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A Sample Critical Essay on Essay Hemingway's 'The Sun Also Rises' In this short critical essay (approximately 1,000 words) about Ernest Hemingway#39;s novel The Sun Also Rises (titled Fiesta in Great Britain), the author demonstrates how minor characters shed light on essay some of the conflicts experienced by the protagonist, Jake Barnes. Essay. The title of the essay offers an allusion to the last line of oxidation pond John Milton#39;s sonnet #34;On His Blindness#34;: #34;They also serve who only stand and wait.#34; Notice that the essay is Scopophilia, based on a close reading of the novel and does not rely on secondary sources. #39;They Also Serve . . .#39;: The Waiter in churchill to describe which of these? The Sun Also Rises. A Sample Critical Essay on a Novel. 1 To keep Jake Barnes drunk, fed, clean, mobile, and distracted in The Sun Also Rises , Ernest Hemingway employs a large retinue of minor functionaries: maids, cab drivers, bartenders, porters, tailors, bootblacks, barbers, policemen, and one village idiot. But of all the retainers seen working quietly in the background of the novel, the most familiar figure by far is the waiter. In cafes from Paris to Scopophilia Essay Madrid, from one sunrise to the next, over two dozen waiters deliver drinks and relay messages to Barnes and his compatriots. As frequently in attendance and as indistinguishable from one another as they are, these various waiters seem to merge into a single emblematic figure as the novel progresses. A detached observer of human vanity, this figure does more than serve food and pro and cons abroad, drink: he serves to illuminate the character of Jake Barnes. 2 On a number of occasions, Barnes expresses a sympathetic awareness of the waiters around him. For instance, after dining with Lady Brett Ashley and Essay, the count at the restaurant in the Bois, Barnes recognizes that the two waiters standing by the door #34;wanted to go home#34; (61). Likewise, on the French train crowded with pilgrims, Barnes discourages Bill Gorton from teasing the overworked waiter, saying, #34;No.

He#39;s too tired#34; (88). It is fitting that Barnes should identify, at Scientific Method least implicitly, with waiters. Like them, he is a reticent and passive observer, carrying out Scopophilia Essay, routines with emotional detachment. For the waiters, of course, such detachment is merely professional decorum. For Barnes, however, emotional detachment is a means of pro and of studying protection, a method for coping with life. 3 One way that Barnes maintains his composure is to Essay substitute objective observations for emotional responses. His ritualistic descriptions of waiters doing their work often serves this purpose, as in the conclusion to the scene in the Bar Milano.

Ignoring the warnings of Montoya, Barnes has set Brett up with Pedro Romero: When I came back and looked in the cafe, twenty minutes later, Brett and Romero were gone. The coffee-glasses and about, our three empty cognac-glasses were on the table. A waiter came with a cloth and picked up the glasses and mopped off the table. Essay. (187) By focusing on this image of cleansing and the term "iron curtain" churchill to describe a divide which of these?, reordering--of a waiter clearing up the mess made by Essay, others--Barnes displaces whatever feelings of remorse, shame, and envy he may have. 4 On occasion, however, a waiter may be seen to dramatize rather than displace Barnes#39;s feelings. After leaving the Bar Milano, Barnes goes to the Cafe Suizo, where he is "iron curtain" was used by winston to describe between of these?, knocked out cold by Robert Cohn. After being revived, he again offers a parting view: #34;I looked back at them and at Scopophilia the empty tables. There was a waiter sitting at one of the tables with his head in his hands#34; (192). As an image of weariness, this is hardly unusual: it#39;s late and the waiter is tired. Oxidation Pond. But the image of Scopophilia Essay head in of studying hands may suggest something more, particularly as observed by a man whose own head is #34;a little wobbly#34; (192). It may be seen as a tableau dramatizing Barnes#39;s own exhaustion, pain, shame, and despair.

5 For the most part, waiters function silently throughout the novel as disinterested witnesses, emblems of routine maintenance, and correlatives to Jake Barnes and his suppressed emotions. In one important scene, however, immediately following the death of Vincente Girones, a waiter steps out of Scopophilia his conventional role, sits down beside Barnes at the table, and offers this choric commentary: #34;A big horn wound. All for fun. Just for fun. Essay Relationship. . . . That#39;s it. All for Scopophilia, fun. Fun, you understand. . . . Right through the how many british ruled, back. Scopophilia. A cornada right through the back. For fun--you understand. . . Oxidation Pond. . Essay. You hear? Muerto.

Dead#34; (197-98). It is not just the repetition and oxidation pond, the echo of #34;cor nada #34; in this speech that recall the prayer of the older waiter in Hemingway#39;s short story #34;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.#34; More significantly, it is the weary but forceful note of human concern in the face of human absurdity that links the two waiters. This view, defiantly anti-romantic, is one Jake Barnes is still struggling to achieve. When asked by the waiter what he thinks of Essay all this #34;fun,#34; Barnes can say only, #34;I don#39;t know#34; (197). 6 Appropriately, then, it is again a waiter who signals a possible change in Barnes#39;s life. The last part of the novel opens with another image of cleansing, waiters #34;sweeping the Method Essay, streets and sprinkling them with a hose#34; (227). And it is a waiter#39;s actions that dramatize the end of the fiesta: A waiter wearing a blue apron came out with a bucket of water and a cloth, and commenced to tear down the notices, pulling the paper off in strips and washing and rubbing away the paper that stuck to Essay the stone. The fiesta was over. (227) The vigorous verbs in this description reflect Barnes#39;s determination that certain things in his life were over, that he had reached #34;the end of the line#34; (239), that he was #34;through with fiestas for awhile#34; (232). Perhaps he had learned something about friendship, about #34;valuable qualities,#34; something waiters had always understood (233). Dental Appliances. 7 In The Sun Also Rises , Hemingway has countered the lost generation of main characters with the emblematic figure of the Scopophilia, waiter, whose voice is as old as the book of Ecclesiastes: #34;Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of oxidation pond vanities; all is vanity#34; ( The Holy Bible Eccles.

1:2). The wisdom gained by the waiter through disinterested observations of human folly may lead to the strength that can help him endure. Scopophilia. We should remember, after all, that the novel#39;s single representative of moral valor, Pedro Romero, #34;learned his English as a waiter in Gib#34; (242). Hemingway, Ernest. #34;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.#34; Winner Take Nothing , New York: Scribner#39;s, 1933.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to Scopophilia Essay, the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the Method Essay criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for Scopophilia, each score point, see the how many ruled Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is Essay rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from how many years british ruled residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. Scopophilia Essay! In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.

Write a response in which you examine the Dental Appliances stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to Scopophilia, explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of Dental Essay, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and Scopophilia Essay, validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river.

The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the essay relationship survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the Scopophilia Essay water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is oxidation pond not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the Scopophilia author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river.

Building upon the implication that residents do not use the cons of studying river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in Essay increased river usage. If the river's water quality and curtain" a divide between of these?, smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by Essay, pollution by Dental, factories along the Essay river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to Dental, the geography of the area. Essay! This is not something likely to Essay, be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Essay! Regardless of relationship, whether the river's quality is able to Scopophilia Essay, be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and "iron curtain" was used by winston churchill a divide between which of these?, revenue from those who come to Scopophilia, take advantage of the oxidation pond river, and a better overall quality of Scopophilia, life for Scientific Method, residents.

For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. Scopophilia! However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the Scientific city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on Essay riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to the term was used by winston a divide between of these?, clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and Scopophilia Essay, limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Dental Appliances! Details such as these provide compelling support.

In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . Essay! . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the "iron curtain" was used a divide between budget for Scopophilia, Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to about relationship, move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and Scopophilia Essay, thought. While the correlations stated are logical and Scientific Method, probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents.

The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Essay! Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. India! Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to Essay, sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage.

While it is Essay not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the Essay lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to how many british ruled, the budget. Likewise, the author is Scopophilia Essay optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in oxidation pond renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the Essay new buildings fall into essay relationship, dilapidation while the Scopophilia state drags the river clean-up.

Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and years british ruled india, education. Scopophilia! The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget.

While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to years british ruled, spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to Essay, fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the years ruled argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all.

Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Essay! Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to years ruled, this question requires. Essay! ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and how many years ruled, sentences suitably varied in pattern and Essay, length. The response uses a number of oxidation pond, rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the Essay response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the Dental assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for Scopophilia, water sports and recreation. Essay! This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is Scopophilia Essay correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the Method Essay recreational facilities need more money.

If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the Essay river to attract more people in the first place.

Rater Commentary for pro and abroad, Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to Scopophilia, increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is Essay questionable (e.g., residents may not have the Scopophilia Essay necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in cons of studying abroad fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the Scopophilia efforts to clean the river will be successful). About! Furthermore, the Essay final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.

Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is oxidation pond not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and Scopophilia, displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for Dental Appliances, the whole community. Essay! A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the Dental Appliances Essay city government cleans the Scopophilia Essay river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Pro And Cons Abroad! The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the Scopophilia Essay great emphasis being placed on Mason River.

If more money is Appliances taken out Scopophilia, of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into Essay, to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the Essay role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the by winston a divide between which assumption that people want the Scopophilia Essay river to be cleaned so that they can use it for Essay, recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is Scopophilia tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of Dental Appliances, pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of Scopophilia, city maintenance or building will be tapped into).

Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of oxidation pond, unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.

However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and Scopophilia Essay, the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at of studying abroad two sentences, the result is Essay not appropriate for the cause.

Third, the essay about relationship last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to Scopophilia, another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2.

Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for Method, the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the Essay writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of Scientific Essay, recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of Essay, this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.

Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of Method, its implications. Although the response may begin to address the Essay assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for british, all three measures and explanations for Essay, correct answers! Show schools only the cons of studying abroad scores you want them to Essay, see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ˇ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ˇ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. Was Used By Winston A Divide Between Which Of These?! ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service.

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Genetic research; is it complicating or simplifying the lives of humans? Where do science and religion conquer and is there a middle ground? Is Artificial Intelligence the Scopophilia, future of human evolution and is there a real threat of it overrunning human control? Should the Method Essay, dangers of Scopophilia Essay Nuclear energy be ignored when considering it as an alternative source of energy? Does science fully explain nature and its constant evolution? Should traditional and alternative medicine be considered above conventional approaches? Are stimulants and abroad supplements supposed to be self-prescribed without oversight by medical professionals?

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Should plagiarism attract penalties and Essay harsh consequences to cultivate creativity in students? Does personality determine the Dental Appliances Essay, image of a person? Cloning; is it morally acceptable or an intrusion into Scopophilia Essay, the scientific balance? Is religion the answer to moral decay in Scientific society? Abortion; does it count as murder? Is animal testing a savage act or a necessity in science?

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essay of ethnography WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. 1. To understand the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process. 2. Scopophilia? To identify different levels of ethnographic writing. 4. To write an ethnography. Every ethnographer probably begins the task of writing a cultural description with the feeling it is how many british ruled too early to start. Doing ethnography always leads to a profound awareness that a particular cultural meaning system is almost in­exhaustibly rich. Scopophilia Essay? You know a great deal about a cultural scene but you now realize how much more there is to know. Essay? It is well to Essay recognize that what you write is true of every ethnographic description: it is of studying partial, incomplete, and will always stand in need of revision. Most ethnographers would do well to set aside the feelings that writing is premature and Scopophilia, begin the task sooner rather than later. In the process of writing one discovers a hidden store of knowledge gained during the research process.

As most professional writers will affirm, the only way to learn to write is to write. In the same way that learning to swim cannot occur during classroom lectures on swimming, discussion of principles and strategies to follow in Scientific Method Essay writing do not take one very far in learning to write. It is Scopophilia Essay best to observe other swimmers, get in the water yourself and pad­dle around, and then have an experienced swimmer point out ways to improve your breathing and stroke. One of the Essay best ways to learn to Scopophilia write an Dental Essay, ethnography is to read other ethnographies. Select those that communicate to you the meaning of Essay, another culture. Essay Relationship? Those written in Scopophilia Essay a way that brings that culture to life, making you feel you under­stand the people and their way of essay, life. Essay? If you read well-written ethnographies during the process of writing, your own writing will improve spontaneously. Every ethnographer can identify books and pro and cons of studying abroad, articles that are well-written cultural descriptions.

In the past eight years, my colleague David McCurdy and I have scoured the professional literature in search of brief examples of Scopophilia Essay, ethno­graphic writing of the Scientific highest caliber. Our standard has been to identify writing that translates the meanings of an alien culture so well that someone unfamiliar with ethnography grasps those meanings. These selections of Essay, ethnographic writing have been collected in three successive editions of Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (1971, 1974. 1977). For sheer readability, two of the best longer ethnographies are Elliot Liehow’s urban ethnography, Tally’s Corner (1967), and Colin Turnbull’s study of the pro and of studying Pygmies, The Forest People (1962). In this step I want to examine briefly the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process.

Then I want to discuss the principles of the D.R.S. Method as applied to writing an ethnography. In the process I will give some specific suggestions on writing, but always keep in mind that the way to learn to Scopophilia Essay write an ethnography is to write an ethnography. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS. A translation discovers the meanings in one culture and communicates them in such a way that people with another cultural tradition can under­stand them. The ethnographer as translator has a dual task. For one, you must make sense out of the cultural patterns you observe, decoding the ruled india messages in cultural behavior, artifacts, and knowledge. The more fully you apprehend and digest the Scopophilia Essay cultural meaning system operating in the social situation you study, the more effective your final translation. Your second task is to communicate the cultural meanings you have discovered to pro and readers who are unfamiliar with that culture or cultural scene.

This means that every ethnographer must develop the skills of communicat­ing in written form. It requires that you take into consideration our audience as well as our informants. In a real sense, a truly effective translation requires an intimate knowledge of two cultures: the one described and the one tacitly held by the audience who will read the description. Many highly skilled ethnographers fail to finish the work of ethnographic translation. They give months of time to Scopophilia the intensive study of another culture, analyzing in great detail the meanings encoded in that culture. Then, without taking time to learn the skills of written communication, without understanding their audience, without even feeling the importance of com­municating in a way that brings the Scientific Method Essay culture to life, they write an ethnog­raphy. Their audience becomes a very small group of other ethnographers, who, by virtue of their interest in Essay the culture, are willing to wade through the vague and general discussions, examine the taxonomies, paradigms, and other tables or charts, and glean an understanding of the people and their way of life. British? The ethnographic literature is plagued by half-translations that cannot be used as guides to another way of life. In discussing the steps in writing an ethnographic description I will make numerous suggestions for creating a full translation, one that communicates the cultural meanings you have discovered.

However, one fundamental cause of inadequate cultural translations lies in the failure to understand and use different levels of writing. During the writing of any ethnographic description, the ethnographer must keep these various levels in Essay mind and consciously use them to increase the communicative power of the transla­tion. Levels of Ethnographic Writing. Every ethnographer deals with the most specific, concrete, human events as well as the most general. In our fieldnotes we identify an infant with a specific name, held by a specific mother, nursing at that mother’s breast, at a specific time and in a specific place. Essay? In those same fieldnotes we will make observations about human love, nurturance, and the universal relationship of mothers and Scopophilia Essay, children. In the final written ethnography, the range of levels is enormous.

More than anything else, the way these levels are used will determine the communicative value of an ethnographic translation. Kenneth Read, in his beautifully written ethnography of the Gahuku peoples of Highland New Guinea, The High Valley (1965), suggests the underlying cause of partial translations in ethnography: Why, then, is oxidation pond so much anthropological writing so antiseptic, so devoid of Essay, anything that brings a people to abroad life? There they are, pinned like butterflies in a glass case, with the Scopophilia Essay difference, however, that we often cannot tell what color these specimens are, and "iron curtain" churchill which, we are never shown them in flight, never see them soar or die except in generalities. The reason for this lies in the aims of anthropology, whose concern with the particular is incidental to an understanding of the Scopophilia general (1965:ix). In anthropology, as in all social sciences, the concern with the particular is incidental to the term "iron curtain" was used churchill which of these? an understanding of the general.

But when this principle is transported wholesale into doing ethnography, it creates a travesty of the translation process. When an ethnographer studies another culture, the only place to begin is with the particular, the concrete, specific events of every­day life. Then, through the research process described in Scopophilia Essay this book, the ethnographer moves to more and more general statements about the culture. With the abroad discovery of more general categories and cultural themes, the ethnographer begins to make comparisons with other cultures and make even more general statements about the culture studied. And all too fre­quently, it is primarily this kind of analysis and understanding that finds its way into the ethnographic description.

In writing an Essay, ethnography, as a translation in the full sense, the concern with the general is incidental to an understanding of the particular. In order for a reader to see the the term "iron was used by winston churchill between of these? lives of the people we study, we must show them through particulars, not merely talk about Scopophilia Essay, them in generalities. There are at least six different levels that can be identified in Essay ethnographic writing as we move from the general to the particular. Essay? Let’s examine each of british ruled india, these different kinds of translation statements. Level One: Universal Statements. These include all statements about human beings, their behavior, culture. Scopophilia? or environmental situation. Pro And Of Studying? They are all-encompassing statements. Al­though the beginning ethnographer may often feel incompetent to make any universal statements, all of us know things that occur universally and can include them in our ethnographies. Most cultural descriptions include uni­versal statements.

A study of air traffic controllers, for example. Essay? might assert, ‘In all societies, people manage the movement of their bodies through space in such a way that they do not constantly collide with other human beings.” Such a statement is years british relevant to controlling the movement of vehicles in which humans move about as well. Scopophilia? A study of about, clerks who record burglaries in Scopophilia the police department might assert the following universal statement: “in all human societies, some people keep records of about relationship, one sort or another about their affairs.” For each of the six levels of abstraction that appear in ethnographic writing, I want to give an example from The Cocktail Waitress: Woman’s Work in a Man’s World (Spradley and Mann 1975). This will clarify the nature of the various levels by Essay showing their expression in "iron curtain" was used by winston churchill a single work. The following universal statement is one among several: “Every society takes the biological differences between female and male to create a special kind of reality: feminine and masculine identities” (1975:145). In the context of a specific bar in Essay a specific city, we made an assertion about a universal feature of human experience. Level Two: Cross-Cultural Descriptive Statements. The second level of abstraction includes statements about two or more societies, assertions that are true for oxidation pond, some societies but not necessarily for all societies. Consider the Scopophilia Essay following statement from The Cocktail Waitress: “When anthropologists began studying small, non-Western societies they found that people participated in a single web of life. Oxidation Pond? . Scopophilia? . . [W]hen we turn to complex societies such as our own, the number of cultural perspectives for oxidation pond, any situation increases radically” (1975: 8, 9). This statement says some­thing about two very large classes of human societies—the small, non-Western ones and Scopophilia Essay, the complex ones.

Such a descriptive statement helps to convey an understanding of even the most specific place such as Brady’s Bar. Cross-cultural descriptive statements help place a cultural scene in the broader picture of human cultures, something every ethnographer is cons of studying con­cerned about doing. These kinds of statements say to Essay the reader, “This cultural scene is not merely one little interesting group of people; it is a part of the human species in a particular way. It is like many other cultural scenes, but it is also different from many others.” By means of contrast you have conveyed an important dimension of the culture. Level Three: General Statements about a Society or Cultural Group. This kind of statement appears to be specific, but in fact remains quite general. ‘The Kwakiutl live in villages along coastal bays” is a general statement about was used between which of these?, a cultural group. ‘The Pygmies live in the forest and play musical instruments” is another general statement. We can make such statements about complex societies also: “American culture is based on the value of materialism.” Or we can make such statements about recurrent cultural scenes, or groups of people who have learned similar cultural scenes: “Air traffic controllers work under great stress”; “Police departments must gather, classify, and record a great deal of important informa­tion.”

In our study of Brady’s Bar, we included statements at this level; they did not refer exclusively to Essay Brady’s Bar, but to all the institutions of which Brady’s was one example: “Bars, in general, are places of employment for hundreds of thousands of women, almost always as cocktail waitresses. Their role in oxidation pond bars tends to be an Scopophilia Essay, extension of their role at essay about home—serving the needs of men. . . . Like most institutions of Essay, American society, men hold sway at the center of social importance” (1975: 145). Level Four: General Statements about oxidation pond, a Specific Cultural Scene. When we move down one level of Scopophilia Essay, abstraction, we can note many state­ments about a particular culture or cultural scene, Most ethnographies are filled with statements at this level. “The Fort Rupert Kwakiutl engage in seine fishing.” “The air traffic controllers at the Minneapolis International Airport work one of three shifts.” Participant observation provides many statements at this level. We can say things like, “The waitresses at Brady’s get hassled by customers” or “Tramps aren’t really tramps unless they make the Essay bucket,” These are descriptive statements about a particular scene or group, but even so, they are still general in nature. Moreover, even when expressed by an informant and used in Essay an ethnography as a quotation from an pro and, informant, they represent an abstraction. Every culture is filled with these low-level abstractions that must find their way into any ethnographic description. Here is an example from Brady’s Bar: “At one level, Brady’s Bar is primarily a place of business.

At another level, Brady’s Bar is a place where men can come to play out exaggerated masculine roles, acting out their fantasies of sexual prowess, and reaffirming their own male identities, Brady’s Bar is a men’s ceremonial center” (1975: 130-31). This level of ethnographic writing contains many of the Scopophilia Essay themes the ethnographer wants to present to the reader. Thus, the theme of males expressing their identities in many different ways—in the way space is pro and cons organized, the way drinks are ordered, and the like—is described in Essay statements at this level. Sometimes one can encapsulate general statements at Level Four in Scientific Essay a quotation from an informant: they still remain statements of a very general nature. Making use of an Scopophilia Essay, informant quotation helps provide a sense of immediacy and gives the reader a closer acquaintance with the culture, but we must move to british ruled india even more specific levels. Level Five: Specific Statements about a Cultural Domain. At this level, the ethnographer begins to make use of all the different terms in one or more cultural domains. We are now dealing with a class of events, objects, or activities as you have discovered them in the cultural scene.

For example, here is an ethnographic statement at this level from my research on the factory that makes tannery equipment: “One of the most important jobs that men do is to make drums. A drum can be small, such as a barrel, or more than thirty feet across. There are many stages in making a drum, including making heads, making pins, making cross pieces, making staves, making doors, and making door frames. The entire process of making a drum can take as long as a week and involve the work of Essay, several men.” Descriptive statements at this level can make reference to taxonomies and paradigms that encapsulate a great deal of information. However, these representations in themselves seldom communicate more than a skeleton of relationships to years british ruled india the reader. In order to translate these into a description that will be understood, a great deal of narrative description at this level and the next more specific level is Scopophilia Essay required.

Here is a brief example of a specific statement about the domain, “asking for a drink,” which makes up part of the culture of cocktail waitresses. Abroad? ‘One frequent way that men ask for a drink is not to ask for a drink at all. In the situation where it is appropriate to ask for a drink, they ask instead for the waitress. This may be done in the form of teasing, hustling, hassling, or some other speech act” (1975:132). Level Six: Specific Incident Statements. In one sense, Levels One through Five all contrast sharply with Level Six, which takes the reader immediately to the actual level of Essay, behavior and years british, objects, to the level of perceiving these things. Scopophilia Essay? Consider an example from Brady’s Bar at this level, closely related to all the examples given at the other five levels of abstraction: “Sandy is pro and of studying working the upper section on Essay Friday night. She walks up to the corner table where there is essay a group of five she has never seen before: four guys and a girl who are loud and boisterous.

She steps up to Scopophilia the table and asks, “Are you ready to order now’?” One of the males grabs her by the waist and jerks her towards him. ‘I already know what I want! I’ll take you,” he says as he smiles innocently up at her” (1975:132). As a reader, you immediately begin to see things happening, perhaps feel things the years british india actors in this situation feel. Instead of Scopophilia Essay, merely being told what people know, how they generate behavior from this knowledge, and how they interpret things, you have been shown this cultural knowledge in action. A good ethnographic translation shows; a poor one only tells. Perhaps another example of the Essay six levels in ethnographic writing will clarify the effect on Scopophilia the reader. Drawing from my research among tramps, the following statements all describe a single aspect of the term by winston a divide between which, their experience: begging, borrowing, panhandling, lending, and otherwise exchanging things. LEVEL ONE: Reciprocity among human beings is balanced where two people give to each other over time, each giving and each receiving. Such reci­procity occurs in all societies.

LEVEL TWO: Tramps, like those who live in Scopophilia Essay tribal villages, depend on one another in time of need. They expect others to reciprocate. A Kwakiutl Indian will give in a potlatch and later receive gifts at someone else’s potlatch. A tramp will give to another tramp and also beg from another tramp. LEVEL THREE: Tramps engage in much more reciprocal exchange than do other members of the larger society. This kind of exchange takes many forms. LEVEL FOUR: A tramp in the Seattle City Jail will exchange goods and services with other tramps. If he is a trusty in the jail, he might exchange a service for money with someone in lockup. LEVEL FIVE: (Informant’s statement) “Yes, a tramp will beg from other tramps. If you’re panhandling you can expect another tramp to give you money or a cigarette if he has it.

You realize that sometime he will need something and then it will be your turn.” LEVEL SIX: It was a dull Tuesday afternoon and a slight mist of rain was blowing gently in from the Puget Sound. Joe had become a kickout an hour earlier; several minutes ago he walked off the elevator on oxidation pond the first floor of the Public Safety Building and found his way to the street. Pulling the collar of his worn tweed jacket up around his neck, he hunched his shoulders slightly and headed downtown, wondering where he would find money for a drink or even a cigarette. He might have to make a flop under the bridge on Washington Street tonight to stay out of the rain. He saw a man approaching him as he headed slowly down James Street, obviously another tramp. Scopophilia? Looked like a home guard tramp, but he couldn’t tell for sure. “Can you spare a quarter for a jug?” he asked. “I just got a kickout.” “No, I’m flat on my ass myself,” the other man said, “but how about a smoke, all I got are Bull Durhams.” After taking a light too, Joe started on down James Street looking for a tourist or businessman to panhandle. Ethnographic writing includes statements at all six levels on the continuum from the ruled india general to the particular. Effective writing, that which serves to communicate the Scopophilia meanings of a culture to the reader, is achieved by making all these statements, but doing so in a certain proportion. Profes­sional journals, in which the author writes primarily for colleagues, tend to consist of statements at Levels One and Two; that is, the Method Essay description is made in general terms, the author avoiding specific incidents. Those outside a narrow professional group often find these articles dense, dull, antiseptic, and inadequate translations.

Some ethnographic writings, whether articles, papers, or books, adopt a formal style using Levels Three and Four. Most dissertations and theses are written at these middle levels of abstraction, although they may contain a great deal of information also at Scopophilia Essay Level Five. They tend to present the bare bones, the skeleton of knowledge, without the flesh of examples and specific incident statements of Level Six. At the other extreme, some ethnographic novels and personal accounts consist entirely of of studying, statements at Level Six, with, perhaps, a few statements from Level Five thrown in now and then. Essay? This kind of writing holds the reader’s attention hut may fail to communicate the overall structure of a culture or the Dental Appliances Essay nature of ethnography. It should be clear that mixing the Scopophilia Essay various levels in the desirable proportion depends on the goals of the ethnographer. In You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads (1970), 1 made a great deal of use of Levels Three through Six, ranging back and forth among statements about Essay, tramps generally, to specific incidents.

Many of the incidents were contained in quotations from Essay informants. Pro And? In The Cocktail Waitress (Spradley and Mann 1975), we sought to communicate to a wider audience and included many more statements at Level Six, the most specific level. We also tried to relate the culture of Scopophilia Essay, Brady’s Bar to the universal level of writing more frequently. Essay About? In retrospect, we tended to scale down the middle level of generalizations. In Deaf Like Me (Spradley and Spradley 1978), an in-depth study of a family coping with a deaf child, we moved almost entirely to the most concrete level in order to communicate with the widest possible audience. Scopophilia? Although much of the data were gathered by ethnographic interviewing and other ethnographic techniques, we recounted specific incidents in order to com­municate more effectively to the reader. Oxidation Pond? We sought to show what the culture of families was like, how they coped with a deaf child, what strategies they used, and the consequences for communication.

Although statements ap­pear in this study at all the other levels of generalization, they are woven into the particular so thoroughly that they do not stand out. We attempted to communicate more general statements through the use of particular state­ments. Each ethnographer will have to determine his or her intended audience. I believe that ethnographic research holds important values for all people and that ethnographers should write for those outside the academic world. Scopophilia? I urge students and essay relationship, others to use the middle levels of Scopophilia, generalizations sparingly. Emphasize the most general and the most specific. In ethnographic writing, the concern with the general is incidental to an understanding of the Method particu­lar for an important reason. Scopophilia? It is because generalities are best communicated through particulars. And the second half of all translation involves communicating to outsiders the meanings of a culture.

STEPS IN WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. Like doing ethnographic research, writing an ethnography can appear to be a formidable task if seen as a single task. All too often, the beginning ethnographer conceives the writing as simply writing. You sit down with blank paper and all your fieldnotes and begin writing the ethnography. When it is completed it will require some revision and editing, hut the work is largely one long, arduous task. Underlying the D.R.S. Method of oxidation pond, research is the assumption that break­ing a large task into smaller ones and placing these in sequence will simplify the work and improve one’s performance. This assumption applies equally to writing.

However, because each of us has developed patterns of writing from years of experience, it is far more difficult to create a series of steps that have wide applicability. The following steps must be considered as suggestions only. Readers will want to create their own series of steps to organize writing in a manner that best fits patterns developed through past experience. However, the underlying premise, that it is valuable to divide up the writing of an ethnography into tasks, does have wide applicability. Step One: Select an audience. Because the Essay audience will influence every aspect of your ethnography, selecting an Scientific, audience is Essay one of the first things to be done. All writing is an act of communication between human beings and in that sense it is similar to talking. When speaking to someone, there are innumerable cues that remind us that our audience is of studying present. The writer needs to Scopophilia Essay select an audience, identify it clearly, and then keep in mind throughout the Scientific writing who that audience is.

When writing for a specific journal or magazine, the ethnographer must carefully scrutinize past issues of the journal to discover the style of writing. You are, in fact, discovering the Scopophilia audience that such a journal is written for. If one intends to write a book-length ethnography, then the oxidation pond audience may be scholars in the field, students, the general public, or some other group. The best advice I have ever received for selecting an audience came from Essay Marshall Townsend, the editor at Scientific the University of Scopophilia Essay, Arizona Press: A basic concept we stress at the University of Arizona Press is that of the “target reader.” What we urge YOU as an author to do is to pick out a “target reader” and write in book form for only one reader. Curtain" Was Used By Winston Churchill? Pick out some real person whom you know, then set down your materials so this person wilt understand what you are saying. When you have a “target reader,” you effect a single level of presentation. Essay? rather than trying to provide information to everyone from those who have their doctorates to students in high school who want to delve into the subject just a bit. Choose your level of communication and stay with it—by addressing yourself in Scientific your writing to only this one person.

We believe you will find this concept a highly workable one. When you as an author write successfully for one, we as a publisher may he able to take your book and sell thousands of copies because each person feels “this was meant for me.” On the other hand, if you try to Scopophilia write for thousands, and embrace all of their varied interests and viewpoints, we may not he able to sell a single copy. "iron Was Used Churchill To Describe A Divide Between Of These?? Stick to Essay your one-level approach, and we as publishers will take care of informing readers at all levels of interest and of understanding how the hook will fit Into their realm. Step Two: Select a thesis. Oxidation Pond? In order to Scopophilia Essay communicate with your audience, you need to have something to about say.

All too often, ethnographic descriptions appear to be like meandering conversations without a destination. Although of interest to the ethnographer and a few colleagues, such writing will not hold the Scopophilia attention of many more. A thesis is the central message, the oxidation pond point you want to make. Scopophilia Essay? There are several sources for finding a thesis. First, the major themes you have discovered in ethnographic research represent possible theses. For example, a major theme in the culture of tramps was that being in jail affected one’s identity, even made a man want to go out and get drunk. Ruled India? In jail a man learned to “hustle,” and this reinforced his identity as a tramp trying to Scopophilia “make it” on the street. This theme became the how many years british thesis of the ethnography: that jailing drunks, rather than being thera­peutic, actually played an important role in creating the identity of tramp. This thesis was summed up in the title of the ethnography, which came from an informant who said, “After thirty days in jail, you owe yourself a drunk!”

Second, a thesis for your ethnography may come from the overall goals of ethnography. You may, for example, state your thesis in the following way: “To most people, a bar is Scopophilia Essay a place to Essay drink. But to Essay the cocktail waitress, it is much more complex. It is a world of how many ruled, varied cultural meaning that she learns in order to Scopophilia Essay carry out her work and cope with difficulties. In this paper I want to show just how complex the cultural knowledge of the cocktail waitress is, in contrast to the casual impressions of the oxidation pond outsider.” Your thesis can simply be to show that cultural meaning systems are much more complex than we usually think. Another way to formulate this type of Scopophilia Essay, thesis is in terms of a set of Appliances, recipes for behavior. Culture can be viewed as a set of instructions for carrying out life’s ordinary activities.

Your thesis would be to show the Scopophilia reader the recipe for being a tramp, a cocktail waitress, or some other kind of person. Frake in a series of articles, has made effective use of this kind of years india, thesis. For example, he has written on “How to ask for a drink” (1964c) and “How to enter a house” among the Scopophilia Essay Yakan in the Philippines (1975). Still another way to formulate this type of thesis is to show the tacit rules for how many years, behavior. This thesis argues that much goes on in social life that we do not see, that there are tacit rules of behavior that people have learned but seldom discuss. The point of your paper is to make those tacit rules explicit.

Third, a thesis may come from the literature of the Scopophilia social sciences. In one paper on tramps I reviewed the literature on the concept of “reciprocity.” Then, I formulated a thesis that linked the patterns of reciprocity among tramps to these more general concepts (Spradley 1968). When a thesis has been selected, it is useful to state it briefly, perhaps in a single sentence, and place it before you as a constant reminder as you write. This will help organize your paper and integrate it around a single major idea. It will also help the reader to essay grasp the Scopophilia meanings of the culture ma way that a simple listing of domains and their meanings will not. Step Three: Make a list of’ topics and create an outline.

Any ethnography will necessarily deal with only selected aspects of a culture. Furthermore, you will use only Essay part of the material you have collected. This step involves reviewing your fieldnotes and the cultural inventory you made and Scopophilia, listing topics you think should be included in the final description. Some of these topics will be things like “introduction” and “conclusion.” Once listed, you can then make an outline based around your thesis. This will divide up your actual writing into Essay sections, each of which can be done as a separate unit. If you have been writing short descriptive pieces throughout the project (See Appendix B), many or all of these may fit into the outline. Step Four: Write a rough draft of each section. . A rough draft is intended to be rough, unfinished, unpolished.

One of the great roadblocks for many writers is the desire to revise each sentence as it goes down on Scopophilia Essay paper. Constant revision not only slows the entire writing process but also takes away from the free flow of communication. Constant revision seldom occurs in speaking; we may now and oxidation pond, then restate something, but usually we talk without revising. Write as you talk is an excellent rule to follow in composing a rough draft of each section. Step Five: Revise the Essay outline and create sub/heads.

Almost always the outline from which one writes becomes changed in the process of writing. Once a rough draft is completed for each section, it is "iron curtain" by winston churchill to describe a divide between of these? a good idea to make a new outline, rearranging sections as appropriate. You may want to use subheads to give your reader a clue to the structure of the paper and also to act as transitions from one part to another. Scopophilia Essay? Native folk terms can often be used as subheads in an ethnography, helping to oxidation pond create a view that reflects the cultural knowledge of your informants. Step Six: Edit the rough draft.

At this point in the writing you will have a rough draft of Scopophilia Essay, your paper, a fairly clear outline, and a number of subheadings you want to use throughout the paper. Now it is time to go over it with an pro and abroad, eye to improving the Scopophilia Essay details of writing. Work through each section and at the same time keep the entire description in mind. The Term "iron Curtain" By Winston Churchill To Describe Between Which Of These?? Make changes directly on Scopophilia Essay the pages you had previously written. When you want to add a paragraph or sentence, write them on the back of the page or on a separate piece of paper with instructions as to where they will appear. At this stage, it is often useful to ask a friend to read over the manuscript and make general comments. An outside perspective is especially useful for how many years india, making improvements that will enhance the Essay communicative power of the description. Step Seven: Write the introduction and conclusion . By now the descrip­tion has taken on substantial form and you can write these two parts of the paper in a more effective manner. Some writers find that they write better if they write a rough introduction at the start of the writing but save the conclusion until the end.

In either case, now is the time to Essay review both the introduction and conclusion and revise them to fit the paper. Step Eight: Reread your manuscript for examples . Examples involve writing at Essay the lowest level of abstraction. Because of their importance in communication, a special reading of the pro and of studying paper to see if you have used enough examples is highly desirable. Look for places where general state­ments have made your writing too “dense” and see if you can insert a brief or extended example at those places. Step Nine: Write the final draft . In some cases this will merely involve typing the paper or turning it over to Scopophilia someone else to type. In other cases. you will need to go carefully over the manuscript again, making the "iron was used a divide which final editorial changes. Using steps such as this means you have been over the entire manuscript numerous times during the course of Scopophilia Essay, writing. Instead of a single, first-draft-as-final-draft, your paper has gone through a series of Method Essay, developmental stages. In this chapter we have discussed ethnographic writing as a part of the translation process. Writing is a skill learned slowly and one that shows great variation from one person to another.

The suggestions in Essay this chapter are offered only as general guidelines, not as hard-and-fast rules that every writer should try to Essay follow.