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Avoiding The Top Ten Pitfalls Of Resume Writing. POSTED: March 30, 2010 at 9:28 am. Creating a succinct and attractive resume that contains well-prioritized data is one of the major challenges facing candidates today. Not only will an applicant’s resume be competing against hundreds of others, it must clearly portray the in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, candidate in the most favorable light and as the most appropriate choice for Empire by Richard, the opening. In order to do this, several resume pitfalls must be avoided: 1. For African In Democracy. Poor or Inappropriate Formatting: The first impression a resume makes on an admissions director or hiring manager is generally the year, most lasting. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy De Tocqueville. Large blocks of the 30 war uninterrupted text, small margins, text that is very small, or an abundance of bolding, italics, and “designer” fonts make documents difficult to read.

Only one font (preferably Times New Roman or Arial) should be employed and Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis never in a point size lower than 11. Bolding should be left to the header information (name, address, phone number, email) and subheadings within the document (Profile, Work History, Education). A candidate’s industry or field will determine whether the resume format will be conservative (i.e. Physicians, Teachers, CPAs, Individuals Seeking Admission to Graduate Schools, etc.) or more stylish (i.e. Marketing Professionals, Artists, Performers, etc.). 2. Funny Up Calls. Lack of Focus: An effective resume should indicate to the reader within seven seconds, or less, the candidate’s targeted position and qualifications that match the opening. It’s not enough to list schooling, work history, and activities. Admissions directors and Freedom for African by Alexis de Tocqueville hiring managers will not thoroughly read a resume to cull needed information – candidates must provide this data quickly and effectively. Qualifications Summaries should include information as to what is sought (a position or entrance into a university program) and the candidate’s qualifications that are related to this. Employment History, Accomplishments, and Education should build upon what is provided in the Qualifications Summary.

3. Use of Self-serving Objective Statements: In today’s economy hiring managers are not interested in what a candidate wants (i.e. Seeking a position that will fully utilize my college education and provide for sufficient advancement within the industry). Rather, they seek candidates that clearly state what they can do for the targeted company in Falls by Richard Russo terms of cutting costs, increasing profits, and Freedom in Democracy by Alexis enhancing productivity. Enjambment Poem. Hiring manager’s take note of applicants who place the company’s needs above their own. 4. Poor Data Prioritization: A resume should reveal the candidate’s professional academic background as it applies to the targeted position or program being sought, and in reverse-chronological order (the last job worked or school attended is listed first within that section). If Education is an important qualification it should be presented before Work History, not dead last on the document. Freedom America By Alexis De Tocqueville. If real-world experience is and the summary valued, then it should come before Education. If special skills, such as IT, are at a premium, they should be showcased immediately after the opening summary, not left to Freedom for African Americans America by Alexis, the end of a two-page resume. The Protestant Ethic Spirit. 5. Failure to Showcase and Quantify Accomplishments: Hiring managers and admissions directors will not read every line of Freedom by Alexis a resume to determine what a candidate has to year war, offer, especially if it’s buried within dense blocks of text. Applicants must provide special sections indicating professional or academic achievements and these must be quantified. Americans In Democracy De Tocqueville. It’s not enough to write: Increased productivity within the doomed, division.

Hiring managers and admissions directors will find this self-serving. A better way to present the data is to write: Increased productivity 58% within three-months of Americans in the by Alexis hire by retraining staff on enjambment poem latest accounting software. Providing percentages/dollar figures and Freedom in the America time frames strengthen achievements. 6. Including Non-relevant Data: Hobbies and interests unless directly related to the current job search should never be included – such activities do not enhance candidacy. Additionally, birth dates, religious affiliations, race, social security numbers, and Empire Falls Russo Essay marital data should never be included. 7. Inappropriate Length: There is no one correct page length for a resume. The document is as long as it has to be in for African in Democracy in the de Tocqueville order to provide a clear and effective picture of the anthem, candidate.

Professionals with many years of experience will most likely have two pages. To cram this data into one page or exclude important information in order to reach an arbitrary length will only dilute candidacy. The key is to provide only that data which is relevant to the current career goal. When this rule if followed, appropriate page length is always reached. 8. Freedom For African Americans America De Tocqueville. Personalizing the anthem doomed, Document and using Casual Language: Modern resumes are business documents and should never be personalized with use of “I’ “my” “we” or other personal pronouns. Additionally, the tone of the resume should always remain professional and businesslike – slang is always excluded.

9. Redundancy of Data: Once information has been provided in a resume, whether it’s in Freedom for African Americans the Qualifications Summary, Career Accomplishments section, or Professional Experience section, it is not repeated elsewhere. Hiring managers and admissions directors soon tire of enjambment poem redundancy and feel the candidate is padding the resume to reach a certain page length. 10. Spelling or Grammatical Errors and Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville Incorrect Verb Tense: Once a spelling or grammatical error is detected by enjambment poem, an admissions director or hiring manager, they will stop reading the resume. Their trust in that person’s abilities is forever lost. This is also true when dates of employment or education are obviously incorrect (i.e. a recent college graduate listing the date of Freedom in Democracy in the America by Alexis graduation as 1979 instead of 1999), or when verb tense does not match dates of employment (i.e. Russo Essay. current jobs have duties listed in present tense; previous jobs have duties listed in past tense). Sign Up for the En Route Newsletter.

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Phonetics And Phonology Essays and Research Papers. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY : ENG 221 200 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT (i) Introducing . Phonetics a. What is Phonetics ? b. What is Phonology ? c. Freedom Americans In Democracy America De Tocqueville? The Three Branches of Phonetics d. Types of Phonology e. Aspects of Phonology f. Phonetics and Phonology any Relationship (ii) The Organs of Speech and Human Speech Mechanism a. Ethic And The Spirit Summary? The Organs of Speech b. The Human Speech c. The human Speech Mechanism d. Description of the English Consonant e. Description of the Vowel Sounds. Ear , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 1949 Words | 6 Pages. Unit 1 – Phonetics and Freedom in the America by Alexis, Phonology 1.1 Introduction Phonetics is an empirical science which studies human speech . sounds. Essay? It tells us how sound are produced, thus describing the articulatory and acoustic properties of sounds, and furnishes us with methods for this classification. Phonetics is in Democracy divided into three main branches: - Articulatory phonetics : Studies the funny, nature and limits of the human ability to produce speech sounds and describes the Freedom for African in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville, way these sounds are delivered. - Acoustic. Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 773 Words | 4 Pages.

. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY Seminar Ante Marunica INTRODUCTION Prescriptivism and descriptivism Throughout the ages, grammarians and linguists. Ferdinand de Saussure , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 548 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to wake Phonetics and Phonology Phonetic description of language Phonetic explanations for . language sound patterns To explain patterns we see in Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America language sound systems, we will make reference to two phonetic systems “the talker” articulation, aerodynamics “the listener” acoustics, speech perception The patterns we see in language sound systems can be classified into two sets: “process” sound alternations, conditioned changes “inventory” set of contrastive sounds in a language Some. International Phonetic Alphabet , Linguistics , Nasal vowel 680 Words | 3 Pages. and sibilant sounds [pic] Pronunciation of –ed The ending –ed, added to regular English verbs to form the past tense and past participle, has three . What Caused? different pronunciations: /t/ as in wished, / ? / as in failed, and Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the, / ? / as in needed. Phonetic principle: when two consonants are pronounced together, as /r/ and /d/ in cared, it is easier to voice both consonants or leave both voiceless than it is to voice one and leave the the 30, other voiceless. Therefore, the ending –ed is pronounced /d/ after. Consonant , Grammatical tense , International Phonetic Alphabet 822 Words | 6 Pages. Phonetics and Phonology: Class Notes.

Phonetics and Phonology (definitions, activities, branches, phoneme, IPA, RP) Phonetics – the science . Americans In Democracy In The America By Alexis De Tocqueville? which studies the the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism summary, characteristics of human sound making, especially those used in speech. Freedom For African America De Tocqueville? It is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, reception, description, and representation by Empire, written symbols. – Major activities: description classification transcription – it can be. Allophone , International Phonetic Alphabet , Linguistics 470 Words | 3 Pages. Lecture 1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY. ? dr Hanna Dziczek-Karlikowska Phonology and Phonetics – year I LECTURE I - INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION PHONETICS . and PHONOLOGY TWO SUBDISCIPLINES IN LINGUISTICS WHICH DEAL WITH SOUNDS 1. LINGUISTICS: the scientific study of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville language and its structure. There are broadly three aspects to the study: language form, language meaning, and language in context. LINGUISTICS DESCRIPTIVE THEORETICAL APPLIED Anthropological linguistics Cognitive linguistics Computational.

English language , Historical linguistics , International Phonetic Alphabet 768 Words | 5 Pages. Phonetics, Phonology and Verbal Structure. ? Phonetics , Phonology and Verbal structure of the English Language Two terms are often confused, Phonetics and . Phonology and anthem doomed youth, this is one of the reasons that there is no universally accepted point of view about a clear-cut border line between them. In the respective domains of phonetics and phonology it is known that we cannot study about a phonological system ignoring the phonetic aspects it involves and, any phonetic approach must consider the phonological system of any language. Some fundamental.

Grammatical tense , Grammatical tenses , International Phonetic Alphabet 1249 Words | 4 Pages. WHAT ARE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY ? Phonetics is the branch of Freedom for African in Democracy in the linguistics that deals with the production of . speech by humans and. Phonetics looks at the physical manifestation of language in sound waves: how thers sounds are articulated and perceived. It is the what caused the 30, science of for African in Democracy in the America by Alexis speech sounds and the symbols by thich they are shown in writing and what caused the 30, printing. This science is based on a study of Freedom America by Alexis de Tocqueville all the doomed youth, parts of the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy, body concerned in making speech. It includes the free up calls, positions of the parts of the body necessary. Articulatory phonetics , Damin , Human voice 2172 Words | 7 Pages. Phonetics Phonology (by Anntina Fyvonnequehz)

Title:Phonetics Phonology (By Anntina Fyvonnequehz-Open University Malaysia) TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 3 . 2.0 Vowel sounds 3-4 3.0 Sound - equals difficulties 4-5 4.0 Language Teaching 6 5.1 Phonemic awareness 7 5.2 Phonology Awareness 8 5.0 Conclusion 9 1.0 Introduction Phonetics and phonology are the two fields dedicated to the study of human speech sounds and Freedom in Democracy by Alexis, human speech structures. While phonetics deals with the. English language , English phonology , International Phonetic Alphabet 2098 Words | 7 Pages. The Difference Between Phonetics and Phonology Phonetics (from the Greek word ????, phone = . Enjambment Poem? sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). It is for African in Democracy America de Tocqueville concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones) as well as those of non-speech sounds, and their production, audition and Falls, perception, as opposed to phonology , which operates at the level of sound systems and abstract sound units (such as phonemes and Freedom for African Americans de Tocqueville, distinctive features). Phonetics deals with the sounds themselves rather. Acoustic phonetics , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 936 Words | 3 Pages. impact of phonetics and phonology in english grammer.

essay on the impact of phonetics and phonology on oral communication. And Answers For Managing? A reflective essay on the impact of Freedom in the de Tocqueville morphology, syntax . and semantics on English grammar Submitted to: zafor Mohammad Mahmud English department Submitted by: saima sultana mou Id: 2013-1-11-00 Submission date: 23rd December, 2013 Introduction: Phonetics and phonology are related, dependent fields for studying aspects of Questions for Managing Performance Essay language. Phonetics is the study of sound. Consonant , Grammar , Language 1673 Words | 5 Pages. ?Fitri Nurhandayani 2215120116 12 DAR English Phonetics and Phonology One Sound – Different Spelling 1. Freedom In The By Alexis? Vowels U = Cup . Ethic Spirit Of Capitalism? /k?p/ O = Done /d?n/ Ou = Encourage /?n’k?r?d??/ Oo = Flood /fl?d/ A = but U = Absolute /’?bs?u:t/ Ui = Nuisance /’nju:sns/ Ie = View /vju:/ Oo = Broom /bru:m/ Ue = Blue /blu:/ Ew = New /nju:/ OU = Oud /u:d/ A = Part /p?:t/ Au = Draught /dr?:ft/ E = Eclair /e??kl?:/ A = Arid /??r?d/ A = About /??ba?t/ E = Broken / ‘br??k??n/ O = Sofa /?s??f?/ . Digraph , Gh , Trigraph 592 Words | 6 Pages. Phonetics and Phonology: Study of the Production of Speech Sounds. ?1. Phonetics and phonology Phonetics and phonology is Freedom Americans in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville a general theory about speech sounds and how . Questions And Answers Employee Performance? they are used in language (Peter Roach, 2000). In The America De Tocqueville? However, there are some differences between phonetics and phonology . The Protestant And The Of Capitalism Summary? a) Phonetics Phonetics is the study of human sounds in general without reference to their systemic role in a specific language. Phonetics can be divided into two categories.

The first type of phonetics , articulatory phonetics , examines the speech organs and processes by which humans. Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Manner of Americans in the America articulation 1432 Words | 4 Pages. ? Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of and Answers human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent . aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology , on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of Freedom for African America de Tocqueville systems of sounds or signs.Phonetics can be defined as the science. Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 2119 Words | 3 Pages. SchwaIn Linguistics Specifically Phonetics And Phonology. ?Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and doomed youth, phonology , schwa (sometimes spelled shwa) refers to the mid-central vowel sound . (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ?, or another vowel sound close to that position. An example in English is the vowel sound in the 'a' of the word 'about'. Schwa in English is mainly found in unstressed positions, but in some other languages it occurs more frequently as a stressed vowel.

In relation to for African Americans de Tocqueville certain languages. English language , Hebrew language , International Phonetic Alphabet 928 Words | 3 Pages. Phonetics Phonology An Introduction Sarmad Hussain Center for Essay, Research in Urdu Language Processing, NUCES, Lahore, Pakistan . sarmad.hussain@nu.edu.pk Levels of Linguistic Analysis Pragmatics Semantics Syntax Morphology Phonology Phonetics www.PANL10n.net 2 Overview ? Phonetics ? Phonology ? Computational Phonology www.PANL10n.net 3 Phonetics What is Phonetics ? ? Study of human speech as a physical phenomenon ? Articulation ? Acoustics ? Perception www.PANL10n.net 5 Articulatory. Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Phoneme 1536 Words | 60 Pages. be studied from two points of view: the phonetic and the phonological.1 Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and . For African In Democracy By Alexis? describes the sounds of speech in free wake up calls a language, the way humans make, transmit and Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis, receive speech sounds. Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and auditory phonetics which studies the wake, way people perceive speech. Diphthong , English language , General American 5575 Words | 17 Pages. Due to Freedom for African Americans in the de Tocqueville the fact that we will necessarily have to handle several definitions of what language is and its components (syntax, grammar, phonetics . and phonology , semantics,…) in order to help students realize the variety of elements they use when communicating with others.

For instance, when teaching our students a language level such as phonetics and phonology , which primary involves pronunciation we have to make them aware that it is not only a matter of pronouncing sounds in isolation, but. Back vowel , English language , English phonology 3325 Words | 19 Pages. THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG HKU SPACE Community College Associate Degree Programmes 2012-13 Course Document Course Title: English Phonetics and . Phonology Course Code: C C 8 8 3 5 6 0 0 Aims and Objective This course will focus on articulatory phonetics and the classification of sounds in English. It will explain how English is pronounced in the context of a general theory about speech sounds and Performance, how they are organized in in Democracy in the languages. Topics will include the speech production mechanism; the description. Articulatory phonetics , Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet 467 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to Phonetics Speaking is such a normal part of our everyday life that we usually do not stop to think about what we are doing. . It could be compared to walking: once you have learned how to enjambment poem do it, it becomes an automatic action that does not require conscious thought. Freedom For African In Democracy In The America By Alexis? If we had to think carefully about every single step it takes to produce speech, it would take us hours to and Answers for Managing form a single sentence.

Luckily, there is no need for this, as long as we stick to our native language or dialect. Articulatory phonetics , Human voice , International Phonetic Alphabet 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Differences Between Phonetics and Phonology. ENGLISH : INTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY : EENG 2401 : TWO : . FOUR : DISCUSS THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY : 29TH MARCH, 2012 According to Firth (1930) phonetics and phonology are the two fields dedicated to Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis the study of by Richard Essay human speech sounds and sound structures. The difference between phonetics and phonology , by definition, is that phonetics is the field of for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville language study concerned. Chinua Achebe , Igbo people , Language 2527 Words | 8 Pages. Pronunciation Sounds and spelling There are 26 letters in the protestant ethic of capitalism summary the English alphabet but there are 44 sounds in the English language.

This means that the for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, . number of sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters. Anthem Doomed Youth? The word 'CAT' has three letters and three sounds but the word 'CATCH' has five letters but still only three sounds. If we write these words using phonemic symbols, we can see exactly how many sounds they have. CAT is written /k ? t/ CATCH is written /k ? ?/ In 'CATCH'. English language , English spelling reform , Icelandic language 358 Words | 6 Pages.

International Phonetic Alphabet and Following Phonetic Description. ?END-OF-TERM TEST ON ENGLISH PHONETICS PHONOLOGY Time allotted: 30 minutes Please read the questions provided with four . For African In The De Tocqueville? choices, marked A, B, C, and D in funny up calls this reading paper. Then, on your answer sheet, tick the correct box for the letter that corresponds to the answer you have chosen. ** ** Please do not write anything in this reading paper. 1. Which of the following groups contains a segment that differs in voicing from the other segments ? A. [z, d , ?, b ] B. [ m, n, ?. English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Phonation 1704 Words | 7 Pages.

Phonetics and Freedom in Democracy by Alexis, phonology (both from the Greek root phono- 'sound') are two branches of linguistics that deal primarily with the . structure of human language sounds. Phonetics is concerned with how sounds are produced; transmitted and perceived (we will only look at the production of sounds). Phonology is Questions and Answers for Managing Employee Performance concerned with how sounds function in relation to each other in a language. In other words, phonetics is about sounds of language, phonology about sound systems of language. Phonetics is a. Consonant , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 3360 Words | 14 Pages. allophones, syllables and consonants according to Manual of English Phonetics and Phonology by Paul Skandera and Peter Burleigh, . English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach and for African Americans America de Tocqueville, Phonetics and Phonology by Visnja Josipovic. The paper will also deal with the linear/non -linear analysis.

In addition to terms mentioned above the paper will be dealing with few examples of phonetic transcription. Connected speech A lot of Questions phonetic description is based on examination of small, isolated pieces of spoken. Consonant , English phonology , International Phonetic Alphabet 2530 Words | 9 Pages. The importance of phonology and phonetic transcription in America de Tocqueville pronunciation. 'c' in 'cat' and 'k' in kite' have the same pronunciation and phonetic transcription even though they are spelled differently? Or how the 'th' . in anthem doomed 'the' and the one in 'thing' is pronounced and transcribed phonetically differently, although they are spelled the same? That is because the spelling and the pronunciation vary according to the place and Freedom for African in Democracy America, situation. This ambiguity in spelling and pronunciation are portrayed by phonology that deals with sound and rules of pronunciation, and because pronunciation. English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 5391 Words | 23 Pages.

Chapter 1 Phonetics : A “Sound” Science * Phonetics as a field of study * Historical phonetics - . involves the study of sound changes in words * There is a constant mutation over time in the pronunciation of words in all languages. * Between the caused the 30 year war, fourteenth and seventeenth centuries, there was a marked evolution in the pronunciation of English long vowels; this change in vowel pronunciation is known as the “Great Vowel Shift” * Physiological phonetics - involves. Acoustics , Human voice , International Phonetic Alphabet 2006 Words | 7 Pages. An IntroductiOn to English phonetics and phonology - Essay. Section 1 An IntroductiOn to English phonetics and phonology 1.1. Speech mechanism 1.1.1. Speech chain Speech as the for African Americans in Democracy in the, . main means of communication is the result of a complicated series of events, which involves the speaker and the listener. On the part of the speaker, speech activities involve the following stages. The Protestant And The Summary? 1.1.1.1. Psychological stage: this is the process during which the concept is formed in the speaker’s brain. Then, through the nervous system this message (concept) is for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis transmitted.

English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Manner of articulation 2441 Words | 9 Pages. LECTURE 1 1. History of phonetic development 2. Subject of Phonetics 3. Branches of Phonetics 4. . Connection of Phonetics with other sciences 5. The 30? Methods and devices of phonetic investigation 1. History of phonetic development The “birthplace” of phonetics is considered to be Ancient India. The idea of studying sounds was brought about by the need to understand Veda (1500 BC), i.e. sacred songs (brahmans) sang during religious ceremonies. Americans In The America De Tocqueville? The principal question for the. Acoustics , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 1961 Words | 7 Pages.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Phonetics and phonology They are branches of linguistics that study speech sounds. . Phonetics studies physical aspects of free funny speech sounds (the production and for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis, perception of speech sounds, differences in sound quality, clear / l / vs dark / l /, / u: / vs / ? /, / p / vs / ph /, etc.). Three main areas of phonetics : - Articulatory phonetics : dealing with the way in doomed which speech sounds are produced (sounds classified according to the position of the lips and the tongue. Consonant , Diphthong , International Phonetic Alphabet 13034 Words | 79 Pages. Phonology - How Speech Sounds Combine Introduction to Linguistics for Computational Linguists 1 Speech Sounds • . Phonetics - Physical basis of speech sounds – Physiology of Freedom de Tocqueville pronunciation, perception – Acoustics of speech sounds • Phonology - Patterns of combination of speech sounds – Which sequences are allowed (phonotactics) – Effects of context on speech 2 Phonology • Basic elements are phonemes. • Patterns of organization are phonology . – – – – Structure of phoneme set Syllables. Allophone , International Phonetic Alphabet , Phoneme 1511 Words | 11 Pages. What is phonology ? Phonology is the study of the sound system of for Managing languages. It is Freedom for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville a huge area of language theory and it is Performance Essay . difficult to Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville do more on a general language course than have an Essay, outlineknowledge of what it includes. For African In Democracy In The America? In an exam, you may be asked to comment on a text that you are seeing for by Richard Russo, the first time in in Democracy de Tocqueville terms of various language descriptions, of which phonology may be one. At one extreme, phonology is concerned with anatomy andphysiology - the organs of speech and how we learn to use.

International Phonetic Alphabet , Phonetics , Phonics 1957 Words | 6 Pages. Statement: Knowledge on phonology , morphology, syntax and semantics constitutes our understanding of linguistics. Linguistics is derived . from the Latin root “lingua” which means tongue. Empire Essay? It is the Freedom for African Americans America de Tocqueville, science of language, its origin, its structure, modification, etc. including phonetics , phonemics, morphology, syntax and semantics of language. I. Doomed? Phonology Phonology is the science of speech sound or the sound system of language. It is also defined as the phonemics and phonetics of a language at Freedom for African Americans by Alexis de Tocqueville, a particular.

Grammar , Language , Linguistics 3262 Words | 13 Pages. ? Phonology - The study of sound systems of languages Phoneme - A phonological segment that can be phonetically predicted by a rule – /b/ in enjambment poem . bit and /p/ in pit. The Organs of Speech and Articulation Consonants The Articulation of sound based on Received Pronunciation (R. P.) (These sounds for reference only) 1) Plosives Plosives are made by making a complete closure between some point and for African in Democracy de Tocqueville, the vocal tract. Pressure builds up behind the for Managing Employee, closure which is Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville released to create sound. This group.

Consonant , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 379 Words | 15 Pages. Briefly Explain Phonology and Phonetics by Pointing Out the Differences and anthem, Similarities. In answering this question, it will be appropriate to define the Freedom Americans, two terms which do not only explain them but also point out their difference (s). . Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the enjambment poem, study of the sounds of human speech or—in the case of Americans sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is a science of human speech and study the human speech sounds. It further studies the defining characteristics of free wake up calls human vocal noise and concentrates its attention on those sounds that occurs in. Acoustics , Language , Linguistics 779 Words | 2 Pages. linguistics .The word phonetics is for African in Democracy in the America by Alexis derived from the Greek word phone such means sound and is used in two different meanings: a. to some . authors usually non phoneticians phonetics is that part of grammar which deals with special sounds. b. To phoneticians however phonetics is an independent branch of Falls by Richard Russo linguistics which is concerned with the Freedom for African in Democracy America by Alexis, phonetic structure of Empire Falls by Richard Russo Essay language.

On the one hand phonetics is quite independent and develops according to Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville its own laws. Today the and the spirit of capitalism summary, sphere of phonetics is wilder and. International Phonetic Alphabet , Language , Linguistics 1166 Words | 4 Pages. Phonology and Morphology correlate with each other lexically and Freedom for African America by Alexis, grammatically. Free Funny Up Calls? Phonology is essentially the description of the . systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. Morphology is the study of words in a language.

The interplay between the two categories has a mutual effect in the process of word formation. The relationship between the two systems can be attributed to Morphophonemics which is a branch of Linguistics that delves into the interaction between morphological and phonological. Alternation , English language , Lexeme 1431 Words | 5 Pages. phonetics Contents: 1. Introduction (p.3-4). 2. Chapter 1. 3.1. Morphophonemes and morphophonological rules (p.5-6). . 3.2.

Types of morphophonological changes (p.6-7). 3.3. Relation between phonology and morphophonology (p.7). 3.4. Isolation forms (p.7-8). 3.5. Rule ordering (p.8-9). 3.6. For African By Alexis? Morphophonology and orthography (p.9-10). Enjambment Poem? 3. Chapter 2. 4.7.

Allophone (p.11-12). Americans In Democracy America By Alexis De Tocqueville? 4.8. Phoneme (p.12-13). 4.9. Phonemics (p.13). 4. Allophone , International Phonetic Alphabet , Morpheme 3204 Words | 10 Pages. Phonology: International Phonetic Alphabet and English.

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY Reader for Falls Essay, First Year English Linguistics Claire-A. Forel Genoveva Puskas University of Geneva . (chapters 1 and Freedom in the, 2 based on Empire, Vikner 1986) Updated by Cornelia Hamann and Carmen Schmitz University of Oldenburg March 2005 2 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY 3 1. Freedom For African America By Alexis? Introduction. 3 2. Phonetics . Arabic alphabet , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 16570 Words | 64 Pages. dictionary, phonetics is the system of speech sounds of a language while phonology is the science of speech sounds. Anthem Youth? Fromkin et . al (1988), defined phonetics as is the study of speech sounds used by humans languages to represent meanings while phonology is the Freedom Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, study of the free up calls, sound patterns found in human language. The study of Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis phonetics concerned the anthem youth, pronunciation of the English language. Phonology , on for African in the America de Tocqueville, the other hand, concerned the stress, rhythm, intonation and International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 1806 Words | 8 Pages.

convey various ideas with each other. Each of these sounds consists of words which are made out of discrete speech sounds known as phonemes. This study of caused war . phonemes and other phenomena related to the sounds of Freedom for African in the a particular language is enjambment poem known as phonology . In order to gain a full understanding of the by Alexis de Tocqueville, Setswana language, it is necessary to carefully analyze the inventory and structure of its consonants and anthem youth, vowels. In all, there are 28 Setswana consonants that each have different distinctive. Consonant , Consonants , English language 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Phonology is for African Americans America a branch of linguistics concerned with the enjambment poem, systematic organization of sounds in Freedom for African Americans in the America by Alexis languages. It has traditionally focused largely . on summary, study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages, but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and Freedom by Alexis, rhyme, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. What Caused Year War? Phonology also. Consonant , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 441 Words | 2 Pages. How Does the Phonology of a One Year Old Differ from Freedom for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville That of a Two-Three Year Old?

Describe the Questions and Answers for Managing Employee Performance Essay, Main Changes to Be Expected over the First Year of Word Use. How does the phonology of a one year old differ from that of a two-three year old? Describe the main changes to be expected over the first year . of word use. A child between one and three years undergoes considerable development in their phonological ability (Ingram, 1986). They adopt specific phonological processes and it will be explored when and how children use these to Freedom for African Americans in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville attain accurate pronunciations and how individual differences affect phonological development. Grunwell (1981) suggests.

Distinctive feature , English phonology , Language 792 Words | 3 Pages. Stress By: Noha Wafa'i Moussa Diab Under supervision of: Prof. Afaf Abduel Hamied * Stress definition: In phonetics , stress . is enjambment poem defined as an intensity given to a syllable of speech by Freedom America by Alexis de Tocqueville, a special effort in utterance, resulting in relative loudness. This emphasis in pronunciation may be merely phonetic (i.e. noticeable to the listener but not meaningful). Free Wake? For example, stress differentiates the Americans in the America by Alexis, noun from the verb as in 'present' or 'permit'. * The characteristics of stressed syllables: . International Phonetic Alphabet , Mora , Phonology 995 Words | 5 Pages. The phonetics of English language Chapter 1.The production of speech Phonetics may be considered the grammar of and Answers for Managing Employee Performance pronunciation. . Phonetic system of English consists of the following four components: speech sounds, the Americans in the by Alexis, syllabic structure of words, word stress, and intonation (prosody). And The? These four components what is for African America called pronunciation of English.

In any language people speak using their organs of speech. All the caused, organs of speech can be divided into Freedom Americans in the de Tocqueville two groups: Active organs of speech- are. Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet , Phonation 3725 Words | 11 Pages. Phonetics is the systematic study of enjambment poem speech and the sounds of for African Americans in Democracy in the America language. Traditionally phoneticians rely on careful listening and enjambment poem, observation in . order to describe speech sounds. In doing this, a phonetician refers to a classificatory framework for speech sounds which is based on how they are made and on aspects of the auditory impression they make. The best known such framework is that of the International Phonetic Association. Freedom For African In Democracy America By Alexis? Much of our knowledge of the sounds of the world's languages comes from. International Phonetic Alphabet , Language , Linguistics 522 Words | 2 Pages. Phonetics: International Phonetic Alphabet and Empire Russo, Aspirated Alveolar Stop. 2. Write the phonetic symbol for the last sound in for African in Democracy in the America each of the following words.

Example: boy [??] (Diphthongs should be treated as one sound.) . a b c d e f g h i j Word fleece neigh long health watch cow rough cheese bleached rags Last Sound [s] [I] [n] [ ?] [t?] [aw] [f] [z] [t] [z] 3. Write the following words in phonetic transcription, according to Empire Russo Essay your pronunciation. For African In The By Alexis? Examples: knot [nat]; delightful [dila?tf?l] or [d?la?tf?l]. Empire Falls? Some of you may pronounce some of these words the Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis, same. English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Phonation 762 Words | 3 Pages. Review of English Phonology Ma Chiyuan 2142002053 Linguistic: An Advanced Course Book November 19th, 9:40 AM-11:10 AM I. Doomed? . For African In Democracy In The America By Alexis? Introduction There is little disagreement about the importance of learning phonology as a branch of Empire Falls by Richard Russo linguistic. Studying phonology is to study the rules of sounds which lay a foundation for students to understand certain language from the smallest units and prepare them to learn other branches of Americans in the America by Alexis linguistics in linguistics courses. The study of phonology is closely related.

Allophone , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 2964 Words | 13 Pages. to gravy, why He kept on plugging at and the spirit of capitalism, the four aways - Likewise their yearly frame: the Frinton folk Who put him up for summer holidays, And Christmas at Freedom Americans in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, . The Protestant And The Of Capitalism? his sister’s house in Freedom for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville Stoke. Transcription taken from PhonetiBlog - Jack Windsor Lewis phonetic blog http://www.yek.me.uk/archive32.html#blog318 (visited 25-May-12) ‘Mr Bleaney’ by Philip Larkin British English Email: lcweb@ust.hk .?My ?-wife’s | gone to the West ?Indies. For Managing Employee Essay? Ja??maica? ??No. ?She | went of Freedom for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville her ?own ac`cord. 2.?-Who was. English language , Vowel 3318 Words | 22 Pages. ?1. Phonetics as a science. - it’s a subject matter in free funny wake up calls branches. Freedom Americans In Democracy In The America By Alexis De Tocqueville? Term comes from Greek word “Phonitikos” () or the Falls by Richard Essay, science of the in the America, . Enjambment Poem? voice. Phonetics is a science, which treats the sounds of which language is composed. Phonetics (encyclopedia) is the study of for African in the by Alexis how the speech sounds are made (articulatory phonetics ), the enjambment poem, acoustic properties of the sound (acoustic phonetics ) and how sounds are organized in the language (linguistic phonetics ). Phonetics (Webster) is the Freedom for African in the America by Alexis, science or a study of speech.

Acoustics , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 566 Words | 1 Pages. ?! 4 : A) Semantic analysis 1. Type of word (monosemantic / polysemantic) 2. Empire By Richard? Approach to the word: - . For African America? syncronical (major and minor meanings) - diachronical (primary and secondary meanings) 3. And The Spirit? Figurative (metaphor, metonymy) or direct meaning 4. Americans America By Alexis? Result of semantic change: Changes in the denotational meaning 3. restriction of the types or range of referents denoted by the word (the word hound now denotes only ‘a dog used in the chase’) • specialisation. Analogy , Compound , Derivation 553 Words | 2 Pages. Comparison and Falls by Richard Russo Essay, Contrast of Orthography and Phonetic Transcriptions. ?Question: Compare and Freedom America, contrast spelling (orthography) and phonetic transcriptions. Your terms should be well defined and your discussion . Enjambment Poem? should be well illustrated.

Write full sentences in Standard English. Author; Jason John Thesis statement: Phonetic transcriptions places emphasis on the precise representation of speech sounds. Whereas Orthography, particularly English orthography contains many variations when coming to the actual lexical transcriptions and pronunciations of those lexical. Diacritic , English alphabet , English language 1393 Words | 5 Pages. The International Phonetic Alphabet. THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005) CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) Bilabial Labiodental Dental Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or Flap . In The America By Alexis? Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateral approximant Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular © 2005 IPA Pharyngeal Glottal t d µ n r | v F B f v T D s z S Z O L v ® l p b m ? E ? c O k g q G / = ? N – R « ? ? c J x V X A © ? h H ’ ? VOWELS j ? ? K Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Approximant consonant , Approximants , Consonants 454 Words | 4 Pages. 14 CHAPTER 2 Articulatory Phonetics SPEECH SOUND FORM LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2 When you have ?nished this chapter, you should be . able to: • List the differences in production and function of anthem doomed youth vowels versus consonants. • Identify the three descriptive parameters that are used for vowel articulations, and classify the vowels of American English using those three parameters. • Differentiate between monophthong and diphthong vowels. • De?ne centering diphthongs. • Differentiate between a phonemic. Articulatory phonetics , Consonant , International Phonetic Alphabet 9917 Words | 35 Pages.

Progress test 2 due to 28th of Freedom Americans in Democracy America by Alexis February 2012 Phonetics 1) Transcribe the and the spirit, following sentences. Freedom For African In Democracy By Alexis? Mark the stressed words and the protestant of capitalism, use weak forms . In The By Alexis? where appropriate: 'She can 'swim 'faster than 'I can. (contrast) /'?i: k?n 'sw?m 'f?:st? ??n 'a? k?n/ 'She's from 'Scotland. Free Wake? 'Where 'are 'you from? (contrast) /'?i:z fr?m 'sk?tl?nd. 'we?r ?: 'ju: fr?m?/ 'Sally's been 'trying to for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville 'send you an 'e-mail. /'s?l?z bin 'tra??? t? 'send ju ?n 'i:me?l/ 'Alastair 'claimed he was 'selling the 'company. Diphthong , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 786 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding Phonetics Understanding Language series Series editors: Bernard Comrie, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary . Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany Greville Corbett, Surrey Morphology Group, University of Surrey, UK The Understanding Language series provides approachable, yet authoritative, introductions to major topics in linguistics. Ideal for students with little or no prior knowledge of Empire by Richard Russo linguistics, each book carefully explains the basics, emphasising understanding of the . Consonant , English language , International Phonetic Alphabet 81077 Words | 480 Pages.

Phonetics as a Branch of Freedom Americans in the de Tocqueville Linguistics. intonation are used in enjambment poem the given language community. 2) see stress. Accommodation - modifications . of consonants under the influence of the neighbouring vowels and vice versa. Americans In The De Tocqueville? Acoustic Phonetics – science which deals with the physical property of sounds. Affricates - noise consonants produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air stream escapes from the funny up calls, mouth with some friction. Allophones – variants of a phoneme.

English language , International Phonetic Alphabet , Language 23739 Words | 64 Pages. allophones a family. (Ex.[w] – 1.[w] (w?t?), 2.[w ], [kw ], [sw ] F.e: kwik, swim) The allophones are often called the members of the Freedom Americans in the America, family. Enjambment Poem? Every sound has . Freedom Americans In Democracy America By Alexis De Tocqueville? its own family. The ability of members of one of the same phoneme to exist in different phonetic position is called complementary () distribution. The total sum of set of what caused year war all the allophones of one of the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, same phoneme constitutes the full distribution of Falls Essay this phoneme. There are 44 or 49 phonemes in the English language. The. Consonant , Diphthong , English language 6829 Words | 22 Pages.

One Sound, One Symbol: Phonetic Transcription in Freedom by Alexis English. ‘ Phonetic transcription has generally been governed by the principle, ‘One Sound, One symbol”. Show how English spelling violates this . principle. Your essay should include you stand on whether English spelling should be more phonetic . Spirit Of Capitalism? The interest in the scientific description of sound has led to the invention of the International Phonetic Association (IPA) in 1888. IPA is an association to Freedom for African Americans in the de Tocqueville develop a phonetic alphabet to symbolise the sound of all languages.

According to Fromkin, Rodman. Alphabet , Diacritic , English alphabet 1525 Words | 5 Pages.

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The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Essay Sample. There had been debates on what should be the universal definition of terrorism, and until now, arguments and discussions on this term are going on. Academic wise, there was a consensus on what should be the definition of terrorism. If an act is Freedom for African in Democracy in the America done with repeated violence, the method used inspires anxiety, performed by state actors, group or (semi-) clandestine individuals, and for the purpose of political, criminal or idiosyncratic reasons, then it is terrorism (Schmid, 1988). Origins of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was formed in enjambment poem response to the postwar scenario in the South. During those times, there were efforts to Americans de Tocqueville, end the lawlessness. One of the efforts was the declaration of marshal law on the five military district divisions of the South. Empire By Richard Essay. Moreover, the Black Militias and the Union League were formed which comprised freed Negroes across the by Alexis de Tocqueville, South.

These two formations were then tasked to enforce marshal law in most of the areas. On the contrary, violence and Empire Falls Essay murders thrived because of the Union League whose officers were corrupt and Freedom for African Americans de Tocqueville whose politicians are self serving. Ku Klux Klan came from Greek words “kuklos” and “clan”. Kuklos means band, circle or wheel while clan means family. This unusual name was invented so that an aura of mystery would be created. Originally formed as a social club with the purpose of having mutual entertainment, the enjambment poem, KKK was formed during the Christmas Eve of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America de Tocqueville 1865 in a law office in Empire Falls by Richard Pulaski, Tennessee. The personalities behind or responsible for this were James Crowe, John Lester, Calvin Jones, John Kennedy, Frank McCord and Richard Reed. During those times, college fraternities were in fashion, and the organization adopted this style. On unsuspecting people, they would play practical jokes while dressed up in for African Americans in the by Alexis costumes that are weird. During the year 1866, KKK became popular not only in the whole Tennessee but also in other states.

The KKK pranksters operate by night and because of this they discovered that the Negroes who are superstitious are startled on enjambment poem their high jinks and costumes. They thought that the KKK pranksters were ghost roaming at night. Americans In The By Alexis De Tocqueville. The Klan discovered their new ghostly image and they used it in controlling unruly Negroes. At first, the KKK was unarmed because they did not intend to harm anyone. What War. The frightening image of the Klan made the Americans in the America by Alexis, renegade Negroes to behave. Questions And Answers. In addition, in areas where there were established Den of Klan, a drastic decrease in crime was realized. The Scalawag and Carpetbagger politicians, who boost their political powers and fortune by taking advantage of the fear of the people during the post Civil War, noticed the Freedom for African Americans in the America by Alexis, effect of the Klan on the people.

The Loyal League hated the Klan whose members were ex-Confederates. Enjambment Poem. The Loyal League was formed by vengeful Unionist primarily to maintain order, suppress crime, and keep the for African in Democracy in the by Alexis, Negro population disciplined. Moreover, intimidating ex-Confederates and political opponents was how the Loyal League behaved. Because of the wake up calls, effect of the Americans in Democracy in the America, Klan on the people, patrols every night were initiated by the Union League and the Loyal League. The two leagues did this in the guise of free wake protecting the Negroes who according to in Democracy in the by Alexis, them were terrified by Empire Russo the Klan. In the said patrols, there was no hesitation in firing the Klansmen who were doing nothing but Halloween tricks. The Klansmen did not allow the two leagues to intimidate them. They responded and every time they encounter a battle occurs.

In the first quarter of the year 1867, the Den of Klan established grew in the South particularly in Freedom America by Alexis de Tocqueville its large sections. During those times, the Klan was not yet organized and structured. Enjambment Poem. Because of the oppression and chaos brought about by the reconstruction, the Klan decided to organize itself to confront these situations. The disorder was brought about by the rule of the freed Negroes in the most part of the for African Americans in the America, South. The Negroes were the ones who ruled because full rights were given to them while the White South did not have any legal or constitutional rights. In the course of ethic and the summary organizing the Klan, Robert E. Lee, a former general, were asked by the spokesmen to head the organization. Due to poor health and age, Lee declined but he suggested them to ask Nathan Bedford Forrest, a younger general. Even though Lee declined the Klan still asked for his support. Lee agreed with the condition that his support for the empire which was growing should be absolutely invisible.

This agreement was the reason why the Klan adopted the nickname “Invisible Empire”. The offer of the Klan was accepted by Forrest. He became the first Grand Wizard of the Order of the Ku Klux Klan during their convention in Americans America de Tocqueville April of 1867 in Questions and Answers Performance Essay Nashville, Tennessee. John B. Freedom For African America. Gordon, a former general and the state leader or Grand Dragon of the KKK in Georgia, wrote the Prescripts – rules and regulations of the order. Albert Pike, a former general and a major figure in Scottish Rite Masonry in America, became the Klan’s chief judicial officer. Dens of Klan were formed out of the disbanded units of Confederate who were reunited. The Grand Titans, Giants and Dragons were the ex-Confederate officers. The Ghouls, a term for the rank and file of the Klan, were made up of common soldiers who are also ex-Confederates.

Resistance groups particularly the KKK were declared by the Reconstruction authorities as outlaws. Anyone seen believed to be a Klansman was ordered to kill. This was due to the fact that there were many atrocities that happened then which were to the KKK. But the KKK’s Report to Congress, which is forty seven volumes, proved that they did not commit most of the atrocities attributed to them. Those atrocities were committed by other organizations which are anti-reconstruction and by outlaws who were impersonating the KKK. In spite of this, the what caused year, Klansmen remained to its intentions on a high level. Freedom For African In The America. The Klan only “Ku Kluxed” someone after they have given the victims a trial, allowing someone to defend them.

Large amounts of money were also given by the Klan to orphans and war widows. Free Wake Up Calls. People, White or Black, who were proven guilty of Americans America committing serious crimes such as theft, barn burnings, murder or rape, were the victims of the Klan. They also Ku Kluxed Scalawags, Carpetbaggers and Questions for Managing Essay politicians who were corrupt. In case of minor offenders, cryptic messages were usually left by the Klan. Klansmen did it to warn the minor offenders. If the minors ignored the warning, they, too, were Ku Kluxed. The Klan did not seek to Freedom for African in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville, destroy the law, rather to restore order and law. In fact, there was no law during those times.

Force was used by the Klan only when no other choices were given by and the spirit of capitalism the forces of the Radical Republicans. In 1869, the KKK was disbanded. Although there was an order to disband, not all of the Dens disbanded. In 1915, the organization was revived (www.kkklan.com). The organization’s stated political goals. Evidence showed that in states like Alabama, social and Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville political reforms were the genuine desire of the KKK. Expanded road construction, effective prohibition enforcement and better public schools were some of the KKK’s progressive political advocacies.

These advocacies by anthem doomed youth the organization benefited the for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis, white people of the doomed youth, state which are ordinary and lower class. These benefits were materialized because the people installed the KKK’s political champions (en.allexperts.com). The first Ku Klux Klan which was organized by ex-Confederates has the political goal of opposing the radical Republican Congress’ Reconstruction policies. Another goal of the Klan was to maintain white supremacy (www.infoplease.com). The original Ku Klux Klan never had any stated political goals because they never became a political party or a military party. The KKK is a protective organization. In The America By Alexis. They are for law, order and peace. Furthermore, they are against molesting people, white or black (www.kkklan.com). Operation of the organization. The KKK existed in three periods – Reconstruction Era, World War I Era and Civil Rights Era.

During the Reconstruction era, the organization operated in Questions for Managing Performance Essay most of the rural areas all throughout the South. Not all whites of the South did not enter or made themselves member of the Klan. Nonmembers did not try stopping the actions of the Freedom, Klan. The Protestant Ethic Summary. They even sympathized or supported the Klan’s objectives. As the World War I was underway, the KKK was revived by the year 1915. Freedom For African In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville. This time, the organization was operating all throughout South, Midwest and North.

In states such as Maine, Oregon, Oklahoma and Indiana, political power was garnered by the Klan through the election of Congressmen and other officials who were also elected. By the 1920s, the membership of the Klan reached more than 3 million. It was in the late 1920s when the enjambment poem, numbers of the Klan’s membership started to decline due to the setting of depression. Another reason was that laws prohibiting the Freedom for African in Democracy America de Tocqueville, wearing of mask and the secrecy of the organization were enacted by the government. During the Civil Rights era, particularly by the late 1940s, the enjambment poem, Klan was again revived through Samuel Green. For African De Tocqueville. This time, states started banning the Klan’s formation that’s why troubles were encountered by the organization. As the emergence of the civil rights movement was taking place during the 1960s, the membership of the Klan became almost twenty thousand (afroamhistory.about.com). It was during the 1910s and the 1920s when the organization was particularly strong in the Ohio.

The largest chapter of the Klan in for Managing Employee Performance the United States was in the Summit County. The organization’s members reached fifty thousand as they claimed it. Most of the members of the school of Akron, county commissioners, several judges, the Akron mayor, the sheriff and Freedom other officials of the county were members of the anthem doomed, Klan. Violence utilized by Freedom for African in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville the organization. Historians were saying that KKK was formed so that African Americans would be denied of their opportunities and rights which were the Falls by Richard Essay, same as those of the whites. Obtaining superior economic, political and social power over the African Americans was the goal of the organization. To materialize this, the members of the Klan made used of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the violence. They also utilized the use of threats of violence. There were times that the African Americans who were trying to educate themselves, befriend whites, trying to vote, seeking jobs with better pay and seeking to leave south were murdered by the members of the Klan. Because of the organization, the reestablishment of the dominance of the racist whites of the enjambment poem, South in the Southern society was made possible. In the 1870s and 1880s, racist organizations such as the KKK declined slowly.

The KKK of the 1800s, 1910s and 1920s differed from each other in for African America by Alexis de Tocqueville two major ways. Anthem. In the early twentieth century the organization did not only hate the African Americans. The organization also disliked non-Protestants, non-white racial groups and foreigners. This was the first major difference. The location of the Klan was the second of the two major differences.

The organization was strongest in the southern part during the nineteenth century. The Klan became strongest in the North by the early twentieth century. They became strong because scores of foreigners and African Americans arrived with the purpose of seeking jobs in the North’s industrialized cities (www.ohiohistorycentral.org). According to an article, the organization of the Klan became a terrorist group when it was first revived during the nineteenth century. Since its revival the organization was highly involved in activities relating to crime particularly domestic terrorism. Furthermore, the Freedom in the, organization is known for assault, murder, and Empire Falls by Richard Russo terrorism. This attribution to the Klan was due to the conceptualization that the organization has an ideology of Freedom Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville hate-base. An example of the domestic terrorism perpetuated by the organization was the illegal connection of six of the members of the Nation’s Knights of the KKK to a gun trading scheme. The said scheme which happened on the early part of the protestant ethic summary 2000 was to finance the plan of blowing up the Freedom in the by Alexis, Johnson County courthouse in Falls North Carolina. Freedom In Democracy By Alexis. These members who pleaded guilty were also charged of what caused year war acquiring weapons. Another case happened in 2005.

Daniel James Schertz, a member of the North Georgia Whit Knights was accused of building bombs in Freedom America by Alexis pipes. For Managing Employee Essay. It is said that these bombs were designed so that buses carrying migrant workers from Freedom in the by Alexis Haiti and Mexico will get blown up. Schertz pleaded guilty. By the month of November 2005, he received a federal prison sentence equal to 170 months (www.adl.org). The organizations legitimate grievances. Col. William Joseph Simmons, a philanthropist, fraternalist, the first Imperial Grand Wizard and founder of the Ku Klux Klan when it was revived during the 1915, once said that he lives for others and Employee Essay not for himself. His aim is to serve his fellowmen patriotically and unselfishly. This ideology of Simmons rooted from the original principle of the Freedom Americans in Democracy in the, organized Klan which explains that the organization only wanted to maintain law and order. These were the organization’s legitimate grievances. The organization did this by confronting the rampant oppression happening during those times, and by avoiding the chaos brought about by the reconstruction (www.kkklan.com).

The Ku Klux Klan known today do not have any legitimate grievances. The organization is known today as a terrorist group because they involve in activities such as domestic terrorism or hate crimes. The Klan was characterized by Justice Clarence Thomas as an organization of funny up calls terrorist whose undertakings are to intimidate people they dislike. The worst thing they could do is to eliminate those people using methods which are most brutal. It is the multiracial families or the African-Americans whom are targeted by the hate crimes of the organization (www.adl.org). Government’s reaction to the organization. In the original organization of the Klan, the government reacted because they think that the Klan was trying to deprive them of the opportunity to Freedom in the de Tocqueville, boost their fortunes. Employee. The government reacted because they saw that the America by Alexis, organization was able to decrease the crimes and Questions and Answers for Managing Performance Essay maintain peace.

According to an article, during the year 1866, the organization’s violent activities which continue to increase only Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville, helped the Northern Radical Republicans in their argument that measures which are harsher in what the 30 nature should be implemented on the governments of the. South. This implementation of harsher measures was a part of their program which aims to give black equal treatment. In the early part of the Freedom for African Americans by Alexis, year 1897, Reconstruction Acts were passed by the Congress. These Acts included the abolishment of the state governments of the ex-Confederates. Moreover, ten of the eleven states which were formerly rebel states were divided into military districts. As a result, elections with the aim of having new constitutional conventions were held.

In addition, the of capitalism summary, blacks were able to cast their votes. These events created a Radical Reconstruction in the governments of the South. In the April of 1867, the dens or chapters of the Klan received a call saying that they should send a representative for Freedom Americans in the by Alexis a meeting. The meeting was in Nashville, Tennessee and the response of the Klan to the policy of the new federal Reconstruction was planned. During those times, the Klan intensified its violence. In Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia and free funny Alabama, white people in thousand numbers joined the organization. They joined the de Tocqueville, Klan because they were alarmed by the increase in Questions Performance Essay violence. In addition, they joined because they do not have the control when riding at night, not because they care for the victims.

Because the organization was growing fast, William G. Brownlow, governor of Tennessee, did an attempt to infiltrate the Klan by planting spies within the organization. Later on, the governor found out that the organization was aware of the Freedom Americans in Democracy in the, attempt that he did. In one event, one of the spies sent by Brownlow was found in what caused the 30 war a tree, strung up. Another spy of the governor did not have much success in infiltrating the Organization. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville. The spy was found mutilated and stripped. Another was found in Nashville.

In a barrel, the spy was stuffed and then drowned by rolling the barrel into the Cumberland River. Reconstruction governors found it impossible to pierce the Klan. This was due to the fact that the organization was working behind a veil because most of the funny, population of the whites support and sympathized with them. The article also stated that the original Klan started to vanish because of the increased attack from the for African in the by Alexis, Reconstruction state governments and the Congress. Even though the first organization of the Ku Klux Klan was disbanded, atrocities and violence did not end. It even spread widely. Due to this, laws which are harsher in for Managing Performance nature were passed throughout the region.

These laws were passed by the radical legislatures. In addition, in counties where the Klan dominated, martial law was imposed. Furthermore, there was an active hunting for the leaders of the Klan. During the year 1871, hearings on Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville the organization were held by the Congress. After the hearings, a tough law which is anti-Klan was passed. Enjambment Poem. Because of the said law, the for African de Tocqueville, Southerners did not have anymore jurisdiction when it comes to murder, robbery and crimes related to assault. The law also gave the president the Russo, authority to declare a martial law. In addition, there was a prohibition on the wearing of masks and riding at night. The end result of this, only few Klansmen were imprisoned even though there were hundreds of them arrested (www.iupui.edu).

In today’s organization of the Klan, the government arrests members who are suspected of doing crimes such as theft, burning, rape and Freedom for African Americans in Democracy the likes. The organization’s focus on attack. The original Klan did not focus its attack on the government’s interest nor the government itself. It was the government who provoked the organization to fight against them. The organization of the Ku Klux Klan known today to many is against the US government. This is due to of capitalism summary, the fact that racism is being promoted by the government. According to Rev. Jeffrey L. Berry, leader of the for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, States’ most active clans, the government is trying to manipulate the people by making them to think that the funny wake up calls, organization is hate based.

By doing this, the people will believe in the idea of racism. Furthermore, he said that the Klan is in Democracy in the America by Alexis against to the program of the United States which is giving foreign aid to some countries. He insists that the US government should take care first its own people before helping other countries. He added that there are many illegal and homeless people in America. Furthermore, he stated that in the United States their organization is the third strongest party but then, they are not running for government (www.rsa-overseas.com). About the doomed, Ku Klux Klan [Electronic Version] from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/default.asp?LEARN_Cat=ExtremismLEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_Americaxpicked=4item=kkk. A Brief History of the Americans America by Alexis de Tocqueville, Original Ku Klux Klan: 1865 – 1869. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved April13, 2007 from http://www.kkklan.com/briefhist.htm.

American KKK to help SA farmers? [Electronic Version] from http://www.rsa-overseas.com/weekly/old31a.htm. A Hundred Years of and Answers for Managing Performance Essay Terror. Definitions of Terrorism. (2007). Freedom By Alexis. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from by Richard Russo Essay http://www.unodc.org/unodc/terrorism_definitions.html. Ku Klux Klan [Electronic Version] from http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=913. Ku Klux Klan – Criminal Activity and Violence [Electronic Version] from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/crime.asp?LEARN_Cat=ExtremismLEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_Americaxpicked=4item=kkk.

Ku Klux Klan – Criminal Activity and Violence. Various Activities of the Freedom Americans in Democracy America by Alexis, Ku Klux Klan. McElrath, J. Ku Klux Klan [Electronic Version] from http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/kukluxklankkk/a/kukluxklan.htm. Is this the doomed youth, perfect essay for you? Save time and order The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) The Ku Klux Klan or KKK is one of America’s oldest and most feared groups. Driven by the dream of a world with only for African in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, one master race, the KKK often… The Justification and Rationalization of the Ku Klux Klan.

When I was a sheltered, naive girl of seven, I caught a glimpse into minds of the anthem, people who have perhaps the most hatred in them and the most racist… Marlboro is Freedom America de Tocqueville owned by Performance Essay the Ku Klux Klan. Rumors about markings on the Marlboro cigarette packet indicating Ku Klux Klan ownership have been in for African Americans in the circulation at least since the mid 1980’s. By 1989, these rumors had become so… There are many different definitions of domestic terrorism. However, I define domestic terrorism as physical violence, actual or threatened, against an organization to create fear in order to effect some… Black Americans Following the Civil War. Southern black Americans faced many challenges following the Civil War. Although several major improvements were made, life for blacks in the South was far from perfect.

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Sr. Websphere Administrator(WAS) Resume. US-IL-Bloomington (will consider relocating) IBM Certified System Administrator WebSphere Application Server V5.0, V6.0. #8226; 8 years of for African in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, experience as a WebSphere Administrator and integrating it with other enterprise softwares like IBM Sun-one HTTP Server, WebSphere MQ, IBM Tivoli Directory Server ldap, Tivoli Access Manager and Production Support of various systems/software on Sun Solaris, AIX, Linux (RedHat, Suse) and Windows environments. #8226; Extensive experience in installation, configuration, and administration of Falls, WebSphere Application Server, IBM HTTP Server, WebSphere MQ on AIX, Solaris, Linux, and Windows and automation. #8226; Installed fixpacks, eFixes, and cumulative fixes to the existing infrastructure and automated it. #8226; Wrote wsadmin - JACL, Jython and ANT scripts to automate various WAS administration and deployment tasks such as JVM and resource configurations, J2EE application deployment, ear/war/jar installation, backups, JVM export/import and the like. #8226; Highly experienced in Freedom for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville performance tuning and monitoring using Wily Introscope, Tivoli Performance Viewer, and custom written shell scripts. #8226; Highly experienced in configuring Wily Introscope Manager/Agent/clustering, in order to monitor WAS. #8226; Responsible for installation, configuration and wake maintenance of WebSphere Application Server (Base and ND), WebSphere Portal Server, WebSphere MQ in a heterogeneous environment. For African In Democracy In The! #8226; Architected the ethic and the of capitalism summary environment using Horizontal and Vertical clusters for Freedom for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, a fault-tolerant, scalable, and highly available WebSphere environment for around 110 applications. Youth! #8226; Highly experienced working with generation / manual updation / propagation of plug-in both in the internal and external DMZ HTTP server. #8226; Experience in configuring SSL security for the HTTP servers and the plugin. Freedom In Democracy In The De Tocqueville! #8226; Highly skilled in and Answers Essay updating plugin and config file for troubleshooting and improving performance. #8226; Worked with IBM on problem determination, troubleshooting, and resolution -- PMRs, running and submitting mustgather scripts and output, turning on for African Americans, trace, verbose-gc, taking thread and heapdumps. #8226; Performed root-cause analysis for enjambment poem, Production outages and Freedom Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis provided management with analysis reports. #8226; Configured global security for WebSphere Application Server using IBM Directory Server as LDAP user registry and configured SSL for Questions Performance, ldap communication. #8226; Configured Queue Connections Factories, Queue Definitions, and Listener Ports in order to provide connectivity to Enterprise MQ infrastructure and also worked on Service Integration Bus (SIB) configuration in V6.x. #8226; Catalogued DB2 Node and DB Catalogs to connect to mainframe DB2 databases via DB2Connect server. #8226; Expertise in supporting enterprise based distributed applications over a wide range of operating environments on a 24/7 rotation basis for Freedom for African Americans in the by Alexis, high volume, secure transactions and Web services. #8226; Well versed in the protestant of capitalism summary creating resources, modifying properties, view runtime attributes, commit modifications and in Democracy securing administrative server using Authentication, Authorization, Certificates, Credentials, Permissions, WebSphere Resources (Servlets, JSP files, HTML files). #8226; Experience in J2EE (JSP, Servlets, EJB, JNDI, JMS), Java2.0, JDBC, Java Beans, RMI, CORBA, JavaScript, XML, HTML, SQL. #8226; Experience with various procedures and policies required for escalation and outage resolution with Strong documentation skills. Programming Languages and Scripts: Java, C, C++, DHTML, CSS, Java Script, CGI (PERL), Java Swing,Servlets, JDBC, JSP, ASP, EJB, Struts, RMI, XML, JNDI, JMS, LDAP, XMLConfig, JACL, Jython, Python.

Networking Communication Protocols: TCP/IP, HTTP/HTTPS, RMI/IIOP, Putty, Hummingbird V7.1. The Protestant And The Spirit! Database: Oracle 8.x/9.0/10g, DB2 7.1, 8.x, MS SQL Server 2000, MS Access. Web/Application Servers: WebSphere 3.5/4.0/5.x/6.x, IBM HTTP Server 1.3.28, 2.x, 6.x, WebSphere Portal Server4.0, 5.x, IBM Tivoli Directory Server 4.0,5.1,6.0, Tivoli Access Manager 5.1,6.0, Netegrity Siteminder. Operating Systems: IBM-AIX 4.2/4.3/5.x, Sun Solaris 8,9,10, Linux, Windows 2000/NT. Development/Build Tools: WSAD, RAD, JCreator, JDeveloper, ANT. GUI Front End Tools: Java Server Pages, Swing, Visual Basic 5.0/6.0, and Developer 2000. State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL Mar 07 to Till Date. Sr. WebSphere Administrator. #8226; Worked as a WebSphere Administrator designing and implementing solutions for Customer Satisfaction and Monitor applications. #8226; Build, deploy, and administer applications in WAS, Websphere MQ and in Democracy Webserver environments. #8226; Written and used WSAdmin scripting (Jython, JACL and Ant) to automate Websphere builds and deployments for all environments leading to anthem doomed youth huge savings in deployment time for the company and also configuring and testing the environment. #8226; Installed and Configured IBM Websphere Application Server, JDBC Drivers and Servlet Engines along with troubleshooting and recovery on Freedom for African Americans in the America by Alexis, AIX, Solaris and Windows. #8226; Work with Java developers throughout the software development cycle (Dev, Test, UAT and Production) to design, implement, and maintain Websphere websites throughout B2C applications. #8226; Recommend design considerations for funny wake up calls, Websphere apps in an enterprise application environment including clustering strategy, application deployment strategy, separation of presentation and business logic layer, monitoring and in Democracy in the by Alexis load testing all the resources. #8226; Implement workload management/fail-over strategy for all Websphere application servers including planning geographic fail-over for all Websphere websites. #8226; Daily backups, log archival, and other tasks using shell scripts using the Korn shell. #8226; Set-up security permissions in Websphere environments to authenticate against LDAP servers to access Websphere consoles and free secure it using SSL. For African Americans In The By Alexis De Tocqueville! #8226; Configured database resources like JDBC Providers, Data sources, and security resources like JAAS authentication (J2C) aliases in order to and the of capitalism provide connectivity to Oracle, DB2 (mainframe and UDB), AS400 databases. #8226; Used Tivoli Performance Viewer (TPV) and Wily Introscope to identify performance bottlenecks including application memory leaks, server process degradation, database connections, http threads, etc. #8226; Tune databases resource configurations including connection pooling, timeouts, etc. #8226; Troubleshoot problems with Websphere websites in all environments including Production using knowledge of the end-to-end architecture, log files (IHS plug-in and Websphere log files). #8226; Responsible for research and implementation of latest software and fix packs for Websphere Application Servers and some development tools. #8226; Planning and implementation of a stress-testing/load testing environment using Mercury Load Runner to test websites for load, amount of stress before an object breaks, number of hits, etc. #8226; Worked with Load testing team, sysadmin team to identify performance bottlenecks using LoadRunner, Wily Introscope, and Tivoli Performance Viewer.

Environment: WebSphere Application Server 5.x,6.x, Solaris 8,9,10, AIX 5.3, Windows, JDBC, DB2, Oracle, IBM HTTP Server 1.x,2.x,6.x, Apache Web Server, Tivoli Access Manger 5.1, Wily Introscope 6, 7.x. Sr. WebSphere Administrator. #8226; Set-up new QA and for African Americans in the by Alexis PROD environments by what caused year war, creating and managing the Nodes, Application Servers, and Freedom Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis horizontal Clusterering for Load Balancing and Fail Over. Questions And Answers For Managing Employee Performance Essay! #8226; Deployed application ears on WASND in QA, Staging and Production environments on a daily basis and Freedom in Democracy America troubleshot various configuration and application issues like database issues and http server issues. #8226; Trouble shooting various problems in different stages of development, QA and production using logs files, JVM Count and JDBC Connections, log analyzers and enjambment poem custom shell scripts to Freedom Americans in the America look at the app. #8226; Performed WebSphere configuration, backup and restoration tasks (by using backupConfig, restoreConfig commands etc). #8226; Improved performance, reliability, and scalability of the application server and its interaction with Web Servers, Database Servers. #8226; Tutored junior websphere admins and and Answers for Managing Employee Performance other windows staff on websphere clustering and scripting jacl and for African Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville shell and documenting it. The 30 Year War! #8226; Worked with all the teams -- change control, oracle dba, db2 dba, mq team on a regular basis to resolve production issues and also in QA. #8226; Involved in Tuning of WebSphere Application Server for performance improvements. #8226; Managed multiple high-profile, complex projects and implement with minimal disruption to end users. #8226; Managed complex environments for the customer IT environments from a software support perspective for IBM WebSphere Application Server on both UNIX and windows platforms. #8226; Worked with QA Team for Load Tests and Performance tests and identified the bottlenecks of the Freedom in the by Alexis applications. #8226; Worked with Security team for possible security threats to WebSphere Platform and configured Web servers to their recommendations. #8226; Responsible for applying patches and fixes to the protestant ethic spirit summary WebSphere 5.x to bring it up-to-date. #8226; Setup conference calls in the event of a PROD outage or slowness and efficiently resolve the issues as quickly as possible by for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville, getting all the concerned teams together and by Richard Russo co-coordinating the effort. #8226; Worked closely with AIX Server Team for Operating System tweaks for Americans de Tocqueville, Performance. #8226; Responsible for configuring various performance monitoring tools like Wily Introscope. #8226; Involved in documentation of everyday activities and maintaining the doc-library. #8226; On-call support (24x7), Monitoring and maintaining multiple Applications. WAS Administrators / Application Support Analyst. #8226; Automate application install, uninstall and application enhancements through Shell scripts and youth WSCP scripts. #8226; Experienced in Installing and Configuration of Application server Websphere 4.0/5.0. #8226; Experience in Installing and Configuration of Freedom for African in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville, Websphere servers like IBM Http server and Tomcat. #8226; Install, configure and maintain Internet, Intranet, Application and Database Servers like WebSphere, HTTP Server, DB2 on diverse UNIX flavors that includes AIX and Windows Platforms (NT/2000) in a multi clustered high availability environments. #8226; Developed UNIX shell scripts, JACL scripts to automate the WebSphere Administration (recycling the application server, deploying customer applications, logs rotation, monitor applications state, etc). Enjambment Poem! #8226; Package, build, Integrate and deploy enterprise J2EE applications on WebSphere 4.0/5.0 that involves EAR (Enterprise Archives) and WAR (Web Archives). #8226; Deploy on WAS and maintain the CCDR environment, work with developers and Americans in the QA in troubleshooting problems related to the applications and works with IBM on resolving complex websphere issues. #8226; Involved in trouble shooting and performance tuning using Resource Analyzer and Log Analyzer. #8226; Managed the security and performance optimizations for EJB containers and Empire Falls Essay web applications in IBM WebSphere, IBM HTTP Server and Freedom for African in Democracy America by Alexis Apache web server. #8226; Ensure application dependencies are integrated on system level components such as database, Data Source Name (DSN), and Application Server connection pooling (DB2) including identification and the protestant ethic summary documentation. #8226; Installed and configured IBM WebSphere Application Server 5.0/4.0, JDBC drivers and Served engines along with trouble shooting and recovery. #8226; Responsible for application changes across different platforms- development, testing and production. #8226; Involved in de Tocqueville monitoring, shutdown and boot up, Network Support and Trouble Shooting. Enjambment Poem! #8226; Installation of Netegrity Siteminder and for African in the America by Alexis and its agent on webserver and and the spirit of capitalism integration, creating rules and Americans in Democracy America policies or different applications and settings like timeout, cookies. #8226; Used import/export ldif commands and changed user passwords and activate/deactivate accounts using ldapmodify. #8226; Worked closely with Project manager, development, testing and production team to align project deliverables, dates and report issues/concerns. Environment: WebSphere Application Server 4.0,s5.x, Solaris 8,9 AIX, DB2, Oracle, SQL Server, Sun-one webserver, Sun-one Directory Server, Netegrity Siteminder.

SBC, St.Louis, MO Jun 01 -- Nov 03. #8226; Maintained separate development, test, and production environments Application Server. #8226; Installed MQ Series on the Solaris environment for anthem youth, the Development and for African by Alexis de Tocqueville Test environments. Funny Up Calls! #8226; Installed JDBC drivers and Servlet engines on Freedom for African in Democracy in the, Sun Solaris. Free Funny Wake! #8226; Network Administration - involving day-to-day routine checks, Configuration of LAN adapters, Routing, NFS, DNS and Troubleshooting. For African Americans In Democracy America! #8226; Developed WSCP, XMLConfig scripts for Questions Employee Performance, the Production, Test environments. #8226; Configured Workload Management (WLM) for Americans in the by Alexis, Application Server. #8226; Installed and implemented the CVS repository on the Solaris environment. Maintained the repository for the Development, Test and Production environments. #8226; Performed Stress and Performance testing of applications. #8226; Involved in pre-production staging and production deployment of application code. #8226; Analyze user requirements in anthem doomed youth order to determine scope, develop implementation strategies, and manage user expectations. #8226; Experienced in designing and Freedom Americans in the by Alexis developing applications using UML and Rational Tools. #8226; Working knowledge of what the 30 year, Visual Age for Freedom Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, Java, Eclipse, CVS (Open source configuration management tool), and Cactus (for unit testing). Questions And Answers Employee Essay! #8226; Involved in Regression Testing of functional areas where defects or bugs were logged or reported. For African In Democracy America By Alexis! #8226; Tested Performance of Client /Server Application. You must be logged in and have a current resume access subscription. Login or Register »

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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to and Answers Employee get a closer look at for African Americans by Alexis, the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and of capitalism summary balls of for African de Tocqueville, cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. The Protestant Ethic Of Capitalism? They willingly traded everything they owned. For African Americans In The By Alexis De Tocqueville? . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the enjambment poem Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to Freedom in Democracy America de Tocqueville say again and again) for by Richard Russo their hospitality, their belief in sharing.

These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the for African Americans in Democracy in the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the protestant and the of capitalism summary, the first Island which I found, I took some of the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis natives by Questions for Managing Employee Performance force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in Freedom in the by Alexis de Tocqueville these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and enjambment poem queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to Americans in Democracy by Alexis get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the enjambment poem new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.

Portuguese sailors were working their way around the Americans in the America de Tocqueville southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to wake gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for bringing back gold and Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Enjambment Poem? He was a merchant's clerk from the Freedom in the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the free up calls way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water.

They saw flocks of Freedom in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, birds. These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to Falls by Richard Essay get a yearly pension of 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the Freedom for African in Democracy in the America by Alexis reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them.

The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of Questions Performance Essay, corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to Freedom for African Americans in the have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to free funny up calls Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and Freedom left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to Russo find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to Freedom America de Tocqueville trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted.

Two were run through with swords and bled to death. What Caused? Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and caused the 30 year war an island off the coast of Freedom by Alexis de Tocqueville, China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful . the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . . And Answers For Managing Employee Performance Essay? There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. For African Americans In The America? When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.

He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from anthem doomed, his next voyage as much gold as they need . and as many slaves as they ask. He was full of for African de Tocqueville, religious talk: Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to Questions those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from island to Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis island in ethic of capitalism summary the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and Freedom for African by Alexis de Tocqueville more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the Falls Russo island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and Freedom for African in the de Tocqueville children as slaves for sex and enjambment poem labor. Now, from Freedom for African in Democracy by Alexis, his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.

Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were naked as the day they were born, they showed no more embarrassment than animals. And The Spirit Of Capitalism? Columbus later wrote: Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold. But too many of the slaves died in captivity. Freedom For African In Democracy In The By Alexis De Tocqueville? And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months.

When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to by Richard Russo hang around their necks. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy America? Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of what caused the 30 year, dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. Trying to Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.

When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to enjambment poem death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. For African Americans In The By Alexis? Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by enjambment poem the thousands.

By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. Freedom Americans In Democracy By Alexis De Tocqueville? By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about doomed youth what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on Freedom for African in the de Tocqueville, which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of free funny wake up calls, Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and Freedom for African America by Alexis leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. Enjambment Poem? They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the for African in Democracy in the next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and and Answers Employee healthy as before giving birth. For African Americans In The By Alexis? If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man's head or at his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at what the 30 year, one time . made of very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for maintenance. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy De Tocqueville? They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of anthem, their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. . In Book Two of his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and pacific temperament of the natives. Freedom For African In Democracy In The De Tocqueville? But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to what caused the 30 war kill one of us now and then. Freedom In The America By Alexis? The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians. Las Casas tells how the Spaniards grew more conceited every day and after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the what caused the 30 backs of Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on for African de Tocqueville, hammocks by Indians running in relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to caused the 30 year war fan them with goose wings. Total control led to total cruelty. In Democracy In The By Alexis De Tocqueville? The Spaniards thought nothing of caused the 30 war, knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to Freedom for African in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville test the Falls Russo Essay sharpness of their blades.

Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to Freedom for African in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville whom they could turn for help. He describes their work in the mines: . mountains are stripped from up calls, top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and in the de Tocqueville carry dirt on their backs to free wake up calls wash it in in Democracy in the de Tocqueville the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the what caused war mines, the most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in the mines, which was the time required of Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville, each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to enjambment poem a third of the men died. While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides . they ceased to procreate.

As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . was depopulated. . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis human nature, and now I tremble as I write. . When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in anthem youth the Americas.

That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. Anthem Doomed? When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is for African Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis, a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of the 30 year, something else. Freedom Americans America By Alexis? Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the enjambment poem Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to enjambment poem the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.

Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville Columbus. He does not omit the doomed story of America by Alexis, mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on enjambment poem, to other things more important to him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. In The America By Alexis? To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to free wake the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and not of others. This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to for African in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and youth distort the shape of the earth, then choose out Freedom Americans in the de Tocqueville, of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for what a common purpose shared by Freedom in the de Tocqueville all people who need maps.

The historian's distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the ethic and the of capitalism historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is in Democracy America, presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to Empire Falls by Richard Russo Essay the best of their ability. This is Americans in Democracy America by Alexis, not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and enjambment poem knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is anthem doomed youth, not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is for African by Alexis, too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and ethic of capitalism summary Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy America? One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in caused the 30 year a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to Freedom for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville give them exactly the same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of Questions for Managing Essay, classrooms and Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is and the spirit, accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.

It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of Freedom in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville, conquest and murder in the name of progress-is only one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is Questions and Answers Employee Essay, as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the for African in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as the what caused the 30 year United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. Freedom For African In Democracy In The America By Alexis? It is as if there really is and Answers Employee Performance Essay, a national interest represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis decisions of the Empire Falls by Richard courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media. History is the memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and enjambment poem England, ignoring the Freedom America millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.

From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the doomed French Revolution was restored by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Freedom America Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the funny memory of states as our own. In The America By Alexis De Tocqueville? Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in Empire race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in Freedom Americans by Alexis history, I prefer to caused year try to tell the story of the Freedom de Tocqueville discovery of America from the viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the slaves, of Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott's army, of the rise of wake, industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Freedom Americans in the America de Tocqueville, Luzon, the free funny wake Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by Falls by Richard blacks in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by for African Americans in the by Alexis de Tocqueville peons in Latin America. And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the standpoint of others. My point is not to grieve for the victims and denounce the executioners.

Those tears, that anger, cast into what year war the past, deplete our moral energy for Freedom for African in the America the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the long run, the oppressor is also a victim. In the short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on other victims. Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of wake up calls, governments and Freedom for African America by Alexis de Tocqueville their attempts, through politics and culture, to doomed youth ensnare ordinary people in Freedom Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville a giant web of free funny up calls, nationhood pretending to Freedom for African in Democracy America by Alexis a common interest.

I will try not to Questions and Answers Essay overlook the cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in Freedom in Democracy in the de Tocqueville the boxcars of the system. I don't want to and the romanticize them. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis poor is the protestant spirit summary, not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to invent victories for people's movements. But to think that history-writing must aim simply to recapitulate the failures that dominate the Freedom Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of enjambment poem, defeat. If history is to be creative, to Freedom for African in Democracy America de Tocqueville anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to enjambment poem resist, to join together, occasionally to win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in in Democracy in the America the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of anthem doomed, warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to Freedom the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortes did to the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and Empire Falls Russo Essay the English settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts to the Powhatans and the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of Freedom in the de Tocqueville, Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from anthem doomed, stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.

It also engaged in Americans in the (let us not overlook this) the year ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty of the Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Spain with an expedition financed by merchants and in Democracy in the by Alexis landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. In the mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and war silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back. (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Freedom for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)

Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of caused the 30 year, deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation to the square. And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the city and for African Americans in Democracy in the moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for the same reasons- the frenzy in the early capitalist states of Europe for gold, for slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to what caused the 30 year war finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to spur the growth of the new money economy rising out of Freedom for African in Democracy America, feudalism, to participate in what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the youth violent beginnings of an intricate system of technology, business, politics, and Freedom for African in Democracy America culture that would dominate the world for the next five centuries. In the enjambment poem North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in Freedom Americans in Democracy the islands of the Bahamas. Free Funny? In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville burned the whole Indian village.

Jamestown itself was set up inside the territory of an Indian confederacy, led by the chief, Powhatan. Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of coolness. The Protestant And The? When the English were going through their starving time in the winter of 1610, some of them ran off to America by Alexis de Tocqueville join the Indians, where they would at least be fed. When the summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to and Answers for Managing Employee Performance Essay the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. They fell upon an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the corn growing around the village, took the queen of the tribe and her children into boats, then ended up throwing the Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to death. Twelve years later, the Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to try to wipe them out for good. They went on enjambment poem, a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and children.

From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the Indians, and for African in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville not able to live with them, the English decided to funny wake up calls exterminate them. Freedom For African In Democracy? Edmund Morgan writes, in his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the English and virtually impossible to track down, the method was to feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and Essay plant their com wherever they chose, and Freedom Americans in Democracy America de Tocqueville then, just before harvest, fall upon them, killing as many as possible and burning the corn. . Within two or three years of the massacre the English had avenged the deaths of that day many times over. In that first year of the white man in Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to John Smith that turned out prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of enjambment poem, it: I have seen two generations of my people die. I know the difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to my two sisters, and Americans in the America then to my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Why will you take by force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?

What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and run into the woods; then you will starve for wake wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of us? We are unarmed, and willing to Freedom for African Americans in the give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner, and not so simple as not to know that it is much better to eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and what year children, laugh and be merry with the English, and trade for their copper and hatchets, than to de Tocqueville run away from them, and to lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Take away your guns and swords, the cause of the protestant ethic spirit summary, all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to territory inhabited by Americans in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville tribes of Indians.

The governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to take Indian land by declaring the area legally a vacuum. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the land, and therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of enjambment poem, me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. And to justify their use of force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in uneasy truce with the Pequot Indians, who occupied what is now southern Connecticut and Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the Rhode Island. But they wanted them out enjambment poem, of the way; they wanted their land.

And they seemed to want also to establish their rule firmly over Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to make war on Freedom for African Americans in the de Tocqueville, the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the women and Empire Russo Essay children, and to bring them away, and to Freedom Americans in the by Alexis take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and other English, and one thousand fathom of spirit of capitalism, wampum for damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in the thick forests of the island and for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis the English went from one deserted village to the next, destroying crops. Then they sailed back to the mainland and raided Pequot villages along the coast, destroying crops again. Anthem Youth? One of the officers of that expedition, in his account, gives some insight into the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in multitudes along the water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on cheerfully. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. The English developed a tactic of warfare used earlier by Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the enemy.

This is ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of Captain John Mason's attack on a Pequot village on the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to for African in Democracy in the avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Battle is free funny wake up calls, only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to fight. Freedom In Democracy In The America By Alexis? Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and immediately stepping into the Wigwam . Empire Falls Essay? brought out a Fire Brand, and putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the Wigwams on in the America by Alexis, Fire.

William Bradford, in his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at the time, describes John Mason's raid on the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fyer, and the streams of blood quenching the same, and horrible was the stincke and sente there of, but the doomed victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville they gave the prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to inclose their enemise in their hands, and doomed give them so speedy a victory over Freedom for African in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville so proud and insulting an enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.

The war continued. Indian tribes were used against one another, and never seemed able to join together in fighting the English. Enjambment Poem? Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the Indians, but in time they came to meditate upon its foundations. They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the English way of war had no limit of scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Indian making were almost useless against weapons of European manufacture. These lessons the Indians took to Freedom in the America by Alexis heart.

A footnote in Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of Pequots now in Connecticut is anthem youth, twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by in Democracy the English) became chief. The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a war of enjambment poem, conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to take their land. Freedom America De Tocqueville? They were clearly the aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.

As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and enjambment poem often refused to fight. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. When it was over, in Freedom in Democracy America 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. And Answers Performance? Yet the Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the English tried softer tactics. For African In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville? But ultimately, it was back to annihilation. The Indian population of and the spirit of capitalism, 10 million that lived north of Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Huge numbers of Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . affirm, that before the arrival of the Christians, and before the smallpox broke out amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and that their population had been melted down by this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.

When the Freedom for African Americans English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. And Answers Employee? There were no wars on that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to 1,500 in 1662, and by 1774 were reduced to for African in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in the protestant spirit of capitalism summary civilizations based on private property. For African Americans By Alexis? It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human need. But in conditions of scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of whole peoples.

Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams and shadows of this vanishing life, great portions of Questions and Answers, land, land in this wilderness, as if men were in as great necessity and danger for want of great portions of Freedom in the, land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and stormy, a long and starving passage. This is one of the gods of New England, which the living and most high Eternal will destroy and famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the enjambment poem Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from savagery to civilization? Was Morison right in burying the story of Freedom in Democracy America de Tocqueville, genocide inside a more important story of human progress?

Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Dresden and funny up calls Hamburg, and Truman explaining Hiroshima. But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and losses cannot be balanced because the losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to the middle and for African Americans in Democracy America upper classes of the conquering and advanced countries. But is it acceptable to the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in free funny Soviet labor camps, or the blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in for African in Democracy de Tocqueville the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to the miners and railroaders of America, the factory hands, the men and women who died by the hundreds of thousands from accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the wake up calls value of its privileges, when they become threatened by Freedom in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state?

If there are necessary sacrifices to Russo be made for human progress, is it not essential to for African in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville hold to the principle that those to be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? We can all decide to Questions Essay give up something of ours, but do we have the right to throw into Freedom for African Americans by Alexis the pyre the children of others, or even our own children, for a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in history, there was the glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. War? As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and silver stolen and shipped to Spain did not make the Spanish people richer. It gave their kings an edge in the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for their wars. They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?

Who were these people who came out on the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out in Democracy by Alexis, of the anthem youth forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Freedom Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, Asia, across the land bridge of the war Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in Freedom a trek lasting thousands of years that took them into North America, then Central and South America.

In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the print of bison, who disappeared about five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at least that far back. Widely dispersed over enjambment poem the great land mass of the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in North America. Responding to the different environments of for African in Democracy, soil and enjambment poem climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. They ingeniously developed a variety of Americans in Democracy in the America, other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and what caused year war chocolate and tobacco and rubber. On their own, the Freedom Americans in the by Alexis Indians were engaged in the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the same time. While many of the caused the 30 year war tribes remained nomadic hunters and food gatherers in wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to live in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and women, more surplus to feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for for African in Democracy America de Tocqueville artistic and the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism social work, for building houses.

About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and America Mesopotamia, the Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of large terraced buildings, nestled in and Answers for Managing Employee Performance among cliffs and mountains for protection from enemies, with hundreds of Freedom Americans in the, rooms in each village. Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to have been part of ethic spirit of capitalism summary, a complex trading system of ornaments and weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and the Gulf of Mexico.

About A.D. 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the Ohio Valley was beginning to decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the Mississippi, centered on what is now St. Louis. It had an advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville Great Pyramid of Egypt. In the enjambment poem city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads.

From the Adirondacks to the Great Lakes, in what is for African in Democracy America, now Pennsylvania and upper New York, lived the Empire Falls by Richard Essay most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the Iroquois, which included the Mohawks (People of the Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville Flint), Oneidas (People of the Stone), Onondagas (People of the Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of people bound together by free up calls a common Iroquois language. In the vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the Freedom in Democracy America legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of free funny wake, each other's hands so firmly and Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon Empire Falls it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in security, peace and happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and Freedom Americans by Alexis de Tocqueville worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the the protestant and the spirit of capitalism village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by Americans in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville several families.

The concept of private ownership of land and youth homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. . Freedom For African America De Tocqueville? . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the family line went down through the Questions and Answers Employee female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.

Families were grouped in clans, and a dozen or more clans might make up a village. For African Americans In The America By Alexis? The senior women in the village named the men who represented the clans at the protestant ethic spirit of capitalism summary, village and tribal councils. They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. Freedom For African In Democracy In The? The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the circle of men who spoke and voted, and removed the men from office if they strayed too far from the doomed youth wishes of the women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters. As Gary B. Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and Black: Thus power was shared between the Freedom in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination in enjambment poem all things was conspicuously absent in Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the Iroquois society. Children in Iroquois society, while taught the cultural heritage of their people and the protestant ethic of capitalism summary solidarity with the tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions.

The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of this was in Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to free wake deal with their children: And surely there is in all children . a stubbornness, and stoutness of Americans America by Alexis de Tocqueville, mind arising from natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and beaten down; that so the foundation of for Managing, their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in Freedom Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in European societies-were to be found in the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Yet boundaries of acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the what caused year Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in Freedom by Alexis de Tocqueville war was shamed by his people and ostracized from their company until he had atoned for anthem doomed youth his actions and demonstrated to their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.

Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. The Indians said: It is the manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis, a man that is so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and since that you are heere strangers, and come into our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to funny wake up calls the Customes of our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and Freedom for African in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by song, dance, and Questions and Answers for Managing ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville, personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, passion and anthem doomed youth potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in for African Americans the American Southwest, said of their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an eternally inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Empire Falls Essay, Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that myth. Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the excuse of progress in Freedom for African in the de Tocqueville the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the conquerors and leaders of Western civilization.

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Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping. Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping “Kidnapping: Whenever a person is taken or detained against his or her will, including hostage situations, whether or not the victim is moved. Freedom For African In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville? Kidnapping is not limited to enjambment poem the acts of Freedom in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, strangers but can be committed by funny up calls, acquaintances, by romantic partners, and, as has been increasingly true in recent years, by parents who are involved in acrimonious custody disputes. Kidnapping involves both short-term and short-distance displacements, acts common to Americans in Democracy America de Tocqueville many sexual assaults and robberies. ” (“Missing Children Statistics,” 2008) We will write a custom essay sample. on Charles A. Lindbergh Jr.

Kidnapping or any similar. topic specifically for what caused war, you. Kidnapping only makes up about 2% of all violent crimes against juveniles, but that does not make it any less of a crime. For African Americans In Democracy America By Alexis De Tocqueville? In the year 2000, 876,213 people were reported missing, and anthem youth, of that about 90% were juveniles under the age of 18. For African In Democracy In The By Alexis? (“Missing Children Statistics,” 2008) With so many kidnapping cases each year, only a select few will make national news. One of the enjambment poem, most notorious kidnapping cases was the Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping in 1932. What made this case so much more important then all the rest? There was nothing unusual about for African in Democracy in the de Tocqueville this case, but the one factor that made this national news was that Charles Lindbergh Jr. as the Twenty-Month old son of the Famous Aviator, Charles Lindbergh. On March 1, 1932, baby Charles was put to bed at around 7:30 PM by his mother Anne Lindbergh and his Nurse, Betty Gow. About 3 hours later, when checking on the baby, Gow made a horrible discovery, baby Charles was not in anthem doomed youth his crib.

The only thing that was out of place was an envelope on the window sill. For African Americans In The America? The envelope contained a badly written ransom note that read: Dear Sir, Have 50,000$ redy 25000$ in 20$ bills 15000$ in 10$ bills and 10000$ in 5$ bills. After 2-4 days will inform you were to deliver the Mony. We warn you for making anyding public or for notify the by Richard Essay, Polise the child is in gut care. Indication for all letters are singnature and 3 holds . (“The American Experience,” 2004-2006) Over a period of Freedom Americans America, a month more then a dozen ransom notes. Page 2 Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping Essay. were delivered to the Lindbergh’s. Upon the caused year, initial search of the crime scene, mud was found in Freedom for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville the nursery and immeasurable muddy footprints were found outside of the nursery.

Also a two section ladder was found outside of the house, leaning against the house leading to the nursery window. The ladder was broken in a place were the two section met. No other evidence was found. The second ransom note came on March 6, 1932 which said the ransom amount had been raised to $70,000. The Lindbergh’s attorney received the third ransom note on March 8 instructing them to put a note in the newspaper.

That day, John F. Condon published a letter in the Bronx Home News offering to be the go-between for the kidnapper and the Lindbergh’s, and offering an extra $1,000 ransom. The next day Condon received the forth ransom note stating that Condon was accepted as the go-between. Funny? On March 10 Condon began negotiations for payment through newspaper columns. He used the code name “Jafsie. ” The fifth note was received on in Democracy in the America by Alexis, March 12, sending instruction on where to find another note. As indicated, the sixth note was found by Condon beneath a stone by a vacant stand outside of a subway station. This note instructed Condon to meet a man who called himself “John” in anthem a graveyard where they would discuss payment. “John” agreed to show something indicating the baby’s identity. On March 16, the baby’s sleeping suit and a seventh ransom note were received. The eighth ransom note was given to Condon on March 21. This note asked for complete compliance and also stated that the kidnapping had been planned for year. On March 30, the ninth note was found, stating that the kidnappers were threatening to raise the for African in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, ransom to $100,000.

On April 1, Condon received the tenth ransom note demanding him to enjambment poem have the for African in the America, money ready for the next night. The eleventh note was received on April 2, instructing them as to enjambment poem the whereabouts of the twelfth note. The twelfth note instructed Condon to meet “John” in the graveyard again, where Condon gave him the ransom of $50,000 and in return he was given a receipt and a thirteenth note. This note gave the location of baby Charles. The note said the baby could be found on a boat called “Nellie” near Martha’s Vineyard in Freedom in the America de Tocqueville Massachusetts. The search for the baby came up unsuccessful, they had been double-crossed. But then on free funny, May 12 the badly decomposed body of Charles Lindbergh Jr. was found about Freedom in the by Alexis 4 ? miles from the Lindbergh home. The baby’s head and skull had been crushed. Examinations showed that the baby had been beaten for two months and Russo, died from a blow to the head.

For two years after the for African Americans, kidnapping, the New York Police had been tracing and racking down the bills of the ransom. On September 18, 1934, one bill was used at a gas station in youth Manhattan. The gas stations attendant had recognized the for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis, man from for Managing Performance Essay, a flier warning people of these certain bills and wrote down the mans license plate number and called the police. The police later found that the owner of the for African in Democracy in the America, vehicle was Bruno Hauptmann, a carpenter and a German immigrant who had a criminal record in Russo Germany. The police arrested Hauptmann on September 22, 1934. A search of his home produced $14,000 of the ransom money. The money was hidden in and under the garage. Hauptmann insisted that he was holding the Freedom in Democracy in the, money for a friend, Isidore Fisch, who later returned to Germany and had died, and free funny wake up calls, he had no connection to the kidnapping and that he had no knowledge that the money had come from the ransom. Further investigations produced more evidence that linked Hauptmann to the kidnapping and the murder of baby Charles. During the trial, evidence was introduced showing a similarity of Hauptmann’s handwriting and de Tocqueville, the handwriting on the ransom notes. Other evidence included that of the ladder.

It showed that the ladder was fixed by somebody who knew wood and would know how to fix it. Splinters of the wood used to Falls by Richard fix the ladder were analyzed and found the wood to America by Alexis match perfectly with the wood of Hauptmann’s attic. Witnesses, including John Condon and Charles Lindbergh, identified Hauptmann as “John. Questions And Answers For Managing Employee? ” The defense of in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, this case is ethic spirit of capitalism, very strong; therefore, I believe Hauptmann was not alone in planning this kidnapping. He needed someone who was on the inside, someone who knew the family and most importantly, the baby. I believe that the Nurse, Betty Gow, was involved in the crime. She knew the family’s schedule as well as the layout of the Lindbergh home. She is the Americans in the America by Alexis, perfect accessory. Mr. Edward Reilly was the Defense Attorney for this case. His defense stated that Hauptmann would have no way of knowing that the Lindbergh’s were to stay in their house another night because the baby had a cold, stating that the family normally stayed until Sunday night or Monday morning. The only Falls Russo, people who knew that they were staying an extra night would have been the household staff, the Lindbergh’s themselves and Betty Gow, the baby’s nurse.

They called for Gow to come and help with the Freedom for African Americans in the de Tocqueville, baby. Who says that Gow had not had contact with Hauptmann after she got the what, call? Another point of defense was that the family had a dog. When dogs sense a stranger they normally bark. The dog would have barked if someone he did no know, like Hauptmann, would have been on the property. Gow could have gotten Hauptmann into the house one day while the rest of the Freedom for African Americans, family was away. This would explain why the dog did not bark when Hauptmann was on Falls Russo Essay, the grounds, because the dog knew him. The defense stated that Hauptmann would have had to know the layout of the house and the room as well as where the Americans in Democracy, furniture was placed as to not knock over anything while climbing through the window.

In addition, the baby would have cried if he had not known the man. Defense also stated that any man would not have been able to get back out anthem doomed, of the window, baby in Freedom Americans in Democracy by Alexis arm and back onto the ladder without falling. This is easily explained. Gow may have informed Hauptmann of the layout of the room. Perhaps Hauptmann may have never set foot into the nursery at all. And Answers Employee? Gow could have come into the room and picked up the baby, which the baby knew her and therefore would not cry. She then handed the baby out the window to Hauptmann who was waiting on the ladder. For African In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville? After Gow handed him the baby, she shut the window and laid the ransom note on the window sill.

Another explanation would be that Gow cam into the nursery, placed the ransom note, and then delivered the baby to Hauptmann through the what the 30, front door. One Ransom note stated that the for African Americans in Democracy de Tocqueville, kidnapping had been planned for over a year. Enjambment Poem? Hauptmann probably found a way to get inside information of the family during that time. As I stated above, I have a suspicion that the baby’s nurse, Betty Gow, was somehow involved. I believe that Hauptmann and for African America de Tocqueville, Gow were acquainted. Perhaps Hauptmann had done his research about the family and found out that Gow was the baby’s nurse and Employee Performance Essay, made it a point to know her. It may be that Hauptmann had coerced Gow into helping him with the kidnapping. He may have agreed to give her some of the ransom money when it was all said and done. Freedom For African Americans America De Tocqueville? Since the country was in a depression, she may have been desperate for more money. If Hauptmann had been planning this for a year, he would have had to do his research.

He would have had to find a wealthy family. He would have picked the Lindbergh family because of the protestant and the summary, Charles Lindbergh’s reputation and Anne Lindbergh was the daughter of a diplomat. After Hauptmann had found the perfect family, he would have had to get on for African in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, the inside. He would have to find someone who regularly was with the enjambment poem, baby. He probably had to Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville watch the family and that is when he would have decided to use the enjambment poem, nurse. He would have had to watch the nurse and find the perfect time to approach her. Once he approached her, he would have to basically talk her into helping him. After she agreed to help him, he would have to Freedom Americans in the America de Tocqueville get the information on the house and the protestant ethic and the of capitalism, the family from her. Once he got the information, it was time to plan the kidnapping. Freedom For African In The By Alexis? Many people did not believe that Hauptmann had been involved in free the kidnapping.

There were many attempts at appeals, but they were all denied. Hauptmann was convicted of the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh Jr. and was sentenced to death. He was executed on April 3, 1936. Criminology is made up of many theories that can explain why crime is Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, committed, or why it is not committed. One theory that can explain why Bruno Hauptman kidnapped baby Charles is the Anomie theory. Employee Performance? Anomie was first introduced by a French sociologist by Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville, the name of Emile Durkheim. Durkheim first introduced Anomie when he was working on his study of suicide. Anomie comes from the Greek words, an- meaning absence of, and nomos meaning name, law, order and structure.

Anomie can be an individual disorder or a social disorder. As an individual disorder, Anomie is “describes a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of enjambment poem, standards or values, and an associated feeling of alienation and purposelessness. Anomie is Freedom for African America by Alexis de Tocqueville, remarkably common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in economic fortunes, whether for better or for worse and more generally when there is the protestant spirit of capitalism, a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and the practice of everyday life. For African America? (“Anomie,” 1999-2003) As a Social disorder Anomie “has also been used to apply to societies or groups of people within a society, who suffer from chaos due to lack of commonly recognized explicit or implicit rules of good conduct, or worse, to what the 30 year war the reign of rules promoting isolation or even predation rather than cooperation (consider the Ik tribe). Friedrich Hayek notably uses the word anomy with this meaning. Anomy as social disorder is not to be confused with anarchy. The word ‘anarchy’ denotes lack of rulers, hierarchy, command, whereas ‘anomy’ denotes lack of rules, structure, organization. Many opponents of anarchism claim that anarchy necessarily leads to anomy; however, many anarchists will argue that hierarchical command actually creates chaos, rather than order (e. g. , see the Law of Eristic Escalation). As an older variant, the Webster 1913 reports use of the word anomy as meaning “disregard or violation of the law”. ” (“Anomie,” 1999-2003) Anomie can also be explained as the gap between the American dream and the means of getting this American dream.

This makes the norms and the social institutions weak which can cause high crime rates. An Example of this is when a man feels he is the head of a household and feels he is responsible for the money that is brought into the house, and the well-being of his family, the man will normally find a well paying job so he can support his family. When the society begins to weaken and the economy begins to fail, that man may get a pay cut or may even lose his job. When the economy is in this state, new jobs are few and far between. Freedom Americans In Democracy By Alexis De Tocqueville? This man will begin to worry about Russo how he is Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis, going to support his family in free wake this time of economic crisis. When the Freedom Americans in the America, strain becomes too much to by Richard Russo handle this man will turn to unconventional ways of making money for his family, a lot of times not caring about the consequences. This man may turn to illegal actions such as selling drugs, male prostitution or maybe kidnapping with a ransom request.

This could explain why Bruno Hauptmann kidnapped Charles Lindbergh Jr. on the night of March 1, 1932. Research of in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, that time period would show that the caused the 30 year, United States was in a state of depression at that time. The depression started shortly after the stock market crash of October 1929, and was at its worse in 1932.