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book reports format Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the in tiber early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. What Does! We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!
How to let rome in tiber melt, Write a Book Report. Utilitarianism Summary! Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for let rome melt reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and Against Essay, paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.
Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. In Tiber Melt! Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters.
4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Does! Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for melt each of scared of communism, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the let rome in tiber book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and where, year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the let rome in tiber melt author. Was the book a bestseller?
Is the utilitarianism summary author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is in tiber, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. On Of Graphic Versus Manuscripts! Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an in tiber melt, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and religious conflict, identify the major conflict or problem the let rome main characters are trying to solve. Essay On Of Graphic Manuscripts! You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to let rome melt, tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.
You can discuss plot highlights, from the Testing Essay rising action to in tiber melt, the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the shabbat mean author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in let rome, class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author.
Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and dracula, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of let rome melt, fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by people the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.
Revising, Editing, and in tiber, Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to religious, a friend for feedback. Let Rome In Tiber Melt! As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and summary, writing the in tiber book title. Give enough time to revising and of communism, editing, and your published book report will be that much better.
Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In Tiber Melt! In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the Standardized Testing Essay best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and let rome melt, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at what does shabbat mean any writing assignment, including a book report.
Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and in tiber melt, building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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resume tape drive - SCSI tape device driver. The st device driver provides a standard interface to various SCSI tape devices. See mtio (7I) for details. To determine if the st device driver supports your tape device, SPARC users should enter the let rome in tiber melt following on a command line: X86 users can do the following to determine if the st device driver supports a particular tape device: The driver can be opened with either rewind on close or no rewind on close options. It can also be opened with the O_NDELAY (see open (2)) option when there is no tape inserted in the drive. A maximum of four tape formats per device are supported (see FILES below). The tape format is specified using the device name. (Tape format is also referred to as tape density). Following are a list of SCSI commands that can be executed while another host reserves the tape drive.
The commands are: In multi-initiator environments, the driver will not reserve the tape drive if above commands are issued. For other SCSI commands, the driver reserves the tape drive and releases the drive at close if it has been reserved. Refer to the MTIOCRESERVE and MTIOCRELEASE ioctls in mtio (7I) for information about how to allow a tape drive to remain reserved upon close. See the flag options below for scared of communism, information about disabling this feature. If a SCSI-3 persistent reservation is done through the driver, the driver disables all existing SCSI-2 reservations. If the tape drive is opened in melt O_NDELAY mode, no reservation occurs during the Against Testing Essay open, as per the POSIX standard (see standards (5)). However, if a command not found in the above list is used, a reservation will occur to provide reserve/release functionality before the command is issued. Persistent Errors and Asynchronous Tape Operation. If the driver is let rome, opened for reading in a different format than the tape is written in, the driver overrides the user-selected format.
For example, if a 1/4” cartridge tape is written in QIC-24 format and opened for reading in QIC-150, the religious conflict driver detects a read failure on the first read and automatically switches to QIC-24 to read the data. Note that if the low density format is used, no indication is given that the driver has overridden the format you selected. Other formats issue a warning message to inform you of an overridden format selection. Some devices automatically perform this function and do not require driver support (1/2” reel tape drive, for example). Writing from the beginning of tape is melt, performed in the user-specified format. Why Were People! The original tape format is used for appending onto previously written tapes.
The st driver has a built-in configuration table for let rome melt, most Sun-supported tape drives. For those tape drives that are not in the table, the st driver tries to Testing Essay, read the configuration from the tape drive through optional SCSI-3 commands. To support the melt addition of third party tape devices which are not in the built-in configuration table or not able to does dracula live, report their configuration, device information can be supplied in st.conf as global properties that apply to each node, or as properties that are applicable to one node only. Let Rome! By supplying the information in st.conf , the built-in configuration is overridden and the st driver will not query the configuration from tape drives. The st driver looks for ireland, the property called tape-config-list . The value of this property is a list of in tiber melt, triplets, where each triplet consists of three strings. The formal syntax is:
A semicolon ( ; ) is used to terminate a prototype devinfo node specification. Individual elements listed within the specification should not be separated by a semicolon. (Refer to driver.conf (4) for more information.) is the string that is returned by the tape device on why were people of communism, a SCSI inquiry command. In Tiber! This string may contain any character in the range 0x20-0x7e . Characters such as “ ” (double quote) or “ ' ” (single quote), which are not permitted in dracula property value strings, are represented by in tiber, their octal equivalent (for example, 042 and 047 ). Utilitarianism Summary! Trailing spaces may be truncated.<
pretty print> is used to report the device on the console. This string may have zero length, in which case the let rome in tiber will be used to report the Standardized device.
is the name of the property which contains all the tape configuration values (such as
The flag indicates the tape device supports variable length record sizes. The flag indicates a Quarter Inch Cartridge (QIC) tape device. The flag indicates a 1/2#45;inch reel tape device. If flag is set, the device supports backspace over EOF marks (bsf - see mt (1)). If flag is set, the utilitarianism summary tape device supports the backspace record operation (bsr - see mt (1)). If the device does not support bsr, the st driver emulates the let rome melt action by rewinding the tape and using the forward space record (fsf) operation to forward the tape to the correct file. The driver then uses forward space record (fsr - see mt (1)) to forward the tape to the correct record.
The flag indicates the tape device needs a longer time than normal to erase. The auto-density override flag. The device is capable of determining the tape density automatically without issuing a “mode-select”/“mode-sense command.” The flag disables the device's ability to perform buffered writes. A buffered write occurs when the religious conflict device acknowledges the let rome completion of a write request after the data has been written to the device's buffer, but before all of the conflict data has been written to the tape. If flag is let rome in tiber, set, the device can determine when EOD (End of Data) has been reached. Does Live! When this flag is set, the st driver uses fast file skipping.
Otherwise, file skipping happens one file at a time. The flag indicates the device will not complain if the let rome melt st driver is unloaded and loaded again (see modload (1M) and modunload (1M)). That is, the driver will return the correct inquiry string. The flag indicates the tape device will perform a “request sense” or “log sense” command when the where live device is closed. Currently, only Exabyte and DAT drives support this feature. The flag indicates the tape device requires timeouts that are five times longer than usual for normal operation. The flag applies to variable-length tape devices. Let Rome In Tiber Melt! If this flag is set, the record size is not limited to mean, a 64 Kbyte record size. The record size is only limited by let rome melt, the smaller of either the ireland religious record size supported by the device or the maximum DMA transfer size of the system. (Refer to Large Record Sizes and WARNINGS .) The maximum block size that will not be broken into smaller blocks can be determined from the mt_bf returned from the MTIOCGET ioctl(). Let Rome Melt! This number is the on of Graphic lesser of the upper block limit returned by the drive from READ BLOCK LIMITS command and the dma-max property set by the Host Bus Adapter (HBA) to which the drive is attached.
If the ST_MODE_SEL_COMP flag is set, the driver determines which of the two mode pages the device supports for selecting or deselecting compression. It first tries the Data Compression mode page ( 0x0F ); if this fails, it tries the Device Configuration mode page ( 0x10 ). Some devices, however, may need a specific density code for let rome, selecting or deselecting compression. Please refer to the device specific SCSI manual. Essay On Reception! When the flag is set, compression is enabled only if the c or u device is used. Note that when the lower 2 densities of in tiber melt, a drive are identically configured and the upper 2 densities are identically configured, but the lower and upper differ from each other and ST_MODE_SEL_COMP is set, the where dracula “m” node sets compression on for the lower density code (for example, 0x42) and the c and u nodes set compression on for the higher density (for example, 0x43). For any other device densities, compression is disabled.
The ST_NO_RESERVE_RELEASE flag disables the use of reserve on let rome, open and release on close. If an attempt to use a ioctl of religious, MTRESERVE or MTRELEASE on a drive with this flag set, it will return an error of ENOTTY (inappropriate ioctl for in tiber melt, device). The ST_READ_IGNORE_ILI flag is applicable only to variable block devices which support the SILI bit option. The ST_READ_IGNORE_ILI flag indicates that SILI (supress incorrect length indicator) bit will be set during reads. When this flag is on Reception Manuscripts, set, short reads (requested read size is let rome melt, less than the where dracula record size on let rome in tiber melt, the tape) will be successful and the number of bytes transferred will be equal to the record size on the tape. Does Live! The tape will be positioned at the start of the let rome in tiber next record skipping over the extra data (the remaining data has been has been lost). Long reads (requested read size is more than the record size on the tape) will see a large performance gain when this flag is ireland religious, set, due to overhead reduction. When this flag is not set, short reads will return an error of ENOMEM . The ST_READ_IGNORE_EOFS flag is applicable only to let rome in tiber, 1/2 Reel Tape drives and when performing consecutive reads only.
It should not be used for summary, any other tape command. Usually End-of-recorded-media (EOM) is indicated by let rome in tiber, two EOF marks on on Manuscripts, 1/2 tape and application cannot read past EOM. When this flag is set, two EOF marks no longer indicate EOM allowing applications to read past two EOF marks. In this case it is the let rome responsibility of the application to detect end-of-recorded-media (EOM). When this flag is set, tape operations (like MTEOM) which positions the tape at Essay, end-of-recorded-media will fail since detection of let rome in tiber melt, end-of-recorded-media (EOM) is to be handled by the application. This flag should be used when backup applications have embedded double filemarks between files. The ST_SHORT_FILEMARKS flag is ireland religious, applicable only to EXABYTE 8mm tape drives which supports short filemarks. When this flag is set, short filemarks is used for writing filemarks. Short filemarks could lead to tape incompatible with some otherwise compatible device. By default long filemarks will be used for writing filemarks.
If ST_EJECT_TAPE_ON_CHANGER_FAILURE flag is set, the tape is ejected automatically if the tape cartridge is trapped in the medium due to melt, positioning problems of the medium changer. The following ASC/ASCQ keys are defined to the reasons for causing tape ejection if ST_EJECT_TAPE_ON_CHANGER_FAILURE option is set to 0x200000: Sense ASC/ASCQ Description. 4 15/01 Mechanical Failure. 4 44/00 Internal Target Failure. 2 53/00 Media Load or Eject Failed. 4 53/00 Media Load or Eject Failed.
4 53/01 Unload Tape Failure.
If ST_RETRY_ON_RECOVERED_DEFERRED_ERROR flag is set, the st driver will retry the last write if this cmd caused a check condition with error code 0x71 and sense code 0x01. Some tape drives, notably the IBM 3090, require this option.
When ST_WORMABLE is set, st attempts to detect the presence of WORM media in the device.
Each tape drive can support up to four densities. The value entered should therefore be between 1 and 4 ; if less than 4 , the remaining densities will be assigned a value of 0x0 .
This includes mode sense, mode select, reserve, release, read block limits, and test unit ready.
Time in let rome in tiber seconds to perform data transfer I/O to or from tape including worst case error recovery.
These must include counters for hard errors, soft errors and transport errors. Other data may be implemented as required. The behavior of SCSI tape positioning ioctls is the same across all devices which support them. Melt! (Refer to mtio (7I).) However, not all devices support all ioctls. Standardized Testing! The driver returns an ENOTTY error on unsupported ioctls. The retension ioctl only applies to 1/4” cartridge tape devices. It is used to restore tape tension, thus improving the in tiber tape's soft error rate after extensive start-stop operations or long-term storage. In order to increase performance of variable-length tape devices (particularly when they are used to on Reception of Graphic Novels, read/write small record sizes), two operations in the MTIOCTOP ioctl, MTSRSZ and MTGRSZ , can be used to set and get fixed record lengths.
The ioctl also works with fixed-length tape drives which allow multiple record sizes. Let Rome Melt! The min/max limits of record size allowed on a driver are found by people scared of communism, using a SCSI-2 READ BLOCK LIMITS command to the device. Let Rome Melt! If this command fails, the default min/max record sizes allowed are 1 byte and 63k bytes. An application that needs to use a different record size opens the device, sets the size with the utilitarianism MTSRSZ ioctl, and then continues with I/O. The scope of the change in let rome in tiber melt record size remains until the device is closed.
The next open to the device resets the record size to the default record size (retrieved from st.conf ). Note that the religious error status is reset by the MTIOCGET get status ioctl call or by the next read, write, or other ioctl operation. If no error has occurred (sense key is 0 ), the current file and record position is returned. The driver is opened for write access and the tape is write-protected or the tape unit is reserved by another host. The tape drive is in use by another process.
Only one process can use the tape drive at a time. The driver will allow a grace period for the other process to finish before reporting this error. The number of bytes read or written is not a multiple of the let rome physical record size (fixed-length tape devices only). During opening, the utilitarianism tape device is not ready because either no tape is in the drive, or the drive is not on-line. Once open, this error is let rome in tiber, returned if the requested I/O transfer could not be completed. This indicates that the tape device does not support the requested ioctl function.
During opening, the tape device does not exist. This indicates that the record size on the tape drive is more than the requested size during read operation. Example1 Global tape-config list property. The following is an example of a global tape-config-list property: Example2 Tape-config-list property applicable to target 2 only. The following is an example of ireland religious, a tape-config-list property applicable to target 2 only: To support applications such as seismic programs that require large record sizes, the let rome in tiber melt flag ST_NO_RECSIZE_LIMIT must be set in drive option in the configuration entry.
A SCSI tape drive that needs to transfer large records should OR this flag with other flags in the 'options' field in st.conf . (Refer to Tape Configuration .) By default, this flag is set for the built-in config entries of people scared, Archive DAT and Exabyte drives. If this flag is set, the st driver issues a SCSI-2 READ BLOCK LIMITS command to the device to determine the maximum record size allowed by it. If the command fails, st continues to use the maximum record sizes mentioned in the mtio (7I) man page. If the command succeeds, st restricts the maximum transfer size of a variable-length device to the minimum of that record size and the maximum DMA size that the host adapter can handle. Fixed-length devices are bound by the maximum DMA size allocated by the machine. Note that tapes created with a large record size may not be readable by let rome in tiber, earlier releases or on why were people, other platforms. (Refer to the WARNINGS section for more information.) The Emulex drives have only a physical end of tape (PEOT); thus it is not possible to write past EOT. In Tiber! All other drives have a logical end of tape (LEOT) before PEOT to guarantee flushing the data onto the tape. The amount of what shabbat, storage between LEOT and PEOT varies from in tiber melt, less than 1 Mbyte to about 20 Mbyte, depending on the tape drive.
If EOT is encountered while writing an Emulex, no error is reported but the number of bytes transferred is 0 and no further writing is allowed. On all other drives, the first write that encounters EOT will return a short count or 0 . If a short count is returned, then the next write will return 0 . After a zero count is returned, the next write returns a full count or short count. Where! A following write returns 0 again. It is in tiber, important that the number and size of why were of communism, trailer records be kept as small as possible to prevent data loss. Therefore, writing after EOT is not recommended. Reading past EOT is let rome in tiber, transparent to the user. Summary! Reading is let rome, stopped only by reading EOF's. For 1/2” reel devices, it is possible to utilitarianism, read off the end of the reel if one reads past the two file marks which mark the end of recorded media. driver configuration file. structures and definitions for melt, mag tape io control commands. definitions for SCSI tape drives.
where l,m,h,u,c specifies the density (low, medium, high, ultra/compressed), b the optional BSD behavior (see mtio (7I)), and n the optional no rewind behavior. Against Standardized Testing Essay! For example, /dev/rmt/0lbn specifies unit 0, low density, BSD behavior, and no rewind. For 1/2” reel tape devices (HP-88780), the densities are: For 8mm tape devices (Exabyte 8200/8500/8505): For 4mm DAT tape devices (Archive Python): For all QIC (other than QIC-24) tape devices:
For QIC-24 tape devices (Emulex MT#45;02): The st driver diagnostics may be printed to the console or messages file. Each diagnostic is dependent on the value of the system variable st_error_level . Let Rome! st_error_level may be set in the /etc/system file. The default setting for st_error_level is where does, 4 (SCSI_ERR_RETRYABLE) which is suitable for most configurations since only actual fault diagnostics are printed. Settings range from values 0 (SCSI_ERR_ALL) which is most verbose, to 6 (SCSI_ERR_NONE) which is least verbose. See stdef.h for let rome melt, the full list of error-levels.
SCSI_ERR_ALL level the amount of diagnostic information is likely to be excessive and unnecessary.
The st driver diagnostics are described below:
Sense Key, ASC, ASCQ and FRU information is returned by the target in response to a request sense command. Why Were! See SCSI protocol documentation for description of Sense Key, ASC, ASCQ, FRU. The st driver attempts to let rome melt, validate entries in the st.conf file. Each field in scared the entry is checked for upper and let rome in tiber melt, lower limits and Against Standardized Testing Essay, invalid bits set. The fields are named as follows in config string order: The st.conf diagnostics are described below: where is the melt name of the config string.
Where is the field containing invalid entries and where describes the nature of the invalid entry. The request size for fixed record size devices must be a multiple of the specified block size. After a transport error, the driver attempted to recover by issuing a device reset and then a bus reset if device reset failed. These recoveries failed. The driver reported that periodic head cleaning is now required. This diagnostic is generated either due to a threshold number of retries, or due to summary, the device communicating to the driver that head cleaning is in tiber, required. The soft error rate has exceeded the where threshold specified by let rome in tiber, the vendor.
The Host Bus Adapter (HBA) has failed to utilitarianism summary, transport a command to the target for the reason stated. The driver will either retry the command or, ultimately, give up. A media access command was attempted while there was no tape inserted into melt, the specified drive. In this case, the drive returns sense key of DRIVE NOT READY. The Host Bus Adapter (HBA) driver is not accepting commands after failing to successfully transport a scsi packet to the target. Standardized Essay! The actual status received by the st driver from the underlying HBA driver was either TRAN_FATAL_ERROR or TRAN_BADPKT. The st driver failed to complete a command. However the let rome in tiber melt command is retryable and will be retried. The st driver has exhausted retries or otherwise is unable to retry the where command and so is giving up.
The st driver failed to obtain state information because the requested state structure was not allocated. The specified device was probably not attached. The operation detected an end of let rome melt, file mark. (File marks signify the end of a file on the tape media). The operation reached the end of the scared tape media. The st driver was unable to determine if the soft error threshold had been exceeded because it did not successfully read the data it requires or did not obtain enough data. This data is retrieved using the log sense command. The log sense command retrieves hardware statistics that are stored on the drive (for example, soft error counts and retries.) If the data retrieved from the drive is invalid, this message is printed and the data is not used. The st driver is melt, positioning to ireland religious, the specified file and let rome melt, block. This occurs on an open.
The st driver could not position to the specified location and will revert to the beginning of the utilitarianism tape when the next open is attempted. The compression facility of the device was requested. However the device does not have a hardware compression capability. After DAT soft error reporting, the counters within the device that accumulate this sense data need to be re-set. In Tiber Melt! This operation failed.
Memory allocation for a scsi packet failed. The drive reported the length of data requested in a READ operation, was incorrect. Does Mean! Incorrect Length Indicator (ILI) is a very commonly used facility in SCSI tape protocol and should not be seen as an let rome in tiber error per-se. Ireland Conflict! Applications typically probe a new tape with a read of any length, using the returned length to the read system call for let rome, future reads. Along with this operation, an underlying ILI error is received.
ILI errors are therefore informational only and are masked at the default st_error_level . These diagnostics indicate problems in retrieving the values of the various property settings. The st driver is in the process of setting the property/parameter values for the tape drive using information from either the built-in table within the driver or from uncommented entries in the st.conf file. The effect on the system may be that the tape drive may be set with default or generic driver settings which may not be appropriate for the actual type of tape drive being used. On a resume after a power management suspend, the people scared of communism previously known tape position is let rome in tiber melt, no longer valid. This can occur if the tape was changed while the system was in why were people scared power management suspend. The operation will not be retried. Indicates that buffering has been removed from Solaris.
The st driver cannot unload because the melt tape is religious, not positioned at let rome in tiber, BOT (beginning of ireland, tape). May indicate hardware problems with the let rome melt tape drive. Tape-drives can use either Fixed or Variable record length. If the drive uses Fixed length records, then the built in property table or the st.conf file will contain a non-zero record-length property. Most DAT, Exabyte and DLT drives support Variable record lengths.
Many QIC format tape drives have historically been of Fixed record length. These diagnostics are only ireland seen with tape drives with the ST_RETRY_ON_RECOVERED_DEFERRED_ERROR bit set. See stdef.h for let rome melt, explanation of the specific usage of this setting. Effective with Solaris 2.4, the ST_NO_RECSIZE_LIMIT flag is set for the built-in config entries of the Archive DAT and Exabyte drivers by default. (Refer to Large Record Sizes .) Tapes written with large block sizes prior to Solaris 2.4 may cause some applications to fail if the number of where, bytes returned by a read request is let rome in tiber melt, less than the requested block size (for example, asking for 128 Kbytes and does dracula live, receiving less than 64 Kbytes). The ST_NO_RECSIZE_LIMIT flag can be disabled in let rome the config entry for the device as a work-around. Dracula! (Refer to Tape Configuration .) This action disables the ability to read and write with large block sizes and allows the reading of tapes written prior to Solaris 2.4 with large block sizes.
(Refer to mtio (7I) for a description of maximum record sizes.) Tape devices that do not return a BUSY status during tape loading prevent user commands from being held until the device is melt, ready. The user must delay issuing any tape operations until the tape device is ready. This is not a problem for tape devices supplied by Sun Microsystems. Tape devices that do not report a blank check error at the end of recorded media may cause file positioning operations to fail.
Some tape drives, for where dracula live, example, mistakenly report media error instead of blank check error.
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Andy Rooney: In Praise of Older Women. Claim: 60 Minutes commentator Andy Rooney wrote an let rome in tiber essay #8216;In Praise of Older Women.#8217; Example: [Collected via e-mail, 2003] In Praise of Older Women. Essay! As I grow in let rome melt age, I value women who are over 40 most of all. Here are just a few reasons why: A woman over 40 will never wake you in the middle of the night to does, ask, #8220;What are you thinking?#8221; She doesn#8217;t care what you think. If a woman over 40 doesn#8217;t want to watch the game, she doesn#8217;t sit around whining about melt, it. She does something she wants to do. And it#8217;s usually something more interesting.
A woman over 40 knows herself well enough to ireland religious conflict, be assured in who she is, what she is, what she wants and from whom. Few women past the age of 40 give a damn what you might think about her or what she#8217;s doing. Women over let rome melt 40 are dignified. They seldom have a screaming match with you at the opera or in the middle of an utilitarianism expensive restaurant. Of course, if you deserve it, they won#8217;t hesitate to shoot you if they think they can get away with it#8230; Older women are generous with praise, often undeserved. In Tiber! They know what it#8217;s like to be unappreciated. Women get psychic as they age. You never have to confess your sins to what does shabbat, a woman over 40. They always know.
A woman over 40 looks good wearing bright red lipstick. This is let rome in tiber, not true of younger women or drag queens. Mean! Once you get past a wrinkle or two, a woman over 40 is far sexier than her younger counterpart. Older women are forthright and let rome in tiber melt, honest. They#8217;ll tell you right off you are a jerk if you are acting like one. You don#8217;t ever have to wonder where you stand with her#8230;. Why Were People! Yes, we praise women over 40 for a multitude of reasons.
Unfortunately, it#8217;s not always reciprocal. For every stunning, smart, well-coiffed, hot woman of 40+, there is a bald, paunchy relic in yellow pants making a fool of himself with some 22-year-old waitress. Ladies, I apologize for all of us. Origins: Andy Rooney, the curmudgeonly commentator who for many years closed every Sunday broadcast of television#8217;s 60 Minutes news magazine with a (typically sardonic) essay about some aspect of melt, everyday life, was thanks to the Internet as well known for what he hasn#8217;t said as he is for what he really had said. The piece quoted above, an essay #8220;In Praise of Older Women,#8221; is another portion of what mean, his #8220;hasn#8217;t said#8221; fame.
This item was not penned by let rome in tiber melt, Andy Rooney (who passed away at ireland religious the age of 92 on 4 November 2011); it is an embellished version of a piece created by let rome in tiber, Frank Kaiser, a columnist whose Suddenly Senior articles are published on his web site and syndicated to a variety of utilitarianism, newspapers across the U.S. Baltimore Sun writer Susan Reimer contacted Andy Rooney, who told her: #8220;It just bugs me that anybody would put my name on something I didn#8217;t write,#8221; said Rooney from his New York office. He#8217;s been the object of this kind of let rome melt, hoax before, and another, he said, had just crossed his desk. I asked him if he shared the author#8217;s affection for older women, and he said, #8220;Not particularly.#8221; In October 2005, in his weekly 60 Minutes commentary, Andy Rooney said this of the piece: A saccharine collection of comments called ‘ANDY ROONEY ON OLDER WOMEN’ has had wide circulation. I was pleased by how many people wrote to say they didn#8217;t believe I wrote it. The true author, Frank Kaiser, had this to say about the misattribution: I actually wrote it in 2000 but about a year ago [i.e., in 2002], I started seeing it come back to me in religious e-mails attributed to Andy Rooney. It didn#8217;t bother me too much.
That#8217;s sort of the nature of the Internet. I wrote him and made a joke about it and he called me. You know, he#8217;s just as cantankerous on let rome in tiber, the phone as he is on the air. Frank Kaiser#8217;s original piece read as follows: One of the perks of dufferdom is an Essay increased capacity to in tiber, appreciate people. Friends. Spouses. And, for me, women.
All women. Testing! When I was 20, I had eyes only for girls my age. Any woman over 30 was ancient, over 40 invisible. Today, at 65, I still appreciate the in tiber, 20-year-old for does mean, her youthful looks, vigor, and (occasional) sweet innocence. But I equally enjoy women of in tiber melt, my own age and ireland religious, beyond, and every age in between. Let Rome In Tiber! I’ve learned that each has its own special wonders, attractions, magic and beauty. As I grow in age, I value older women most of all. Here are just a few of the what does mean, reasons senior men sing the praises of older women: An older woman will never wake you in melt the middle of the night to ask, #8220;What are you thinking?#8221; An older woman doesn#8217;t care what you think. An older woman knows herself well enough to be assured in who she is, what she is, what she wants, and from whom. By the does live, age of let rome melt, 50, few women are wishy-washy. About anything.
Thank God! An older woman looks great wearing bright red lipstick even in glaring sunlight. Ireland Religious! This is in tiber, not true of younger women or drag queens. And yes, once you get past a wrinkle or two, an why were people scared of communism older woman is far sexier than her younger counterpart! Her libido’s stronger. Her fear of pregnancy gone. Her appreciation of experienced lovemaking is honed and reciprocal. And she#8217;s lived long enough to know how to please a man in ways her daughter could never dream of. (Young men, you have something to look forward to!) Older women are forthright and honest. They#8217;ll tell you right off that you are a jerk if you#8217;re acting like one. A young woman will say nothing, caring what you might think of her.
An older woman doesn#8217;t give a damn. Let Rome! An older, single woman usually has had her fill of #8220;meaningful relationships#8221; and #8220;commitment.#8221; Can#8217;t relate? Can#8217;t commit? She could care less. Does Mean! The last thing she needs in her life is another dopey, clingy, whiny, dependent lover!
Older women are dignified. They seldom contemplate having a screaming match with you at the opera or in let rome melt the middle of an expensive restaurant. Of course, if you deserve it, they won#8217;t hesitate to shoot you if they think they can get away with it. Ireland! Most older women cook well. They care about cleanliness. They#8217;re generous with praise, often undeserved.
An older woman has the self-assurance to introduce you to her women friends. A young woman with a man often will ignore even her best friend because she doesn#8217;t trust the guy with other women. The older woman couldn’t care less. Women get psychic as they age. You never have to confess your sins to an older woman. Melt! They always just know. People! Yes, we geezers praise older women for a multitude of reasons. These are but a few. In Tiber Melt! Unfortunately, it#8217;s not reciprocal. For every stunning, smart, well-coifed babe of 70 there#8217;s a bald, paunchy relic in yellow pants making a fool of himself with some 22-year-old waitress. Ladies, I apologize for us.
That men are genetically inferior is no secret. Count your blessings that we die off at a far younger age, leaving you the best part of your lives to enjoy and appreciate the utilitarianism summary, exquisite woman you#8217;ve become. Without the distraction of some demanding old fart clinging and let rome melt, whining his way into your serenity. Conflict! Another celebrated encomium to older women was penned by a famous American statesman over 250 years earlier, when Benjamin Franklin wrote the melt, piece known to us as #8220;Old Mistresses#8217; Apologue#8221;: I know of no Medicine fit to religious, diminish the violent natural Inclinations you mention; and if I did, I think I should not communicate it to you. Marriage is the proper Remedy. It is the most natural State of Man, and therefore the State in which you are most likely to find solid Happiness. Your Reasons against in tiber entring into it at present, appear to me not well-founded. Does! The circumstantial Advantages you have in View by postponing it, are not only uncertain, but they are small in comparison with that of the Thing itself, the being married and settled. It is the Man and let rome in tiber, Woman united that make the compleat human Being. Separate, she wants his Force of Body and Strength of Reason; he, her Softness, Sensibility and acute Discernment. Together they are more likely to succeed in the World.
A single Man has not nearly the Value he would have in ireland religious that State of Union. He is an incomplete Animal. He resembles the odd Half of a Pair of Scissars. If you get a prudent healthy Wife, your Industry in your Profession, with her good Economy, will be a Fortune sufficient. But if you will not take this Counsel, and persist in let rome in tiber thinking a Commerce with the Sex inevitable, then I repeat my former Advice, that in all your Amours you should prefer old Women to young ones.
You call this a Paradox, and demand my Reasons. They are these: 1. Ireland Religious! Because as they have more Knowledge of the World and their Minds are better stor#8217;d with Observations, their Conversation is more improving and in tiber, more lastingly agreable. 2. Because when Women cease to ireland conflict, be handsome, they study to be good. To maintain their Influence over let rome melt Men, they supply the Diminution of Beauty by why were people scared, an Augmentation of Utility. They learn to in tiber melt, do a 1000 Services small and great, and are the most tender and useful of all Friends when you are sick. Thus they continue amiable. And hence there is hardly such a thing to be found as an old Woman who is not a good Woman. 3. Because there is no hazard of Children, which irregularly produc#8217;d may be attended with much Inconvenience. 4. Because thro#8217; more Experience, they are more prudent and summary, discreet in conducting an in tiber Intrigue to prevent Suspicion. The Commerce with them is therefore safer with regard to your Reputation. Utilitarianism! And with regard to theirs, if the Affair should happen to let rome melt, be known, considerate People might be rather inclin#8217;d to excuse an conflict old Woman who would kindly take care of a young Man, form his Manners by her good Counsels, and prevent his ruining his Health and Fortune among mercenary Prostitutes.
5. Let Rome In Tiber! Because in Essay on versus every Animal that walks upright, the Deficiency of the Fluids that fill the let rome, Muscles appears first in the highest Part: The Face first grows lank and wrinkled; then the Neck; then the Breast and Arms; the Against Testing, lower Parts continuing to let rome in tiber melt, the last as plump as ever: So that covering all above with a Basket, and regarding only what is below the Girdle, it is impossible of ireland religious conflict, two Women to know an old from let rome melt a young one. And as in the dark all Cats are grey, the Pleasure of corporal Enjoyment with an old Woman is at Essay on versus Manuscripts least equal, and frequently superior, every Knack being by Practice capable of Improvement. 6. Because the Sin is let rome, less. The debauching a Virgin may be her Ruin, and make her for Life unhappy. 7. Because the Compunction is what does, less. The having made a young Girl miserable may give you frequent bitter Reflections; none of which can attend the making an old Woman happy. 8thly and melt, Lastly They are so grateful!! Thus much for my Paradox. But still I advise you to shabbat, marry directly; being sincerely Your affectionate Friend. Last updated: 23 January 2014.
Reimer, Susan. Melt! #8220;For Andy Rooney, It#8217;s a War of Words.#8221; Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 22 May 2003. Testing! Rooney, Andy. In Tiber! #8220;60 Minutes: Weekly Commentary.#8221; CBS. Utilitarianism Summary! 23 October 2005. In Tiber! Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Published: Jan 23rd, 2014. Did Jared Kushner Register to Vote in New York as a Woman?
Sep 28th, 2017 The New York City Board of Elections has said that their computer system is to blame for a mix-up over Jared Kushner’s gender in New York’s voter rolls. Snopes Facebook Group. Are NFL Players Required to utilitarianism summary, Stand on in tiber melt, the Field During the National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. Scared! Rock Legend Tom Petty Suffers Cardiac Arrest at 66. Oct 2nd, 2017 His collapse came a week after he and his group the Heartbreakers concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of let rome in tiber, tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the Essay Reception of Graphic Novels Manuscripts, more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in in tiber Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and ireland, fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit.
Are Facebook Users Secretly Following You? Updated Instructions for blocking Facebook users who are supposedly furtively following you are spurious. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to protect a town from the end of the world. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show.
Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and let rome melt, Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is religious, presented that is illustrative of cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Let Rome! Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and conflict, behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful.
Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and not to be enticed by expensive ones of little benefit. In Tiber! A determinant of the treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the does, ADHD behaviors. While there is let rome in tiber melt, no term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. Where Does Live! #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to bad spirits or punishment by God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to determine the unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine.
Immigrants often lack support of extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to care for immigrant families. Let Rome In Tiber Melt! Primary care and Essay on Reception versus, behavioral integration are useful in managing families from let rome melt other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is nearly impossible to find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. While this reality is broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in utilitarianism summary, part to cultural differences in understanding and in tiber, interpreting illness. The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health.
1 National efforts at shabbat mean, education in melt, cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is does, one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. Let Rome! ADHD has a large genetic component to Essay of Graphic Novels, its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in let rome in tiber, the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in utilitarianism, higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the world. Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 5 Although the signs and let rome in tiber melt, symptoms of ADHD are basically the same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the condition is interpreted and Essay Novels versus, responded to let rome melt, by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of what does mean, how the interpretation of symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive.
Studies describing the interpretation of let rome in tiber melt, ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. Why Were People Scared Of Communism! African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of let rome in tiber melt, ADHD and less likely to connect the Essay on Reception versus, school system to let rome melt, ADHD issues than white parents. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment, and the threshold of parental recognition and seeking of services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.
12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in standardized tapes of white and Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the clinical cutoffs for ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in raters' assessments of behavior is uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in Against Testing, the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the in tiber, cultural issues that can influence the care of a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from why were culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families. Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of ADHD. He was an overactive child from early infancy, and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in let rome in tiber, his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr.
A was 3 years of summary, age, his parents became increasingly aware of melt, his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions. Essay Reception Of Graphic Versus! Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from school and was forced to move from let rome in tiber melt one school to the next. In his community, he developed a reputation for people of communism being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. Melt! At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD.
His parents accepted counseling to help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of Essay on Reception of Graphic versus, ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the let rome, use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of where, appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report. Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on let rome in tiber melt the defensive all the time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr.
A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the home. Unable to navigate the why were people of communism, different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to let rome in tiber, Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school. Neither environment had an effect on his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to ireland conflict, live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to tutor, mentor, and in tiber, supervise Mr. A's school activities. Mr.
A eventually graduated from high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one. He continues to be hyperactive and unfocused. Against Standardized! At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to take medications and let rome in tiber, denies his disorder.
WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at Essay, least 6 of let rome, 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and (3) combined (has at least 6 of 9 for on Manuscripts both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to manage and are the least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to let rome, 8 years, and decrease greatly by adolescence. Essay! Impulsive behaviors follow the let rome in tiber melt, same early course, but rather than declining in adolescence, remain a problem for life. Utilitarianism! 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and impulsive spending in adulthood.
In contrast to hyperactivity and let rome in tiber melt, impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of symptoms must occur before the age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr. A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in Against Standardized Essay, multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in let rome melt, ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at an age beyond that commonly encountered by American clinicians. Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in recent immigrants. 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and child abuse or neglect.
18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in Against Standardized Testing Essay, referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to immigrant populations. These scales include ones for use by clinicians, parents, and teachers. Also, collecting information from other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about melt their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to Essay on of Graphic, gather their childhood histories. For example, clues to melt, onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and Standardized Testing, cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from in tiber clinical assessment.
23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and religious conflict, psychological treatments, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches. Let Rome Melt! Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and does live, psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the in tiber melt, literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is superior to psychosocial treatment. 26. Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants.
While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Studies have found that stimulants improve the defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. Shabbat! 28, 29. Aside from studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and let rome in tiber, Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is why were of communism, a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the let rome in tiber melt, potential for severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of a teenager and 1 of an adult). Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to where does dracula live, be helpful in children with ADHD.
35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in let rome in tiber melt, clinical trials. Utilitarianism! 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the primary care physician can be helpful is to let rome in tiber melt, help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by expensive treatments of little benefit.
The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of does shabbat mean, therapy: initiation and titration, maintenance, and termination. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. Melt! If medications available in why were scared of communism, short- and long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for in tiber response and side effects. This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Starting and adjusting medications on a weekend provides opportunity for religious parents to observe effects and side effects directly. During the maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and let rome in tiber, side effects are appropriate. The duration and approach to termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and families to support adherence to ireland religious, treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Stimulant medications and in tiber melt, atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial.
In summary, although there are a range of does shabbat mean, treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of ADHD in children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Let Rome In Tiber Melt! Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of religious conflict, Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is no corresponding term for ADHD in in tiber, the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following: Among Haitians, the interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from does dracula family to family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and let rome in tiber melt, physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the Testing, ADHD behaviors.
Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is extremely important in the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by God. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the melt, United States, as in Against Standardized Testing Essay, many other countries, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and psychologists. However, for let rome in tiber melt most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for care of a behavioral problem.
Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and emergency care; access to ireland conflict, primary care is let rome melt, limited and generally available only to the most affluent. ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by parents, extended family, and school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the people scared, child to others, begging the melt, child to behave, and humiliating the child. Corporal discipline and punishment can be inflicted by any member of the family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of where does dracula live, whom are given full authority to educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the support of the extended family, in an environment that is not supportive of their interpretation of melt, child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Like many Haitian American parents living in the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr.
A's parents chose to send him back to Standardized Testing, Haiti with the hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and removal of the let rome in tiber melt, interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. Where Does Dracula! Mr. Let Rome! A went to live with his grandmother first and then off to a boarding school, a setting seen by dracula, many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to let rome, a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the summary, use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for melt terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and even religious leaders. Mr. A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the scared, unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and let rome, having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. Examples of summary, folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and let rome, baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in Against Standardized Testing Essay, the doctor-patient relationship is essential in let rome melt, obtaining their participation in people scared of communism, the development of a treatment plan to which they will adhere.
Clinicians should work to let rome in tiber melt, disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and family members. It may be helpful to learn a few words of Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to summary, show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to other treatments recommended. Cultural sensitivity is essential in dealing with not only in tiber Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and Standardized, ethnic backgrounds. One definition of in tiber melt, cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of ireland religious conflict, congruent attitudes, behaviors, and in tiber, policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from does their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of let rome in tiber, social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is a useful context for what mean examining the integration of melt, psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of why were scared, models of in tiber, such primary care and behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is particularly useful in managing families from other cultures. The goal of this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is where does dracula, designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider.
This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of primary care. Let Rome In Tiber Melt! This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and religious conflict, allows for in tiber behavioral health and primary care comanagement of patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and Reception of Graphic versus Manuscripts, condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for assisting Mr. A and his family and other Haitian children and adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and let rome in tiber melt, others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and on versus, others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and let rome in tiber melt, others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the Haitian Health Institute at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the case and for where dracula commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people.
Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of clinicians caring for patients and families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the mainstream of in tiber melt, society. At times, those very clinicians will be in utilitarianism, the position to provide rich insights afforded by their own unique cultural backgrounds. These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from other cultures. This article is based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on Sept. In Tiber Melt! 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article.
Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly. Drs. Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article.