Buy Essay Online Cheap -
A Short History of Child Protection in America -… pdf
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, order essay paper online anytime -
a wife essay A Conversation with My Wife. (From an essay published in Analysis Welfare United States Essay, the March 5, 2005, issue of the Essay Novel 1984 Seikyo Shimbun, the Soka Gakkai's daily newspaper 1 ) One morning, I heard my wife softly singing to herself--a song at once familiar and at the same time completely fresh to A Historical in the Essay my ears: Like flowers of the ljmu referencing field, tossed by A Historical Analysis States, the wind. Like flowers of the field, delighting all who see. What's that song? I asked. It's quite famous, she replied. It was Flowers of the Field, 2 a beautiful melody that had been made popular by the Japanese husband-and-wife duo Da Capo. Smiling, my wife continued: Like flowers of the field, beaten by the rain.
Like flowers of the field, soothing all who see. What a nice song, I said. It captures the heroic spirit of ordinary people. Hearing it set me quietly contemplating. Flowers of the field--the name of no specific flower is Black Heroes: Carlos Smith, mentioned in the lyrics. This might be a good thing.
Different people living in different places have different images of flowers of the field. For instance, in Japan, we might picture cudweed, or cymbidium orchids, or violets, or field mustard blossoms, or lilies, or cosmos. The north country is still under a deep blanket of snow. When the snow finally melts and A Historical of Child Welfare United States, the first shoots of Japanese butterbur and amur adonis begin to appear at the foot of the The Notion in Schools mountains, people's hearts will leap with joy, knowing that spring has come. Of Child Welfare Essay! The Echizen daffodil grows even on the steep cliffs facing the pounding waves of the Japan Sea, enduring winter's fierce winds until spring arrives. Hiroshima and Essay, Nagasaki were devastated by the atom bomb. People thought it would be decades before plant life could grow once more in its scorched earth. But oleanders quickly bloomed there again, bringing hope and courage to A Historical Analysis of Child in the States Essay the survivors struggling to rebuild their lives. Essay On Biography! I think we all have an image in our hearts of hardy flowers of the field blooming cheerfully, undaunted by wind or rain. Whether noticed or not, these wildflowers, in of Child Welfare in the Essay, the place where they have taken root, put forth stems, spread their leaves, and flower beautifully, each in their own distinct way. Some bloom by the wayside in 1984, such inconspicuous and incongruous places that they invite our astonishment and admiration for their strength and tenacity.
I have frequently photographed such blossoms, pressing the shutter as a way of applauding their unheralded efforts. 'Flowers of the Field'--why, it's the of Child United Essay perfect anthem for harvard referencing the Soka Gakkai women's division, I commented. Nodding in agreement, my wife said: Yes. As a matter of fact, it was a women's division member from Meguro who told me about the song in a letter she sent me. The woman, it turned out, was a member of the first graduating class of Kansai Soka Junior and Senior High Schools. She had been struggling hard, doing her best to care for Analysis States Essay a daughter afflicted with a chronic illness.
She had been chanting earnestly and forging ahead valiantly, one day after another without rest or respite. Then she heard this song and began to sing it to herself: Life is sometimes filled with hardships, But rainy and cloudy days, too, are followed by of God in Schools Essays, sunshine, That's when you appreciate. the dauntless spirit of flowers of the field. Dauntless spirit--surely that is another way of in the Essay describing courage. Life is a series of Essay of Martha Graham on-going challenges; it is a struggle to bring the flowers of happiness into A Historical Welfare United States, bloom, regardless of the ljmu referencing difficulties we may face along the way.
My wife, her eyes bright with emotion and her words full of praise and admiration, is always recounting to me the courageous struggles and A Historical Analysis of Child in the United Essay, noble victories of our women's and 1984, young women's division members in of Child Welfare in the United States, different parts of referencing Japan and throughout the world. Once during a visit to Hyogo Prefecture in the Kansai region, I shared a poem I had read in Analysis of Child in the Essay, my childhood: and trampled again. still it blooms-- the smiling dandelion. 3. This poem is a wonderful description of the many ordinary men and women who bravely live out their lives, a smile on their faces, no matter what hardship and Underrated and Unwritten Black History John Smith, adversity they encounter. Why isn't the dandelion defeated by constant trampling? The key to its strength is its long and sturdy root, which extends deep into the earth. Dandelions may have a taproot more than one full meter in length. The same principle applies to of Child Welfare in the States people. Buisness! The true victors in life are those who, enduring repeated challenges and setbacks, have sent the roots of their being to such a depth that nothing can shake them. The German writer Schiller captured this image perfectly in The Maid of Orleans , his play about A Historical Analysis of Child in the States, Joan of Arc, in the phrase: O beauteous flower of victory! 4. Gaze down calmly. on Essay, washed--out pretenders, and follow your own.
Wildflowers are neither vain nor haughty, neither jealous nor servile. Living in accord with their unique mission, characterizing the Buddhist principle of cherry, peach, plum, and damson blossoms, they neither envy other flowers nor belittle themselves. They take pride in their identity, knowing that each is a flower with a bloom like no other. Even the prettiest and most delicate wildflowers are by no means weak. They may seem fragile, but they are strong. They are not perturbed by rain or wind. Embodying the same indomitable spirit, our motto is Nothing can defeat us! Our conversation that morning began with a song about flowers of the field. A Historical Analysis Of Child Welfare In The United Essay! Another day of fresh challenges lies ahead of us, doesn't it? my wife said. That's right! I responded.
Let's keep working for Essay on Biography of Martha Graham the happiness and Analysis in the United, victory of ordinary people, who are the most precious of all! A smile blossomed on hell case, my wife's face like a lovely flower. The flowers of the Welfare United field, too, rise up excitedly: Spring is here! Spring! 1Ikeda, Daisaku.
2005. Zuishitsu ningen seiki no hikari 70, No ni saku hana no yo ni (Like Flowers of the Field). Hell Case! Seikyo Shimbun , March 5, pp. A Historical Welfare In The United! 2-3. 2Japanese title “No ni Saku Hana no yo ni.” Lyrics by Masami Sugiyama and music by Ase Kobayashi.
Released in 1983, it was the theme song of a popular Japanese television series. 3A well-known Japanese verse; author anonymous. 4Friedrich von Schiller, “The Maid of Orleans,” in Schiller’s Complete Works , translated by Charles J. Hempel (Philadelphia: I. Kohler, 1861), vol. 1, p. 418.
A Short History of Child Protection in America -… pdf
Best Custom Academic Essay Writing Help & Writing Services UK Online -
A Short History of Child Protection in America -… pdf
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, write my research paper for me -
Simple Software for A Historical United Essay Better Interview Skills. Learn how to Underrated Black History John and Tommie Smith land the A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United Essay, job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of of Martha Graham jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the, objective statement.
It is on Biography of Martha Graham, almost impossible to write an objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement. Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is A Historical of Child States Essay, ready to ljmu referencing go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is customized to the person giving the A Historical United Essay, speech and contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on things the of Atlantic, employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver).
The same holds true for your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. This “speech” is given at the top of your resume — in A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the Essay, the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an ljmu, introduction to the reader that seeks to answer the question “Tell me about yourself” in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the A Historical Welfare, reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of The Notion your top selling points at a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on your career highlights and key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Of Child Welfare In The States? Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills.
Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and Underrated Black Heroes: John Carlos and Tommie, toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for different opportunities. This is especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the “executive summary” of your resume, tailored for each position. This allows you to pull the most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at the top of your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of a title and A Historical Analysis United, a few lines of text. Of Atlantic Buisness Essay? The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of Analysis of Child Welfare in the States your career goals.
Your Title — When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and help them see your fit for The Notion of God Essays the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. A Historical Analysis Welfare United Essay? See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for ljmu referencing you. The Format — The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and A Historical Analysis Essay, should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only The Notion of God seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of a summary statement to ensure it gets read.
Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development. Provides sales support and highly-rated client service and excels in meeting deadlines in Analysis United, quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in sales and operations support to offer employers a track record of in Schools delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Known for providing best-in-class customer service and communications in a variety of business settings. A proven leader of US and Analysis in the United States Essay, international sales organizations offers expertise in harvard referencing, developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare, team leaders in Essays, product benefits and customer service techniques. A Historical Analysis Of Child Welfare States Essay? Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of Essay Novel 1984 by George business.
How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, it’s important to A Historical of Child Welfare United States Essay carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional.
This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an of God in Schools Essays, ability to manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to profession and skill level. Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and experience to A Historical of Child States Essay support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the of Atlantic Buisness Essay, things you enjoy the most in your work. When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about it if you don’t want to do it.
My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they don’t particularly enjoy and we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the company’s job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to focus on of Atlantic on Canadian Buisness, the most, but it is essential to work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for Analysis of Child Welfare in the States Essay Your Experience Level.
Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in on The 1984, your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is A Historical Analysis of Child States Essay, young and on Biography, needs to rely on A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the States Essay, academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to call that out from the start. Of Martha Graham? Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and research activities. In The United? Incorporates a background in office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise. In this instance, the of Atlantic on Canadian Buisness, job seeker focused on things learned through education and A Historical Welfare in the Essay, transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience.
On the other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on the academic training any longer and it doesn’t need to be mentioned. 2. Focus on The Notion of God, your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare, just aren’t important enough to place in that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is hell case, proficiency in MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and don’t belong in A Historical Analysis of Child United Essay, the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and accomplishments that truly make you stand out as a candidate. Consider the following examples of harvard referencing resume summaries for technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives.
Supports efforts to develop and market technical solutions to both internal and external clients. Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United, communications. Known for Essay Graham creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on system utilization/improvement. Analysis Welfare In The? Works with government, civilian, and ljmu referencing, corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to Welfare in the United States Essay the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents.
While these qualifications can be contained in the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. Harvard Referencing? While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the focus to remain on the employer. Use of “I, me, my” places the focus on Analysis Welfare in the States Essay, the applicant and the goal of the The Notion of God, resume is to sell the A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United Essay, employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the resume as you use achievements and hell case, certifications to of Child United reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the hell case, things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from A Historical in the United States, a cover letter, the summary statement is the The Importance of Atlantic on Canadian Buisness, very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out your best outfit.
It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is your first chance to answer the question “Tell me about Yourself” and A Historical Analysis Welfare Essay, you want to make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at hell case companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. A Historical Of Child In The States Essay? She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and Underrated and Unwritten Black History, an instructor at in the United States the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. The Importance Buisness? One more thing I would like to A Historical of Child Welfare United add here is one should never try to add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done.
@Arman – that’s correct. In Schools Essays? Faking info will very likely come back to bite you. So resist the temptation to be too “creative”. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to Analysis of Child United States add more tip here that job seekers should never try to Essay on Biography add any fake information in Analysis of Child Welfare States Essay, their resumes just to impress the recruiter.
This is the part that is Essays, very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and i don’t know how to convert what i do into a summary. A Historical Welfare In The States Essay? I want to of Atlantic Buisness Essay advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office. No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the of Child Welfare United States, most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. If there’s a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about Underrated and Unwritten Black John Carlos, your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of A Historical Welfare United Essay expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about hell case, each of those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration. Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list.
Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. A Historical Analysis Welfare United States? Maintain a record of the The Notion in Schools Essays, .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews. A Historical Analysis States? As the Underrated and Unwritten Black Carlos, human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of interviews include the following information:• Name and position of A Historical of Child Welfare in the Essay interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is not over until you finally get the job. The Importance Essay? So don’t just sit back and relax.
Now is the time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the Welfare Essay, job of your dreams. Get Selected at Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average. • Date of contact with the organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is simply amazing. And Unwritten John Carlos Smith? Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for personal branding statement.
For instance, the categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Is it a good idea to write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by Analysis Welfare in the States Essay, branding statement under this heading. Hell Case? Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for A Historical of Child Welfare in the Essay Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. The Importance Of Atlantic Canada On Canadian Essay? Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and find it very difficult to put my skills and Analysis in the States, experience into a summary when its such a broad field.
After reading your article I now have a better understanding of The Notion in Schools Essays what companies look for in a resume. A Historical Analysis In The United? Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of of God in Schools CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an A Historical Analysis of Child in the, interview? How can we describe a healthy interview?
How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of big words. Of Atlantic? Is this really what sells? I don’t want to jump through a bunch of hoops to Welfare dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. I’m running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on research teams for news shows, or in in Schools, production. Its difficult trying to A Historical Welfare States connect the two. Can you write an example here.
Good article, exposed some weaknesses in hell case, my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for Analysis of Child the sections. They are all part of a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at hell case a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in A Historical in the United States Essay, the arms of a ravaged woman, and hell case, citizens and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United States Essay, livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is a strange choice of artwork to use for this article.
Awesome. shares some other resume design skill in The Notion of God in Schools, AmoLink resume. Hope it’s useful to all of us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is so important. A Historical Analysis Of Child Welfare Essay? Something incredibly ironic about someone who is an on Biography Graham, expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. Analysis Of Child Welfare In The? I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.” And they say I’m irrational for thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright.
Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all! Now, I migh have identified some of my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. I am a BA in International Relations and referencing, I have no idea how to name my professional title…. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it.
But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the A Historical United Essay, country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of Essay experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at Analysis in the United Essay New York University and Underrated and Unwritten John Carlos, an instructor at the American Management Association.
Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.
Order Essay Paper Online Anytime -
Free Child Abuse Essays and Papers -…
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, best custom academic essay writing help & writing services uk online -
SAP vs. Oracle: Which ERP implementation is right for you? Share this item with your network: Many CIOs looking to Analysis of Child Welfare in the, implement new ERP software will, no doubt, end up considering the in Schools Essays industry's two biggest behemoths: SAP and Oracle. While both vendors are clear market share leaders and have very well-established product lines, the strengths, weaknesses, risks and product roadmaps of these two vendors couldn't be more different. According to Panorama Consulting's most recent Clash of the Titans report -- which summarizes quantitative results from hundreds of ERP implementations across the globe -- implementing the SAP ERP system, as compared with implementing the Oracle ERP system, produces very different results for companies.
For example, while the average Oracle customer spends less money on A Historical Welfare in the United States their implementation, the average SAP customer is The Importance Canada able to deliver an implementation timeline that is closer to what was expected. This is just one of A Historical Analysis United States many examples we found when analyzing the results of the study. Given that there are so many tradeoffs and variables to Novel by George Owells, consider, we thought it would be helpful to narrow the differences between the two products to A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United States, five key areas: ERP implementation risk, implementation cost and duration, scalability, software functionality and customization, and cloud adoption. Hell Case? These areas underscore some of the A Historical Analysis States Essay biggest differences between the two products and their future directions. Every executive is Canada on Canadian Buisness Essay concerned about the A Historical of Child United Essay risk of on The Novel by George Owells their ERP implementation, which is why they are constantly craving methods and tools to help mitigate the risk of A Historical of Child Welfare United States Essay ERP failure. Black John Smith? Data from the Clash of the Titans report confirmed that these are, indeed, rational concerns, with more SAP customers claiming their implementations were failures than Oracle's customers. Further, more SAP customers experienced some sort of material operational disruption at the time of go-live, such as not being able to A Historical Welfare States, ship products or close the books.
While the research suggests that implementing SAP ERP carries a higher risk implementation profile than implementing Oracle ERP, every ERP customer experiences an ljmu harvard referencing, elevated degree of risk. This is why these two vendors have done a particularly good job of developing risk management mechanisms to address these concerns. A Historical Analysis Welfare In The States Essay? For example, SAP's All-in-One product features best practices and preconfigurations for a number of different industry verticals, with the intent of reducing risk and accelerating implementations. Speaking of acceleration, Oracle has developed similar tools, with its line of implementation accelerators and its User Productivity Kit, both of which were designed to make testing, training and other key implementation processes more efficient and effective. When considered as a percentage of a company's annual revenue (or budget, for public sector organizations), SAP is the higher cost option. The average SAP customer spends 4% of its annual revenue on its total cost of harvard ownership, while the average Oracle customer spends 1.7%. This could be attributed to the breadth of functionality -- and, therefore, higher cost -- associated with SAP's software. A Historical Analysis Welfare United States Essay? It could also be an indication of large organizations botching their product implementations (think: Waste Management, The Hershey Company, Marin County and other high-profile failures of recent years). However, cost is ljmu harvard just part of the ERP implementation equation; CIOs and project teams are also concerned with implementation duration, which is Analysis of Child Welfare States Essay where SAP excels.
While the average Oracle customer takes 22.5 months to implement the ERP software, the average SAP customer is able to do so in 4 months less. Again, this is where SAP's preconfigurations and Oracle's accelerators come in referencing handy; in A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay addition to The Importance Canada Buisness, mitigating risk, as discussed above, they also help accelerate the implementation time frame. Most midmarket and larger organizations are concerned about the scalability of their ERP systems. After all, they are typically looking to their enterprise software to provide the operational backbone to of Child States Essay, help grow and scale their companies, often after years of fragmented and inconsistent business processes and hell case, systems. When it comes to ERP system scalability for A Historical Analysis Essay, SAP vs. Oracle, the two are fairly even, albeit for 1984 by George Owells, different reasons. In other words, it is safe to say that the world's largest organizations are able to Analysis of Child Welfare United Essay, scale their companies with either product, simply because most Fortune 500 organizations are already using products from either or both. However, the degree of The Importance on Canadian Buisness Essay scalability for your particular organization depends on your needs. While Oracle has largely created more of a best-of-breed option with its various products -- such as E-Business Suite, Fusion, JD Edwards, Siebel and A Historical Analysis of Child States, Hyperion -- SAP has largely developed its products from the ground up, creating more of referencing a consistent and single system feel.
Organizations looking for United Essay, scalability through consistency and standardization may find SAP more scalable, while those operating from a more decentralized model based on flexibility may be better suited for harvard referencing, Oracle's suite of products. Software functionality and customization. At the A Historical Analysis of Child in the United end of the day, the technological backbone of your chosen ERP system -- whether SAP or Oracle -- doesn't really matter. And Tommie Smith? Instead of Analysis of Child United States a specific technology, enterprise buyers are investing in harvard functionality and improvements to in the States Essay, their business operations. When comparing SAP and Oracle software through this lens, it is clear that both vendors are committed to enhancing functionality. According to hell case, the Clash of the Titans report, SAP customers generally realize more of their expected functionality and Analysis of Child in the States, business benefits than Oracle's customers.
On the Essay Novel by George Owells flip side, Oracle's customers realize a faster payback than SAP users. Similarly, the dreaded C word of ERP -- customization -- is on Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay every CIO's mind. As much as they may not want to think about it, ease of customization is hell case a real need for organizations wanting to ensure a good fit between their ERP system and their operational needs. A Historical Of Child United States Essay? In the case of SAP and Oracle, customers of both vendors customize their software products quite a bit, which isn't, in Underrated Black Heroes: John Carlos and of itself, a bad thing. As mentioned above, Oracle's best-of-breed solutions provide options for project teams not wanting to customize their software, while SAP also offers customization and integration tools to make its software more flexible for its enterprise customers.
For many, gone are the days of Welfare in the United States Essay big, robust, internal IT infrastructures hosting ERP software and other enterprise software applications. Instead, a growing number of organizations are migrating their products to the cloud -- whether that be through pure software as a service, or through traditional, single instance landscapes hosted by a third-party provider. When comparing SAP and Oracle in this area, Oracle has the slight upper hand, with more of its customers leveraging cloud options, and more of its cloud-based customers realizing more measurable business benefits than SAP's. Hell Case? SAP's Business One, once considered its most viable cloud-based offering for smaller businesses, is rumored to be on the chopping block, which may cause the company to Analysis Welfare United Essay, lose further ground in this area. While both vendors have adopted cloud delivery models, data suggests Oracle has been more successful in The Notion Essays this area. In-memory technology: SAP HANA vs. Oracle. Over the past year, we have seen SAP and Oracle boast about how their in-memory technology systems are going to change the future of ERP. SAP is making great headway with their in-memory database, as SAP HANA is A Historical Welfare in the United States Essay differentiating itself as a highly functional, all-in-memory system.
While having a single platform can be a great advantage, it also has its drawbacks, such as the cost of deployment and The Notion in Schools Essays, compatibility limitations. In response to SAP's success with SAP HANA, Oracle has also made great strides with their new database in-memory system by differentiating their system as being functional and Welfare United Essay, easy to Buisness, integrate with existing compatible databases and applications. While this is a cost advantage -- especially to those already running compatible databases -- this system may not provide the convenience and breadth of a centralized system. Putting the vast technical differences between these two systems aside, the A Historical Analysis Welfare States business end result for the customer is of Atlantic on Canadian Essay nearly the same. In-memory technology will allow customers to run essential ERP applications and analytics faster, ultimately providing for greater productivity and insight. Which ERP system should you choose -- SAP vs. Oracle? While the above points of differentiation may not suggest that either vendor has a clear, across-the-board advantage over the other, it hopefully suggests some factors that potential ERP buyers can use to evaluate their software options.
Every organization is A Historical Welfare in the different, with different priorities and evaluation criteria, but one or more of the above areas may provide the context for you to compare these two products. Either product can likely get the job done, so the question becomes: Which will help get the job done best for your organization? About the author: Just how helpful is an SAP proof of concept anyways? Dig Deeper on SAP implementation and hell case, upgrades. Start preparing infrastructure now for SAP S/4HANA migration. Process mining software provides an inside view of SAP systems.
New report says users aren't eager for SAP S/4HANA migration. What core components does the SAP ERP system include? New report says users aren't eager for A Historical of Child in the United States Essay, SAP S/4HANA migration. Jack Link's Beef Jerky feeds its HANA side with SAP HEC. S/4HANA Finance brings data consolidation to Underrated Black History Heroes: John Carlos and Tommie, major insurer. SAP HANA SPS11 tackles analytics, IT and A Historical Analysis Welfare in the, development. Start preparing infrastructure now for on The Novel 1984 Owells, SAP S/4HANA migration. SAP Financial Supply Chain Management (SAP FIN-FSCM) Five SAP HANA implementation tips CIOs should know. Jack Link's Beef Jerky feeds its HANA side with SAP HEC.
How should I do a fit-gap analysis with the SAP landscape in mind? What is the difference between SAP components, modules and A Historical of Child Welfare in the United, applications? SAP VP explains why early S/4HANA migration is mostly on-premises. Start preparing infrastructure now for SAP S/4HANA migration. Process mining software provides an inside view of hell case SAP systems. What core components does the SAP ERP system include? Designing a better SAP user experience key step toward digital world.
How can I address ERP problems caused by Welfare in the United States Essay, a rushed implementation? Two-tier ERP for hell case, SAP depends on integration, corporate standards. Courtroom lessons from a failed SAP ERP implementation. What does S/4HANA Supply Chain offer production planning? Find more PRO+ content and other member only Analysis Welfare in the United States Essay, offers, here. When it comes to of Martha Graham, SAP vs. Oracle, which factors are most important for your organization in determining the best ERP software? By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. A Historical Of Child United States Essay? If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States.
Privacy. Please create a username to comment. ERP upgrade ushers in mobile apps, upends paper processes. An ERP upgrade sent a manufacturer's existing company culture into a tailspin. Would paper processes or digitization prevail? Fears about in Schools Essays, Prism's long-term impact on cloud declared overblown Forrester claims the fallout from the 2013 Prism surveillance scandal has had a minimal effect on the cloud industry. Finding the right distribution inventory management plan. In this expert tip, learn the different approaches toward perfecting distribution inventory management. Cloud-based database software adds new IT options for users. The increasing adoption of cloud database services has captured the attention of A Historical Analysis United Oracle and Microsoft as they try to hold their . Advanced machine learning, database automation touted at OpenWorld.
Advanced machine learning is set to drive Oracle Database to in Schools, success in the cloud, founder Larry Ellison claims. But the upcoming. Oracle Universal Credits another shot directed at A Historical of Child United States AWS. From 'Bring Your Own License' to Universal Credits, are the recent changes Oracle made to its cloud pricing model enough to . Big data systems up ante on data quality measures for ljmu harvard, users. At the Strata conference in A Historical of Child Welfare States Essay New York, IT managers detailed steps they're taking to Essay on The Novel by George, improve data quality in Analysis of Child Welfare States their big data . Cloud database services get stronger push from Microsoft, Oracle. Using cloud databases is now more a matter of when than if at many companies.
There's also the question of how, as Microsoft, . Managing the in Schools Essays big data ecosystem requires agility amid disruptions. In some regards, the term big data management can be viewed as an oxymoron. In fact, oxymorons abound in this industry and. Five Alexa tricks to A Historical Analysis United, build better, more interactive skills. Amazon Echo allows businesses to connect with consumers via Alexa skills, but voice interactions come with different challenges . SAM Local enables offline development for serverless apps. Serverless computing is a draw for developers, though hybrid functionality has been limited. AWS' SAM Local now enables local . AWS root account access is and Unwritten Black History Heroes: a treasure for attackers. Don't fall victim to a hacked root account. Create and work within new AWS accounts, and then apply the least amount of privilege. Machine learning in the cloud forces hard big data decisions. Interest in A Historical of Child States implementing a cloud machine learning platform is up, but not every business is sold on the benefits of this emerging.
Natural language generation software making inroads in hell case enterprises. Natural language generation tools are gradually gaining a foothold in of Child in the United enterprises, as businesses deploy emerging artificial . AI hype doesn't stop Trulia from using new analytics tools. Online real estate listing site Trulia is using artificial intelligence tools in meaningful ways, overcoming what many people see. How to hell case, best manage your martech stack: A QA with Scott Brinker. SearchCRM talks with ChiefMarTec co-founder Scott Brinker about the growing tech landscape, tips for controlling a martech stack . Dynamics 365 CRM can help drive the A Historical Welfare United States Essay digital transformation process.
At Ignite, Microsoft predicts the future -- and it's one that centers on Dynamics 365, artificial intelligence and digital . New Dynamics 365 features take center stage during Ignite keynote. Dynamics 365 and the future direction of Microsoft products were given center stage during the Ignite keynote delivered by Satya . Content personalization fuses marketing automation, content management. As the standards get higher for digital experiences, content personalization engines could be the answer for faster and and Unwritten Black Heroes: John Smith, better . Microsoft SharePoint use grows despite product maturity. SharePoint, introduced in Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay 2001, isn't going anywhere, despite challenges from Box, Dropbox and other cloud rivals. A Microsoft . The Pipeline: Brand content marketing strategies from Digital Strategy Summit. Branded content and social media were the main talking points at Underrated Heroes: John and Tommie the Digital Strategy Summit, a conference dedicated to A Historical United, content . Finance IT case study: Reporting secrets of Derek Rose.
CEO Sacha Rose says specialist reporting tools have saved the company thousands by avoiding unnecessary mistakes. WestJet turns to gamification to help its Oracle ERP users soar. WestJet's initial gamification project focuses on expense reporting. The Transformation of HR is Underway. HR is being transformed while we watch.
All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2000 - 2017, TechTarget.
Academic Proofreading -
Free social welfare Essays and Papers -…
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, buy essays cheap -
1,316 Bar Staff Management Job ads in London. Bar Story Peckham Springs are looking for a Duty Manager / Bar Supervisor to help lead and Analysis of Child Welfare United Essay inspire the bar team. Offering a quality selection of cocktails, spirits, beers and 1984 by George wine, we are seeking an experienced and creative bar supervisor who h. We are looking for award-winning General Manager’s! At WE ARE BAR GROUP you can expect a warm welcome, great service and fantastic, freshly prepared food. A Historical Of Child In The United States Essay? We have a diverse mix of venues ranging from Small intimate wine bars, Smollenskys restauran. The Manor arms are currently hiring individuals to join our fantastic bar team! We offer flexible hours a fun working environment. The role would include - Ensure the smooth running of the History Heroes: John Smith bar - Opening closing the bar to our standard - Bartender required to join our friendly team - Corazon, SOHO. Corazon, a casual, owner-operated restaurant which opened last year in Soho, offers Mexican-inspired cuisine with a difference – a small menu, food and drink of the highest quality, and A Historical Analysis States Essay a fresh, fun spirit. We believe in old-school hospitality and Graham 'g. ?9.00 per hour - Experienced barstaff/ floor staff combo needed for The Mall Tavern, Notting Hill. The Mall Tavern is Notting Hills favourite pub.
We have a brilliant drinks range, including 23 taps of some of the best beer on A Historical in the United Essay, the planet, we serve up fresh, seasonal British food, we have two private dining rooms, an awesome Kitchen Table a wall. Host/ Hostess/Models Male/Female Wanted for events Work No Experience Part Time for ljmu referencing Immediate Start. Urgent Models Male/Female Host/ Hostess for of Child Welfare events and promotions work We are seeking an attractive, confident models Host/ Hostess: Male/Female for events and promotions. You will be meeting, greeting, with high profile guests. Hosting will involv. Experienced bartenders and The Notion of God in Schools baristas needed in Soho. A Fantastic opportunity for a Passionate and Enthusiastic Waiter to join our team at Muriel's Kitchen Restaurant in Analysis of Child States Essay, Soho, London. At Muriel's Kitchen we pride ourselves on Canada Essay, being a home from home, serving dishes made from locally sourced fruit and. Evening and weekend bartenders required for The Prince in Stoke Newington, an awesome craft beer pub. The Prince opened in Stoke Newington in June 2014 and quickly became one of the A Historical Welfare highly regarded pubs in Hackney renowned for and Unwritten Black Smith it’s high standards and A Historical Analysis United States exceptional food and drinks. Of God? With our drinks offer focused on A Historical in the States Essay, locally brewed London craft beer, a con.
Full time jobs we are looking for Underrated and Unwritten Black History Heroes: John Carlos Smith hotel staff in a busy hotel bar and restaurant immediately start. The positions are available now with the possibility of being made permanent. The role: receptionist room attendant luggage porter bar, waiting and kitchen staff Applicants must: - Have good customer service skills - Hav. ?11-?14ph guaranteed**Great Charity Street Fundraising Jobs**Weekly Pay**Immediate Start (BST) ?11 - ?14 ph guaranteed, weekly pay Paid Holiday Travel Reimbursement Monday to Friday, 10am to 6pm Paid Breaks Immediate Starts Do you want to make a difference? Then street fundraising is your opportunity! We are currently looking for ou.
Door Supervisor and Analysis in the United CcTv Operator training with guaranteed job in and Unwritten Heroes: Carlos and Tommie Smith, the hotel start immediately. We have Permanent and Analysis of Child States Temporary positions available for Essay on Biography of Martha security guards, door supervisors and CCTV operators in pubs/clubs, shops, hotels, reception across Greater London (different areas) as well as vacancies for people without a SIA licence for whi. Glass Collector - Barrow Boy Banker. Barrow Boy Banker A grand, traditional pub in London Bridge, The Barrow Boy and Banker draws a crowd of city workers during the week and tourists at the weekend. Popular for its pies and ales, you can expect a busy, bustling atmosphere. Help us t. Experienced supervisor for Analysis Welfare in the local pub and restaurant. Underrated History Heroes: Carlos? We are a family friendly pub in East Dulwich serving great food and local beers. We serve brunch on a Saturday and roasts every Sunday - as well as showing all the sports. We're looking for an experienced supervisor to of Child in the States, join our team. You will be.
Cocktail Bartender Jobs Dishoom Kensington. We're looking for full-time Bartenders to The Notion of God, join the A Historical Welfare in the States opening team at our new home in Kensington and delight in the stories, design and jazz of 1940s Art Deco Bombay. Fast track your career with a restaurant that shares your obsession with awesome fo. Essay? Sun Thirteen Cantons The Sun and 13 Cantons is a busy Soho bar, primarily serving drinks to local media professionals. There's a lively atmosphere in the evenings here, with live DJ sets, private parties and media launches often taking place in th. Sun Thirteen Cantons The Sun and 13 Cantons is a busy Soho bar, primarily serving drinks to local media professionals. There's a lively atmosphere in the evenings here, with live DJ sets, private parties and media launches often taking place in th. We're looking for Bar and Floor staff to join us at Brewhouse and Kitchen in Highbury, . Our focus is on providing the highest quality Service. We are currently looking for a passionate, outstanding individuals to join our team.
Ideally the. Bar and Floor Staff Needed for Iconic Pub - Full Training - Competitive Pay + Tips. Full and part time bartenders and floor staff needed at our award winning pub. United? - Full NVQ training given - Competitive Pay - Share Tips - Full Training - Complimentary Meals - Staff Discount Card - Bi-Annual Staff Parties - Tradeshows and of Martha Graham T. Full time jobs for hotel bar kitchen staff immediately start. A Historical Of Child United Essay? The positions are available now with the possibility of being made permanent. The role: receptionist room attendant luggage porter bar, waiting and kitchen staff Applicants must: - Have good customer service skills - Hav. Duty Manager for our Voodoo Ray's Boxpark, Shoreditch site. Recently named ‘London’s No.1 Pizza Slice’ by History Heroes: John Carlos, Time Out, Voodoo Ray's serves NY-style pizza alongside cocktails, craft beers, and loads of other great stuff. We're part of an independent but growing company, with sites located in Dalston, Shoreditch, Experienced Bartender required at of Child Welfare Little Bird Battersea! Excellent pay and quality training! We have an ljmu harvard exciting new opportunity at the latest venture for Little Bird!
Our new site opened at the end of April and Analysis in the United States Essay we want bright experienced bartenders able to charm and delight our guests. Available for Underrated and Unwritten Black Heroes: John Carlos an immediate start and A Historical Welfare in the United Essay passionate. ENTHUSIASTIC FULL-TIME COCKTAIL BAR TENDER FOR WRIGHT BROTHERS SOUTH KEN. Salary of harvard referencing, up to ?12/hour (includes tronc) | Flexible hours | Expanding company |Full Time | Restaurant discounts | Bonus scheme | Required: Valuable experience in a similar environment | Passion for A Historical of Child Essay seafood, wine and Essay on Biography brilliant service | Immediate sta. German Speaking Full/Part Time Waiting-Staff for Vibrant Bavarian Bierkeller. A Historical Analysis Of Child United? Der Munich Cricket Club ist ein junger, lebendiger und erfolgreicher deutscher Bierkeller / Restaurant mit einer gro?en Leidenschaft fur authentisches bayerisches Essen, tollen Wein und Cocktails. Der Munich Cricket Club expandiert in London - als. Immediate Start Cocktail Bartenders Clapham Common - Up to Essay on The 1984 by George Owells, ?10 p/hr. Welcome! No 32 The Old Towns is a casual dining concept overlooking Clapham Common. No 32 is A Historical of Child in the United, a busy site, part of our ever growing group and we are looking for bartenders to join our team. • 6 12 month bonus • Employee of the month scheme • ?9.50 ph Cocktail Bartenders needed.
No 197 Chiswick Fire Station Welcome! No 197 Chiswick Fire Station is a casual dining concept on The Notion Essays, Chiswick High Road, 5 minutes walk from Turnham Green Station on the district line. In The? We are an independent neighbourhood bar concept with a peaceful wa. Immediate Start - Cocktail Bartenders - Richmond Green Up to Underrated Black Heroes: John, ?10 p/h. Welcome! No 1a Duke Street is a casual dining concept next to Richmond Green. It is a busy site as part of A Historical United States, our ever growing group and we are now looking for bartenders to join our existing team. • 6 12 month bonus • Employee of the History Heroes: Carlos Smith month sch. A Historical Of Child United States? ?9.50 per hour - Cocktail Bartenders Belgravia. We are looking for bartenders with previous experience.
All team members must be able to work mornings, split shifts, nights and weekends. And Unwritten Black History And Tommie Smith? We pay up to A Historical Welfare States Essay, ?9.50 per hour and will work on average of 40 hours per week, you will be entitled to The Notion in Schools, 28 days h.
Buy Essay Papers Here -
Child Welfare Essay - 1260 Words | Bartleby
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, online cheap custom essay -
Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. © The Author(s). 2017. Published: 16 February 2017. Two goals of summative assessment in health profession education programs are to Welfare in the Essay ensure the robustness of high stakes decisions such as progression and licensing, and predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to investigate the ability of in Schools Essays, specific modes of summative assessment to A Historical United States Essay predict the clinical performance of health profession education students. PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and Underrated Black Heroes: and Tommie EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to of Child Welfare in the States dedicated inclusion criteria. Rigorous exclusion criteria were applied to ensure a consistent interpretation of ‘summative assessment’ and ‘clinical performance’.
Data were extracted using a pre-determined format and papers were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using a modified Downs and in Schools Black checklist with level of agreement between reviewers determined through a Kappa analysis. Of the 4783 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 18 studies were included in Analysis of Child in the United Essay the final review. Twelve were from the and Unwritten History Carlos and Tommie Smith, medical profession and there was one from A Historical each of physiotherapy, pharmacy, dietetics, speech pathology, dentistry and harvard dental hygiene. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations featured in 15 papers, written assessments in four and problem based learning evaluations, case based learning evaluations and student portfolios each featured in one paper. A Historical Analysis Welfare States? Sixteen different measures of clinical performance were used. Of Atlantic Canada Buisness Essay? Two papers were identified as ‘poor’ quality and the remainder categorised as ‘fair’ with an almost perfect (k = 0.852) level of agreement between raters. A Historical? Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores accounted for 1.4–39.7% of the variance in student performance; multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer written examinations accounted for hell case, 3.2–29.2%; problem based or case based learning evaluations accounted for 4.4–16.6%; and States student portfolios accounted for The Importance Canada on Canadian, 12.1%. Objective structured clinical examinations and A Historical Analysis Welfare United Essay written examinations consisting of in Schools, multiple choice/extended matching questions and A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United States Essay short answer questions do have significant relationships with the hell case, clinical performance of A Historical of Child States Essay, health professional students. On Canadian? However, caution should be applied if using these assessments as predictive measures for clinical performance due to Welfare United Essay a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified.
Based on the current evidence, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination may be the and Unwritten History Heroes: Smith, most appropriate summative assessment for educators to use to identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. A Historical Welfare States Essay? Further research on this topic is needed to improve the strength of the Essay of Martha, predictive relationship. Health profession education programs require students to develop and States demonstrate competence across diverse and complex domains of Essay on Biography Graham, practice. Analysis Of Child Welfare? The curriculums delivered across the The Notion Essays, medical, nursing and allied health professions vary in the attitudes, knowledge and of Child in the States Essay skills required of their graduates. However, there are many similarities in the domains of competence required by the registration bodies of on Biography, these professions. To be a licenced medical, nursing or allied health professional, graduates must demonstrate competence across domains of practice such as: professional and ethical behaviour, communication and interpersonal skills, knowledge, safety and Analysis United States Essay quality, leadership and management, and collaborative practice [ 1 – 3 ]. Educators must ensure that only students meeting the required standards of competence become eligible for on The Novel 1984, licensing [ 4 ].
As the domains of practice required by the different health professions share similarities, so to of Child Welfare States Essay do the assessment frameworks used by their education programs [ 5 ]. No single mode of The Notion of God Essays, assessment can adequately measure performance across all domains of practice, but a well-considered program of assessment may [ 4 ]. Formative assessment plays an important role in the promotion of A Historical Analysis of Child in the United States Essay, learning, but it is hell case summative assessment that provides a final measure of student performance [ 6 , 7 ]. Summative assessment in health profession education has three main goals: (i) the Welfare, promotion of future learning, (ii) to harvard ensure that high-stakes decisions such as progression, graduation and licensing are robust so the public is protected from incompetent practitioners, (iii) and to provide a basis for choosing applicants for advanced training [ 8 ]. Analysis In The States Essay? To achieve the goals of providing robust evidence of competence, and the identification of appropriateness for advance training, summative assessments scores must necessarily be predictive of Essay on The, student’s future performance. Of Child Welfare In The United Essay? However, there is hell case limited evidence to support this assumption. A systematic review by Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] of predictors of future clinical performance in A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United medical students found OSCEs and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) to be significant predictor variables for clinical performance, however the on Biography Graham, predictive relationships were limited. Additionally, a compilation and review of correlative studies by A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United Essay Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked to answer whether performance in medical school could predict performance in residency. In their review, medical student pre-clinical GPA scores were one of the of God Essays, indicators that correlated most strongly with performance on examinations in A Historical Analysis of Child in the United residency. While the Essay of Martha Graham, reviews by Hamdy [ 9 ] and Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked at Analysis Welfare States, a range of hell case, predictor variables, the only specific mode of summative assessment common to United States all health professions evaluated was the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and this was limited only to medical education programs. The reviews did not comment on other modes of summative assessment, nor did they explore beyond the in Schools, medical profession. A Historical United States? On this basis, the ability of a variety of hell case, modes of assessment to predict future clinical performance has yet to A Historical Analysis of Child United Essay be investigated in detail.
The aim of this review was to ljmu harvard critically appraise and discuss the of Child Welfare United States, findings of existing research investigating modes of summative assessment, and their ability to predict future clinical performance. The Notion Of God? The review will encompass the breadth of health professional education programs and focus on modes of assessment eligible for use across all health profession programs. Systematic review databases and search terms. clinical performance OR. clinical practice OR. work* performance OR. summative assess* OR. objective structured clinical examination OR. practical exam* OR. practical assess* OR. written exam* OR.
written assess* OR. theory assess* OR. oral presentation OR. clinical exam* OR. clinical assess* OR. The paper reported on A Historical Analysis of Child in the States the relationship between assessment results and the future clinical performance of hell case, students in health professional programs; and. The paper was published in the English language; and. The paper was published after 1996. The year 1996 was chosen as a lower publishing limit in recognition of the progression of educational theory over time. This date allows for the capture of 20 years of of Child Welfare States Essay, literature following on from the seminal papers by Harden [ 11 ] regarding the development of the OSCE and Miller’s framework for the assessment of hell case, clinical competence [ 12 ].
The independent variable was a formative assessment; Individual modes of A Historical of Child in the States Essay, summative assessment were not specified (e.g. used overall GPA); The independent variable was a standardised assessment limited to on Canadian Buisness Essay use by a single health profession (e.g. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examinations); The independent variables were health profession education program admission criteria, applicant screening measures or entry measures; Clinical performance was not measured in either a clinical workplace setting or in A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United Essay a clinical examination conducted externally to the education program utilizing authentic or standardized patients; or. The paper was an abstract, review, dissertation or discussion. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) Critical appraisal of methodological quality.
Studies included in this review were critically appraised using a modified Downs and Black checklist [ 13 ]. The Downs and Black checklist consists of 27 items used to appraise methodological quality. The checklist was originally devised to assess the methodological quality of health care interventions, however it was appropriate to use in this review as it provided a structured format for critically appraising the papers selected for review. The protocol contains five major categories for appraisal: reporting quality, external validity, internal validity - bias and confounding and statistical power. The original Downs and Black checklist is scored out of of God, 32. All items excepting Items 5 and 27 are scored on a two-point scale. A classification as ‘yes’ is scored as ‘1’ point and a classification of of Child Welfare in the States, ‘no’ or ‘unable to determine’ is scored as ‘0’ points. Item 5, which appraises the Owells, description of confounders is scored out of A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United States Essay, ‘2’ points, with ‘yes’ scoring ‘2’ points, a ‘partial description’ scoring ‘1’ point and ‘no’ scoring ‘0’ points. The Notion In Schools? Item 27 concerning the A Historical United States, statistical power of the sample size was originally scored out of ‘5’ points. For the on The 1984 by George, purposes of this review Item 27 was adjusted to be scored out of either ‘1’ point where power is reported and ‘0’ points where power was not reported.
As a result of these adjustments, the modified total possible score was 28. This modification has been previously applied and reported in the literature [ 14 ]. To allow for a quality grading of the studies, the total score for each study was converted into a percentage by dividing the study’s raw score by 28 and multiplying by 100. The total critical appraisal percentage was then categorised as either of ‘good’, ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ quality using the ranking described by A Historical of Child J Kennelly [ 15 ]. When applied to the modified Downs and Black scoring Kennelly’s model categorises papers with critcal appraisal scores of 71% or greater as good quality, 54-70% as fair quality and 53% or less as poor quality. Each paper was individually rated by two assessors (RT and Novel 1984 NM) with the level of agreement determined by a Kappa analysis conducted by a third person (RO). Following the Kappa analysis any discrepancies in scores between the A Historical Welfare in the States Essay, two scoring authors (RT and NM) was settled by Essay on The Novel by George Owells consensus. Where consensus could not be reached, the raw scores were adjudicated by a third person (RO) to finalise the Critical Appraisal Score (CAS). Data from each paper included in the review were extracted by a single author (RT) and confirmed by the fellow authors. Data were assessed using a pre-determined format as follows: clinical education program, number of A Historical United, students, student year of study, summative assessments used, clinical setting in which performance was measured and statistics used to establish relationships. Where clinical performance measures were referenced, the references were retrieved and reviewed for evidence of The Notion of God Essays, validity or reliability. In the case of externally developed clinical performance measures the Welfare in the Essay, available literature was searched to of Martha determine if psychometric data had been published.
To allow for comparison across data, the A Historical Analysis of Child in the United States, square ( r 2 ) of each correlation (r) was calculated. Squaring the correlation gives the variance which measures the proportion of variability in of Martha one variable that is explained by the relationship with the other variable [ 16 ]. Of Child In The States Essay? In this review, the variance describes the proportion of variability in Essays student’s clinical performance explained by A Historical Welfare United Essay summative assessment scores. The results of the search are reported in Fig. Harvard? 1 . After the application of Analysis of Child States Essay, inclusion and exclusion criteria 18 papers were retained for Essay on Biography, final analysis. A Historical Analysis Welfare? Excluded papers and the reasons for their exclusion are listed in Additional file 1 . Summary of critical review papers. Author and Population.
Clinical Performance Measure ( CPM ) Evidence CPM has Validity or Reliability. • Year 3 OSCE - Data Gathering , Documentation and 1984 by George Communication / Interpersonal Skills subsets. USMLE Step 2 CS - Data Gathering , Documentation Communication / Interpersonal skills subsets. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency director ratings. • Year 5 Written Examination – 5 Essay and A Historical Analysis of Child in the United States Essay 5 SAQ. • Year 6 Written Examination – 100 EMQ and of Atlantic on Canadian Buisness Essay 10 SAQ.
Junior Doctor Assessment Tool ( JDAT ) Clinical rotations – environment not specified. Clinical Education Grade Form. USMLE Step 2 CS – Integrated Clinical Encounter ( ICE ) and in the States Essay Communication and of God Interpersonal Skills ( CIS ) component. • Year 2 MCQ Examination. • Second semester case based learning evaluations. Third year clerkships. Clinical evaluation form. Central Region Dental Testing Service ( CRTDS ) CRTDS clinical licensure examination.
Third year clinical training – environment not specified. Clinical productivity value – combined score for Analysis in the, successfully completed clinical procedures. • Clinical Performance Examination. Internship – Chonnam National University Hospital. Intern performance scores – 5 - pt Likert scale.
7 week clinical placements – environment not specified. Clinical teacher assessments with standardised rubric. 0 Tutorial process assessments. Year 3 – Hospitals and community rehabilitation centers. Hong Kong University Clinical Forms. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency program director overall evaluations – 5 - pt Likert Scale. • Written examinations – ? 2 MCQ and ?1 cumulative essay. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Program director evaluation form ( PGY - 1 PD ) Year 4 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Online evaluation form.
Hospitals 1 year after graduation. Senior doctor assessments – 5 - pt Likert scale. 6 - week clinical practicum – environment not specified. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument ( PT CPI ) Trainee internship year. Global rating instrument.
COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the referencing, United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPM Clinical performance measure, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, OSCE Objective Structured Clinical Examination, SAQ short answer question, MCQ multiple choice question, EMQ extended matching question, PBL problem based learning, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. The mode of coursework summative assessment investigated most commonly was the Welfare in the, OSCE, with only ljmu harvard three papers not featuring an of Child in the United Essay OSCE as a summative assessment [ 17 – 19 ]. Written examinations featured in four papers [ 19 – 22 ] and problem-based learning (PBL) evaluations [ 17 ], case-based learning evaluations [ 19 ] and student portfolios [ 18 ] each featured in one paper. Measures of clinical performance used in the medical programs were: the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (USMLE Step 2 CS) [ 23 , 24 ]; the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) [ 25 ]; a Clinical Education Grade Form [ 26 ]; a standardised Clinical Evaluation Form [ 19 ]; intern performance scores [ 27 ]; senior doctor assessments [ 28 ]; the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) [ 20 ]; a global rating instrument [ 21 ]; program director evaluations [ 22 ] and residency program director assessments [ 29 , 30 ]. A variety of clinical performance measures were used amongst the allied health programs: the Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) [ 31 ]; the National Dental Hygiene Examination (NDHE) [ 18 ]; the Hong Kong University (HKU) speech pathology clinical evaluation form and on The Novel by George COMPASS®: Competency Based Assessment in Speech Pathology [ 17 ]; a standardized dietetics clinical teacher evaluation rubric [ 32 ]; an online evaluation form of Analysis of Child in the United States, pharmacy student performance [ 33 ] and a dental clinical productivity value [ 34 ]. Critical appraisal of methodological quality. Percentage scores based on the modified Downs and Black [ 13 ] checklist ranged from 29% [ 19 ] to of Atlantic on Canadian 68% [ 21 ] with a mean percentage of 56.15% (±8.29%). The level of agreement between raters was considered as ‘almost perfect’ [ 35 ] (k = 0.852). When graded against the criteria established by Kennelly [ 15 ], two papers were categorised as ‘poor’ quality with a critical percentage scores of 29% [ 19 ] and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the States 50% [ 29 ], the remainder were categorized as ‘fair’ quality (54–68%). All of the hell case, studies included in A Historical in the States Essay the review were descriptive cohort studies. Analysis of the mean and standard deviations of the categories of the The Importance Buisness Essay, modified Downs and A Historical of Child in the United Essay Black checklist were conducted and showed the Novel 1984 by George Owells, mean score achieved in the ‘ reporting ’ category to A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay be 5.94 points (±1.35 points) out of a possible 11 points.
Most of the studies appraised had good ‘ external validity ’ with a mean score in this category of 2.5/3 points. The mean score in the ‘ internal validity – bias ’ category was 4.33 points (±0.69 points) out of a possible 7 points. Similarly, the mean score for the ‘ internal validity – confounding ’ category was 2.94 points (±0.85 points) out of a possible 6 points. Critical Review Findings. Author and Essay of Martha Graham Population. • Point biseral correlations. Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlation between pass / failure of Analysis Welfare in the States, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE and OSCE : • Physical examination subscore r = 0.40.
Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlations between the same subsets across tests . Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlations between residency director ratings and OSCE : • Linear regression with Bonferroni adjustment. Significant correlations between the overall JDAT Score and the : Linear regression model found individual summative assessments did not demonstrate a significant influence on on Biography of Martha Graham overall JDAT score ( p - values of 0.141 – 0.859 ). Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between subscores of the Clinical Evaluation Grade Form and OSCE measures : Significant correlations between USMLE Step 2 CS components and OSCEs . Year 2 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.25. Year 2 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.26. Year 3 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.16. Year 3 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.27. Significant correlations between clinical evaluation form and A Historical Welfare in the Essay : Case based learning reports. Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlation between Portfolio total score and CRDTS score. A prediction model using two factors predicted 13.9 % of the and Unwritten Heroes: John and Tommie Smith, variance in Central Region Dental Service Testing scores. Significant ( p 0.001 ) correlation between OSCE and clinical productivity value.
Significant correlation between mean intern performance scores and OSCE. Significant correlation between mean intern performance and CPX subsets. Identified a ? coefficient of of Child Welfare in the Essay, 0.66 ( p 0.0001 ) between individual OSCE scores and placement scores. treatment skills and Essay interpersonal skill subsets of the HKU clinical form and. COMPASS ® generic competencies and tutorial process r = 0.315 – 0.407 **
COMPASS ® overall occupational competency scores and. No significant correlations between OSCE and program director overall evaluations . • Multiple linear regression. The OSCE was a significant predictor of PGY1 - PD Medical Expertise scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.134 , p = 0.013 ). Analysis Of Child Welfare In The United Essay? The written examination were not significant predictors of PGY1 - PD scores , although approached statistical significance (? = 0.266 , p = 0.07 ). The OSCE was the only significant predictor of PGYI - PD Professionalism scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.124 , p 0.026 ) Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between OSCEs and specific APPEs : acute care , ambulatory care , clinical specialty and community. Year 2 Fall OSCE and all four APPEs r = 0.13 *– 0.14 * Year 2 Spring OSCE and acute care APPE r = 0.12 * Year 3 Fall OSCE and : clinical specialty APPE r = 0.13 * No statistically significant results . OSCE showed trend of The Notion of God, positive association with senior doctor assessments . No significant correlations between OSCE average score and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument average score . APPE Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences, CAP Critical appraisal percentage, COMLEX ?USA Level 2-PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX clinical performance examination, HKU Hong Kong University, JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, OSCE objective structured clinical examination, PGY - 1 PD program director evaluation form, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Proportion of variability accounted for by the relationship between summative assessment and of Child in the United States Essay clinical performance. OSCE measures and COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Pass or Failure. OSCE Physical Examination subscore. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Data Gathering.
OSCE and harvard USMLE Step 2 CS Documentation. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS and Communication / Personal. OSCE total score and residency director ratings. Year 5 Written exam ( 5 modified essay questions + 5 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 6 Written exam ( 100 EMQ + 10 SAQ ) and A Historical Welfare States JDAT overall score. Year 4 OSCE and JDAT overall score.
Year 5 OSCE and JDAT overall score. OSCE measures and Clinical Evaluation Grade Form subscores. OSCE Total and Subscore 2. OSCE - Physical Examination score and hell case Subscores 1 , 3 , 5. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscore 1 , 3. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscores 2 , 5. Year 2 OSCE and A Historical United States Essay USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component.
Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 3 OSCE and hell case USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component. MCQ Written Examination and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning measures and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning group participation. Case based learning written reports. Portfolio and CRDTS clinical licensure examination. OSCE and A Historical Analysis of Child in the States Essay Clinical Productivity Value. OSCE and in Schools Essays Intern performance score. CPX clinical skills subset and intern performance score.
CPX patient - physician interaction subset and intern performance score. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and Analysis Welfare in the States HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and ljmu harvard HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® generic competencies. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score.
PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the States COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score. OSCE and Program director evaluations. McLaughlin et al. [ 33 ] Year 2 Fall OSCE and hell case APPE online evaluations. Year 2 Spring OSCE and Acute Care APPE. - ambulatory care APPE. - clinical specialty APPE. OSCE and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument. Reported as not significant.
OSCE and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 1 ( 3 ? 3 h short and long essay questions ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 2 ( 1 ? 3 h short essay and 2 ? 3 h EMQ ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, CIS communication and Interpersonal Skills, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX Clinical Performance examination, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, EMQ Extended Matching Question, HKU Hong Kong University, ICE integrated clinical encounter; JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, MCQ multiple choice question, OSCE objective Structured Clinical Examination, PBL problem based learning, PT CPI physiotherapy clinical performance instrument, SAQ short answer question, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Objective structured clinical examination. Three of the studies (20%) investigating the predictive ability of the Analysis Welfare in the United States, OSCE found no significant relationship [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. OSCE did not predict physiotherapy student clinical performance on the PT CPI [ 31 ], or medical student performance measured by of Atlantic Canada either program director evaluations [ 29 ] or senior doctor evaluations [ 28 ]. Nine of twelve studies in the medical profession (75%) identified a significant positive relationship between medical student OSCE scores and A Historical Welfare United States clinical performance [ 19 – 27 , 30 ], with OSCE scores explaining between 1.9 and 39.7% of the variability in medical student clinical performance.
The OSCE had a significant correlation with pharmacy students’ clinical performance with variances of 1.4–6.3% [ 33 ]. OSCEs were also found to be a significant predictor of and Unwritten John Carlos Smith, dental students’ clinical performance explaining 29.2–37.7% of the variability in Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States clinical productivity values [ 34 ]. A significant relationship was reported between pre-clinical OSCE scores and the clinical performance of dietetic students (? = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46–0.86; P 0.0001) [ 32 ]. Four of the studies evaluating medical student performance reported on the predictive ability of The Notion of God in Schools, written examinations [ 19 – 22 ]. Two papers reported on written examinations containing long essay questions and in both cases they did not predict student clinical performance [ 21 , 22 ]. In all three relevant papers significant predictive relationships were found between written assessments consisting of A Historical of Child, multiple choice questions (MCQs), extended matching questions (EMQs) and short answer questions (SAQs), with variances of The Importance, 3.2, 7.3 and 29.2% [ 19 – 21 ]. One paper [ 18 ] reported on the use of a portfolio assessment and A Historical of Child Welfare in the found it predicted 7.3% of the variability in Underrated and Unwritten Black and Tommie Smith dental hygiene student clinical performance. A PBL evaluation consisting of three assessment items predicted 5.9–16.6% of speech pathology student clinical performance on A Historical of Child in the treatment skill and of Atlantic Canada on Canadian Buisness Essay interpersonal skill subsets [ 17 ]. Case-based learning assessments in a medical program that measured group participation and quality of written reports explained 7.3 and A Historical of Child Essay 4.8% of the variance students clinical performance respectively [ 19 ]. A prediction model for medical student clinical performance incorporating Year 4 and 5 OSCEs, Year 5 and 6 written examinations, scores from Year 6 clinical attachments and overall GPA identified that no individual summative assessment significantly influenced the Essay on The by George, clinical performance score; the best overall predictor of clinical performance measured by the JDAT was overall GPA [ 20 ]. A second paper [ 21 ] combined the OSCE and written examination results of medical students in a multiple regression model and found that the OSCE added significantly to the correlation with clinical performance scores. The written examination did not have a significant independent contribution.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the Welfare Essay, findings of existing research investigating the ability of summative assessments used within the non-clinical components of an Canada on Canadian Buisness academic curriculum to predict clinical performance across the breadth of A Historical Welfare States, health profession education. Eighteen studies that met inclusion and Heroes: Smith exclusion criteria were critically reviewed. A Historical Analysis In The United? The overall methodological quality of the Underrated History and Tommie Smith, literature that was investigated to A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United States Essay inform this review was considered to be ‘fair’. None of the Canada, studies included in the review were found to A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United States Essay report on: (i) the principle confounders, (ii) the The Notion in Schools Essays, power of the research and (iii) attempts to blind either participants or those measuring clinical performance. The studies that scored more highly clearly described the summative assessment being investigated and the main findings, as well as reported actual probability values and the characteristics of students lost to A Historical of Child Welfare United follow up. The OSCE is Essay on The Owells well established in health education programs worldwide.
It is a mode of assessment specifically designed to provide a valid and reliable measure of students’ clinical competence in a simulated environment [ 11 ]. Twelve of the 15 papers reviewed that reported on the relationships between OSCE scores and clinical performance demonstrated a significant positive relationship. In these instances, a significant relationship was present regardless of whether psychometric data was available for A Historical Welfare in the States Essay, the clinical performance measure or not. Of note, the three studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ] that did not identify a significant relationship had the smallest sample sizes of harvard referencing, all the papers in Analysis of Child United States Essay the review. Ljmu Referencing? This may have affected the A Historical Analysis of Child United, power of the studies and hell case their ability to achieve statistical significance. This is supported by two [ 28 , 29 ] of the three papers which identified that there was a positive trend towards the OSCE predicting student performance and that statistical significance may have been reached with a larger sample size. The clinical performance measures used by A Historical Analysis of Child in the United States studies included in of God in Schools Essays this review assessed similar domains of competency to A Historical Analysis United Essay OSCEs, although in more complex and often less structured environments. OSCEs assess student performance at the ‘shows how’ level of Miller’s pyramid [ 36 ]; it is likely that the clinical performance measures also evaluate students at the ‘shows how’ level as there is a strong argument that ‘does’ can only be measured when the candidate is unaware of on The by George Owells, being observed or assessed [ 37 ]. A Historical Analysis Welfare United States Essay? The similarities between both the domains of competence and hell case the levels of performance measured provides some explanation for the consistent positive relationship reported between students OSCE scores and their future clinical performance. While this review suggests that a significant relationship exists between OSCE scores and clinical performance, there is wide variation in the strength of the relationship. With the Analysis Welfare, OSCE explaining between 1.9% [ 20 ] and 39.7% [ 21 ] of the variation in student clinical performance, the strength of the relationships may have been influenced by Essay on Biography other factors that in turn may vary between programs. One such factor is the structure of the Essay, OSCE itself. The wide variations in OSCE structure pose a challenge when comparing this measure between studies.
For example, the Underrated Carlos, dietetic OSCE had only of Child in the United States Essay 3 stations [ 32 ] whereas the dentistry OSCE had 35 stations [ 34 ]. The OSCEs described in studies on medical students ranged from 5 [ 24 ] to 18 [ 21 ] stations. Underrated And Unwritten Black History John And Tommie Smith? The papers with the two strongest predictive relationships between OSCE and student clinical performance described OSCEs with 18 ? 5 min stations [ 21 ] and 35 ? 2 min stations [ 34 ] which suggests that longer OSCE assessments may be better predictors of performance. This finding is supported by a systematic review [ 38 ] of the reliability of the OSCE in medical education programs which identified that while scores on OSCEs are not always very reliable, better reliability was associated with a greater number of Analysis, stations. This is attributed to a wider sampling of The Importance of Atlantic on Canadian, cases across the increased number of A Historical Analysis, stations. Unfortunately, not all papers meeting the criteria for ljmu harvard, review in this study reported on station structure and evaluation methodologies used within the OSCEs. This limited the ability to further discuss the impact of OSCE structure on the predictive ability of the Welfare, assessment but may explain the large differences in of Martha Graham variance. The differences in the strength of the predictive relationships may also be explained by the difference in Analysis United Essay measures of Underrated and Unwritten History and Tommie Smith, clinical performance. This concern has been previously reported in Analysis of Child United Essay the literature with Hamdy et al. The Notion In Schools? [ 9 ] noting that a limitation of their systematic review was the of Child Welfare in the States, lack of hell case, a widely-used measure of clinical performance. The findings of the present review also need to be considered in Analysis United Essay light of the hell case, limitations imposed by the variety of clinical performance measures used. A variance of 1.9% is of extremely limited predictive value given that OSCE performance would then explain less than 2% of student’s performance in the clinical workplace setting. However, a variance of A Historical Analysis States Essay, 37.7% indicates a strong predictive relationship.
A predictive relationship of this strength would be valuable for assisting to identify students at and Unwritten Heroes: Smith, risk of poor performance in A Historical Analysis in the States Essay the clinical setting. On this basis, the predictive relationship between OSCE scores and student clinical performance must be viewed with caution. However, these scores could be used by educators as a method of The Notion in Schools, identifying students that may be at A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United States, risk of in Schools Essays, low performance in Analysis in the States a clinical practice setting until a more robust measure is available. As only one paper was identified for each of the The Notion of God Essays, portfolio, case-based and problem-based learning assessments there is inadequate data to draw conclusions about these modes of assessment. Four papers in the review did investigate written assessments. Both papers investigating written assessment batteries containing long essay questions [ 21 , 22 ] found no significant correlation with clinical performance scores, however all four papers investigating written assessments consisting of A Historical Analysis of Child Essay, EMQ, MCQ and SAQs did identify a significant positive relationship.
This supports literature advocating the of Atlantic on Canadian Essay, use of EMQs or MCQs in written examinations rather than essay questions [ 39 ]. Like the A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay, findings for the OSCE, there was a large difference in hell case the strength of the relationship between papers reviewed. An EMQ/MCQ written assessment explained 29.2% [ 21 ] of the variation in Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay students overall clinical performance measured by a global rating instrument, but only 3.2% [ 20 ] when clinical performance was measured by the JDAT. While other program factors other than the choice of clinical performance measure may also influence these relationships, there is a large difference in the ability of the MCE/EMQ written assessments to predict clinical performance. This highlights the need for research to occur where a standard measure of clinical performance is used to of God Essays allow for comparison between studies. The findings of this review suggest that there is A Historical of Child in the United limited evidence to support the hell case, use of SMQ, MCQ and EMQ written assessments to predict student’s clinical performance and Analysis Welfare United States Essay that the written examinations should be used as a predictive measure with caution.
In traditional curricula, summative assessments may have a gate-keeping role for harvard, progression on to clinical placement. However, even in curricula where students commence learning in the clinical environment early in their program there is of Child Welfare still great merit in predicting future clinical performance. The Importance Of Atlantic Essay? The early identification of students at Analysis of Child Welfare in the States Essay, risk of poor performance allows for targeted remediation prior to clinical experiences, as well as the hell case, implementation of focused support whilst the student is embedded in the clinical environment. However, until further research adds to the body of evidence, the use of summative assessments to Welfare in the States predict student clinical performance should be approached with caution. If educators choose to use summative assessment results to attempt to predict clinical performance then this review suggests that the OSCE, which has a weak predictive value, may be the most appropriate choice. This review also implies that individual modes of summative assessment should not be the gatekeepers into the clinical practice environment as there is insufficient evidence to hell case base high-stakes decisions (such as a student’s ability to progress on to clinical placement) on in the States Essay the predictive ability of these assessments.
In addition to the differences in the structure of summative assessments investigated and clinical performance measures used that this review has already discussed, a potential limitation of the research reviewed is that only The Importance Canada on Canadian Essay students who completed their program of study were included. Students who did not complete their program were typically excluded from A Historical Analysis of Child Essay data analysis. The resulting datasets would therefore not include students that had failed to meet minimum assessment standards in either the non-clinical curriculum or in clinical placements and thus been prevented from hell case progressing. This creates a floor effect which could potentially skew the reported correlations and reduce data sensitivity. Limitations of the present review include the A Historical of Child Welfare United States Essay, use of the hell case, Downs and Black as a critical appraisal tool. This tool was originally designed to appraise health intervention studies.
While it has enabled a standardised critique of the studies in this review, it may be that the papers have been appraised more harshly when applied to the same critique as an interventional study. A Historical In The? Considering this, all studies were appraised by the same tool and as such the The Importance of Atlantic on Canadian, methodological quality of A Historical Analysis Welfare Essay, papers could be appropriately compared. There was also a language bias in this review, as papers were limited to referencing those published in the English language. There may be papers on this topic published in languages other than English that have not been captured in this review. Future research on this topic should aim to recruit larger sample sizes to A Historical Analysis Welfare in the United States Essay increase statistical power.
There should also be an emphasis on Underrated John Carlos and Tommie Smith research within allied health student populations using measures of clinical performance that have been shown to be valid, reliable and are widely used. Analysis Welfare In The Essay? This approach would allow for a more rigorous comparison between programs and even professions to be conducted, aiding in the generalisation of findings across the allied health professions. The findings of this review suggest that assessments used within an academic curriculum do have significant positive relationships with the clinical performance of of Atlantic, health professional students. To use these assessments as predictive measures caution is required due to A Historical of Child in the Essay a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified. The OSCE may be the most appropriate choice at this time for educators planning to use summative assessment scores to identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Novel 1984 Owells? Further research, with larger sample sizes, is required to determine the ability of summative assessments to predict the future clinical performance of health profession students particularly in allied health student populations. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2 Performance Evaluation. Clinical performance examination.
Central Region Dental Testing Service. Extended matching question. Grade point average. Hong Kong University. Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. Multiple choice question. National Dental Hygiene Examination. Objective structured clinical examination. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument.
Short answer questions. Competency Based Assessment in Speech Pathology. USMLE Step 2 CS: United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. No funding was received. Availability of data and materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its Additional file 1 ).
All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and planning of the A Historical in the United States Essay, review and to the development of the search strategy. RT carried out the systematic search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal and drafted the manuscript. Essay Graham? NM carried out the critical appraisal and contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. RO performed the A Historical Welfare States, kappa analysis and contributed to the drafting the manuscript. WH settled any disagreements in critical appraisal and contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the of Atlantic Canada on Canadian Buisness, final manuscript. The authors declare they have no competing interests. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Open Access This article is Analysis of Child in the United Essay distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Physiotherapy Board of hell case, Australia Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand. Physiotherapy practice thresholds in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. Physiotherapy Board of Australia. 2015. Analysis In The States? http://www.physiotherapyboard.gov.au/Accreditation.aspx . Accessed 19 Dec 2016 Nursing Midwifery Council. The Notion Of God In Schools Essays? Standards for competence for registered nurses. A Historical Welfare In The United Essay? Nursing Midwifery Council. 2010. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/standards/nmc-standards-for-competence-for-registered-nurses.pdf . Accessed 19 Dec 2016 General Medical Counil. Good medical practice.
General Medical Council. 2013. http://www.gmc-uk.org/Good_medical_practice___English_1215.pdf_51527435.pdf . Accessed 19 Dec 2016 van der Vleuten CP, Schuwirth LW, Driessen EW, Dijkstra J, Tigelaar D, Baartman LK, Van Tartwijk J. Hell Case? A model for programmatic assessment fit for purpose. Med Teach. 2012;34(3):205–14. Welfare In The United States? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Pangaro L, Cate OT. Frameworks for learner assessment in medicine: AMEE Guide No. 78. Med Teach.
2013;35(6):e1197–210. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Wood DF. The Notion Essays? Formative Assessment. In: Swanwick T, editor. Understanding Medical Education. Oxford: Wiley?Blackwell; 2010. p. 259–70. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Downing SM, Yudkowsky R. Introduction to assessment in the health professions. In: Downing SM, Yudkowsky R, editors.
Assessment in Health Professions Education. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis; 2009. Google Scholar Epstein RM. Assessment in medical education. Analysis Welfare In The States? N Engl J Med. Essay On The Novel Owells? 2007;356(4):387. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Hamdy H, Prasad K, Anderson MB, Scherpbier A, Williams R, Zwierstra R, Cuddihy H. A Historical Of Child Welfare In The? BEME systematic review: predictive values of measurements obtained in ljmu medical schools and future performance in medical practice. Med Teach.
2006;28(2):103–16. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Harfmann KL, Zirwas MJ. Can performance in medical school predict performance in of Child Welfare residency? A compilation and review of correlative studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(5):1010–22. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Harden RM, Gleeson FA. Assessment of clinical competence using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Med Educ.
1979;13(1):41. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Miller GE. The assessment of Essay on Biography of Martha, clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990;65(9 Suppl):S63–7. Of Child States Essay? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Downs SH, Black N. The Feasibility of The Notion Essays, Creating a Checklist for the Assessment of the Analysis, Methodological Quality Both of Randomised and Essay of Martha Graham Non-Randomised Studies of Health Care Interventions. J Epidemiol Comm Health. 1998;52(6):377–84. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Cocke C, Orr R. The impact of physical training programs on the fitness of tactical populations: A critical review. J Aust Strength Cond.
2015;23(1):39–46. Google Scholar Kennelly J. Methodological approach to A Historical United assessing the evidence. In: Handler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N, editors. Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Underrated Black John and Tommie Smith Perinatal Outcomes. Springer. 2011. Welfare States Essay? p. 7–19. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Gravetter FJ, Wallnau LB. Statistics for the behavioral sciences. 4th ed.
Minneapolis: West Publishing Company; 1996. Google Scholar Ho DW, Whitehill TL, Ciocca V. Performance of ljmu referencing, speech-language pathology students in problem-based learning tutorials and in clinical practice. Clin Linguist Phon. A Historical Of Child In The? 2014;28(1–2):102–16. Essay Novel By George Owells? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Gadbury-Amyot CC, Bray KK, Branson BS, Holt L, Keselyak N, Mitchell TV, Williams KB. Predictive validity of dental hygiene competency assessment measures on one-shot clinical licensure examinations. J Dent Educ. 2005;69(3):363–70. Google Scholar Ferguson KJ, Kreiter CD. Using a longitudinal database to assess the validity of A Historical of Child, preceptors’ ratings of clerkship performance. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract.
2004;9(1):39–46. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Carr SE, Celenza A, Puddey IB, Lake F. Underrated And Unwritten History John Carlos Smith? Relationships between academic performance of medical students and their workplace performance as junior doctors. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:157. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Wilkinson TJ, Frampton CM. Analysis Welfare In The States? Comprehensive undergraduate medical assessments improve prediction of clinical performance. Med Educ. 2004;38(10):1111–6. View ArticleGoogle Scholar LaRochelle JS, Dong T, Durning SJ. Preclerkship assessment of clinical skills and clinical reasoning: the longitudinal impact on student performance. Mil Med.
2015;180(4 Suppl):43–6. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Berg K, Winward M, Clauser BE, Veloski JA, Berg D, Dillon GF, Veloski JJ. The relationship between performance on a medical school’s clinical skills assessment and The Notion USMLE Step 2 CS. Acad Med. 2008;83:10. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Dong T, Swygert KA, Durning SJ, Saguil A, Gilliland WR, Cruess D, DeZee KJ, LaRochelle J, Artino AR. Validity evidence for medical school OSCEs: associations with USMLE® step assessments.
Teach Learning Med. 2014;26(4):379–86. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Baker HH, Cope MK, Adelman MD, Schuler S, Foster RW, Gimpel JR. Relationships between scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation and selected school-based performance measures. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006;106(5):290–5. Of Child In The United? Google Scholar Cope MK, Baker HH, Foster RW, Boisvert CS.
Relationships between clinical rotation subscores, COMLEX-USA examination results, and school-based performance measures. Hell Case? J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007;107(11):502–10. Google Scholar Han ER, Chung EK. Does medical students’ clinical performance affect their actual performance during medical internship?
Singapore Med J. 2016;57(2):87–91. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Probert CS, Cahill DJ, McCann GL, Ben-Shlomo Y. Traditional finals and OSCEs in of Child in the States Essay predicting consultant and Essay on Biography self-reported clinical skills of PRHOs: a pilot study. Med Educ. 2003;37(7):597–602. Of Child Welfare United States? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Kahn MJ, Merrill WW, Anderson DS, Szerlip HM. Residency program director evaluations do not correlate with performance on a required 4th-year objective structured clinical examination. Teach Learn Med. 2001;13(1):9–12. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Campos-Outcalt D, Watkins A, Fulginiti J, Kutob R, Gordon P. Correlations of family medicine clerkship evaluations and harvard Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores and residency directors’ ratings. Fam Med. 1999;31:90–9.
Google Scholar Wessel J, Williams R, Finch E, Gemus M. Reliability and A Historical Analysis Welfare in the validity of an objective structured clinical examination for physical therapy students. J Allied Health. Essay By George? 2003;32(4):266–9. Google Scholar Hawker JA, Walker KZ, Barrington V, Andrianopoulos N. Measuring the of Child in the United, success of an on Biography objective structured clinical examination for dietetic students. Of Child United? J Hum Nutr Diet.
2010;23(3):212–6. View ArticleGoogle Scholar McLaughlin JE, Khanova J, Scolaro K, Rodgers PT, Cox WC. Limited Predictive Utility of Admissions Scores and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations for APPE Performance. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(6):84. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Graham R, Zubiaurre Bitzer LA, Anderson OR.
Reliability and predictive validity of a comprehensive preclinical OSCE in dental education. J Dent Educ. 2013;77(2):161–7. Google Scholar Viera AJGJ. Understanding interobserver agreement: the of Martha, kappa statistic. Fam Med. 2005;37(5):360–3. Google Scholar Khan KZ, Ramachandran S, Gaunt K, Pushkar P. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): AMEE Guide No.
81. Part I: an historical and theoretical perspective. Med Teach. 2013;35(9):e1437. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Khan K, Ramachandran S. Of Child In The United Essay? Conceptual framework for performance assessment: competency, competence and performance in the context of assessments in hell case healthcare--deciphering the terminology.
Med Teach. 2012;34(11):920. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Brannick MT, Erol-Korkmaz HT, Prewett M. A systematic review of the reliability of A Historical of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, objective structured clinical examination scores. Ljmu Referencing? Med Educ. 2011;45(12):1181–9. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Lukhele R, Thissen D, Wainer H. On the Relative Value of Multiple-Choice, Constructed Response, and Examinee-Selected Items on Two Achievement Tests. J Educ Meas. 1994;31(3):234–50. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Gimpel JR, Boulet DOJR, Errichetti AM.
Evaluating the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students. J Am Osteo Assoc. 2003;103(6):267. A Historical Welfare In The United Essay? Google Scholar Sandella JM, Smith LA, Dowling DJ. Consistency of interrater scoring of student performances of osteopathic manipulative treatment on COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE. J Am Osteo Assoc. The Importance Of Atlantic On Canadian Buisness Essay? 2014;114(4):253.
View ArticleGoogle Scholar De Champlain A, Swygert K, Swanson DB, Boulet JR. Analysis Of Child Essay? Assessing the underlying structure of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 test of clinical skills using confirmatory factor analysis. Acad Med. 2006;81(10 Suppl):S17. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Carr SE, Celenza A, Lake F. Assessment of Junior Doctor performance: a validation study. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13:129. Harvard Referencing? View ArticleGoogle Scholar Kreiter CD, Ferguson K, Lee WC, Brennan RL, Densen P. A generalizability study of a new standardized rating form used to Analysis of Child United States Essay evaluate students’ clinical clerkship performances. Hell Case? Acad Med. 1998;73(12):1294. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Haladyna TM.
An Evaluation of the of Child States Essay, Central Regional Dental Testing Services National Dental Hygiene Examination. 2011. Google Scholar McAllister M. Ljmu Harvard Referencing? Transformative teaching in of Child in the States nursing education: leading by example. Collegian. Underrated Black Carlos Smith? 2005;12(2):11–6. View ArticleGoogle Scholar McAllister S, Lincoln M, Ferguson A, McAllister L. Issues in developing valid assessments of speech pathology students’ performance in the workplace.
Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2010;45(1):1–14. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Dong T, Durning SJ, Gilliland WR, Swygert KA, Artino Jr AR. Development and A Historical Welfare in the States initial validation of a program director’s evaluation form for medical school graduates. Mil Med. 2015;180(4):97–103. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Roach K, Gandy J, Deusinger SC, Gramet P, Gresham B, Hagler P, Rainery Y. The development and The Notion Essays testing of APTA Clinical Performance Instruments. American Physical Therapy Association. Phys Ther. 2002;82(4):329–53.
Google Scholar Straube D, Campbell SK. A Historical Analysis Of Child Welfare States Essay? Rater discrimination using the visual analog scale of the ljmu, Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument. J Phys Ther Educ. 2003;17(1):33. Google Scholar Wilkinson TJ, Frampton CM. Assessing performance in final year medical students. Can a postgraduate measure be used in A Historical States Essay an undergraduate setting? Med Educ. 2003;37(3):233–40. Essay On Biography Graham? View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Welfare Essay Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit.
By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Essay On Biography Of Martha? Part of Springer Nature.
Write My Paper -
Free Child Abuse Essays and Papers -…
Nov 12, 2017 A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay, buy essay online at professional writing service -
Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site - Mobile Version. Christmas is a'coming, The goose is getting fat, Please put a penny in A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the the old man's hat. by Ivor Noël Hume.
Thomas Nast's twinkling nineteenth-century Santa is the Essays one familiar now. The older St. Nicholas was rather grim. Sleigh bells ringing, children singing, Yule logs aglow, toy-filled stockings hanging by the hearth, Currier and Ives, Tiny Tim, and a beer baron's Clydesdales tromping through the snow. 'Tis Christmastide again, and as Grand Illumination heralds the season in Williamsburg, we can easily imagine the way it was in colonial times. Holly wreaths on every front door, mistletoe in A Historical Analysis United States Essay the hallway, candle-lit tree in the parlor ringed round with brightly packaged gifts, and the sound of lantern-carrying carol singers amid the of God in Schools Essays gently falling snowflakes. But snow? What snow? How often did colonial Virginians get snow at Christmas in Williamsburg? If modern experience is the judge, the answer is: Not often. Though in 1775 it fell right on cue.
On Friday, December 22, diarist John Harrower, writing from Belvidera Plantation near Fredericksburg, reported a great fall of snow. But for him, Christmas Day passed unnoticed. In the of Child in the United States Essay previous year it snowed on the thirteenth, but Harrower's Christmas entry told only ljmu that he had no saddle on which to ride to church. Another diarist, Philip Vickers Fithian, handed out sixpences to the servants that cost him three shillings and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay a penny ha'penny, modest largesse then described as a Christmas box. Of Atlantic Canada Essay. But that was about the extent of Fithian's giving or receiving. He found Christmas dinner no otherwise than common, albeit elegantly laid out. The Christmas Day entry of a much earlier diarist, William Byrd of Westover, recalled that in 1740 it was too cold for him to go to church, though he did have roast turkey on the table. Turkeys and hams were traditional colonial fare, as they were in England.
Even in the midst of a hot and sickly summer, a Yorktown resident thought to ship two Christmas turkeys to London, saying, Mrs Mary Ambler will send hams to eat with them. Welfare In The United States. But that was about referencing as Christmassy as colonial Virginians became. It was no different in London for William Byrd in Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States Essay 1718, whose diary contributed only that he ate some roast beef for dinner in what we would consider a late lunch. Of Atlantic On Canadian Essay. No churchgoing, no gifts given or received. Analysis Of Child Welfare In The United States. The following Christmas he was at sea on his way back to Virginia and eating plum pudding and boiled mutton, followed by roasted chestnuts and a bowl of Underrated Black John punch with the captain. Byrd also conducted a service for the crew and Analysis Welfare in the Essay wrote his own prayer. Some Christmas customs descend from Saturnalia festivals, Roman celebrations in late December. In short, an eighteenth-century Christmas, be it afloat, in Virginia, or in the Royal Court in London, was primarily a religious festival—as it was meant to be. The Importance Canada. Nevertheless, being nice to the neighbors was a traditional facet of Christmas benevolence in high places. In 1772 the Virginia Gazette reported that at Windsor Lodge the Duke of Cumberland kept open table for A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United, the Country People, for hell case, three Days, covered with Surloins of roast Beef, Plum Puddings, and A Historical of Child United States minced Pies, the rich and on Canadian Buisness ancient Food of Englishmen.
The report said that this was in the old English solid way, a criticism still heard in this country about A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States English cooking. In 1774 Christmas fell conveniently on a Sunday, and amid much regal pomp George III and Queen Charlotte received the sacrament in the Chapel-Royal from the hands of the Lord Bishop of London, assisted by the Lord Bishop of Chichester and Essays the Clerk of the King's Closet. In the following year the royal family went through the A Historical of Child in the States Essay same ritual and made the usual offering. The reporting newspaper noted, however, that the day has been kept with more strictness, by all ranks of hell case people in this metropolis, than for Analysis of Child United Essay, some years past. One immediately wonders what level of laxity had been perceived in on Biography Graham previous years. It was, however, far more likely that antisocial behavior blossomed in A Historical Analysis Welfare the day after Christmas, that being the occasion for masters to reward servants and apprentices with ceramic money boxes containing their annual bonuses, which quickly went down their throats in hell case the nearest taverns. A Historical Of Child Welfare United. 'Twas ever thus. As early as 1387 Geoffrey Chaucer wrote about the apprentice, his box, and his reputation for in Schools Essays, wild and riotous behavior. Although it is doubtful that any happy apprentice gave a thought to the origins of Boxing Day, the church was all too aware that the day of giving and Analysis of Child States receiving gifts could be traced to the pagan Roman Saturnalia, an event unfit for pious eyes or ears. They saw it that way in harvard referencing Puritan Massachusetts. A Historical Of Child United States. A law enacted in 1659 read: Whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, or the like, either by forebearing of labor, feasting in any other way, shall be fined 5 shillings, and forbade the The Importance on Canadian Festival of Christmas and kindred ones, superstitiously kept.
The law was only in effect for twenty-two years, but Christmas was not made a legal holiday in Massachusetts until the mid-nineteenth century. In England during the Cromwellian interregnum, attending a Christmas service could get one into A Historical in the United Essay deep trouble, as it did for diarist John Evelyn. On Christmas Day, 1657, he and his wife were arrested while receiving the sacrament, musket-pointing Puritan soldiers threatening them as if they would have shot us at the altar. Turkey was a traditional English main course for eighteenth-century Christmases, along with Surloins of roast Beef and hell case hams, though colonists supped on the bird in summer, too. Although there is evidence that the stroke of a Puritanical pen outlawed many an old English custom thought to have had pagan origins, in the tradition-shrouded recesses of the countryside such edicts were contemptuously ignored. A Historical Of Child Welfare. Albeit in distorted forms, therefore, some traditions survived to be absorbed into the Christmas we still enjoy.
Take, for example, the Yule log, whose ceremonial presentation is an established Colonial Williamsburg event. Essay Of Martha Graham. In the medieval centuries, when candles were expensive and hearths wide, the of Child Welfare in the United States Essay notion that the birth of the Christ child became the light of the world was reflected in referencing the Christmas Eve burning of a large, knotted, and slow-burning log or wooden block. Thus, in 1677, Poor Robin's Almanack included the December lines, Now blocks to cleave this time requires, / 'Gainst Christmas for to make good fires. Twenty-nine years earlier, Puritan cleric Thomas Warmstry said that the blazes are foolish and Welfare United States Essay vaine, not countenanced by Essay on The Novel 1984 by George Owells the church. More to the point, oversized blazing logs were liable to catch cottage chimneys on fire. The lighting of candles on A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare Essay, Christmas Eve was another, somewhat safer means of welcoming the Canada on Canadian birth of A Historical Analysis in the States Essay Christ.
In the sixteenth century, and probably earlier, single, very large candles called specifically Christmas candles were burned in churches and in homes, and it is this tradition of welcoming the infant Jesus with candles that has become part of the Colonial Williamsburg prelude to the sacred day. Decorating one's home with ivy and other greenery was another tradition whose roots were dug deep in pagan Europe and were yet another feature of the Roman saturnalia that stretched from December 17 to 24. Created as a celebration for Saturnus, the Underrated and Unwritten History Carlos and Tommie Smith god of agriculture, it evolved into an all-you-can-think-of festival of unbridled joy. The thirteenth-century historian Mathew Paris said it was characterized by processions, singing, lighting candles, adorning the house with laurel and green trees, giving presents; the men dressed as women or masqueraded in Analysis of Child Welfare United States Essay the hides of animals. The fir we cut to stand in the living-room corner may stem from the same classical source, though most of the myths surrounding it are Germanic—as College of William and The Importance Canada on Canadian Buisness Mary professor Charles Frederick Ernest Minnegerode well knew. He joined the faculty in 1842 to teach Latin and Greek and brought his native weinachtsbaum tradition with him. If you stumbled through that awkward word, just read it as Christmas tree. He set it up in Analysis Welfare in the States the Courthouse Green home of his lawyer friend Beverley Tucker. It was not until Christmas Eve, 1915, however, that the City of Williamsburg chose Palace Green to Underrated and Unwritten Black History John and Tommie Smith erect its first public illuminated tree. The tradition continues, though it has shifted to Market Square and is lit at the time of the holiday-launching Grand Illumination. Kevin Ernst as Philip Vickers Fithian dispenses holiday sixpences to Jared Armstead, left, and Bliss Armstead as servants.
It was already a custom he felt obliged to follow. The illuminated Christmas tree was not a long-standing tradition in England. Just as Professor Minnegerode brought a touch of his old country to Virginia, so another German took it to Britain. He was Albert Saxe-Coburg Gotha, who married Queen Victoria in 1840 and two years later was granted the rank of consort and enjoyed the Analysis distinction of introducing his weinachtsbaum to hell case the English court. A Historical Analysis In The States. The year was 1842. It is Essay 1984 by George, doubtful that many among the crowd following the Fife and Drum Corps down Duke of Gloucester Street give much thought to Analysis of Child Welfare United States Essay Professor Minnegerode's contribution to Williamsburg's Christmas or, indeed, to its German origins. Among the best known of the legends is that of hell case a knight who on Christmas Eve was riding through a forest when he saw a strange light glimmering between the trees. Reaching it, he found a single fir tree bedecked in burning candles, some upright and others inverted, and topped by a glowing star.
Returning home, his mother told him that he had been privileged to see the Tree of Humanity. The candles, she said, were people, the good ones pointing up and the bad down. The glowing star was the Infant Jesus watching over of Child Welfare States Essay, all humanity. Today, of course, few of us risk using anything but electric candles, but I recall a Christmas at Carter's Grove when a ceiling-height tree in the hall was so bedecked with flaming candles that the heat threatened to set the The Importance of Atlantic Canada on Canadian Buisness house on fire. In a more restrained manner, fire has always been at the heart of Christmas.
In pre-Christian Germany in houses where smoke escaped through a hole in the roof rather than up a chimney, the winter solstice was dedicated to Hertha, the goddess of domesticity. The room was decked with evergreens and a great fire was laid on A Historical Analysis of Child in the States, a large, flat altar stone set in the center. In the Novel 1984 midst of feasting, the goddess would descend through the smoke to bestow good luck on the host and his guests. Thus, according to Welfare United States Essay some mythologists, the Hertha stone became our hearthstones, and the legend explains why, rather than entering in of Atlantic on Canadian Essay a reasonable and civilized way, Santa Claus comes down the chimney. His North Pole address seems to A Historical Welfare United Essay be relatively new as no Saturnalian or ancient German knew that it existed. But Santa's alter ego, a grim-visaged Saint Nicholas, came out of the German forests riding a white horse carrying a basket of The Importance on Canadian Buisness Essay gifts for good children and a fistful of Analysis Welfare United States Essay birch rods with which to beat the bad. The saint's demon attendant, Pelznickle, who did the punishing and who today has been transformed into ljmu harvard referencing a cute polar elf, provided an additional touch of menace. As for Santa as we know him, he came with Dutch colonists to New Amsterdam, where they built a church to Santa Nikalaus. A Historical Of Child In The. It was American author Washington Irving who in his 1809 tongue-in-cheek A History of New York by Diedrich Knickerbocker first described Santa Claus as small, rotund, and soaring through the air on a reindeer-drawn sleigh.
Decades later, Thomas Nast, cartoonist for Harper's Illustrated Weekly, first drew him as we now know him. Hell Case. Nast also gave us the Democrats' donkey, and the GOP elephant. English writer John Evelyn and his wife, portrayed by Penn Russell and Lori Loughrey, found themselves in A Historical Analysis of Child in the United States trouble with Cromwellian authorities, in the person of Willie Balderson, for receiving Christmas sacrament from their priest, here Robert Doares. And what about carols? Christmas without carolers would be like—well, like holly without ivy. The word is said to derive from the Latin cantare, to harvard sing, and A Historical Analysis Essay rola, an expression of joy, and its earliest surviving text dates from the thirteenth century. But caroling being a monastic activity, it fell into disfavor in the reign of Henry VIII, later to be revived in more secular forms only to be condemned by the Puritans. By the time the British got over referencing, that hurdle, old-style carols were considered antiquated. Consequently, it was not until the nineteenth century that most of the carols we now sing were written. Silent Night was first published in 1840, Hark the Herald Angels Sing in 1856, O Come, All Ye Faithful was not translated into English until 1841, and O Little Town of Bethlehem was written for a Philadelphia Sunday School in 1868.
In truth, most of the panoply of Christmas is the product of pagan tradition, of Victorian sentimentality, and of modern marketing that keeps millions of the of Child Welfare Essay world's elves in the manufacturing business. Even the mandatory Christmas cards to Essay on The Novel 1984 Owells and from people you scarcely remember and probably wouldn't like if you saw them now have roots as shallow as the sentiments expressed. The earliest known card was created and mailed in 1845 by Victorian painter William Charles Dobson. Analysis Welfare Essay. A year later, another painter, John Calcott Horsley, was asked to provide a lithographed card to be sent out by on Biography of Martha the too-busy Sir Henry Cole, keeper of the records at A Historical in the United States Essay the British Treasury Office, and The Notion of God in Schools thanks to him we have ever since been wishing one and all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! For my part I leave you with some much older Christmas wishes in verses that predate Thomas Nast and even Charles Dickens, and which eloquently portray a yearning for imagined simpler days and happier hearts:
Too busy or too indolent to write personal greetings, Sir Henry Cole stands accused of being the sender of the second mass-produced Christmas and New Year's card in 1846. He at least wrote in Analysis in the United States Essay the recipient's name and hell case signed his own on the line. Loud songs to the praise. Of good old English pleasures: To the Christmas cheer, And the in the United Essay foaming beer, And the hell case buttery's solid treasures;— To the stout sirloin, And the United Essay rich spiced wine, And the boar's head grimly staring; To the frumenty, And the hot mince pie,
Which all folks were for sharing;— To the holly and bay, In their green array, Spread over History John Smith, the walls and A Historical Analysis of Child States dishes; To the swinging sup. Of the wassail cup, With its toasted healths and wishes;— To the Underrated and Unwritten Black History John Carlos and Tommie honest bliss. Of the hearty kiss,
Where the mistletoe was swinging; When the berry white, Was claimed by right, On the pale green branch clinging;— When the warm blush came. From a guiltless shame,
And the lips, so bold in stealing, Had never broke. The vows they spoke, Of truth and manly feeling;— To the story told. By the gossip old, O'er the embers dimly glowing,
While the pattering sleet. On the casements beat, And the blast was hoarsely blowing;— To the A Historical Welfare United States tuneful wait. At the of Atlantic Buisness mansion gate, Or the glad, sweet voices blending, When the carol rose,
At the midnight's close, To the sleeper's ear ascending;— To all pleasant ways, In those ancient days, When the good folks knew their station; When God was fear'd, And the king revered,
By the hearts of a grateful nation;— When a father's will. Was sacred still, As a law, by his children heeded; And none could brook. The mild sweet look, When a mother gently pleaded;— When the jest profane.
Of the light and vain. With a smile was never greeted; And each smooth pretense, By plain good sense, With its true desert was treated. First published at Christmastide in 1832, the States Essay wistful verses clearly reflected dismay at lost contentment, the in Schools eroding of family values, and the decline of morality and A Historical Analysis States civility. The Importance On Canadian. Now, 173 Christmases later, what else is new? Robert Doares as the priest. Ms. Eveyln as portrayed by Analysis of Child Welfare in the States Essay Lori Loughrey.
John Evelyn portrayed by Penn Russell. Willie Balderson portrays a Cromwellian authority. Kevin Ernst portraying Philip Vickers Fithian. Williamsburg-based Ivor Noël Hume contributed to the autumn 2005 journal an article about his archaeological adventures with wells.