include a Community Profile and a chronology of events. The purpose of this section is to fully describe the key requirements of the project.

For an asset-based project, this will involve the technical requirements related to building repair or modification, or system or component replacement. For a space-based project, this will involve the details of client space requirements. A Project Charter (PC) and Project Plan (PP) will likely have been prepared and approved as deliverables in the NPMS process. Much of the information required to prepare this section of the IAR can come from the PC and aids effects PP. The PC and PP should be referred to in this section of the IAR , and the key content summarized. Supporting details that are found in yalta conference, the PC and chat PP do not need to be replicated in the IAR . For asset-based projects, identify the requirements for the proposed projects. These will generally be technical requirements related to building components and systems that will be replaced, upgraded or added to the building. It may also be useful to discuss the and postdam level of urgency related to the requirements, if this has not already been addressed.

Include a statement concerning whether or not the project requirement was identified in the Building Condition Report, Asset Management Plan, or the about The Nullification Building Management Plan. For space-based projects, identify the client(s) requiring the space and present their requirements in terms of the following: the yalta and postdam conference amount of space required, the marilyn mental health type of space required, the location where the yalta conference space is required, the date by which the marilyn monroe mental health space is required and for how long the and postdam conference space is required. Space-based IAR s must include the PSPC Office Accommodation Allocation Limits form and must show that PSPC fit-up standards are being adhered to. Identify the number of employees and/or full-time equivalent (FTE s) as validated by the client. Based on the number of FTE s, calculate the space entitlement as per the PSPC Office Accommodation Framework (OAF), expressing this in terms of marilyn, usable square metres of space (m 2 u) and then converting this to rentable square metres of space (m 2 r). Conference. Also show the ratio of usable area to employment (m 2 u / FTE ). Marilyn Monroe Mental. A sample of an OAF space entitlement calculation is attached as Appendix B. Attach the conference OAF calculation as an appendix to the IAR . Confirm that the marilyn monroe mental requirement meets the PSPC fit-up standards and identify any fit-up exemptions. Include the Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form and, if necessary, the List of Non-compliant Items and Approvals as an appendix to the IAR . The required forms are available through the The Government of Canada Workplace 2.0 Fit-up Standards.

Identify the and postdam conference geographical boundaries required by the client. Include the rationale for Scandal Essay the geographical boundaries, particularly if they are considered to and postdam conference be restrictive. Also, identify if there is any need to be collocated, either with other groups within the same department or other departments. Identify the clients' parking requirements. Scandal. PSPC will lease and pay for parking spaces that are required by clients for operational purposes. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Additional parking requested by aids effects, the client that is beyond their operational requirements, is paid for by the yalta client department. Identify any special considerations that relate to either the client's requirements or the nature of the assets. Examples of this may include a client's requirements for a specific location or type of location, the enhanced security requirements of a highly sensitive department or the special requirements posed by a heritage building.

Summary information should be provided as to why these special requirements exist. Develop a forecast of all relevant client demand in Essay, this location. This forecast should be as realistic as possible and should not be based on expected efficiencies or speculative developments, which may not occur. Identify the factors that are likely to influence demand in the future. What is the likelihood of yalta, these factors occurring and what impact would they have on health client requirements? The analyst should be aware of changes to funding levels, program requirements and and postdam activities of Iran-Contra, client departments and be able to describe whether these changes will serve to increase or decrease demand for and postdam conference accommodation in this location. Describe any occupancy commitments that may have been made by the client. The analyst should identify the term of this commitment and discuss what is likely to happen after the commitment expires. Identify any impact on the client's national space envelope such as an adjustment to the space envelope when the space entitlement warrants a reduction.

Identify whether the client is reimbursing PSPC for any of the Cyber Should be Criminal Essay expenditures. Identify and analyze potential future demand from other federal government departments that is yalta and postdam relevant to this project. There may be much detailed information associated with this section of the marilyn monroe mental health IAR . As much as possible, the yalta conference analyst should present numeric information in the form of tables and/or appendices. Appendix A, Step 1, describes the process of defining project requirements. Fit-Up Standards Technical Reference Manual. 4. Identification and Analysis of Options. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to identify and analyze all feasible, practical options available to PSPC for meeting the identified project requirements.

This section generally consists of the following: the identification of options; the Essay on Literary Death Salesman financial analysis; the analysis of non-financial factors; and a risk and sensitivity analysis. While the contents of this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section. A Feasibility Report will likely have been prepared and approved in advance of the IAR as part of the NPMS process. The Feasibility Report is intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and provide indicative costs estimates and schedules for use in and postdam conference, the analysis of aids effects, options. Rather than replicating all of this information in yalta conference, the sections below, the Feasibility Report can be simply referred to and the key content summarized.

Identify and describe all reasonable options for satisfying the project requirements. At this stage, it is adults preferable to identify a greater number of options and then rule them out, rather than focusing too early on and postdam only a very limited number of options. Identify those options, which are to be carried forward for in-depth analysis, and those options which are clearly not practical and which will be eliminated from further consideration. Briefly state why the eliminated options are not being considered for Essay further analysis. It should be noted that the status quo should be considered as an option, if there is a feasible status quo. The status quo should form part of the in-depth analysis, as it is usually the fallback position if the recommended project is not approved. It is important to ensure that the status quo is fully analyzed and the consequences of yalta and postdam conference, maintaining the status quo are clearly identified. In preparing this section, the analyst should ensure that all reasonable options for Should providing accommodation have been explored. For larger projects, it is generally appropriate to include the evaluation of a public-private partnership (P3) option as part of the analysis. The inclusion of a P3 option as part of the and postdam conference analysis was discussed previously in Section 2.4 of this Guide. The main options that will be analyzed need to be fully developed and Essay The Nullification includes the preparation of cost estimates for yalta conference construction, leasing, fit up or refit and aids effects operating and life cycle costs.

The main features of each option should be summarized in text or tabular form with supporting details in an appendix. It is important to identify the key assumptions made and the level of risk associated with the estimates provided. Ensure that the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act are addressed and that the results of the Environmental Assessment, including any required remediation and monitoring measures, are included in the analysis. Ensure that the options reflect the and postdam requirements of PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy. More detailed information on aids effects the identification of options can be found in Appendix A on the Investment Analysis Process, including Step 2, Generate Options, and Step 3, Narrow the Options. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Much of the content of Essay on Literary Analysis: Death Salesman, this section was likely included in the Feasibility Report, in which case it can simply be referenced and briefly summarized.

However, the analyst should be alert to the fact that the situation can change between the time the Feasibility Report is written and when the IAR is prepared and new information and options may have emerged. 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis. The financial analysis should consider the full costs to the federal government for each option. Yalta. The quality of the Essay Analysis: of a financial analysis is only as good as the assumptions and input values on which it is based. And Postdam. It is the analyst's responsibility to ensure that all relevant costs are included in the analysis and that all assumptions and input values are realistic and reflect the best available information.

Special attention should be paid to those costs, which differ from one option to another. The financial analysis should include client-funded items, whether capital or operating. The cost of internal PSPC fees should also be included and chat adults are based on 1.8 times the hourly billable rate. A space/time diagram is useful to illustrate space use over yalta and postdam conference time for the various options being considered. The use of a space/time diagram helps avoid logic errors in the analysis by ensuring that the analysis includes provision for accommodating all tenants over the entire investment horizon. If this diagram is used, it can be attached to the IAR as an appendix and referred to in the text. The results of the Essay about The Nullification Crisis financial analysis should be presented, typically in table form showing the PVCOA , NPV IRR for each option. Major assumptions should be mentioned in the text of the IAR , while a full description of all assumptions and results should be included in conference, an appendix. RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach, as described in Crisis, Section 2.4 of this Guide.

The general approach is to calculate the risk-neutral PVCOA (no provision for risk) as has traditionally been done using PSPC 's REFIT program and then adding a risk adjustment for each option in order to produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA . The financial results should present both the yalta conference risk-neutral PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA . This section should address the key financial risks using a sensitivity analysis to address the uncertainty of Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, various assumptions. The sensitivity analysis should focus on key areas of and postdam, uncertainty such as the level of demand, residual values and major cost areas (capital outlay risks, inflation / escalator risks, project timing risks including the possible increase in rent of aids effects, a short term lease extension, rental market risks, and cyclical recapitalization risks). Risks associated with key economic factors should be referred to where applicable, for instance: inflation, interest rates and real estate market conditions. It should be noted that the use of the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the requirement to undertake a sensitivity analysis. Present and discuss the results of the financial analysis and sensitivity analysis. Which is the conference most financially viable (least cost) option under base-case assumptions? Do variations to key assumptions cause a different option to become the most financially viable? How do the results using the Essay on Literary of a risk-adjusted PVCOA compare with the results using the yalta and postdam conference risk-neutral PVCOA ? What conclusions can be reached based on the financial analysis? Additional information on carrying out the financial analysis is available in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 4, Undertake Financial Analysis. As well, the financial analysis process and the use of chat adults, REFIT are fully described in a separate guide.

4.3 Analysis of yalta, Non-Financial Factors. The analysis of non-financial factors is Cyber be Criminal Essay intended to ensure that all qualitative factors that contribute to providing value to the federal government are taken into account in the investment analysis. Identify all non-financial factors, which may have a bearing on the selection of the and postdam preferred option. While the relevant factors to aids effects consider will be different for each investment situation, some of the yalta and postdam factors that may be considered include: How well each option satisfies the identified project requirements. If there are any locational or utilization advantages for the client associated with certain options.

How well each option satisfies strategic objectives, as identified in the Way Forward Initiative, National Investment Strategy, National Portfolio Plan, Community-Based Investment Strategy or Strategic Action Plan (SAP). Iran-Contra. The NIS requires consideration of the following: any major impact on local economic and market conditions which might influence future investment decisions impact on the diversity or balance of the inventory, either in terms of tenure mix or date of lease expiry marketability to other clients The extent to which each option is responsive to identified timing requirements Differences between the options with respect to health, safety, accessibility, environmental or heritage consideration, contribution to the community and federal presence The degree to which the option supports heritage preservation and the Good Neighbour Policy The extent to and postdam conference which each option supports the goals and objectives of the PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. Chat Rooms Adults. Identify any major differences between the options in terms of their ability to meet SDS objectives. Focus on decisions that are implicit in the approval of the yalta IAR . For example, for PPA the IAR could distinguish between options that have brown-field vs. Essay. green-field development, urban vs. And Postdam. suburban locations. Refer to PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy 2003, Annex 3, Targets 1.1.1 to 1.1.5 and Sustainable Development Strategy 2007 - 2009, Section 3, Sustainable Development Targets. In addition, NPMS has developed a Sustainable Project Delivery and Environmental Management Procedure, which include an appendix listing all the SDS commitments relevant to project delivery.

Appendix C of this IAR guide provides additional material on how sustainable development should be addressed in a project. The use of an evaluation matrix can help to ensure that all feasible options are considered in an organized, consistent and The Nullification Crisis methodical manner, and are evaluated against all relevant non-financial factors. This will help the analyst in formulating a justifiable recommendation that reflects all important criteria. A complete description of a qualitative analysis using an evaluation matrix can be found in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 5 - Undertake Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. This table measures the feasibility of options by assigning a score to each option with regards to non-financial factors. A total score is calculated for each option, using the sum of its scores relating to each non financial factor given. In RPB 's Risk Management Manual, risk is defined as the uncertainty that surrounds future events and outcomes. It is the expression of the likelihood and impact of an event with the conference potential to influence the achievement of the Essay Analysis: of a organization's objectives. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to yalta conference identify and chat rooms adults analyze the key risk factors associated with each of the options being considered in conference, order that the bullying Should relative riskiness of yalta, each option can be determined. The first step is to identify the risk factors that could be relevant for Iran-Contra Scandal each of the options being analyzed.

In this regard, the Risk Management Plan should already have been developed as part of the NPMS Project Plan. As well, a Risk Profile should be developed as part of the Analysis Phase of the NPMS . A Risk Profile is defined in the RPB Risk Management Manual as an outline of the yalta and postdam conference risks to which a project is exposed. It assists staff in identifying problems before they occur and determining how they might affect the success of a project. While the relevant risk factors will be different for Essay each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include: Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem Risk of user needs not being met Risk of changing requirements Risk that forecast demand fails to develop Risk of not meeting timing requirements Risk of cost overruns Risk of future performance being impaired Risk of environmental degradation Once the risk factors have been identified, it is necessary to evaluate the yalta and postdam conference relative level of risk associated with each of the options. While various evaluation methods may be used for this, a suggested approach is provided in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. This approach uses an evaluation matrix to determine the relative levels of risk (e.g., low, medium, high) for Essay each of the yalta options being evaluated. The evaluation should help the analyst determine the answers to the following questions: What types and what level of Cyber Essay, risk are associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of risk? Which option has the conference highest risk factor? How controllable are the key risks for aids effects each option? Generally, an option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated.

Describe the results of the risk assessment and the conclusions that were reached. Which option carries the lowest level of risk? Do any of the options carry an unacceptably high level of yalta and postdam, risk? The risk assessment carried out in this section of the IAR may be reduced in scope if the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach was used. If so, the financial analysis may have quantified the risk assessment for each option as part of calculating the on Literary of a risk-adjusted PVCOA . Yalta And Postdam Conference. However, the analyst should be aware that not all areas of risk may be captured in Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay, the risk-adjusted PVCOA . Thus, a qualitative statement on the relative risk factor associated with the option(s) should still be included in this section. Particular attention should be given to risks that may not have been captured as part of the risk-adjusted PVCOA . The risk assessment process is described in more detail in and postdam conference, Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. A more detailed description of the treatment of risk is provided in the RPB Risk Management Manual. The intent of this sub-section is to Essay about Crisis combine the results of all of the analyses that were undertaken in order to determine which option provides the overall best value to the federal government.

Consider the results of the financial analysis, the yalta and postdam conference assessment of non-financial factors and risk assessment together. What overall conclusions can be reached concerning the investment decision? Identify the preferred option in consideration of all relevant factors. There should be a clear rationale in chat rooms adults, support of the preferred option. The analyst should include a concise statement as to why the preferred option is better than the other options that are available. The analyst should also identify any option that is a close second choice. Tips on writing sections 4.1 to 4.5. The results of the financial, non-financial and yalta and postdam conference sensitivity analyses should be presented in tables, rather than in text, with observations and conclusions discussed in the text. Details of the input assumptions used and marilyn the calculations carried out are placed in appendices. Conference. It may be desirable to obtain guidance on marilyn monroe health this section from your COE . Due to the detailed nature of yalta, much of the information in this section, extensive use should be made of appendices.

Appendices connected with this section may include a description of options, the time/space diagram, the assumptions and printouts from the Scandal financial analysis and details of the yalta and postdam conference analysis of about Crisis, non-financial factors. More detailed information on the processes included in this section can be found in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process. Investment Analysis Policy PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy RPB Risk Management Manual. The primary purpose of this section is to identify the strategic value of proceeding with the project. This section also is intended to conference illustrate that the development of the project has been carried out in a manner that is consistent with departmental policies and strategies. As noted above, one of the about Crisis purposes of this section is to illustrate that the development of the project has been carried out in a manner that is and postdam conference consistent with departmental policies and strategies. An effective way in which to do this is to begin the section with a checklist of strategic and policy compliance. This should not be a standard checklist that is applied to all projects. Rather, the checklist should only aids effects, include those strategies and policies that are directly relevant to the project and those which the project team have given specific consideration to as a part of planning the project. While the contents of the checklist may vary, the following is an example of the type of conference, checklist that may be used: This checklist may be used to about check which policies and strategies a given project complies or does not comply with.

A list of policies and strategies appears on the left, and there are columns to yalta conference check yes or no, whether or not the project in question complies with a given policy or strategy. Strategic considerations are critical factors in the investment decision. This section defines the interrelationship between the relevant departmental strategies and the preferred option that is Should Essay being put forward. It is not necessary to and postdam conference describe details of Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, departmental strategies. Yalta And Postdam. Rather, focus on the impact that the strategy will have on the project being considered. Care should be taken not to burden the reader with details. National Investment Strategy, Community Based Investment Strategy and Strategic Action Plan.

National Portfolio Management Plan and National Portfolio Plan Good Neighbour Policy Sustainable Development Strategy NPMS Web Site. This section summarizes the investment proposal that is being recommended and the implications of this recommendation. While the contents of this section will vary depending on what is being proposed, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear and Cyber bullying Should Essay detailed statement of the proposal that is yalta conference being recommended for approval. Identify the total estimated project cost (or LPA amount), both with and without GST and the type of approval that is being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval and lastly, the appropriate delegated authority required for Iran-Contra project approval.

IAR s requesting PPA should identify the amount of spending authority (based on substantive cost estimates) requested to fund activities until EPA . And Postdam Conference. The project cost may include a risk allowance, where this has been calculated. The risk allowance provides for unforeseen events for which other mitigation measures are not available. It should be noted that the risk allowance is not necessarily the same as the risk adjustment calculated as part of the risk-adjusted investment analysis methodology. The calculation of the risk allowance is dealt with in the RPB Risk Management Manual. The estimated total project cost should include only those items funded or controlled by PSPC . Note that direct PSPC costs (fees billable to projects) should be listed at 1.8 x hourly billable rate in chat rooms adults, both the options analysis and for the approval amount. Yalta And Postdam. For submissions seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided.

For IAR s seeking lease project approval (LPA), the expected lease contract authority (LCA) amount should be identified. The LCA amount is the total amount that will be paid to the landlord over the term of the lease (not discounted to their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the landlord, expressed in chat rooms, budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. And Postdam Conference. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars (GST shown separately). Identify the client costs related to the project, indicating that the aids effects client agrees with these costs and has the required funding to pay for them. These client costs should not be included as part of the project costs for which approval is yalta being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. Clearly define the scope and timing objectives of the project. For space-based projects, include usable and rentable square metres of space.

For space-based projects, identify the monroe projected utilization rate for yalta and postdam the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the Analysis: of a implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. State whether or not the project will generate savings. Comment on the urgency of the project, and yalta provide the results of any priority ranking of the project. This could include a statement regarding the impact of not proceeding with the project. Indicate whether or not the client agrees with the proposed approach, and the implications if the client does not agree. Describe any special provisions that will be required during any period of renovation. This may include temporary accommodation for clients, moves or shuffling of space or other client inconveniences.

Describe how any inconveniences will be minimized. Aids Effects. If the project involves leased accommodation, the and postdam conference method of acquiring the space should be identified (either tender call or direct negotiation). In the case of the direct renegotiation of an existing lease, it is necessary that the final recommendation address the six requirements contained in the RPB Policy on Iran-Contra Scandal Essay Sole Source Renegotiation of yalta and postdam conference, Existing Leases. A statement to Essay on Literary Analysis: this effect should be made in and postdam conference, this section of the marilyn monroe mental IAR . It is recommended that a schedule for negotiations be prepared to demonstrate the time required to yalta implement alternative solutions if negotiations are unsuccessful. Any long-term accommodation strategy related to the investment should be identified. For example, leasing space may be recommended until the planned construction of a new federal building at some point in the future. Identify any linkage with other related projects, especially those in marilyn mental health, the same building. Ensure that any related projects are, in fact, separate projects, and do not constitute project splitting.

Identify all issues that should be brought to yalta and postdam conference the attention of RPIB or RIMB . This should include any issue affecting the aids effects investment decision or the implementation of the project. These issues may pertain to areas of risk that must be managed, potential political considerations, timing considerations, legal issues or areas of public sensitivity with respect to yalta and postdam conference the project. Include a statement on the environmental impact of the Essay Crisis project. State the level of LEED standard that the project is required to meet as per the SDS. State whether the project is expected to meet this required target and, if not, explain why. The IAR should identify any other specific SDS targets addressed by the project. For projects seeking EPA , outline how the construction process will conform to SDS requirements. Ensure that the project budget and life cycle financial analysis reflects the SDS aspects of the yalta project (i.e., any increases in capital costs and decreases in chat adults, operating costs). (See Appendix C - Sustainable Project Delivery for more information). If required, include a project specific sustainable development strategy and/or material addressing the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) as an appendix. This material could include a CEAA checklist and/or identification of significant impacts and conference how these impacts are to be mitigated and monitored.

If required, include a Strategic Environmental Assessment in on Literary Death of a, the appendix. Identify any communication requirements associated with this project. And Postdam Conference. If this is expected to draw public interest, or require public consultation under provisions of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, briefly describe an appropriate communication strategy, and if available, include the Communication Strategy in an appendix. Be focused in your observations. The details have already been provided in chat, previous sections, and do not need to be restated. This section deals with the recommendations that flow from your analysis. Ensure that there has been adequate input and agreement from conference all parties. In particular, cost estimates and schedules may require Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) approval or similar technical peer review done through Project Management. Rental rates/market values should be approved by the leasing agent or Chief Appraiser. Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation of Existing Leases Lease Project Approval Policy. To identify the Essay on Literary Death funding requirement, source of yalta and postdam, funding and marilyn mental the type and level of approval authority required.

Identify the Delegated Approval Authority (e.g. RDG , ADM , Minister, TB ). Yalta And Postdam Conference. Identify the source of Should, funding. State whether funding is available at yalta and postdam, the regional level or will be requested through Banking Day. Identify what vote(s) the costs will be charged to aids effects and whether Capital and/or Operating funds are involved. For capital projects, state whether or not the yalta and postdam project has been included in the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. For PPA , indicate the amount of spending authority (substantive estimate) that is being sought for project definition to reach EPA . This section contains an implementation plan that describes all major steps that must be taken to successfully implement the project once approvals have been granted.

The implementation plan includes a project schedule and a risk management plan. An effective implementation strategy reinforces accountability, identifies benchmarks of performance, and helps reduce the risk of the project not performing to expectations. Describe the project implementation tasks and activities, including engineering surveys, planning studies and other documentation that are required to move a project forward. If this is a request for preliminary project approval, include a description of the tasks and schedule to bring the project to EPA . Cyber Be Criminal. Ensure that the implementation tasks are consistent with NPMS control points and deliverables. Yalta And Postdam. Provide a table showing key dates and performance benchmarks for the project, including the anticipated completion date and occupancy date. Ensure that the schedule is realistic and allows sufficient time for required project approvals. A detailed project schedule should be included or attached as an appendix. In addition, the aids effects analyst should ensure that the schedule has been approved by Professional and yalta conference Technical Services and, in the NCA , by the Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) for asset-based projects or by the Leasing Officer for space-based projects. The IAR must summarize the Risk Management Plan being developed for the project as per The Nullification Crisis, the Project Plan. Yalta. The Risk Management Plan describes how project risk management will be structured and performed on the project. Cyber Bullying Should Be Criminal. It structures the overall risk management activities for the project and covers who will be accountable for the process and yalta and postdam how mitigation results will be tracked.

The Risk Management Plan should be developed in aids effects, accordance with the RPB Risk Management Manual, and more specifically, the Risk Management Plan Template found in the NPMS Risk Management Procedure. The Risk Management Plan should be integrated in yalta conference, the NPMS deliverables, including a plan for risk mitigation that is part of the Revised Project Plan. The IAR should identify the key risks associated with the aids effects project and yalta summarize the mitigation measures to Cyber bullying Should be Criminal Essay effectively manage those risks. IAR s seeking PPA should specifically address risks associated with the project identification phase, the approval process, the timing required to take the project to EPA , as well as the risk mitigation measures that will be required to manage the risks that have been identified for yalta and postdam conference the recommended option. IAR s seeking EPA should identify risks associated with the implementation of the project and Should be Criminal summarize how these risks will be managed. This should include the identification of the ongoing process that will be used to monitor and report on risk factors during the implementation of the project. The Project Leader is responsible for ensuring that risk mitigation measures are acted upon during the implementation of the project and reporting on the outcome of unresolved risk issues. Identify contingency plans for meeting critical milestones in the delivery of the project. Real Property Branch Risk Management Policy Treasury Board Secretariat ARCHIVED - Integrated Risk Management Framework PSPC Integrated Risk Management (IRM) Policy, Nov.

2004 PSPC National Project Management System /Knowledge Area/ Risk RPB Risk Management Manual. Identify the Project Leader and the members of the conference Project Team. List the person who prepared the IAR , the person who supports the IAR (Project Mgr., Asset Mgr., Facility Mgr., etc.) and the person who recommends the IAR . Scandal Essay. The Project Leader and key members of the Project Team should sign the IAR to yalta and postdam conference indicate their concurrence. In some instances, sign-off by the client(s) might be appropriate as a benchmark for Essay of a agreement. The appendices serve the purpose of providing detailed information of relevance to the project.

The use of appendices for yalta and postdam detailed information allows the main document to be shorter and aids effects more readable. All appendices should contain decision-relevant information. Unnecessary appendices should not be included just because the information is yalta and postdam available. The Nullification Crisis. All appendices should be referred to in the text. The contents of the appendices will vary depending on the situation. The following are some of the appendices that may be included with an IAR : “Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form” and the “List of Non-Compliant Items Approvals,” these forms are available on the intranet “Office Accommodation Allocation Limits” form Chronology of events (history of the conference project) NPMS Project Charter NPMS Feasibility Report NPMS Project Plan NPMS Compliance Checklist Risk Management Plan Community profile Market survey or summary of the Cyber bullying Essay market survey Summaries of and postdam conference, building condition and building performance Description of options and relevant costs Time/space diagram List of rooms adults, assumptions from the yalta conference financial analysis Analysis of non-financial factors Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, Environmental Assessment Report Project Sustainable Development Strategy with targets (LEED , energy efficiency, GhG emissions reduction, water conservation, etc.) Project implementation schedule Detailed cost estimates for Essay Crisis the proposed project Communications Strategy. Appendix A: The Investment Analysis Process. Investment analysis is a generic approach to decision making, embracing a range of evaluative techniques that challenge the judgement and analytical skills of the analyst. Investment analysis involves a series of logical, sequential steps that are closely linked.

The eight-step process, identified below, offers a simple framework within which an investment analysis can be organized. It is recommended that the analyst document the findings and and postdam conference conclusions that he or she has reached at the conclusion of chat rooms adults, each of the eight steps. This creates a file of material on yalta and postdam the proposed project, and facilitates the writing of the Investment Analysis Report. The Eight Steps of Investment Analysis. Define requirements Generate options Narrow the options Undertake financial analysis Undertake analysis of non-financial factors Undertake risk assessment Evaluate options Formulate recommendations. All projects start out bullying Should Essay, with a need that must be met or a requirement that must be fulfilled. It is the duty of the conference analyst to determine, in appropriate detail, what this project is The Nullification Crisis calling for.

Therefore, the chief purpose of this step is to determine and assess the scope and performance specifications of the project requirement. At this stage, it is imperative for the analyst to conference determine essential and basic facts that will have to be considered throughout the life of the project (project determinants) this will form the basis for marilyn mental a judgement about project success. Defining the project scope takes place at the Project Identification Stage of the and postdam conference NPMS as part of preparing the Project Charter and chat rooms Preliminary Project Plan. The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Visit the relevant sites, whether they be existing premises, or proposed sites (if already identified) Hold discussions with the client or user groups Gauge the role, influence and expectations of conference, stakeholders and hold preliminary discussions as required Develop the PSPC team that will review and assess objectives and requirements of the proposed project.

Consult relevant PSPC policies and documents, such as the CBIS , AMP , BCR , etc. Review all the relevant short, medium and long-term factors that may impinge on project success Document objectives and scope fully in the NPMS Statement of Cyber Essay, Requirements and Project Charter/Project Plan respectively. For example, a space-based project may include the amount of space required by the client, the type of space required and when and where it is and postdam conference required To the extent feasible, obtain client concurrence with objectives and scope. What are the relevant context and surrounding conditions (opportunities and constraints) in which this project is being undertaken? What are the objectives of this project or undertaking? How urgent is the requirement? What are the timing constraints? Have all codes, standards, and policies, which may be applicable, been determined? Who are the stakeholders and what is their role and interest? Do they concur with the objectives and scope as defined?

Why or why not? What is the Essay likely role of other departments or other levels of government in this project? Are there any longer term trends that will impact (positively or negatively) on the requirement for the facility under consideration? Now that the objectives and operational requirements of the project have been firmly defined (in Step 1), the analyst is called upon to develop the full range of options that might plausibly meet the project requirements. Conference. During this step, the analyst and the team assigned to Cyber Essay this project explore all possible avenues and methods for and postdam conference meeting the identified objectives and requirements. Bullying Should Be Criminal Essay. The analyst also develops the essential facts about each of these options.

Generating the full list of options is yalta done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Essay on Literary Analysis: Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Hold a brainstorming session with members of the project team to yalta and postdam identify a complete list of options that may be considered For space-based projects, check whether any buildings within the existing Crown inventory are potentially able to meet the Iran-Contra Essay objectives and requirements of the project Survey local real estate markets to determine whether any existing or proposed private sector buildings are able to meet the objectives and requirements of the project Consult with stakeholders about options they might be interested in and concerns that they may have Depending on the nature of the project, it may be necessary to consult with municipal and urban community officials about possible options and any concerns that they might have concerning the and postdam conference project Establish the Essay about Crisis basic facts and implications about each of the identified options without passing judgement. Have all plausible options for meeting the objectives and requirements of yalta conference, this project been identified? For larger space-based projects, consideration should be given to the inclusion of a P3 option. What are the basic facts and determinants about each of these options?

At this point, the marilyn mental analyst has a complete list of all available options for meeting the proposed project objectives and yalta and postdam requirements and has completed an informative description of each option. It is Essay about Crisis not justifiable to give all options an in-depth treatment that PSPC requires in an investment analysis. Therefore, Step 3 involves screening these options to and postdam eliminate those options that clearly would not be a feasible or viable choice for meeting the requirement. This will reduce the number of options for which an in-depth analysis will be undertaken. Essay Analysis: Death. It should be noted that the status quo option is commonly included among the options for in-depth analysis. Narrowing down the list of potentially viable options for in-depth analysis is done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Review the objectives, requirements, context and yalta conference conditions of the Cyber bullying be Criminal proposed project Develop a list of criteria or decision rules to be applied fairly and equally to all options under consideration.

Consistency with portfolio objectives should be one of the criteria for screening the options Apply the criteria to screen out those options that cannot reasonably meet objectives and requirements Document the selection of options meriting in-depth consideration through the preparation of the NPMS Feasibility Report. Were the options that were screened out yalta, clearly unfavourable? Is there any way that the discarded options could be screened in and what is the likelihood of these conditions occurring? (i.e., has an option been disregarded too quickly due to perceived problems that could be overcome?) Has the aids effects rationale for selection of options for in-depth analysis been documented? Step 4: Undertake Financial Analysis. Step 4 involves the and postdam determination of the degree of financial viability of the potentially viable options using discounted cash flow analysis. The measures of financial viability include net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and present value of the cost of accommodation (PVCOA). As well, RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach that accounts for the relative risk of the various options through the calculation of a risk-adjusted PVCOA . The REFIT computer spreadsheet software is used for the financial analysis of accommodation projects. The financial analysis process and Iran-Contra Scandal Essay the use of REFIT are fully described in and postdam, a separate guide. Cyber Should Be Criminal. The following is a summary of the main actions undertaken by the analyst during this step: In consultation with subject matter experts, determine and document all financial assumptions, project costs and the life-cycle costs of long-term asset ownership associated with each option.

Ensure that all recurrent and non-recurrent revenues and costs for the federal government (including client costs) are captured for all years of the investment horizon. Use REFIT to calculate the DCF measures for each of the options: net present value, internal rate of return, and present value cost of accommodation (PVCOA). This first calculation of PVCOA should be risk-neutral (no provision for risk). And Postdam Conference. Identify the chat adults probability and the impact for each of the risk factors that could impact each option. Input this information into the RPB risk model, which will calculate a risk adjustment of each option.

Adding the and postdam risk adjustment to the most likely PVCOA will produce risk-adjusted results. Rooms Adults. The risk adjustment is a dollar amount that is intended to represent the likely costs associated with the and postdam risk characteristics of a particular option. Conduct a quality control check to ensure that there has been the utmost consistency in the treatment of the options and that the results are reliable and credible. Conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine to what extent the financially more attractive option is sensitive to variations in key input variables. It should be noted that the use of the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the requirement to undertake a sensitivity analysis.

Interpret the results of the discounted cash flow analysis. Ensure the assumptions and the results of the financial analysis are fully documented. Have each of the options been treated consistently in terms of assumptions and input variables? How do these options rank in terms of financial viability, both before adjusting for risk and after, using the risk-adjusted PVCOA ? Based on the sensitivity analysis, does a change in Essay The Nullification Crisis, the assumptions result in a different option becoming the preferred option? How is PSPC to interpret the and postdam results from the discounted cash flow analysis? Step 5: Undertake Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. In addition to the financial perspective, the analyst is called upon to address the qualitative non-financial issues relating to each of the options under consideration. Mental Health. Therefore, the yalta purpose of this step is to review and evaluate the qualitative factors surrounding an investment decision. Bullying Essay. Non-financial issues primarily relate to conference strategy, timing, health and on Literary Death of a Salesman safety, environmental impact, tenant/user effects (such as program impacts or locational advantages), and policy considerations (such as heritage or the Good Neighbour Policy).

The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Identify all of the non-financial factors that may have a bearing on the selection of the preferred option. Relevant non-financial factors are those factors that differentiate the options under consideration. Undertake research as necessary to fully understand the implications of each of the identified factors. Conference. Systematically assess how each of the options performs with respect to each of these factors. The use of an evaluation matrix, described below, may be a useful approach in carrying out this assessment.

Document the results and overall conclusions of the aids effects analysis. What regulations, strategies, codes, policies and practices apply to this decision? Which non-financial factors have the greatest impact on the selection of the yalta and postdam preferred option? What overall findings can be drawn from the qualitative analysis with respect to the preferred option or options? A Suggested Approach - Use of an Evaluation Matrix: The suggested approach for evaluating non-financial factors relative to the options under consideration is based on the development of an evaluation matrix, also known as a weighting and Cyber Should be Criminal rating framework. Conference. While this approach is still subjective, a well-constructed evaluation matrix does provide strong assurance that investment options have been considered in a rational and complete manner. The evaluation matrix consists of a list of aids effects, relevant factors, along with weightings that reflect their relative significance. For each factor, a rating is applied that indicates the likely performance of an and postdam, individual option with respect to that one factor. Multiplying the established weight times the score for each factor gives a weighted score. The sum of these weighted scores gives a non-financial evaluation score for in individual option.

The scores of the various options can then be compared with the preferred option (with respect to qualitative factors) being the option with the highest score. Criterion Weights: The criterion weight is a number that reflects the relative importance of a particular criterion. Each criterion is assigned a percentage weight, so that the chat rooms weights add up to 100% for the full set of and postdam conference, criteria. In assigning criterion weights, the monroe analyst considers the identified criteria and yalta determines which are primary criteria for the particular investment situation, and which are secondary criteria. The difference in the weights for the criteria should not be so large as to negate the importance of all but the top weighted criterion. Factor Rating Scales: In order to compare the options, a rating scale is used to transform qualitative observations into a numerical value. In this approach, each criterion has a scale of 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest).

A rating of 5 would indicate that the option is highly responsive with respect to chat rooms the factor, and the option enables objectives associated with the factor to be met. A rating of 0 would indicate that the yalta conference option does not provide any material benefit with respect to the factor. Essay. The analyst uses the and postdam conference highest applicable rating, based on a combination of analysis and professional judgement. Ratings are often substantiated by a statement of supporting evidence. The evaluation framework can assist the analyst in chat adults, making appropriate trade-offs between the benefits provided by conference, different options, and arriving at a recommended approach, which provides the greatest overall utility. The following example illustrates the layout of an evaluation matrix. This table defines numerical levels of risk, and explains what a given level of risk represents in terms of severity of adults, impact and likelihood of negative outcomes. The purpose of the risk assessment is to analyse the key risk factors associated with each of the and postdam conference options being considered in order that the relative riskiness of each option can be determined. A suggested approach for rooms adults undertaking this assessment is provided below. However, other methodologies may be employed. While the relevant risk factors will be different for each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include:

Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem; Risk of user needs not being met; Risk of changing requirements; Risk that forecast demand fails to yalta and postdam develop; Risk of not meeting timing requirements; Risk of Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, cost overruns; Risk of conference, future performance being impaired; Risk of environmental degradation. The analyst may take the following actions during this step: Identify all sources of bullying Should, risk associated with each option under consideration. Undertake a risk assessment for each element of risk for each option. The risk assessment is a product of the likelihood times the severity of the impact, as indicated below. High impact and high likelihood. High impact and medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and high likelihood.

Medium impact and medium likelihood. Low impact and high likelihood, or. High impact and low likelihood. Low impact and yalta conference medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and aids effects low likelihood. Low impact and low likelihood. Evaluate the overall level of risk associated with each option.

This can be done using an evaluation matrix. The matrix identifies each risk element as a row in the matrix, and each option as a column. Each cell in the matrix can then be used to identify the likelihood and impact of the individual risk element impacting a particular option, and assigning a score to yalta and postdam this risk. The intent is to determine the relative levels of risk among the options being evaluated. This table measures the feasibility of options by assigning a score to each option with regards to non-financial factors. A total score is calculated for each option, using the sum of its scores relating to each non financial factor given. Determine an appropriate risk response. What actions are necessary to health avoid, reduce, transfer, shore or accept the risk associated with the project? For example, one risk response may be to choose an option with a lower level of risk, or an conference, option that allows risk to be transferred to a private sector partner. A risk response also includes the development of mitigation measures and contingency plans. Risk response strategies can be developed using scenario analysis, which involves developing an appropriate course of action to be taken in the event of a particular unfavourable event or outcome occurring.

In many cases, the department must be prepared to accept a certain level of inherent risk that goes with any project, and bullying Essay that cannot be mitigated. For this, it may be appropriate to yalta and postdam budget a risk allowance for chat adults the project to reflect this residual risk. Prepare a risk management plan for the preferred option. And Postdam Conference. This is usually prepared as part of the overall project implementation plan. The risk management plan should identify all actions to be taken during the project implementation phase to monroe mental monitor and control risk.

Effective risk management also includes risk reporting to ensure that risk information is communicated to senior managers in conference, the department, that corrective action is on Literary of a Salesman taken if required, and that the organizational learning occurs on the better management of risk. What types and what level of risk is associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of risk? Which option is the most risky and which is the least risky? How controllable are the key risks for each option? Generally, an option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated. What mitigation measures could be employed to minimize the level of risk for the preferred option? In this step, the yalta and postdam conference analyst takes the findings of Steps 4, 5 and 6 and aids effects draws conclusions concerning which is the preferred option for this investment decision. In selecting a preferred option among the options under consideration, the yalta analyst is chat challenged to demonstrate that financial, non-financial and risk considerations have been weighted appropriately, that all the options have received due and careful consideration, and that reasons for selecting one option over the others are clearly articulated. The analyst may take the following actions during this step: Addresses the financial, non-financial and and postdam conference risk considerations systematically in summary fashion.

Selects the preferred option. This is the option that provides the mental health greatest overall value to the federal government once all relevant factors are considered. Provides the full rationale supporting the yalta selection of the Essay preferred option. In cases where there is a close second option, document the and postdam rationale supporting this option and indicate under what conditions this option might be considered. Does the preferred option provide good value for money.

Do the benefits outweigh the costs? Does the preferred option excel by a clear margin? Is there a close second option? Once the preferred option has been identified, the aids effects analyst puts forward the recommendations associated with supporting this option. And Postdam. With this step, the preferred option becomes the selected option (by the analyst). The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Prepares the marilyn monroe recommendations that represent the investment decision, including the appropriate approval authority to be sought. Prepares an Implementation Plan for the project. Proposes a project schedule, including the optimal date for project initiation and the completion date.

Identifies the source and availability of funding. Reviews briefly the involvement of the client and other parties and recommends the steps to be taken to secure their role in the project. Indicates any urgencies with respect to project approval and initiation. Initiates the preparation of a Communications Plan, if required. Appendix B: Space Entitlement Based on the Office Accommodation Framework. This table gives an example of an Office Accommodation Framework space entitlement calculation. It lists various items that require an and postdam conference, allocation of space, then for Essay on Literary Death of a each item lists the number of full time employees, space required per employee, and yalta conference total space required, relative to the item. The total space requirement is calculated at the bottom of the table. Appendix C: Sustainable Project Delivery. Sustainable development as an element of project delivery is mandated principally under four Federal Government initiatives, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), An amendment to the Auditor General Act establishing the Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development, and Canada's commitments under the Iran-Contra Essay Kyoto Protocol.

Of these, the first two are focused on and postdam assessing the environmental impacts of a project or activity and identifying mitigation measures where required while the last two are more focused on establishing performance targets in support of a more sustainable society. An Investment Analysis Report will be influenced to chat rooms a greater or lesser degree by each of these initiatives. The amount and type of information required in IAR will be influenced by the nature of the project (new building, renovation or lease), the type of project (space or asset based project), and the stage of approval (PPA or EPA ). Should be Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Space, rather than asset-based, IAR s will have the greater possibility of being significantly effected by the CEAA and the 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and conference Program Proposals. Iran-Contra Essay. At the moment, CEAA requires Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC to conduct an Environmental Assessment (EA) for all projects, as defined under the and postdam Act for which there is a trigger. Under the Act and for the purposes of this discussion, a project is defined as an activity in relation to a physical work, any proposed construction, operation, modification, decommissioning, abandonment or other undertaking in relation to aids effects that physical work.

A trigger can be described in general terms as meeting any one of four conditions: A Federal Authority (Department or Agency) is the proponent of the project or commits in some manner to having the project carried out in whole or in part; Makes or authorizes payments or provides a guarantee for a loan or any other form of financial assistance to the proponent for the purpose of enabling the yalta and postdam project to be carried out in whole or in part; Sells, leases or otherwise disposes of land or any interests in bullying Should be Criminal, land, or transfers the administration and control of those lands for the purpose of enabling the project to be carried out in whole or in part; or Issues a permit or license, grants an approval or takes any other action for the purpose of enabling the project to be carried out in whole or in yalta, part. Once it is established that the undertaking is Scandal Essay a project and a trigger is operating, it must then be determined under which of the regulations of the Act the project falls. At the moment, a project that involves a new building or substantial modification to an existing building (changing its footprint or height by greater than 10%, or carrying out work with 100m of a surface body of yalta, water) will require an assessment. However, amendments to the CEAA will result in most PSPC projects (with the exception of those project meeting either of the two criteria above), particularly those that relate to office accommodation, will fall within the category of projects included in the Exclusion List regulations. This regulation lists those types of rooms adults, projects that either are known to have insignificant environmental impacts or those projects that will be required to complete an yalta and postdam conference, environmental assessment under the jurisdiction of some other level of government, such as a province or municipality. The first stage of the chat adults EA process is a “Screening, which determines the degree of likely environmental impacts and conference the necessity for a more rigorous or comprehensive assessment. Essay Salesman. Because the CEAA requires that the yalta conference EA must be undertaken before any irrevocable decisions are made, it is appropriate to examine these issues for aids effects the completion of an IAR at the earliest point because the options examined here can significantly affect the environmental impacts of a project. For example, if a new facility is being considered, the impacts that it will have will be significantly different if that project is located on a high density, urban site as opposed to a low density suburban site. And Postdam Conference. If an Essay Death of a, investment decision is made on the basis of an analysis that did not take these environmental impacts into consideration, then the and postdam conference intent of the CEAA is not being respected. Consequently, the most appropriate point at chat rooms adults, which to conference undertake a broadly based EA is in the preparation of an IAR for a project's Preliminary Project Approval (PPA ).

Expert advice on Death of a the implications of CEAA can be obtained from the and postdam conference Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Project Delivery Group of Environmental Services Directorate, Professional and Technical Services Management, Real Property Branch. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) - 1999 Cabinet Directive. Strategic Environmental Assessments are required where decisions are to be taken by Cabinet, or in some circumstances, by Essay The Nullification, Treasury Board Secretariat. Although the directive was intended to ensure an environmental assessment is carried out for policy, plan or program initiatives, major real property projects will require an environmental assessment if they require Cabinet or Treasury Board approval. A strategic environmental assessment will have to consider the broad based environmental impacts of a project. The directive requires that the assessment consider cumulative effects over both space and time. This statement means: that the issues must be examined and analyzed not only for a project's own immediate impact but also how the environment is affected by that specific project as well as other past, current or future projects in its vicinity.

A SEA must be integrated with other strategic planning tools such as the National Investment Strategy, the Community Based Investment Strategy, the Good Neighbour Policy, the and postdam current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy, and Plan for honouring our Kyoto Commitments. in terms of cumulative effects over both space and time, the SEA must examine how the project may interact with other projects in its immediate vicinity and Iran-Contra Essay not only immediately but over an extended period of time. An example of this principle might be the question of yalta and postdam conference, how a project will affect traffic in the neighbourhood. Taken alone, the project's impact on traffic patterns may be minimal. However, in combination with other projects in the immediate vicinity and over a period of years, the traffic patterns could be significantly altered and lead to congestion, pollution and general environmental degradation. Aids Effects. The SEA must recognize the possibility of such impacts and develop a strategy for yalta and postdam conference mitigating them. Environmental issues that should be considered in a SEA for a Space Based project include: Site: urban core vs suburban perimeter transportation accessibility - personal vehicle use vs alternatives (traffic/parking) local ecological values landscaping and storm water management Energy: energy efficiency energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power on-site power generation Water: reduced water consumption strategies for reuse and management Occupant Issues: indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise occupant ability to control their local conditions.

As with the EA, the most appropriate time for completing a SEA is prior to PPA . Strategic Environmental Assessments for an asset-based IAR should be closely aligned with the Asset Management Plan, which in turn is based on NIS and aids effects CBIS . The examination of issues should be expanded to include the Good Neighbour Policy and the current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. From the SEA perspective, if the asset itself has not been assessed, then one should be undertaken and then, for the project, a further assessment should be carried out to determine how the project would affect the asset and its environmental and sustainable development impacts. A SEA for yalta an existing asset would likely examine many of the same issues as one developed for a new facility except that its perspective would be different. The issues include: Site: Does the project enhance or detract from on Literary of a alternative modes of transportation? Does the project affect the local ecological values? Does the project affect the site landscape and contribute to more effective storm?

Energy: Does the project affect the assets energy efficiency? Does the yalta and postdam conference project affect the energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power? Does the aids effects project provide for and postdam conference on-site power generation? Water: Does the bullying be Criminal Essay project reduce water consumption? Does the project provide to water management and and postdam conference reuse? Occupant Does the project affect indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise? Does the project affect the occupants' ability to control their local conditions? PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy (current)

The 1995 amendments to the Auditor General Act included the rooms adults requirement that Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC , develop and table a Sustainable Development Strategy. Yalta And Postdam Conference. These strategies are to be reported on Analysis: of a annually and to be renewed every three years. And Postdam. They are subject to audit by the Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development as well as the office of the Essay Analysis: Commissioner reporting directly to Parliament on its assessment of the progress made by conference, individual departments and the Federal Government overall. PSPC , in its third Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), submitted for the period 2003 to aids effects 2006, made some significant commitments with respect to the management of its assets and project delivery. These commitments were followed by further commitments in the SDS 2007 to 2009, which added a focus on and postdam leased buildings. Implement a Sustainable Building Policy and supporting guidelines by 2010; New construction designs, major renovations and acquisitions will meet LEED Silver or BREEAM /Green Leaf or equivalent ratings. (In addition to the departments SDS commitments, public statements require that the construction of aids effects, all new government of Canada office buildings meet LEED Gold, and yalta conference that the same standard will be sought for long term leases); Major projects will be compared on the basis of a building life-cycle assessment tool; New or rejuvenated buildings must be more energy efficient; Reduce water consumption; Reduce or eliminate toxic substances; Divert waste for Essay The Nullification Crisis construction activities and for yalta and postdam conference building operations from landfills; and Introduction of these principles into the Department's lease agreements. And specifically for leases: All leases of 500 m 2 the building will be managed to the equivalent of BOMA Go Green; For leases of 10,000 m 2 and greater, the lessor will conduct a BOMA Go Green Plus assessment. Lease purchase buildings will meet the LEED Gold standard.

The second item in this list is, in fact, a methodology that supports all the other items. The Leadership in Analysis: Death of a, Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ™ ) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) Green Globes ™ are both recognized tools for measuring the environmental performance of a building in its design and construction. (The Green Leaf program was rebranded Green Globes when it migrated from a hard copy format to an internet application format.) The features of these two systems are summarized in Table I - Assessment Tools for Whole Buildings below. They both operate by and postdam, providing a suite or menu of design options in specific areas intended to achieve defined levels of environmental performance. The table below illustrates the areas covered by about The Nullification Crisis, both tools and how they address the targets of the Department's SDS. When assessing the conference various options for a project in an IAR , the degree to which these options successfully address these individual targets and the overall target of a LEED Silver or BREEAM Green Globes 3 Leaf rating must be taken into consideration. The overall targets have a built in flexibility as to how they are achieved but the objective to achieve a level of LEED Silver or 3 Green Globes is a solid commitment of the health Department and has been included in the funding allotment for capital projects. The project team must ensure that the project achieves this target through a combination of the design features itemized in either of the two methodologies.

As noted above, in the case of new office buildings, long term leases, or lease purchase, the and postdam appropriate target is LEED Gold. Although the chat adults two systems are similar, they are not identical in how they organize the various aspect of the yalta assessment. For instance, while LEED places Alternative Transportation under the Site category on the argument that it is intimately associated with the characteristics of the site, BREEAM /Green Leaf places Energy-efficient Transportation under the Energy category on the argument the most significant aspect of the transportation issue is the energy associated with the daily commute to and from work. Also the relative significance of a particular issue may not be given identical weights in both systems. In the transportation example above, LEED assigns 4 points out of 70 to this aspect, or about Iran-Contra Scandal Essay 6% of the total points available. BREEAM /Green Leaf gives the issue 80 points out of yalta and postdam, 1000, or about 8%, close but not identical. Similar differences can be identified throughout the two systems and, while they may offer debating points between the chat rooms adults systems proponents, the and postdam conference Department believes both systems produce equally valid assessments of buildings and/or their designs. Under the LEED system, there are a number of Prerequisites or aspects that must be included in the project in order for it to even be considered, such as Erosion Control under Sustainable Sites and Building Commissioning under Energy Atmosphere. Marilyn. The other aspects are Credits and design team selects which one under the yalta conference six categories the project will try to incorporate into its specifications. Adults. In those categories where there are multiple credits, this indicates either one of two things.

First, that there are a number of approaches to meet the requirement of the credit which can be applied individually or in combination or, two, that there are graded levels of achievement for that category and more points are awarded for yalta and postdam conference greater achievement. To achieve a LEED Silver standard (the commitment for most of the types of projects that the Department will be undertaking) at least 33 credits must be accumulated for the project. Aids Effects. The Gold standard requires at least 39 credits but is only required on construction of new crown owned office building, long term leases or lease purchase projects. Under the BREEAM /Green Leaf system, there are no prerequisites required for the project design. Also, BREEAM /Green Leaf uses a graded level of achievement in more categories and includes project management issues such as having an environmental management policy specific to the project. And Postdam. The Department's commitment with respect to the BREEAM /Green Leaf system is to achieve 3 Green Leafs, or 555 points out Iran-Contra Scandal, of the 1000 available.

This table gives an and postdam, example of marilyn monroe, both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 26 - 32 Silver: 33 - 38 Gold: 39 - 51 Platinum: 52 - 70.

Note: These are simplified outlines of these two rating systems. The design team should be involved in completing the full and detailed system selected for conference the project. This table gives an example of monroe mental health, both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. Yalta And Postdam. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered.

The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on monroe its total score. Green Globe: 150 - 354 Green Globe: 355 - 554 Green Globe: 555 - 704 Green Globe: 705 - 854 Green Globe: 855 - 1000. Note: These are simplified outlines of these two rating systems. The design team should be involved in completing the full and detailed system selected for the project. Where the yalta and postdam conference space under consideration does not constitute an entire building but only a portion of it, for example the leasing of marilyn monroe health, space, the Department's sustainable development commitment is to try to locate such space in a building that would meet the same level of environmental performance as a crown-owned building (using the LEED or BREEAM /Green Leaf rating systems). Yalta And Postdam Conference. However, the Department also recognizes that this will not always be possible and we will have to Essay acquire space in facilities that do not meet these standards. Under these circumstances, the space that is yalta being leased should be fitted out to meet sustainable development standards that reflect these expectations for bullying Should Essay that space. To assist the planning and design process for these space fit-up projects and to measure their success, assessment tools exist for both the yalta LEED and BREEAM /Green Leaf system, referred to as Commercial Interior systems. The aspects for both are summarized below in Table II - Assessment Tools for Commercial Interiors.

These two systems operate in Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, the same way relative to their original systems except they have been adapted to limit the assessments to those issues that are relevant to a space fit-up project. There is a major exception, however, in yalta and postdam conference, the case of the LEED system. The LEED CI, as it is known, has been developed only for the US at this point and is not yet adapted to the Canadian market. This is anticipated in the future, but the rooms adults timing is conference uncertain. The BREEAM /Green Leaf system, on Scandal Essay the other hand, was developed specifically for a PSPC project and reflects Canadian market conditions. In the case of either system, it is clear that they are both closely related to the original assessment system but do not include issues that are beyond the scope of space fit-up projects. As with the yalta whole building systems, it is adults up to the project team to determine which system more closely meets the requirements of their specific project. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given commercial interior project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for yalta and postdam conference a project, with the about The Nullification project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by yalta conference, a P), which are required before a project can be considered.

The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. which includes some combination of following options: P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 21 - 26 Silver: 27 - 31 Gold: 32 - 42 Platinum: 43 - 57 Table Summary. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. Green Globe: 83 - 195 Green Globe: 196 - 305 Green Globe: 306 - 387 Green Globe: 388 - 470 Green Globe: 471 - 550. An asset-based IAR will approach the issue of sustainable development in a slightly different manner. Progress towards sustainable development in these cases will be tied to the individual asset's Asset Management Plan (AMP) and aids effects through it to the asset's Strategic Environmental Assessment.

Included in the asset's SEA will be a building environmental performance assessment carried out yalta and postdam, employing BOMA 's Go Green Comprehensive program. Essay The Nullification Crisis. (The Go Green Comprehensive program employs an internet-enabled application of the BREEAM /Green Leaf system which is essentially the yalta and postdam same system that is presented in monroe mental health, Table I.) Managing the asset-based IAR s in this manner does presuppose that these asset evaluations are already in yalta, place and Essay integrated into and postdam, the asset's SEA , which is not the aids effects case for all PSPC assets. And Postdam Conference. However, BOMA Go Green Plus assessments are a requirement of the SDS 2007 to 2009 for PSPC Crown-owned office buildings and must be completed for all these assets by March 2010. The significance of this approach is that the Department will not evaluate individual projects for their sustainability but will do so as these projects affect the asset in which they are taking place through the impact they will have on Essay the Go Green Comprehensive assessment for that asset. For example, if a BMP recommends the replacement of an conference, asset's heating boiler, the sustainability of that replacement project will be judged by the difference it makes in marilyn health, the overall asset performance. And Postdam. The project may increase the energy efficiency of the asset sufficiently to aids effects increase the score for the energy section of the assessment and improve the yalta conference overall score of the asset. It may even move the asset into a new, higher level of recognition.

In this way, the chat rooms adults impact of multiple projects for and postdam an asset can be tracked over time. Appendix D: Terminology Used in Real Property Management. (Fr. - Abandon ) ABSTRACT OF TITLE A condensed summary or synopsis of a title to a parcel of real estate, showing the original letters patent, subsequent conveyances, mortgages, and all recorded transactions pertaining to the title. (Fr. - Résumé des titres ) ACCELERATION CLAUSE A clause in a loan contract or mortgage which permits the lender to require the immediate repayment of the entire balance if certain term of the aids effects contract is breached or a condition for repayment met. It also gives the borrower the right to pay more than the regular payments, or to pay the full amount prior to the maturity date with or without penalty. (Fr. - Clause de remboursement anticipée ) ACCESS The means of approach to real property.

It could be a walkway, or in the case of an easement, a right-of-way. (Fr. - Accès ) ACCESS RIGHT The right an yalta, owner has to enter onto and exit from his property by street or highway, by right-of-way, or by other means. (Fr. - Droit d'accès ) ACCOMMODATION OPERATION REVOLVING FUND (AORF) A fund created to account for all revenues obtained from the provision of service and management of accommodation and for all expenses and expenditures required to manage and provide the service and accommodation. Useful as a means of aids effects, determining the worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the product by other means. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable de l'exploitation des locaux (FREL) ) ACCUMULATED COST Total of all historical costs to the date the accumulated cost is prepared. Costs may or may not be indexed to dollars at the date the and postdam accumulated cost is aids effects prepared. (Fr. - Coût cumulatif ) ADDITION An approach to increasing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to construct an addition to an existing improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. Yalta. - Agrandissement ) AD VALOREM A latin legal term: According to the value. (Fr. - Ad valorem ) ADVERSE POSSESSION A way of acquiring title to property without a deed, by making a claim and meeting certain statutory requirements. The law gives an occupant of land who maintains actual, open, notorious, exclusive and continuous occupancy of property for a specific statutory period the right to claim legal title to that property.

The owner who has either abandoned or remained silent during a statutory time may not later claim title to on Literary Analysis: of a the property. The process is similar for easements, except in Quebec. In Quebec it is yalta conference known as acquiring property by prescription. (Fr. - Possession adversative ) AFFIDAVIT OF TITLE A sworn written statement by a seller declaring that he owns the property in question, that no one made any claim to aids effects it, and that there are no liens or judgments against him which affects the title to the said property. (Fr. - Affidavit relatif au droit de propriété ) AGREEMENT OF PURCHASE AND SALE A written contract whereby a purchaser agrees to buy and a seller agrees to sell certain property under specific terms and conference conditions. (Fr. - Convention de vente et d'achat ) AIR RIGHTS The right to inclusive and undisturbed use and control of a designated air space within the perimeter of a stated land area and within stated elevations. Such rights may be acquired for the construction of a building above the land or building of another, or for Death Salesman the protection of the light and air of an existing or proposed structure on an adjoining lot. (Fr. - Droits sur l'espace aérien ) APPRAISED VALUE Value estimated by yalta and postdam conference, an appraiser.

(Fr. Cyber Bullying Should Be Criminal Essay. - Valeur estimative ) ARM'S LENGTH TRANSACTION A transaction freely arrived at in the open market, unaffected by abnormal pressure or by yalta and postdam, the absence of normal competitive negotiation as might be true in the case of a transaction between related parties. (Fr. - Transaction sans lien de dépendance ) ASSESSED VALUE The value of property as determined for taxation purposes in accordance with assessment law. (Fr. - Valeur imposable ) ASSIGNMENT The transfer of contractual or other rights to another person such as the transfer of an interest in a bond, mortgage, lease or other instrument. (Fr. Essay On Literary Of A. - Cession ) ASSIGNMENT OF MORTGAGE Legally, a mortgage is considered personal property except in Quebec, and thus can be transferred by a simple bill of sale. But, for his own protection, the person buying the mortgage takes a formal written instrument - called the assignment of mortgage - which fully describes the assignee of the mortgage, the amount due on the principal, and the interest on the mortgage debt. It normally gives a description of the mortgaged property and indicates the yalta and postdam Land Registry Office in which it is registered. The registration of the assignment of mortgage provides notice to third parties. (Fr. - Cession de l'hypothèque ) BALANCE SHEET A statement of financial position of an economic unit disclosing as at a given moment its assets, liabilities and Should Essay ownership equities. (Fr. - Bilan ) BALLOON PAYMENT In finance, the term refers to the unamortized principal amount of a mortgage or long-term loan, which is paid off in a lump sum at the end of the conference term.

(Fr. - Dernier paiement majoré ) BILL OF SALE A document that testifies to the sale of personal property, such as an Cyber, automobile. In real estate transfer, only personal property, such as fixtures or other equipment, may be evidenced by a bill of sale. (Fr. - Acte de vente ) BLANKET MORTGAGE A mortgage, which affects several properties. Several properties under one mortgage. This is common in subdivisions or where equity in one property is insufficient to satisfy loan policy. When one of the subdivisions is developed and sold, the developer will pay off a proportional share and have this piece released from the mortgage, and so on. (Fr. - Hypothèque générale ) BOOK VALUE The net amount at which an asset or asset group appears on the books of account, as distinguished from its market value or some intrinsic value.

The face amount of a liability less any unamortized discount and expense. (Fr. - Valeur comptable ) BUILD TO LEASE An agreement, which provides for the development of real property (erecting a building) by conference, the property (land) owner in accordance with the specifications of the lessee of the said property. The building is usually constructed for only one tenant. Existing buildings are not accepted in a build to lease tender call process. (Fr. - Construction à des fins de location ) BUY BACK An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby a party agrees to construct an Iran-Contra Scandal, improvement on his or the conference Crown's land and the Crown agrees to purchase the improvement (and land) at a specific price after construction is marilyn monroe health complete. The Crown may call for proposals on either full plans and specifications or performance specifications. (Fr. - Vente à terme ) CAPITAL COST ALLOWANCE (CCA) The allowable capital depreciation claim against and postdam conference, an asset, which produces an income. As it affects leases, the owner is The Nullification Crisis entitled to claim depreciation on his buildings or improvements thus reducing the income tax payable on certain profits arising from the rental of the same.

(Fr. - Déduction pour amortissement (DPA) ) CASH FLOW (pretax) Amount of residual income after allowing for all charges relating to the operation of the property and mortgage debt service (interest and principal payments). (Fr. And Postdam. - Flux Monétaire ) CAVEAT EMPTOR Latin sentence meaning Let the Essay about The Nullification buyer beware. (Fr. - Caveat emptor ) CBD Central business district. (Fr. - Centre-ville ) CHAIN OF TITLE A compilation, in chronological order, of the transfers of the title to real property as extracted from the records in the Land Registry Office. (Fr. - Titres successifs ) CHATTEL Any property other than (freehold land) real property. Chattels personal are movable, tangible articles of property.

(Fr. - Biens meubles ) CLOSING DATE The date stipulated in the Agreement of Purchase and Sale for the completion of the yalta real estate transaction. (Fr. - Date de transfert de propriété ) CLOSING STATEMENT The adjustment of accounts between the Vendor and the Purchaser of real property relating to the sale price, taxes, public utilities, mortgage, fuel, etc. The vendor pays all his expenses to chat rooms that date (such as his proportional share of fuel, real estate taxes etc.). He credits money prepaid and debits bills not paid; the end calculation will show either a credit or a debit. The closing statement is normally prepared by the lawyer, or notary in Quebec.

(Fr. - Relevé de clôture ) CONFORMING USE A development of land, which is compatible with zoning restrictions. (Fr. - Utilisation conforme ) CONTRACT An agreement enforceable at law. Yalta And Postdam Conference. An essential feature of a contract is aids effects a promise by one party to another, or by two parties to each other, to do or forbear from doing certain specified acts. In order for a contract to be valid and and postdam legally enforceable there must be: capacity to about The Nullification contract; intention to contract; consensus as to the terms of the contract; valuable consideration; legality of purpose; and certainty of and postdam, terms. (Fr. - Contrat) CONTRACT RENT Payment for Cyber be Criminal the use of property designated in yalta conference, a lease. The term is used to Iran-Contra establish the fact that the actual rent paid, the contract rent, may differ from market, economic rent. (Fr. - Loyer contractuel ) CONVEYANCE The transferring of real estate or the interest in yalta, it from one person to another. It may be a deed, mortgage, lease, but not a will. A deed is considered a conveyance since it is the means by Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, which title is transferred. (Fr. - Transfert de propriété ) COVENANT An agreement, convention or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, sealed and conference delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done or shall be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts.

In common parlance, any agreement, whether under seal or not. Chat Rooms. (See also Restrictive Covenant) (Fr. - Engagement formel ) COVENANT OF QUIET ENJOYMENT The contractual right of a grantee of property (and also of any person deriving title from him) to the enjoyment of the property without any interruption or disturbance by the person conveying the property (or by any person on his behalf, or claiming through him). (Fr. - Droit de jouissance paisible ) CROWN-FINANCED CONSTRUCT An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the conference Crown calls tenders on complete plans and Crisis specifications to construct an improvement on and postdam conference Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the chat rooms adults acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Construction financée par l'État ) CURRENT VALUE Representative of value in use to the owner. Assumes that a market value is not required as the use is and postdam intended to continue, and Iran-Contra Scandal if the property was sold would have to yalta and postdam be replaced in Essay about The Nullification Crisis, order to continue in that use. Would not likely exceed the replacement cost of the facility or the amount a prudent person would pay rather than be ejected from the property. (Fr. - Valeur courante ) DEBT Money, goods or services owing to another by virtue of an agreement, expressed or implied, giving rise to a legal duty to pay. (Fr. - Passif, dette ) DEBT/EQUITY RATIO Ratio of debt to and postdam equity expressed as a ratio or a percentage. (Fr. - Ratio d'endettement ) DECREE An edict, a law, an order from one in authority, or a court order that compels someone to do something. (Fr. - Décret ) DEDICATION The voluntary giving of private property to some public use by the owner, as the dedication of land for streets, schools, etc., in a development.

(Fr. - Affectation ) DEED A written instrument, signed, sealed and delivered, by which one person conveys land or an interest in aids effects, land to another. Conference. The term may include a mortgage of real property. In Civil law notarial deed means a deed executed en minute or en brevet before one or more practicing notaries. (Fr. - Acte Formaliste ) DEED, ADMINISTRATOR'S A deed by Essay Analysis: Death of a, a person lawfully appointed to manage and settle the estate of a deceased person who has left no executor. (Fr - Acte d'un administrateur ) DEED, BARGAIN AND SALE A contract for the sale of any interest or estate in land, or of chattels, followed by payment of the agreed price. Yalta And Postdam Conference. This method of conveyance has been abolished by the Law of Property Act in some common law jurisdictions. (Fr. - Acte de négociation et de vente ) DEED DESCRIPTION A recitation of health, legal boundaries of and postdam conference, a parcel of land as contained in a deed of conveyance. (Fr. - Description de l'acte ) DEED, QUITCLAIM A form of Essay on Literary Death Salesman, conveyance whereby whatever interest the grantor possesses in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without warranty of title.

(Fr. - Acte de transfert par renonciation ) DEED RESTRICTION For any number of reasons, a seller may impose restrictions on the land he is conveying, perpetually or for a limited time. Thus, deed restriction is yalta and postdam a limitation, which passes with the land regardless of owner, most commonly limiting the type of use or intensity of use of the real estate. (Fr. - Restriction à l'acte ) DEED WITH FULL COVENANTS Also called a warranty deed, it contains full covenants and is considered the best deed to the purchaser of real property. There is a statutory short form that lists the five covenants. They are: 1) That said is seized of said premises in fee simple, and has good right to convey the same; 2) that the chat adults party of the yalta second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises; 3) that the said premises are free from encumbrances; 4) that the party of the first part will execute or procure any further necessary assurance of the title to said premises; and 5) that said will forever warrant the title to said premises. (Fr. - Acte formaliste avec garantie complète ) DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY Because real property is fixed and permanent, it must be given an exact description, especially when conveying title. There are many ways to describe land, including: metes and bounds (the measure and direction); by tract subdivision, by lot or street number, by monuments (identifying boundaries by adults, streams, etc.), or by a government survey.

See also Deed Description, Legal Description. (Fr. - Description du bien (immobilier) ) DOMINANT ESTATE or TENEMENT A property that benefits from an easement. That to which a servitude or easement is due, or for the benefit of which it exists. Yalta And Postdam. The property subject to on Literary Death Salesman an easement is known as the servient tenement. (Fr. - Fonds dominant ou Tènement ) EASEMENT An easement is a right enjoyed by one land owner over yalta the land of another and is obtained for a special purpose rather than for of a Salesman general use or occupation. Once granted, an easement attaches to the land and and postdam conference binds subsequent owners. An essential requirement of an easement is Cyber Should be Criminal that there must be a dominant tenement (the land which is to benefit from the easement) and a servient tenement (the land subject to the easement). The most common type of yalta and postdam, easement is a right-of-way.

(Fr. - Servitude (de Common Law) ) ECONOMIC RENT A synonym for market rent, it is the amount a person dealing at arm's length (the market) would be willing to Essay The Nullification pay for the use of property designated in and postdam, a lease. Unlike contract rent, economic rent varies over the period of a lease and is always stated in relation to a specific date. It is the amount for which the property could have been rented for at on Literary Analysis: Salesman, the date of yalta conference, valuation if it had been available for rent to a new tenant. (Fr. - Loyer économique ) ECONOMIC VALUE Value as determined by the Income Approach to value. (Fr. - Valeur économique ) EMPHYTEUTIC LEASE or EMPHYTEUSIS In Quebec only, is a contract by which the proprietor of an immovable conveys it for a time to another, the lessee subjecting himself to make improvements, to Essay Death pay the and postdam conference lessor an annual rent and to such other charges as may be agreed upon. As long as it lasts, the lessee enjoys all the rights attached to the quality of a proprietor. The duration of chat rooms, emphyteusis cannot exceed ninety-nine years and must be for more than nine. [6] (Fr. - Bail emphytéotique ou Emphytéose ) ENCROACHMENT The unauthorized extension of the boundaries of land. A situation in which any building or part of and postdam conference, a building goes outside the boundary line of Scandal, a parcel of land and intrudes on the land of another.

(Fr. - Empiètement ) ENCUMBRANCE A claim, lien, charge or liability attached to and binding on real property. Yalta. Example: A mortgage, taxes, judgement, easement or right-of-way, restriction in deed, etc. (Fr. - Charge ) EQUITY Any right or claim to assets. An interest in property or in business, subject to claims of Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay, creditors. (Fr. - Intérêt des créanciers et des propriétaires ) ESCALATION or ESCALATOR CLAUSE A clause in a mortgage or lease, which provides for an increase of payment at will or at periodic intervals, upon specific situations as stated in the mortgage or lease. it could be contingent on the cost-of-living index, inflation rate, taxes, operating expenses, etc. (Fr. - Clause d'échelle mobile ) ESCROW A writing, deed or funds delivered by the grantor, promisor or obligor into the hands of a third person, to be held by conference, the third person until the happening of The Nullification Crisis, a contingency or performance of certain obligation, and then by him delivered to the grantee, promisee or obligee. (Fr. - Contrat de Dépôt entre les mains d'un tiers ) EXPROPRIATION The compulsory (i.e. without the consent of the owner) acquisition, pursuant to statutory powers, of property, usually real property, by yalta conference, the Crown or by Cyber bullying Should Essay, one of its authorized agencies. Any compulsory taking of yalta and postdam conference, property is accompanied by the payment of Essay The Nullification, compensation. (Fr. - Expropriation ) FEE, FEE SIMPLE, FEE ABSOLUTE The absolute ownership of real property with unlimited possession, control, and conference enjoyment, unconditional power to dispose of the property during the owner's life.

An inheritable estate. (Fr. Cyber Bullying Should Essay. - Fief, Fief simple, Fief absolu ) FINANCIAL LEASE A contractual commitment on the part of a lessee, which requires a series of yalta and postdam, payments to be made for the use of an Essay, asset over the service life of the asset. Under a financial lease, the lessor can sell the future payments to a financial institution or other party in order to raise capital. (Fr. - Crédit Bail ) FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) A ratio of the gross floor area of a building to yalta the total area of the site. Also known as FAR (Floor Area Ratio) or FSR (Floor Space Ratio).

(Fr. - Indice de superficie des locaux ) FORESHORE The strip of land that lies between the high and low tide lines and that is alternately wet and dry according to the flow of the tide. Unless disproved to the contrary, the property in the foreshore is aids effects vested in the Crown. (Fr. - Lais ) GRADUATED LEASE A lease, which provides for a certain rent for the initial period followed by periodic increases or decreases in the rent over conference the years of the lease. It differs from escalator (escalation) clause, which stipulates only specific circumstances for increases. (Fr. - Bail à loyer variable ) GRANT A transfer of title to property real or personal by rooms, deed or any other document.

A generic term applicable to all transfers of real property. (Fr. Yalta. - Cession ) GRANTEE The person who receives title to real property; the buyer. (Fr. - Cessionnaire ) GROSS INCOME Revenues before deducting any expenses. The term is synonymous with gross revenue. (Fr. - Recettes brutes) GROSS LEASE The antonym of a net lease. A lease which stipulates that the owner pays all expenses including taxes, insurance, operating and maintenance expenses, etc. and the tenant pays only the chat rooms rent but no operating or maintenance expenses. (Fr. - Bail brut ) GROUND LEASE A lease, which gives the right of use of land. Normally any real property improvements made by the lessee during the term of the lease will revert to the owner at yalta and postdam, the end of the lease term (Ground Lease Reversion). (Fr. Mental. - Bail Foncier ) GROUND RENT The rent paid for the right of use and yalta occupancy of a parcel of land; or that portion of the total rental paid that is considered to represent a return upon land only. (Fr. - Loyer foncier ) HABENDUM CLAUSE Portion of deed beginning with words To have and to chat adults hold. The clause usually following the granting part of a deed, which defines the extent of the and postdam conference ownership in the thing, granted.

(Fr. - Clause de délimitation ) HISTORICAL COST Original cost of acquisition of a property at the date of acquisition. (Fr. - Coût d'origine ) HYPOTHEC In Quebec law, real right or charge, which encumbers an immovable property to secure the fulfillment of an chat adults, obligation of a debtor (usually repayment of a loan). Yalta. It has similar function as mortgage. (Fr. - Hypothèque ) INDEMNIFY Legally it means, to save harmless, to secure against loss or damage; to give security for the reimbursement of a person in case of an anticipated loss falling upon aids effects, him. To make good a loss which one person has suffered in consequence of the yalta conference act or default of another. For example, landlords use this clause to relieve them of any claims by a tenant; sellers use it to Cyber bullying Should be Criminal Essay protect other brokers from claiming commissions, etc. (Fr. - Indemniser ) INTEREST Right in real property. Yalta Conference. (Has also other meanings) (Fr. - Droit réel immobilier ) INSTRUMENT In relation to real estate, a written legal document such as a deed, a contract of sale, lease, will, or the like. (Fr. Cyber Bullying. - Acte instrumentaire ) JOINT TENANCY A situation, in which two or more individuals own inseparable interests (an undivided interest) in a real property, i.e. an individual does not own a particular part of a property, but his proportionate share of the entire property.

The ownership interests of each individual expire with his demise and cannot be transferred through a will. Thus, if one owner dies, the yalta and postdam other receives his share or interest. (Fr. - Propriété conjointe ) LAND In law, land includes not only the surface but all that is under the chat rooms surface, including minerals and oil and everything above the surface including the buildings on the land and the column of air as well. (Fr. Yalta And Postdam Conference. - Bien-fonds ) LAND SURVEY As all parcels of land must have definite and indisputable boundaries and identifications, it is necessary to physically chart (survey) the land to get its accurate boundaries. Essay On Literary Analysis: Death Of A Salesman. These boundaries and directions (metes and bounds) are then fully described in a deed.

A land description must contain a beginning point, definite corners, specific lengths, specific directions, and yalta an area measurement in accepted units (usually acres, rods, square feet, square miles or square meters). Scandal Essay. [2] (Fr. - Arpentage ) LEASE A contract between the owner of real property (lessor) and another party (lessee) for the possession and use of the property for a specified term in return for rent or other income. (Fr. - Bail ) LEASEBACK A simultaneous sale of yalta and postdam conference, real estate and lease of the property to the seller. The buyer becomes the lessor, or landlord. (Fr. Chat. - Cession-retour locatif ) LEASEHOLD A property held under tenure of conference, lease. The right of use and marilyn monroe mental occupancy of yalta and postdam conference, real property by virtue of a lease agreement.

(Fr. - Tenure à bail ) LEASEHOLD IMPROVEMENTS The improvements and/or additions to leased property made by either the landlord or the tenant. They are paid for monroe health either by amortization under the lease or in a lump sum payment, or in some other arrangement made between the two parties. (Fr. - Améliorations locatives ) LEASE PURCHASE A lease wherein the owner of the real property has agreed to sell the property upon the termination of the lease contract. Various forms of the lease purchase are as follows: (Fr. - Bail-achat ) LEASE WITH AN OPTION TO PURCHASE The option to purchase the real property at a determined amount during or at the end of the lease term. The lessee exercises this option by terminating the lease contract at one of the pre-specified dates during the lease or at the end of the lease term and paying the purchase price applicable to the date of termination. The purchase price is predetermined and usually based on some pricing formula such as the present worth of the unpaid rent. (Fr. Yalta. - Bail avec option d'achat ) LEASE - LEASEBACK An approach to creating a real property improvement whereby the Cyber bullying be Criminal owner of and postdam conference, a land, leases it to another party (ground lease) under an agreement whereby the Essay party will construct an improvement and lease it back to the owner. Under varying agreements the and postdam landowner may have an option(s) to purchase the Analysis: Death Salesman improvement during or at the end of the leaseback term. And Postdam. The leaseback of the improvement to the landowner will normally cover a shorter period than the aids effects ground lease. Conference. At the end of the ground lease the improvement becomes the property of the landowner.

(Fr. - Bail-retour locatif ) BUILD TO LEASE PURCHASE A form of the above (A and B) whereby a party constructs an improvement for the landowner, having entered into a lease purchase agreement. (Fr. - Construction/bail-achat ) LEASE TENDER (PROPOSALS) The Crown invites bids from the aids effects private sector property owners offering to lease space. Yalta. The bids received are point rated against pre-established criteria. Certain minimum specifications must be met. The successful bidder is selected by a formula combining his point rating and Essay the rent quoted. And Postdam Conference. This process may be referred to as a call for lease proposals rather than a lease tender. (Fr. - Appel d'offres de location (concours) ) LEGAL DESCRIPTION A statement containing a designation by which land is Iran-Contra Scandal identified according to a system set up by and postdam, law or approved by marilyn mental health, law. (Fr. Yalta Conference. - Description Officielle ) LETTING A letting is in law the same as a lease. As the term is used in Public Works, the Department, in the position of the marilyn monroe landlord, agrees to let another government entity use the real property for a specific period of time for rent or other income. (Fr. - Concession de loyer ) LICENCE (OF OCCUPATION) Permission or authority to and postdam enter on land and to do particular act or series of acts on land of another.

A licence passes no interest in land, and is always revocable. If a licence is coupled with an interest, or if it is granted for valuable consideration, its revocation is subject to the terms of the contract between the parties. (Fr. - Licence (d'occupation) ) MARKET VALUE The highest price in terms of money which a property will bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Marilyn Monroe Mental Health. The probable price at which property would sell for at the date of appraisal allowing a reasonable time to find a purchaser. METES AND BOUNDS Metes (measures in meters) and bounds (direction in degrees) make possible to describe completely and accurately boundaries in real property. (Fr. - Bornes et limites ) MORTGAGE Conveyance of an yalta, interest in land as security for Iran-Contra a debt. A contract by which a person binds the whole or a portion of his property in favour of another, to secure the execution of some engagement, such as the payment of money. (Fr. - Hypothèque ) NET INCOME Ordinarily, net income is synonymous with net profit (See: Net profit). (Fr. - Bénéfice net ) NET LEASE The antonym of a gross lease. A lease whereby in addition to the rental stipulated, the yalta conference lessee pays all or part of the Cyber bullying expenses of operating and conference maintaining the property.

These additional expenses may or may not be paid directly to Cyber bullying the landlord. In common usage, the degree to which various items of expense are to be borne by the landlord or by the tenant has been expressed by one or more repetitions of the word net, as for example: Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes. Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes and maintenance. Net Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance and operating expenses. Net Net Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance, operating expenses and structural maintenance. In the negotiations the parties may differ in regard to the definition of the lease, one person regarding it, for conference example, as a net lease and the other regarding it as a net net lease. The respective meanings are fluid, dependent on individual interpretation. There is no one right meaning. NET PROFIT Profit remaining from revenue after deducting related costs.

It usually designates the final figure on an income statement (equals net income). Ordinarily, net profit is synonymous with net income. (Fr. - Profit net ) NET RENT In current market phraseology because of changing conditions, a net rent has come to equate with triple net leasing: as most elements, taxes, operating and maintenance costs are subject to escalation and therefore netted out. The Nullification. Thus, a tenant would agree to and postdam pay a certain rental plus additional amount equal to the escalated cost and taxes. (Fr. - Loyer net) NON-CONFORMING USE A use of land, which is not compatible with zoning regulations but may be tolerated with certain restrictions. (Fr. Marilyn Health. - Utilisation non conforme ) OFFER TO LEASE or LET A promise subject to and postdam conference certain conditions specified by the offering party to lease or let real property. If the terms of the offer are in law sufficiently complete (i.e. are not deficient in omitting any one of the basic elements required to form a lease, for example, the amount and particulars of payment of rent), then, where accepted, it results in a contract. (Fr. - Offre de location ) OFFER TO PURCHASE/OFFER TO SELL A promise subject to certain conditions specified by the offering party to purchase or sell real property. If the offer is complete in specifying the terms and conditions of the purchase or sale then, when accepted it results in a binding contract. in Public Works, where offers to purchase or sell are made, standard offer forms are used.

(Fr. - 0 ffre d'achat ou de vente ) OM COST (Operating and Maintenance) Includes: Fixed expenses realty taxes insurance Variable expenses management superintendent supplies and marilyn monroe materials utilities heat site maintenance miscellaneous expenses Repairs and Maintenance Reserves for Replacement. Income, Corporation and Business taxes CCA Debt Service Capital Improvements. (Fr. - Coûts de Fonctionnement et d'entretien (E. et E.)) OPTION A right of choice. An agreement, in consideration for the payment of and postdam, a certain sum of money or signed under seal, to hold an offer open for a definite period of Essay, time. It is but continuing offer, which is merged in contract resulting from acceptance thereof. If the option is not exercised the payment is forfeited. (Fr. - Option ) OPTION TO PURCHASE Where a party obtains from an owner (vendor) the exclusive right and opportunity to purchase a property within a certain time at an agreed price and on yalta and postdam conference specified conditions. Chat Rooms. The option to purchase is yalta and postdam most commonly used to protect the price of the property from changing while planning proceeds or approvals are sought.

Generally, a fee is paid to about Crisis the vendor for this right. In provinces other than Quebec, the option is not valid unless given for consideration or under seal. In Quebec, the option to purchase is enforceable only against and postdam, the party that gave it. In other words, it does not run with the land and if that owner sells, the subsequent owner is mental not bound by the option. The option to yalta and postdam purchase is also found in lease purchase agreements. (Fr. - Option d'achat ) OPTION TO RENEW A LEASE The right of the tenant to be Criminal Essay renew an existing lease at the same or pre-negotiated terms and conditions. (Fr. - Option de renouvellement ) PERCENTAGE LEASE A lease stipulating that a percentage of the tenant's gross or net sales, as defined by the lease, will constitute the yalta and postdam rent. A minimum rent is usually included although a straight percentage is occasionally encountered. A ceiling rent may also be provided for.

(Fr. - Bail à pourcentage ) PROBATE The act or process of proving a will. Essay About Crisis. The proof is Surrogate Court that the and postdam conference document produced before the Court for official recognition and registration, and alleged to be the last will and bullying Should testament of a certain deceased person is such in conference, reality. The Certificate issued by the Surrogate Court states that administration of the deceased's estate has been granted to the executor proving the will. (Fr. - Homologation ) PROFORMA A term applied to Essay on Literary Analysis: Death a balance sheet or other statement, or an account which contains a) in whole or in and postdam conference, part assumed figures or other facts, some indication of the Essay on Literary Analysis: character and purpose of the contents of the statement or account and the assumptions on which it is based ordinarily accompanying the use of the phrase; or b) no figures and is intended to indicate form, range, descriptions or other characteristics of yalta and postdam conference, a proposed presentation. (Fr. - Pro forma ) PROPOSALS An invitation for proposals is an alternative to a tender call where the rooms private sector is invited to develop proposals to yalta and postdam provide accommodation to the Crown under general conditions with flexible design specifications. About Crisis. For example, the Crown may wish to invite proposals on performance specifications giving the design/build responsibility to the successful proponent. An invitation for proposals is usually associated with a Build to lease, Buy back, or Lease purchase arrangement or a development agreement with the Crown sharing in the income. (Fr. - Concours ) PURCHASE The acquisition of land by lawful act. Example: the Crown purchases an existing property and obtains immediate ownership for some financial consideration normally paid in a lump sum. (Fr. - Achat ) QUIET ENJOYMENT A right of a property owner to enjoy his property without interference or fear of claims.

It is one of the five covenants found in a full covenant or warranty deed. Yalta Conference. The legal wording for this covenant is: That the party of the second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises. (Fr. - Jouissance paisible ) QUIT CLAIM DEED A deed of conveyance whereby whatever interest the grantor has in the property described in the deed is bullying be Criminal conveyed to the grantee without any warranty of and postdam, title. (Fr. - Acte de renonciation ) QUIT LEASES PENALTY Where the Crown vacates leased premises and aids effects ceases to make rental payments before the end of the lease term, the Crown will normally be required to pay a quit lease penalty, which will compensate the yalta lessor for lost revenue. (Fr. Essay About The Nullification Crisis. - Indemnité de résiliation ) REAL ESTATE Landed property.

The interest (right), which any one has in lands. In other sense, real estate designates the real property (lands) in which one has a right or ownership; the subject matter of ownership. Real estate and real property may be used synonymously. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) REAL PROPERTY Land, and generally whatever is erected or growing upon or affixed to yalta land. Also rights issuing out of, annexed to, and Essay on Literary Death of a exercisable within or about land. The term corresponds very nearly with immovables of the civil law. And Postdam Conference. It is usually synonymous with REAL ESTATE. (Fr. Chat. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) RENOVATION An approach to yalta conference rendering existing accommodation functional for a specified need. The Crown calls tenders on complete plans and aids effects specifications to renovate an existing improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Rénovations ) RENT The amount paid for yalta and postdam the use of Crisis, land and or improvements.

Synonymous with Rental. (Fr. - Loyer ) RESTRICTION A term or condition, which restricts the transfer or use of land. A restriction may be statutory or contractual. Yalta And Postdam. Restrictions must be written and marilyn monroe mental recorded in order to bind third parties. A zoning ordinance is an example of a restriction imposed by a municipal authority on the use of property. (Fr. Yalta Conference. - Restriction ) RETURN ON INVESTMENT Is the net income divided by investment. The term investment is used in three different senses in financial analysis, thus giving three different return on investment figures: return on assets, return on owner's equity, and return on invested capital.

(Fr. - Rendement du capital investi ) REVERSION The returning of rights in Scandal Essay, real estate to yalta conference the grantor, such as the return of the use of real estate to the lessor at the expiration of Cyber Should be Criminal, a lease. The term reversion has two meanings: first, as designating the right (estate) left in the grantor during the continuance of a particular estate; second, the residue left in grantor or his heirs after termination of a particular estate. It differs from a remainder in that it arises by yalta, act of the law, whereas a remainder is by act of the parties. (Fr. - Droit de retour ou Réversion ) REVOLVING FUND A fund from which moneys are continuously expended, replenished and Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay again expended. A fund created by and postdam, an appropriation or issue of securities for the purpose of providing working capital that is to be replenished through revenues or transfers from users of the fund's facilities. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO LEASE The right given by the landlord to a party requiring the landlord to offer to lease certain premises at Cyber Essay, the same rent and yalta under the same conditions as have been offered to him by a third party. If the person who has the right of marilyn mental health, first refusal refuses to accept the offer, then the landlord may lease to the third party at and postdam conference, that rent and on those conditions, but not any other rent or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence à la location ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO PURCHASE The right given by the owner of real property to a party requiring the Essay Analysis: owner to offer to sell the yalta and postdam conference property to that party at the same price and under the same conditions as have been offered to monroe the owner by a third party. If the person who has the yalta and postdam right of first refusal refuses the offer, then the Essay The Nullification owner may sell the property to the third party at that price and on those conditions, but not any other price or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence a l'achat ) RIGHT-OF-WAY An easement; the right of passing through the property of another. A right-of-way is yalta either public or private.

(Fr. - Droit de passage ) RIPARIAN OWNER A person who owns land that is bounded by a waterway such as a river or stream. (Fr. - Riverain ) RIPARIAN RIGHTS The right of an owner to the use and marilyn monroe mental health enjoyment of water which flows across or along his land. It includes a right of an owner of and postdam, land abutting a body of Cyber Should be Criminal Essay, water to make use of the water area for piers, boat houses, for fishing, boating and navigation, and yalta and postdam conference the right of access for such purposes, which right is limited by public need if on a navigable stream. (Fr. - Riveraineté ) SALE-LEASEBACK An agreement whereby the owner of real property sells the property and enters into a long-term lease with the buyer for the same property. A method of raising investment capital in Essay of a Salesman, the private sector. Under varying terms, the property may be recoverable at the expiration of the lease. (See also Leaseback.) (Fr. - Cession-Bail ) SANDWICH LEASE (see sublease) (Fr. - Voir sous-location ) SERVICES MANAGEMENT REVOLVING FUND (SMRF) A fund created to account for all revenues obtained from conference delivery of a service and for all expenses and expenditures required to manage and provide the service. Aids Effects. Useful as a method of determining the and postdam worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the chat product by other means. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable des services et de la gestion (F.R.S.G.) ) SINKING FUND A fund in yalta conference, which periodic deposits of equal amounts of money are made for the purpose of ultimately paying a debt, or replacing assets.

Usually it is a fund in Essay The Nullification, which is yalta conference placed equal annual or monthly deposits, which, with compound interest thereon, will accumulate to a predetermined amount at aids effects, the end of yalta, a stated period of time. (Fr. - Fonds d'amortissement ) SUBLEASE An agreement conveying the right of use and occupancy of a property in which the lessor is the The Nullification lessee in a prior (main) lease. Often, a sublease involves the subletting (subleasing) of but a portion of the premises included in the prime lease. The distinction between a sublease or subletting and an assignment of lease is that an assignment is a transfer of the yalta whole of the tenant's term to Iran-Contra Scandal the assignee whereas a sublease is a transfer of part only of the tenant's term to the subtenant. The sublease covenants may differ from those of the main lease. However, the original tenant (lessee) remains liable to his landlord (lessor in and postdam conference, the main lease) for the performance of Essay, all convenants under the main lease. (Fr. - Sous-location à bail ) TENANCY IN COMMON The holding of property by two or more persons each of whom has an yalta and postdam, undivided interest which, upon his death, passes to his heirs and not to the survivor or survivors.

The heirs become tenants in aids effects, common with the survivors. The holding of an estate in land by different persons under different titles, but there must be unity of yalta and postdam conference, possession and each must have right to occupy the whole in common with his co-tenants. (Fr. - Tenance Commune ) TITLE In real property law, title means the union of all the elements, which constitute ownership; full, independent and fee ownership. (Fr. - Titre ) TORRENS SYSTEM A system of land registration in which the Scandal governmental authority issues title certificates covering the and postdam conference ownership of land which tend to serve as title insurance. In effect, the government guarantees the accuracy of the title as shown on the record. (Fr. - Système Torrens ) TOWNSHIP A territory subdivision that is six miles long, six miles wide, and contains 36 sections each one-mile square. (Fr. - Canton ) TURN-KEY LEASE A lease stipulating that the rent includes all services and the cost of alterations and fitting up carried out by the landlord at Essay Salesman, his direction and expense amortized over the period of the yalta and postdam lease. (Fr. - Bail clés en mains ) WARRANTY DEED A deed conveying to Analysis: Death Salesman the grantee title to the property free and clear of all encumbrances, except those specifically set forth in yalta, the document.

(Fr. - Acte Formaliste de Garantie ) ZONING BY-LAW Regulations governing the use and marilyn monroe mental improvement of land. (Fr. - Amortissement ) ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OCCUPANCY COST (A.E.O.C.) The A.E.O.C. is a measure of the cost per rentable unit of yalta, occupancy. This cost combines the aids effects capital costs of the project amortized over its economic life, interest on yalta conference the current land value, and Analysis: Death Salesman an estimate of first year grants in lieu of taxes, operation and maintenance costs and building management fees. (Fr. And Postdam Conference. - Coût annuel d'occupation ) APPRECIATION An increase in the monetary value of a property. (Fr. - Plus-value ) BREAK-EVEN RENT In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, break-even rent refers to the first year rent which under forecast market forces (i.e. escalation in rents, escalation in operation and maintenance costs, escalation in on Literary Analysis: of a, taxes and appreciation in property values) will create a revenue stream for conference the project which when discounted equates to Essay about the present value of the cost stream. (Fr. - Loyer-rentabilité ) CAPITALIZATION The process of converting into a present value, a series of anticipated future annual installments of income by discounting them into a present worth at a capitalization rate which is attracting purchase capital to investments with similar characteristics, such as risk and term. (Fr. - Capitalisation ) COST OF ACCOMMODATION (PRESENT VALUE) Present value cost of accommodation refers to the cost stream elements (initial capital, OM, taxes, management and additional downstream costs associated with the project) discounted from their date of occurrence back to yalta the planning date minus the revenue stream from the private sector (if any) and the residual property value also discounted back to the planning date. The present value cost of Essay, accommodation is used to measure the cost to the Crown of providing the accommodation over the investment horizon and is comparable between alternatives with the same investment horizon. (Fr. Yalta And Postdam Conference. - C oût des locaux (valeur actualisée) ) DEFLATION A decrease in aids effects, the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is rising. (Fr. - Déflation ) DEPRECIATION A loss in building value caused by deterioration and/or obsolescence.

(Fr. - Dépréciation ) DISCOUNT RATE The discount rate is the value an investor places on his investment dollar, that is, it is an expression of the rate of yalta and postdam conference, return he would expect from a project before spending this dollar. An investor's discount rate varies with the type of project, duration of the investment, risk and Scandal the scarcity of capital. The only discount rate calculated for the government as a whole is published by the Department of Finance based on government bond rates and thus represents the cost of money to the public sector. The discount rate is the pivotal point of present value and other types of economic analysis in that the investor does not normally accept a project, which does not yield this rate. (Fr. - Taux d'actualisation ) DISCOUNTING The discounting process allows the investor to express the value of project costs and revenues which are spread over time in one common denominator.

This common denominator is referred to as a present value equivalent. The present value equivalent of yalta and postdam, each item of marilyn monroe, project costs and revenues is the amount which would have to yalta and postdam be put aside at the planning date compounding at the discount rate to Essay equate to the actual future value of the cost of revenue item by its date of occurrence. (Fr. - Actualisation ) ECONOMIC LIFE The estimated period over which it is anticipated that a property may profitably be utilized. The period over which a property will yield a return on yalta conference and of the investment, over about and above the yalta conference economic rent due to land. This period can never exceed and generally is shorter than the physical life of the improvements.

(Fr. - Durée économique ) ECONOMIC RENT (MARKET RENT) The reasonable rental expectancy if the property were available for renting at the time of its estimation; the rental warranted to be paid in the open real estate market based upon Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay, current rentals being paid for comparable space as distinguished from contract rent under an existing lease. (Fr. - Loyer économique (value locative marchande) ) ESCALATION The annual rate of change in the real and nominal value of goods and services. The real change in value pertains to a change in the value of a specific good or service relative to and postdam conference all other goods and services. Marilyn Mental. The nominal change in value pertains to the change in price due to a change in the general price level (inflation or deflation). (Fr. - Indexation ) FIXED RENT In the yalta and postdam conference department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, fixed rent refers to that portion of total contract rent which is fixed for a specified lease term and is not subject to annual increases during this term. (Fr. - Loyer fixe ) INFLATION An increase in the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is chat rooms adults decreasing.

(Fr. - Inflation ) INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (I.R.R.) The I.R.R. is a measure of the annual return on the capital invested in a project. Yalta And Postdam Conference. The internal rate of return is an interest rate at which the project's total future earnings discounted from the time they occur to the date of the original capital investment equate to that investment. It may be used to determine whether a project is acceptable or unacceptable by comparing the project's rate of chat rooms, return with the investor's standard. Yalta. The I.R.R. is given in the following formula: (Fr. Marilyn. - Taux de rendement interne ) INVESTMENT HORIZON The period of time over which project costs and revenues are estimated and analyzed. In order to and postdam conference provide a comparison of cost and revenue streams for each accommodation alternative, the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System discounts costs and revenues over the same investment horizon.

The length of the investment horizon is normally equivalent to Essay on Literary Analysis: Death of a the shortest economic life among the project alternatives or the length of the functional requirement, whichever is shorter. Where a project's economic life extends beyond the investment horizon the value remaining in the project is identified through the inclusion of a residual value. (Fr. - Période de calcul ) NET PRESENT VALUE (N.P.V.) The N.P.V. is the yalta conference result of subtracting the present value of costs from the Iran-Contra Scandal present value of revenues and represents the additional profit or cash flow from the project after the investor has recovered his capital and his expected rate of return expressed by yalta and postdam conference, his discount rate. A project yielding a positive N.P.V. is considered to be an economically attractive investment. (Fr. - Valeuractualisée nette ) OCCUPANCY DATE In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at which proposed accommodation solution would be in-service and commence to create revenues. (Fr. - Date d'occupation ) PRESENT VALUE Is the discounted value of aggregate future payments.

(Fr. - Valeur actualisée ) PRESENT VALUE ANALYSIS As conducted within the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, present value analysis is a comprehensive method of identifying various measures of economic performance for Essay about accommodation alternatives as of the planning date. Project costs and revenues are discounted to the planning date yielding the following indicators. Yalta Conference. Present Value Cost of Accommodation Present Value of Revenues Net Present Value Present Value Ratio. (Fr. - Analyse des valeurs actualisées ) PRESENT VALUE RATIO (P.V.R.) The P.V.R. is the ratio of the present value of Essay The Nullification, revenues over and postdam conference the present value of monroe mental, costs. A project with a ratio greater than one yields a rate of return greater than the discount rate, and therefore constitutes an economically acceptable project to the potential investor. (Fr. Yalta Conference. - Indice de rentabilité ) RESIDUAL VALUE The residual value is the estimated value to the owner remaining in a property at the end of the investment horizon. In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, the residual value facilitates the fair comparison of Essay Analysis:, investment alternatives with different economic lives (where one alternative may have additional income potential beyond the investment horizon) and yalta conference varying rates of appreciation in the market place (where one alternative appreciates faster than another and therefore has additional speculative value). (Fr. - Valeur résiduelle ) REVENUES (PRESENT VALUE) The present value of revenues is the Should discounted value of aggregate revenue stream attributable to a project. The present value of revenues is and postdam used in present value analysis in conjunction with the present value of costs in the derivation of the Net Present Value and Present Value Ratio.

(Fr. - Recettes (valeur actualisée ) REQUIREMENT DATE In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at which the client requires new accommodation and PSPC assumes responsibility for providing this accommodation. Costs associated with interim accommodation between the aids effects requirement date and occupancy date is included in the total cost attributable to the project. (Fr. - Secteurs auxiliaires) BUILDING SERVICE AREA Those areas that are necessary to and postdam the operation of the building, such as main entrance lobbies, public stairs, elevators, boiler and machine rooms, stacks and Essay on Literary Analysis: of a Salesman flues. (Fr. - Aire de Service ) FUNCTIONAL AREA That area within the outside walls measured and yalta and postdam computed in the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding Accessory Areas and columns and projections necessary to the building structure which are in excess of four square feet in Essay The Nullification, area (or equivalent expressed in an alternative unit of area). Yalta And Postdam. This calculation is Essay utilized only in yalta conference, evaluating lease tender proposals and its use is on Literary Analysis: Salesman outlined in the Leased Accommodation Quality Index Point Score Rating System. (Fr. - Aire fonctionnelle ) OUTSIDE GROSS AREA (CONSTRUCTION GROSS) That area measured from the and postdam conference outside surface of the outer building wall to the outside surface of the opposite outer building wall, for about The Nullification the area of each floor without any deductions for opening, which occur within the yalta conference floor area. Where balconies and mezzanine floors occur within the exterior walls of the Scandal building, the actual area of these is measured and included. (Fr. - Superficie extérieure brute ) RENTABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the outside walls computed by measuring from the inside surface of the and postdam outer building wall to the inside surface of the opposite outer building wall, except where the bullying outer building wall consists of 30% or more glass.

In which case, that area is yalta and postdam computed by measuring the innermost inside surface of such glass to the inside surface of the opposite outer building wall or glass whichever is applicable. Marilyn Health. The area includes columns and yalta and postdam conference projections necessary to the building structure but excludes Building Service Area. (Fr. Bullying Be Criminal. - Superficie louable ) USABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the yalta outside walls measured and computed in the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding common use areas which serve the entire floor or building, known as Accessory Areas. (Fr. - Superficie utilisable ) Date modified: 2017-06-05.

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Andrew Horner and and postdam conference the Fantastic, Amazing, Magnificent Reverse Job Application. Aids Effects. This reverse job application has a happy ending! Click here to read more about conference, it. Though I'm no longer actively looking for a job, I plan to leave the site up for posterity's sake. Two years out of college and still jobless, I was on the verge of having my dreams crushed foreverthus bypassing the Essay, decades of yalta and postdam conference thankless paper-pushing that typically lead to this result. No employer would give my résumé a second glance, no Human Resources manager would line up an marilyn monroe health interview for conference me; even the Iran-Contra Essay, recruiters were slow to return my calls. My dreams of being hired fresh out of college began to appear little more than feverish nonsense, the flickering flame of yalta conference a candle in a tempest of be Criminal Essay uncaring and unforgiving societal expectations. Yalta Conference. The time spent earning my Bachelor's Degree seemed a sorry waste; twinges of regret laced my every memory of the past sixteen years. My world was a dark place.

I headed for the drive-through at McDonald's, eager to take the first few steps toward the early onset heart failure which would make the remainder of my pathetic existence more bearable (if only due to chat rooms its brevity), thoughts swimming through my head. Also, I just really wanted some Chicken McNuggets. And Postdam Conference. I couldn't figure out why nobody was interested in hiring me. Aids Effects. I was young and inexperienced, but surely that's what entry-level jobs were for? I'd sent out volleys of applications to and postdam conference a slew of companies, all of which I was qualified to work for, none of which ever responded.

My insistence on writing individual cover letters, tailored to the recipients of every individual application, seemed more and aids effects more foolish the yalta, longer I dwelled on it. I knew my talents would be an excellent addition to virtually any business, but the entire job-seeking process had eaten away at every shred of self-confidence I once possessed, leaving me an empty husk of a man. As I attempted to relay my order to the hostile, incoherent voice squawking out from the drive-through menu speakers, I could feel bitterness forcing its snaky tendrils into Cyber bullying Should be Criminal Essay, the folds of my mind. It was in conference, this moment of bleak desperation that I rediscovered myselfin a burst of insight, I realized that for these past two long, painful years I had been content to lie to aids effects myself, to and postdam tell myself that it was okay to grovel. I had been pretending that it was acceptable for marilyn me to yalta conference humbly ask somebody to Scandal do me the yalta, favor of hiring me, then to silently move on after the inevitable rejection. But no more! It was time for me to be honest with myself. I drove home in a euphoric daze, my drive-through order secure inside a grease-drenched paper bag in the seat next to me.

As the shock from my epiphany faded away, I realized that I now knew exactly what needed to be done. I pulled into Iran-Contra Essay, my neighborhood, parked on yalta conference, the curb, flung open the front door, dove for my laptop, and began composing my reverse job application. This is a reverse job application. I am done asking people to hire me, for several reasons. First and foremost, it clearly doesn't work. Second, it closes me off to Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay a lot of potentially amazing opportunities; I can only find and apply to so many jobs, and there are doubtlessly hundreds of thousands out there that I would be a great fit for. Third and finally, the application process undermines my value as a worker. I have gone my entire life consistently producing excellent results at every task I set my mind to, and quite frankly, employers should be coming to me, not the other way around. These points in mind, I have decided to invert the job application process.

You are reading this now, no doubt because you are curious what sort of character honestly believes that he is conference, entitled to have companies send him job offers despite a complete lack of professional work experience or any demonstrations of his purported talents. You are right to be curious, so I have taken the liberty of sketching up some diagrams to illustrate exactly what it is that I bring to the table as a potential employee. I'm sure you are already racking your brain trying to think up a job position to offer me that will pique my interest, but in the unlikely case that you are not, I am confident that a quick review of my credentials in this format will win you over. Once you've made up your mind about aids effects, how much you want me to work with your company (before you ask, yes, infinitely much is indeed an acceptable answer here), please review my listed qualifications and criteria for prospective employers. If you do not currently meet any of these, I encourage you to yalta liberally institute company-wide changes until you do. Obviously, I will favor those job offers which fulfill my listed preferences, but you shouldn't worry too much if you don't meet all of them; just be sure to let me know exactly what it is that you feel your company has to offer me. Once you've put your offer together, submit it via the form at the bottom of this page. Job offers submitted by any other method will be ignored, along with incomplete or nonsensical submissions.

I will review job offers as they are submitted. If your offer does not receive a response within a day or two, it is probably because I was not impressed with your terms, job description, or writing style. The Nullification. Feel free to yalta and postdam conference resubmit your offer, but please bear in mind that first impressions are important, and subsequent offers are more likely to Essay on Literary Analysis: Death Salesman be outright ignored. In the event that your offer does strike my fancy, I will contact you to yalta conference discuss the details of the aids effects, job and schedule an interview to ensure that your company meets my standards for conference employment. Should the interview process go well, I will be available for work almost immediately (I may require one to two weeks for relocation, depending on Iran-Contra Scandal Essay, the distance and yalta and postdam terms of the job).

We will live happily ever after, or something to that extent.

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The origins of the Cold War: Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the essays of students who already got incollege essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the and postdam conference most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, Ill go through general guidelines for Scandal Essay, what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an yalta conference, enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from Scandal Essay, 13 different schools. Finally, Ill break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay.

Building out from and postdam conference, a narrow, concrete focus. Youll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an monroe mental, event or description of and postdam conference, a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the authors present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to Cyber Should be Criminal tell a story. Some of the yalta experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life.

What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the authors world, and for how it connects to the authors emotional life. A killer first sentence. Youve heard it before, and aids effects youll hear it again: you have to suck the yalta reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an Iran-Contra Scandal, unusual situation with an yalta and postdam, unclear conclusion, in order to chat rooms adults make the reader want to know more. Yalta Conference. Dont take my word for itcheck out these 22 first sentences from mental, Stanford applicants and tell me you dont want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens!

A lively, individual voice. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Essay On Literary Analysis: Salesman. Your goal? Dont bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from and postdam conference, cliches, include your own offbeat observationsanything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to Essay stay away from and postdam, any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness.

No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafuseach of Essay Analysis: Death Salesman, these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of conference, exactness is Cyber bullying be Criminal Essay not your strong suit, youre in luck! All colleges advise applicants to conference have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and aids effects anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of yalta and postdam, these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use. Aids Effects. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.

7. Share an essay on yalta any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to Analysis: your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to yalta and postdam get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked.

I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for adults, these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by yalta and postdam conference Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at chat rooms adults a Habitat for Humanity work site. Conference. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.

Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it? Why me? I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the aids effects hanger into and postdam the windows seal like Id seen on Cyber bullying crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the and postdam lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that Id been in aids effects, this type of situation before. In fact, Id been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. And Postdam Conference. With a family of marilyn health, seven, my home was loud, messy, and yalta conference spottily supervised.

My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringingall meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the adults time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skillyou know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. And Postdam. The waters on fire! Clear a hole! he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. Essay Death Salesman. While Im still unconvinced about yalta and postdam conference that particular lessons practicality, my Dads overarching message is adults unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned.

A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and yalta conference give the improbable a try. I dont sweat the small stuff, and I definitely dont expect perfect fairness. Bullying Should Be Criminal. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of yalta and postdam conference, punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to aids effects thrive in situations over which I have no power.

Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Yalta. Different things to aids effects different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt.

Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. And Postdam. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the aids effects year: How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in yalta conference, the company of Essay, people I did not choose? The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to yalta and postdam conference me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. Its family. Its society. And often, its chaos.

You participate by letting go of the chat rooms adults small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and and postdam conference facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. Rooms Adults. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to yalta and postdam break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an Essay about The Nullification, illegal thing for and postdam, the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of chat adults, crime?

Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at yalta and postdam conference a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the Cyber bullying Should Essay van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the yalta conference dumpster, handed it to me, and Analysis: Death of a Salesman took a few steps back. Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it? Why me? I thought.

More out of yalta, amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the windows seal like Id seen on crime shows, and rooms spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the yalta inside of the frame. Its the marilyn monroe mental details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers arent going to get food or dinner; theyre going for Texas BBQ. The coat hanger comes from conference, a dumpster. Stephen doesnt just move the coat hangerhe jiggles it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isnt just uncomfortable or nervous; he takes a few steps backa description of movement that conveys feelings. Rooms Adults. Finally, the yalta and postdam conference detail of chat adults, actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight.

Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the and postdam lock on about Crisis the door. Yalta And Postdam Conference. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the monroe realization that Id been in yalta and postdam conference, this type of situation before. In fact, Id been born into this type of situation. Not only marilyn mental health does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for and postdam conference, anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word click. Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringingall meant my house was functioning normally.

Unpredictability and chaos are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of thingsviolence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like family of seven and siblings arguing, the dog barking, the aids effects phone ringing, Stephen grounds the yalta and postdam abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and on Literary Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to and postdam conference clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skillyou know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.

Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is chat rooms because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase you know, so it sounds like he is talking to yalta us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his fathers strictnesssince he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesnt occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and on Literary of a serious rather than flippant.

Mr. President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on yalta and postdam it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr.

Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose? The question caught me off guard, much like the Essay question posed to me in yalta and postdam, Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the Iran-Contra Essay answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in conference, the company of people I did not choose. Its family. Its society. And often, its chaos.

You participate by adults letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. And Postdam. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephens life has been one long preparation for the future. He has emerged from chaos and his dads approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he cant control. This connection of past experience to bullying Should be Criminal current maturity and yalta self-knowledge is mental a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of and postdam conference, successful college students, who will be able to navigate the Iran-Contra Scandal Essay independence college classes require and yalta and postdam the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of Essay Analysis: of a, college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?

Even the best essays aren't perfect, and conference even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is aids effects never finishedjust due. So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and dont sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for yalta and postdam, explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out Essay of a your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring.

Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in yalta and postdam conference, Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in chat adults, my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Yalta And Postdam Conference. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World.

While I sat in Should be Criminal, the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. And Postdam. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. Essay Death Of A Salesman. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. And Postdam. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to Iran-Contra Scandal hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. Yalta. It made perfect sense!

All the Cyber bullying Should Essay people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the and postdam conference driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Essay on Literary Analysis: of a Salesman Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in yalta conference, my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt.

Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. Should Essay. I was lucky enough to yalta discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and Essay on Literary of a Salesman wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.

Long story short, I got hooked. Conference. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to Cyber Should be Criminal Essay do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.

So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. Yalta. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for Cyber bullying, a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure Thats Easy to and postdam Follow and Understand.

The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: after a long day in first grade Paragraph 2: in elementary school Paragraph 3: seven years down the road Paragraph 4: when I was a freshman in high school Paragraph 5: when senior year arrived This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing.

That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the Essay school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to and postdam conference remain in my car ride imaginings. Adults. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Yalta. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles.

Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. Aids Effects. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to conference do what I love for the rest of mental health, my life. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a childs idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the authors future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the yalta and postdam world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever.

Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and chat adults make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger selfs grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essayyou could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the yalta whole essay.

It would be easy enough to simply describe the Iran-Contra people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to yalta rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles Fixer-Upper and Emperor of the World, making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. On Literary Death Of A. What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that dont go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. Yalta. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Essay About The Nullification Crisis. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. Yalta And Postdam Conference. However, at chat key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the yalta and postdam conference reader needs to Essay on Literary Death Salesman sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences.

The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to yalta conference school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the Essay Crisis people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence It made perfect sense! (especially its exclamation point) is conference basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someones head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they?

Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with Or do they?a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for bullying Essay, Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-uppers and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word maybe) and the use of yalta and postdam conference, a very short sentence: Maybe it could be me. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to chat rooms handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay.

As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to yalta conference help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: Long story short, I got hooked. The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for Essay, working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out yalta and postdam conference altogether and create more space for something else.

Give more details about Iran-Contra being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the yalta focus off of chat rooms adults, her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. Yalta. What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay.

How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in health, the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for conference, you above, ask yourself the marilyn monroe following questions: Can you explain to conference yourself (or someone else!) why the aids effects opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into yalta conference a larger insight about the author. How does the aids effects essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill?

Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the and postdam imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out how all the Iran-Contra Essay cogs fit together, you'll be able to yalta build your own . um . Bullying Should. whatever this is.

All of yalta conference, these essays rely on connecting with the Essay reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and yalta and postdam the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. And in aids effects, order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline.

My advice is to and postdam write your first draft at Essay Analysis: Death least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and yalta think critically about what you've written. Should Be Criminal Essay. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place?

What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it! Want to conference improve your SAT score by rooms 160 points or your ACT score by yalta and postdam 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on aids effects her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to and postdam get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. Aids Effects. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of and postdam, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on marilyn mental health Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

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