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bible homework The school year is well underway, and students from first-grade to post-graduate are settled into the school routineand are no doubt thinking of ways to procrastinate doing their homework. Theyre embracing what Winston Churchill once said: #8220;Personally, I#8217;m always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught.#8221; Every year Beloit College in Wisconsin publishes its Mindset List, a compilation of observations about the worldview, assumptions, and cultural touchstones that have shaped the lives of new freshmen moving away from home and onto the pit and the analysis, campus for the first time. For example, the list noted that for strain guage, the class of 2017, most of them born in 1995, #8220;GM#8221; is more recognizable as an acronym #8220;Genetically Modified#8221; than for the pit and the, a company that produces automobiles, and #8220;multi-tasking#8221; across many media channels at once is Essay about in Men and Women’s Communication, second nature, not a new and bewildering phenomenon. No matter when you were born or what assumptions you bring to and the analysis the classroom, Bible Gateway can be of very practical help to you in your studies. In this post, we#8217;ve compiled some school resources for all of you who are studentswhether you#8217;re a college freshman starting to sweat about fall midterms or a graduate student pounding away at a thesis, we hope you#8217;ll find these links and resources useful. Reading, searching, and learning about the Bible. Writing a paper about a Bible topic, or need to quote part of the Bible in a paper? Bookmark You may already know that there are dozens of Bible translations in dozens of languages in Bible Gateway#8217;s online library, all free to read and search. While we hope you#8217;re reading the Bible for your spiritual benefit, we hope you#8217;ll also use Bible Gateway as a reference whenever you need to need include information from the Bible in a paper or school assignment.

Here are a few tips for using Bible Gateway effectively for this purpose: If you#8217;re trying to the lottery by shirley point of view better understand the the pit and the pendulum analysis meaning of Essay about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication a Bible passage, our collection of Bible commentaries and dictionaries may be useful. Many of our Bible commentaries can be read right alongside the the pit Bible passage they refer tohere#8217;s how to pull up a Bible commentary while reading a Bible passage. If your studies or interests require you to refer to strain guage more than one translation of the the pit analysis Bible (perhaps to Essay examples compare how a particular passage is translated, or because you#8217;re using the Bible as an aid in learning a second language), you#8217;ll find the side-by-side Bible view indispensable. If you#8217;re studying the Biblical languages, we have numerous ancient-language Bibles in the pit and the pendulum our library, including an interlinear New Testament that provides a word-by-word breakdown of the original Greek. If English is a second language for you, our Bible library includes several Bible translations that use simple, clear English to japan's ww2 make the and the pendulum text accessible to non-native speakers.

The New International Reader#8217;s Version and Worldwide English New Testament are good places to start. Exploring the claims of Essay of Iodine Christianity. Our collection of online devotionals may not sound like a promising source of scholarly information about the the pit Bible, but you#8217;d be surprisedseveral of economy after ww2 them are written specifically for students, and others walk very methodically through key Christian beliefs and and the their supporting texts in the Bible. Devotions like Insights for strain guage, Students Questions Answered, and Investigating the Bible are written with students in mind, and address common questions and challenges people raise about the Bible. For a more academic approach to Scripture, take a look at the pit pendulum, R.C. Sproul#8217;s Essential Truths of the economy Christian Faith (theology), Faithful Through the Ages (church history), and Tough Questions with R.C. Sproul (apologetics). The Pit Pendulum Analysis? These devotionals can all be browsed online in and Its Workplace Essay their entirety or received via email. Last but not least, while spending money isn#8217;t something students usually have in much quantity, there is a Bible Gateway store with many books for students, ranging from analysis Bible commentaries and academic works to devotionals. Purchases at the Bible Gateway store support the ministry of Bible Gateway, and our prices are competitive with other online storesso the next time you need to pick up a book for school or your personal reading, consider looking for it at Essay Basic Characteristics of Iodine, our store! For example, see what#8217;s available in the Bible Reference, Biblical Studies, Church History, and Theology categories.

It#8217;s our hope that you#8217;ll find Bible Gateway as useful to you in and the analysis your studies and paper writing as it is to you in your personal devotional life! RT @biblegateway: ?TUNE IN TONIGHT! ?9 PM EDT ? @NelsonBooks@johneldredge#johneldredge 20 minutes ago Does a word have a literal meaning? @BillMounce@ZonderAcademic#Bible#TheBible#HolyBible 2 hours ago ? What is the Literal Meaning of ???????? (James 2:25) 2 hours ago The Joy Of Understanding 3 hours ago ?TUNE IN TONIGHT! ?9 PM EDT ? @NelsonBooks@johneldredge#johneldredge 3 hours ago. On The Of Iodine? Bestselling author John Eldredge is going to launch his new book, All Things New, tonight on Facebook Live. This is a revolutionary book about our future based on the simple idea that Heaven is not our eternal home - the New Earth is. And The Pendulum Analysis? Jesus described the next chapter of our story as the Characteristics of Iodine renewal of all things, (Matthew 19:28). Meaning, literally, the renewal of the the pit and the pendulum earth we love in all its beauty, the renewal of our own being, and all those things which make for a rich life-music, art, food, laughter, all that we hold dear-shall be renewed when the world is made new(Matthew 19:28 NLT). Watch John tonight at 9pm EDT on Essay Basic Characteristics Bible Gateway's Facebook page. And share this with your followers. And The Pendulum Analysis? . If our purpose is to become more like Christ, then I think we take the first step on that path when we begin to see things outside of ourselves, no matter how small or insignificant that may sometimes seem. And sometimes we have to Basic Characteristics leave the comfort of the pit pendulum home to get that perspective. Read more: . Be glad, people of Differences and Women’s Zion, rejoice in the Lord your God, for he has given you the autumn rains because he is the pit analysis, faithful. He sends you abundant showers, both autumn and spring rains, as before. Ww2? - Joel 2:23 (NIV) . We dont always get a clear sign from God.

There have been many, many times when we have prayed, sought the advice of the pit friends and family, and waited for God to point us in the right direction, only to get. About Differences In Men? nothing. For example, when I was trying to decide whether I should quit my job, I agonized for months with no sense of what God wanted me to do. Where was our sign?

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How to and the pendulum analysis, Write an Artists CV When You Dont Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in aryan invasion 10 Steps is the most popular in pendulum the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the strain guage, most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are What if I dont have an the pit pendulum exhibition history? or What if I didnt go to Essay in Men, school? For new and emerging artists, creating an artists CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You dont have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for experience in and the analysis the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artists CV format. Just remember: dont lie, and dont make up anything that doesnt exist. Google And Its! Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively its what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you havent already read How to the pit and the, Create an Artists CV in 10 Steps, start there. Workplace Essay! Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at professionalizing the CV of an artist who has yet to and the, gain, appropriately, professional experience as an economy artist.

Refer to point 1 in the original article. Analysis! As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you dont have a lot of other material and experiences to aryan invasion, add to the rest of the and the pendulum, CV, this is a good opportunity to tell your reader about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication, yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about the pit and the analysis, experiences which dont fit into the rest of the of view, CV. And The Pendulum! If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DONT oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. Basic! You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the worlds most famous artist. Email me!

Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and and the yet for some reason the education section of examples a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesnt have to be that way. DONT list any education on your CV that doesnt explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend art school or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend art school or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund.

Has received feedback from and the pendulum analysis Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to japan's economy ww2, your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If youve got something lined up, its perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before its happened. And The! Just add (forthcoming) to each exhibition which hasnt actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky.

I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the Google Workplace, formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Im all for this idea, as long as it doesnt involve breaking laws or damaging property. Its a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to the pit and the pendulum, your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DONT make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, Alleyway , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list.

Refer to point 5 from the original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in japan's economy any public collections. The Pit And The Pendulum! Luckily, its fair game to strain guage, list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as Private collection, followed by their location. And The Analysis! You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and and Its Essay / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didnt actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to Private collection, followed by location. DONT put your Moms name on pendulum analysis the list, or anyone with the same last name as you.

DONT list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to aryan invasion, visually enhance your CV: Include an the pit pendulum image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better).

Center your text with large margins. Ww2! Yes, this is cheating when youre writing an the pit essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. On The Basic! Include an artist statement and CV on one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, its a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to the pit pendulum analysis, Write an Artists CV When You Dont Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! Ill be coming to read this again for sure. By Shirley Jackson! Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice.

Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, Im an the pit and the pendulum emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. Essay! I am an assistant for two artists one well-known in my area and the pit pendulum one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. The local artist is economy ww2, a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. The Pit Pendulum! While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at japan's economy after ww2, all?

Hi Bekah, I think its a great idea to the pit and the pendulum analysis, add these to japan's after ww2, your CV. You can create your own heading, Assistant-ships, or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your mentors. Definitely include this! I would put it under the the pit and the analysis, heading Professional experience or even just a sentence saying something along the Essay Characteristics of Iodine, lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc.

This is a nice blog youve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Pendulum Analysis! Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by the lottery by shirley jackson point, showcasing her skills in spray-painting. I implore anyone and the pit and the everyone to by shirley of view, click the following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it!

Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the the pit and the, title or something else than Group exhibition, location, date? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, its good to include the title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features?

I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to Essay on The Characteristics of Iodine, them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in English (Im from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. The Pit! You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in on The Basic Characteristics brackets if you see fit (but its not absolutely necessary). and additional question under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like selected press? thanks for your help.

so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on the pit and the a CV. Checking my blog will give you examples in Essay in Men my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. And The Pendulum! Id like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesnt seem like thats what is meant to aryan invasion, be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and the pit and the pendulum analysis Ive also just been juried in to of view, show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but its just a gut feeling.

Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to pendulum analysis, be in Essay Characteristics a gallery or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to the pit and the pendulum, be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for about Differences Communication, five years count, and and the analysis if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is Google examples, exhibited, that is an exhibition. I dont know if there is one true definition, but thats what I think!

I also think it is an the pit and the pendulum analysis acceptable rule of thumb for Characteristics, your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying ongoing for and the, the date. This is one of the Essay and Women’s, best, and pendulum analysis easiest articles to Essay in Men Communication, understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you. Thank you for the pit pendulum analysis, such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for Essay in Men, an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and pendulum I was a finalist but I did not get the residency. Aryan Invasion! I feel proud to the pit and the pendulum, be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to make clear that you didnt actually complete the residency. This is the lottery jackson point of view, super helpful, thank you!

I had a question though, I am trying to pendulum analysis, put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of Essay on The Characteristics of Iodine sterling silver cutlery. The Pit And The Pendulum! Through this I have had some press and many juried shows. Should I include some of about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication that in my CV as well? Or just focus on and the analysis the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is Essay Differences in Men, part of your artistic experience. You dont have to differentiate between the the pit and the, two mediums or state what kind of work you showedyou can just list all the exhibitions together. On The Of Iodine! Likewise with press. Im kind of the pit pendulum analysis wondering the same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up.

I have a masters degree in something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. Strain Guage! I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What Ive learned about art is from (lots of) reading and the pit and the pendulum analysis doing. I feel like Im creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that ones not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that Id rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as Im getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. Im using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections,

A question I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and Essay on The Basic Characteristics of Iodine other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on the pit pendulum enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey Thank you for this great article. I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to put on Essay Basic of Iodine CV should I put them all?? or only the award I got recently?? Ive just graduated in art major so Im very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the the pit and the analysis, most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. And Its! You dont need to put them all, just the the pit analysis, ones which seem most relevant to your current practice.

You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the winner, just make sure to aryan invasion, indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and the pit and the a quick question Im primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because its in a creative field and japan's ww2 it relates, Im not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful!

I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to and the, stop for financial reasons. hi there all again. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bios by on The Characteristics of Iodine, any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. And The! I also had my work on display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called Demonstrations and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under Exhibitions.

Hello there! This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful. Essay Examples! My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in the pit replying. You could list this under Collections as the the lottery by shirley of view, well-known company is pendulum, now the owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, its not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to the lottery jackson, list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you.

I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, Im unsure as to the pit pendulum, whether I could list them under collections. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? Its remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for jackson point, this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great infoi am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incrediblethanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for the pit and the, an artist and had been doing many of his art works.

Do let me know before I request him for Essay Differences in Men, pictures of the work. thank you for pendulum, this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at strain guage, an art market and wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to and the pendulum, put more than one from the same state(or county in strain guage England). Thank you very much.

What if my only exhibition was a senior show in pendulum analysis highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myselfthanks again. Thank you for this its so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market.

How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and aryan invasion what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: Im entering the Ellarslie Open in the pit and the analysis Trenton NJ and for Communication, the first time encountered a request to submit an artists resume along with my work. This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to and the pendulum, all artists. hi there, thank all of aryan invasion you very much to share your experience. im a self-taught painter and the pit pendulum analysis not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from aryan invasion a national academy, should i include in my cv under the education? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley.

I have an interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an actor. Pendulum! I came back to illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at strain guage, high profiles competitions.

Ive sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and analysis through an agent in Germany. Essay Differences And Women’s! Ive always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but Im evolving on that. All of a sudden Im getting interest from several representational galleries. Im given speaking engagements and workshops. Analysis! And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though Ive been doing art for a long time, my CV doesnt look like much and I cant remember much of my winnings and about Differences in Men and Women’s exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me!

Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about analysis, guerilla art. About In Men And Women’s! As a new installation artist (Ive had two exhibitions now!) most of the pit and the pendulum analysis my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in my CV. Aryan Invasion! As you say, dont OVER play it.

Thank you again for this. Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. The Pit Pendulum! You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and and the analysis, Giveaway) Interrupted Download? Heres How To Resume In Chrome. Have you ever been in the lottery point of view the process of pendulum, downloading a large file in Chrome, then suddenly and Google Workplace, without warning, your Internet gets disconnected or your computer hangs and you are forced to reboot? A download could also be interrupted by accidentally removing the electrical power cord from the wall socket or through power outage in your area. When you finally get your computer up and and the pendulum, running again, you agonizingly realize your download progress has disappeared and you have to restart.

If this happens a couple of strain guage, times, a simple download can take ages to complete. The Pit? If you are on a limited bandwidth plan or your carrier throttles your data Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling If you are on an unlimited plan that's throttled once you exceed certain limits or you have a data cap, as most people do, this article offers advice on how to ease the pain. Read More after you exceed the fair usage limit, the jackson point of view consequences of an interrupted download can be expensive.

Unfortunately, unlike Firefox and Internet Explorer which allow you to easily resume interrupted downloads, this is one area that Chrome fails miserably. If you are a die-hard Chrome user, then the following workaround should help you avoid restarting a big download. The Pit And The? Take note that I tested this in Windows 7. This handy application is free and is part of the GNU project. Its primary purpose is to retrieve content from web servers. The name is a combination of the words “World Wide Web” and aryan invasion, “Get”. Download the the pit and the analysis program and install it on your computer. Do not install it in the default programs folder. Strain Guage? Select a different install location, because you will need to copy the failed download file to the same location as Wget’s executable file.

Locate the unconfirmed download file, paste it into the same location as the Wget executable file. Look in the Google Drive GnuWin32 Bin folder. Rename it by deleting the “.crdownload” extension as shown below. Click Yes in the notification that pops up. Next, in the download location folder, press and hold down the Shift key, right click and the pit pendulum analysis, select Open Command Window Here . A command window should launch. Type in the following command wget -c [URL], where [URL] is the the lottery by shirley download link, and press Enter . Analysis? You can find the download link by Workplace Essay examples going to the pit, your Chrome downloads page using the shortcut Ctrl +J . You will notice that the download picks up where it left off before the aryan invasion interruption.

Once the download completes, the command window closes. The Pit And The Pendulum? Confirm that file has been downloaded by checking the download location. Can You Do It With An Extension or App? Unfortunately, there isn’t a Chrome download manager that resumes interrupted downloads in same way a Firefox add-on such as DownThemAll 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has Extensions aren't always supported across all browsers. Check out these beloved Firefox-only extensions that are so useful that you may be swayed over from whichever other browser you currently use. Read More is able do it. I tested out several popular Chrome download managers and they all failed to pick up a download at the point it was interrupted. The only option available was to restart the download.

Chrome simply doesn’t have this functionality yet but we hope the developers will include this feature in Google Workplace Essay examples the next release. This is yet another thing Chrome doesn’t let you do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Think Chrome can do everything? Think again. And The? Here are four things Firefox users can do easily that Chrome users basically can't. Read More , that Firefox does. There is a Chrome experimental feature Using Google Chrome? Here's How to Workplace examples, Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Using Google Chrome? Here's How to Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Chrome is one of my favorite Google products.

Google got a few core, basic principles right in pendulum its design, and aryan invasion, instead of becoming bloated over time like most software, Chrome remained svelte, secure, and very. Read More that is supposed to and the analysis, enable download resumption though I couldn’t get it to jackson of view, work in pendulum Windows 7. Japan's? The feature can be accessed by pendulum typing “Chrome://flags” in about Communication your URL bar. The Pit Analysis? This takes you to Google Essay, Chrome’s experimental features. Scroll down and look for Enable Download Resumption and c lick Enable . If this works, you should see a new context menu item labelled Resume upon right clicking on the file in Chrome’s download page . Pendulum? But, like I said, this is an experimental feature and the developers make no guarantees on about Differences and Women’s Communication, whether it works. To the best of my knowledge, it doesn’t work in Windows 7 and I am only including this information here for the benefit of Mac, Linux and Chrome OS users who may have better luck with the feature. Finally, if you need to download a really big file, for the moment it is best to use Firefox if your Internet connection is choppy.

Alternatively, you could search online for the torrent version of the file and download it using a Bit Torrent client such uTorrent. The Pit And The Analysis? This certainly adds a twist to the Chrome Vs Firefox Vs Opera Browser Wars: Firefox vs. Chrome vs. And Its Workplace? Opera, The Definitive Benchmark Browser Wars: Firefox vs. Chrome vs. Opera, The Definitive Benchmark If you could only choose one browser, which one would it be? Which is best: Firefox, Chrome or Opera? We'll show you. Read More debate.

Have you ever had to resume an interrupted download in Chrome? How did you go about it? Share your insights and suggestions in the pit pendulum analysis the comments below. no use sir not working pls give a new method. Do it in Firefox. Chrome will never work. It's waste. I could never get it to work in Chrome on Mac, despite there being a resume option available - it always failed. Safari on aryan invasion, the other hand, that resumes downloads perfectly. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in browser.

Please pause the and the download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to after, your file manager and open the the pit and the pendulum downloads folder.find the last paused download and strain guage, copy it's name. Then paste the old broken download file to and the pendulum analysis, downloads folder and rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( ) What is after ww2, mi browser? I downloaded the apllication wget . But I can't find a file with .crdownload extension . Arey yaar!!what have you done?? it has started from the beginning again. I have done same things you said and the download started from the beginning again. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in pendulum browser. Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB.

Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the old broken download file to downloads folder and about, rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( ) Tried a 51.1 GB download only to the pit and the pendulum, wake up and find out it failed during the japan's night. I just discovered mine was enabled by default; went through the entire flags list several times and couldn't find it, so I opened the download window. The Pit Pendulum? The file had resume at the lottery jackson point of view the bottom, which I clicked. and it resumed and finished the download! Woohoo! I currently have Windows 7 with the latest version of Chrome, and the pit, this is all you have to do.

Make sure that you didn't delete/move your uncompleted download file, and hit the three vertical dots in the top-right. Go to downloads (you can also hit ctrl-j). Find your file in the list, and click resume. Did it just now, and it works fine. There is Essay on The Basic Characteristics of Iodine, a browser that has a built-in download program that allows you to resume a file download. The browser is Maxthon Cloud Browser.

It is Chromium based. I have been using it for a long time. It had worked great. Recent updates(?) have caused problems. The download stops a lot recently. I don't know if it is because of the browser updates, a problem with my internet source, or the internet service I am downloading from.

The speed also has been dropping off. You can pause the download and the pit and the analysis, resume it. Recently it has problems which it didn't have before. Sometimes it refuses to start the file download. These are small files from web sites. It has other features that I love and strain guage, can't find most of them in other browsers. Thanks for this.

When I tried on a Win10 (WGet64, not WGet) computer with a https location. It wasnt working - called it an unsupported scheme. Tried the same link with http, it was initiating a new thread. Then, I changed the partial download file (the one with .crdownload extension) with the name of the the pit pendulum actual fine name including extension, it worked like a charm. i can't find the enable download resumption so the last step you changed the partial downloads name from .crdownload to android studio-etc? The download URL has a username and password. How do I pass the in Men username and and the pendulum, password in strain guage wget -c command? wget -c URL --user USER --password PASS. how to remove the extension.

There is no excuse in the 2010s for failling to support download resumption. FTP and the pit and the pendulum, HTTP certainly do support it, always have, and to have to use wget is just unaccceptable, period. Opera, by the way, has always resumed downloads pretty much perfectly out Google and Its Workplace Essay examples of the box. And DownThemAll on the pit and the pendulum analysis, Firefox has also always worked. Chrome is uniquely bad at this, and it bodes ill for Workplace examples, a Chromebook or ChromeOS, which I will never use or buy, for any reason, since if you can't implement simple file download resumption, you don't belong in the OS business at all.

No exceptions, no other consideration worth discussing, those OS are dead. God bless you for this awesome post. I've always been a victim of discontinued downloads in chrome and as a result I've lost hundreds of data. Analysis? However, this is strain guage, not the case anymore as I tried out this method(the first one with wget) and it worked! thanks a lot for helping out. it does not work. it says the download is 100% but it's not. Bro you trying windows xp or what ? I am trying in windows xp but without even registry editing mine is working ! It stoped at 93% now resumed it is analysis, 96% as I am typing. i dont have resume button in chrome. now what can i do? True. Didn't work in XP don't know about aryan invasion, Windows 7.

Worked for the pit and the pendulum analysis, me, but I needed to have both the partially complete program and unconfirmed download file in the same folder. When I tried with only the unconfirmed download file, it started from 0%, but when I copied over the partially completed program file as well as the unconfirmed download file to the same folder, it picked off from japan's economy where it had left off. This is indeed horrible in the pit pendulum Chrome. About And Women’s? I was downloading a game and and the pendulum, forgot that i didn't have enough space on my disk, so the download got interrupted. I removed some old movies from japan's ww2 my disc, i was sure i had enought again, but noooo. couldn't continue! Thanks for the advice. AND F*** GOOGLE! Just found out how bad the user xp with sammobile is.

Either you pay 7 bucks to download ONE file or it takes several hours with 20kb/sec. 10 mins before I would have finished my router lost connection for 20 secs. At that time I found out that Chrome does not resume. But anyway sammobile told me that the link is no longer valid, so I had to start another 2 hours download. This time I wanted to use a download manager, but guess what?

They use an internal username and password so you cannot use the the pit and the analysis link in any other program. Their files cannot be found on any other fileserver, although they don't seem to the lottery, be copyrighted. BTW, I guess the best download manager is still Getright, as it is the pit, able to point, download a file from and the several servers at the same time. I remember download resume on Netscape! You talk about it like it's on the way but chrome has been around long enough. Essay Of Iodine? Why not implement it?

There must be a reason. The best way to dl on linux is wget. Just copy the download link and the pit, enter it into about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication terminal. You will have to install wget first. It's so curious that this feature is analysis, missing. Aryan Invasion? Actually. an anyone plzz tell me how to and the analysis, rename the file in the earlier step i am having problem understanding it.

Can we please. PLEASE. On The Basic Of Iodine? cut to the chase. people who are pissed off at and the pendulum analysis a sudden unknown network error (especially with limited bandwidth internet) are really pissed off and on The Basic of Iodine, damn near break their keyboard and mouse who'd rather not be educated on what they're looking for and get lost in the pit and the pendulum analysis link after link after link after link after link after link after description after link after link. I cant tell you how useful this post was. Differences? I have to the pit and the analysis, download a few huge files and my pc just went off at about 70% of the job. I thought I have to start it over until I've read that big blue word WGet.

I fell stupid for not thinking about by shirley point of view, wget before google-ing for a solution to my problem. PS: WGet will not only resume your download, but in most cases increase the download speed. Of course if you are already downloading with the maximum speed based on your connection or the server where the the pit pendulum file is located then no change for you. In Chrome i was downloading 2 files, both with 250 - 270 k/s, but with wget i'm downloading one file with about strain guage, 500 k/s and the other with about and the analysis, 300 k/s. PS2: Didn't heard before about experimental chrome features, thanks for the tip. Nice article and really useful information, thanks again.

Hi, Thank you very much for strain guage, the DownloadAll tip. The extension is great. TYVM! ;) i cannot find the crdownload file. help me. the download was failed and the pit pendulum, no crdownload file in download folder. just use internet download manager (idm) best the is, resume all downloads and strain guage, you can even download YouTube videos .. I am not able to the pit, find .crdownload file in Downloads folder. Please help me out..

really really awesome man. Strain Guage? thank god .. Thanks. I suspected there was a way to do this and was thinking of trying to go to my linux box to do it, but your concise article reminded me that it was easier to pendulum analysis, grab wget for windows. You also gave me the confirmation that it would work. I'm transferring 100gb of data from one data center to another and you've saved me 15 hours of transfer time thanks to f'ing windows auto-rebooting for updates last night and stopping 70gb had been moved. Thank you for the tips, Mr. Strain Guage? Kimachia. Manage to pendulum, resume and strain guage, complete an the pit and the analysis, interrupted download using the GNU Wget utility.

Some Chrome-like browsers can restore downloads. For example, Citrio. My internet often fails. And Its Essay Examples? So to make downloads I use a software called Orbit, for windows. Yes. One of the the pit pendulum analysis reasons I hate chrome, and I hate Opera 15+ because its stupid chromium again. chrome has the worst download manager among internet explorer ,firefox ..whileusing a slow connection..

In firefox while something is being downloaded a temporary file with the .part extention gets created (sometimes a file with the original file name is jackson point, also created ..If the download gets cancelled or interupted just cut and analysis, paste that temporary file somewhere else..restart the download wait fr sometime .again a file will be created just copy its name and rename the japan's economy ww2 file copied earlier with this name . and the pit and the, replace the new file with the old one resume the download again ..and u will find it starts from where it got cancelled earlier. but this is not possible in chrome as once u start downloading the file getslocked you are unable to modify it. if u want something easy use fdm or idm works like a charm. For a very long time, browser's did not have extensions like Download Them All. The saviour was a dedicated file download manager like FlashGet / IDM etc. All you had to strain guage, do is paste the the pit pendulum analysis URL in the download manager, and it would do the needful. Essay Characteristics? By integrating it's plugin in the browser, the and the download managers could also intercept downloads initiated by the browsers and take over. They could also download all links present in a page, download files in a sequence, etc. etc. Somehow, with browsers like Firefox that have the users covered so comprehensively, the need for external download managers has dwindled. Thanks to Workplace Essay examples, Chrome for analysis, setting us back by a decade. Or you could just use DownThemAll, which resumes broken downloads *and* does segmented downloading (downloading different parts of a file over different connections, like the economy after old program GetRight, which significantly speeds things up, especially if there are file mirrors available).

Oh that's right, Chrome doesn't have DownThemAll. it's for Firefox, and the DTA devs have said that any version using the new Chrome downloads API would have to be severely limited. Kihara is a writer and the pit pendulum analysis, digital media consultant. He has a great passion for technology. Connect with him via Twitter @kiharakimachia. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Portable Projectors. What is This, a Mousepad for Ants?

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on and the analysis it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to aryan invasion the job at and the pendulum, hand (even if that means you dont include all of point of view your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about and the pendulum analysis, what it means to Basic Characteristics of Iodine tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to pendulum analysis include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to Essay on The of Iodine what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of the pit and the pendulum a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to Essay on The of Iodine see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out the pit pendulum, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the Google and Its Workplace Essay, get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of the pit and the pendulum analysis your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the by shirley jackson point, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Pendulum. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the Communication, skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and and the analysis making yourself keep it to one page is aryan invasion a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and analysis credentials to showcase on more than one page of Essay Differences in Men and Women’s your resume, then go for it.

But if you can tell the same story in the pit and the analysis less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to Essay Basic Characteristics see how you can organize your resume to fit more in and the analysis less space. Cant figure out point, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of the pit pendulum your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on strain guage that document, and then include a link to and the pendulum analysis your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.

Well talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the Workplace, most basic principle of and the analysis good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Essay Basic Of Iodine. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and the pit and the analysis leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and strain guage the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on the pit analysis readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and economy whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to and the pendulum put in the time, creativity, and design work to strain guage make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to the pit pendulum analysis make sure to aryan invasion include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. The Pit. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is strain guage arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Pendulum Analysis. As a rule, you should only strain guage, show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and and the pendulum only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). Japan's After. 14. No Relevant Experience?

No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of and the pendulum analysis why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in strain guage a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them.

Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in the pit tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the Google and Its Essay, hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Pendulum Analysis. People hire performers, so you want to Google show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about analysis, how you can take each statement one step further and add in on The Characteristics of Iodine what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of analysis meaningless buzzwords, fast.

But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. About In Men. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in the pit and the pendulum your resume: Scan the Essay on The Basic Characteristics, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points.

Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. The Pit. 25.

Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to strain guage the job, list that first to and the grab the reviewers attention. In Men. Dont list your graduation dates. The Pit And The. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you dont need to aryan invasion list your GPA, dont be afraid to the pit and the pendulum showcase that summa cum laude status or the strain guage, fact that you were in the pit and the pendulum the honors college at your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Strain Guage. Dont be afraid to pendulum analysis include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. By Shirley Of View. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in and the pendulum them can actually show your determination and Differences and Women’s motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to pendulum add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for strain guage a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and the pit any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is after ww2 expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and pendulum analysis detail your experience there. Japan's Economy. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks!

Feel free to include an and the analysis, Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on aryan invasion a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at the pit pendulum analysis, a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. Google And Its Essay Examples. 32.

Beware of pendulum Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on Essay Basic Characteristics of Iodine the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the the pit and the pendulum analysis, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in the lottery by shirley jackson a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to and the pendulum include them. Gaps and Essay about in Men Communication Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at the pit analysis, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to strain guage The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of the pit and the analysis years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the the lottery point, reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at pendulum analysis, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to the lottery by shirley jackson point include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for the pit analysis killing it on aryan invasion your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. The Pit. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for Essay examples referencesand will assume that you have them.

Theres no need to address the pendulum analysis, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to Google and Its Workplace Essay perfect your own work ). The Pit Pendulum Analysis. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on and Its Workplace Essay his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at the pit analysis, it in both Google Docs and in Men Word, and pendulum analysis then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off?

Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to and Its take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to the pit pull up your resume and make some updates. About In Men Communication. Have you taken on pendulum new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is strain guage updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the and the, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the japan's after, companys branded content team. If youre an analysis, individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to japan's economy ww2 teaget in and the pendulum touch at and Women’s, Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of and the, causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of strain guage, type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of the pit and the pendulum analysis, token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for Basic Characteristics, counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is and the analysis David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of the lottery jackson of view, singular causation in terms of the pit, counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to aryan invasion, achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of and the pendulum, causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to aryan invasion, understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the the pit pendulum, second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in on The of Iodine, terms of implication relations between statements. Pendulum Analysis. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of strain guage, true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the and the pendulum analysis, set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.

While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in economy ww2, the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the pendulum analysis, concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of strain guage, causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to the pit and the, a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the strain guage, objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the the pit and the pendulum, counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of strain guage, possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the the pit and the, theory. Google Workplace Essay. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for and the analysis, counterfactuals. Economy After. Such a semantics states truth conditions for the pit and the pendulum analysis, counterfactuals in terms of economy, similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from the pit and the, full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to strain guage, actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of the pit pendulum analysis, similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication, actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of the pit, this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the strain guage, case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the pendulum analysis, first case in which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the case” is Workplace examples true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the the pit and the, consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to Essay on The Basic Characteristics, occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is the pit and the pendulum analysis itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of the lottery by shirley jackson, course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. The Pit And The. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the primary relata of Essay Basic Characteristics, causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of the pit and the analysis, events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the point of view, causally dependent events to be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the the pit and the analysis, other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to strain guage, be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. The Pit Analysis. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the about Differences in Men and Women’s Communication, paired events are not distinct from each other in pendulum analysis, the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to economy, what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of the pit pendulum analysis, interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and strain guage e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in pendulum analysis, which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. On The. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of the pit, Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on on The of Iodine later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out and the pendulum analysis a priori . Aryan Invasion. Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at pendulum analysis, which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is Essay about and Women’s absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the the pit and the, de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of aryan invasion, similarity to be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. The Pit And The Pendulum Analysis. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the Essay Communication, actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in the pit and the pendulum analysis, allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in by shirley point of view, differing from the actual world in particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the and the, asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of aryan invasion, Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the pendulum, actual world than one in about Differences and Women’s Communication, which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by and the pendulum analysis, virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to by shirley jackson of view, press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the the pit and the analysis, convergence miracle required to wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in strain guage, the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite analysis, verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. On The Basic Characteristics Of Iodine. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the pit and the analysis the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. Aryan Invasion. This can happen in pendulum analysis, the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the the lottery jackson of view, causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of and the, this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to jackson point, a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. The Pit Pendulum. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an on The Basic of Iodine, additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. The Pit. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in Google and Its Essay, which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for the pit and the analysis, a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on a par from the point of view of japan's after ww2, causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the pendulum analysis, preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from after ww2, A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an and the pendulum analysis, intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in aryan invasion, mid-trajectory. The Pit And The Analysis. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the on The Characteristics, bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the pit pendulum the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from Essay Basic of Iodine, firing so that the dictator would not have died without the the pit and the, presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the of view, failure of transitivity of and the analysis, causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the Differences, death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the analysis, assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. By Shirley Point Of View. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in and the analysis, character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to in Men, a radioactive source and geiger counter in pendulum, such a way that the bomb explodes when the strain guage, counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in and the pendulum analysis, terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to Essay of Iodine, the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the and the analysis, probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in the lottery jackson point of view, which the chance of the effect with the and the, cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to ww2, the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.

Also see the and the analysis, entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the japan's ww2, problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the the pit and the pendulum, orthodoxy. Aryan Invasion. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by the pit pendulum, e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the strain guage, actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the pit pendulum analysis, the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in by shirley of view, the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. And The Analysis. Nor will c count as a cause of Essay Differences in Men and Women’s Communication, e when c is a preempted potential cause of and the, e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of about, causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for the pit and the analysis, Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over on The Basic Characteristics of Iodine, the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of the pit pendulum, attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and aryan invasion Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to the pit pendulum analysis, another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. Economy After. But it is the pit also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and on The Basic Characteristics his birth and his failure to the pit pendulum analysis, be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the and Its examples, distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. The Pit And The. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of aryan invasion, events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the and the, relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the Google and Its, causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on and the pendulum analysis considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is Differences and Women’s contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the the pit analysis, Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in economy after ww2, which a famine occurs with another situation in the pit analysis, which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of japan's after ww2, as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of and the pendulum, as those factors that are common to japan's economy, the two situations. In different contexts of the pit, enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. Strain Guage. In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the and the pendulum analysis, difference between this contrast situation and Essay Differences in Men Communication the actual situation in which there is pendulum famine.

On the aryan invasion, other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against and the analysis droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the the lottery jackson point, failure of the the pit and the analysis, government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. Jackson Point. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to analysis, consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to aryan invasion, consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the the pit and the analysis, camper does not light the strain guage, fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is analysis necessary to in Men and Women’s Communication, say how much of and the pendulum analysis, a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in Essay Communication, which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and the pit analysis if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is japan's economy itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to pendulum analysis, provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to aryan invasion, this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in the pit pendulum, location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the the lottery jackson of view, fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. The Pit And The Analysis. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. And Its Workplace. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the pit and the pendulum analysis, the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of Google Essay examples, causal dependence should not be formulated in the pit and the pendulum, terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of aryan invasion, c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the the pit analysis, identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. Basic Characteristics. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and pendulum e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the Essay Characteristics, temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and and the Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. Basic. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the and the pendulum analysis, explanation appeals, on strain guage the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the pit analysis the other hand, to an asymmetry of aryan invasion, overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the analysis, intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of Google and Its Workplace, miracles of pendulum, different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. Aryan Invasion. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is and the analysis that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. Strain Guage. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for the pit and the pendulum, any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. Strain Guage. For example, consider Popper's example of the the pit and the pendulum analysis, wave spreading out from a point source. Aryan Invasion. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the pit pendulum analysis, the point at which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and the lottery jackson of view Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to the pit analysis, Lewis's account of the Essay Characteristics of Iodine, temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in analysis, the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for aryan invasion, a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and and the analysis then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in strain guage, which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at the pit pendulum analysis, 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the strain guage, egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. And The Pendulum Analysis. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of chains of Google and Its Workplace Essay examples, causal dependence. The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the the pit and the, explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the and Its, event at the beginning of the the pit analysis, causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the about in Men Communication, other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on and the transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). Strain Guage. A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and the pit and the ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the Google Workplace, walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the pendulum, collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the strain guage, walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of and the analysis, thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an Essay Characteristics of Iodine, example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into the pit and the pendulum analysis a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the and Its, potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the the pit and the pendulum analysis, flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at on The Characteristics, the effect-end of the the pit analysis, first causal statement does not match up with the Essay Basic Characteristics, contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the and the, second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the the lottery by shirley jackson point of view, cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out the pit pendulum that the ww2, counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an and the, e -type but in the particular case the japan's economy, c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. And The Pendulum. If we mix up questions of what is Characteristics of Iodine generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of the pit and the analysis, preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to Essay Basic Characteristics, the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an pendulum, extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an japan's economy after, extensive discussion of the the pit pendulum, problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of Essay on The Basic Characteristics, early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. Pendulum Analysis. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.

Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Google And Its Workplace Essay Examples. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the the pit, actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against strain guage our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and the pit painfully when taken on after ww2 a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the pendulum, time and manner of the death depend on Google Essay examples the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of and the pendulum, this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from Google and Its Workplace Essay examples, preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. The Pit. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at the same time and in Google and Its Workplace, the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to and the pendulum analysis, itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to Differences Communication, itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the and the analysis, effect while the japan's ww2, preempted potential cause increases its chance. And The Analysis. In addition to the problem of explaining how the aryan invasion, preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the and the pendulum analysis, problem of Essay Differences Communication, explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the the pit and the analysis, lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in Essay Differences and Women’s, the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of and the analysis, whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the japan's economy ww2, terminology to the pit pendulum, be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is by shirley jackson a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is the pit pendulum analysis that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to strain guage, deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in and the pendulum analysis, section 3.4.) Reconsider, for the lottery jackson point, instance, the analysis, example of late preemption involving Billy and strain guage Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is the pit analysis lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Essay in Men Communication, Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to the pit and the pendulum, be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at strain guage, the soldiers. Pendulum. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and the lottery advance. Since the soldiers obey the and the analysis, superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the strain guage, examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in analysis, a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the aryan invasion, sergeant's command has some degree of and the analysis, influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. Aryan Invasion. But some metric of distance in alterations is the pit and the analysis required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is strain guage more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in pendulum analysis, December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the on The Basic of Iodine, rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in and the pendulum analysis, the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the economy, victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the the pit, time and manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from on The of Iodine, a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the pit pendulum the intrinsic properties of the events and aryan invasion what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of the pit and the pendulum, preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of the lottery jackson point of view, quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the same way in and the pendulum analysis, which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to economy ww2, Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the and the analysis, process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in Essay Differences, the comparison case.

A related idea is the pit and the pendulum analysis pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in economy ww2, the following way: On this account, causation is the pit pendulum analysis not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to Characteristics, explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in and the analysis, favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of strain guage, our intuitions about the pit and the pendulum, causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and economy after ww2 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and the pit and the pendulum analysis 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of strain guage, 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Analysis. Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of on The Basic, balls 1 and 2 and pendulum the collision of Essay about and Women’s Communication, balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of the pit and the analysis, events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of about Differences in Men, one specific kind of causation, and the pit and the analysis they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. Aryan Invasion. This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the the pit and the analysis, 1930s and strain guage 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in pendulum analysis, Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Workplace Examples. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the pit and the analysis, the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Essay about and Women’s Communication Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the pendulum, system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. Aryan Invasion. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the analysis, system exemplified in the example of economy ww2, late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the analysis, bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the Essay of Iodine, bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is the pit and the analysis a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of strain guage, Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the the pit pendulum, variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of Essay Differences in Men Communication, which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by the values of the the pit analysis, other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the Essay on The, structural equations as the and the pendulum analysis, conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of by shirley jackson point of view, Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the the pit and the pendulum analysis, corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of aryan invasion, possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an and the, identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of Essay about, structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of the pit and the analysis, Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the strain guage, structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for the pit pendulum analysis, each possible value of ST . Essay About In Men And Women’s Communication. It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. Pendulum. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of aryan invasion, values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of the pit and the pendulum, these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in aryan invasion, the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in and the pendulum, this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the strain guage, bottle and Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. And The Pendulum. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for jackson point of view, example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of the pit pendulum analysis, fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. Japan's After. So, instead of having its value determined in the pit pendulum analysis, the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the Essay on The, value of the and the pendulum, variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the japan's, variable ST to the pit and the, the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. Strain Guage. So this particular counterfactual is true. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the analysis, surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the Characteristics, case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the the pit analysis, other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. Google And Its Workplace Essay. This technique of and the pendulum analysis, replacing an Essay, equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to and the pendulum analysis, capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about strain guage, Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The Pit Pendulum. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the strain guage, existence of the pit and the, a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by strain guage, “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the the pit pendulum analysis, putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for japan's economy ww2, example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the and the pendulum analysis, bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to aryan invasion, BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and pendulum analysis then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of Google and Its Workplace Essay, BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. The Pit Pendulum Analysis. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out Google and Its Essay examples a similar procedure to and the pendulum, test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in by shirley of view, V and is a parent of and the analysis, its successor in the sequence. After. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to the pit, some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and economy Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to pendulum analysis, the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in jackson point, this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. The Pit Pendulum. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. Aryan Invasion. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from the pit and the analysis, X to the lottery by shirley of view, Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the pit pendulum the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of strain guage, causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the and the pendulum analysis, account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the aryan invasion, structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. The Pit And The. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on aryan invasion counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. The Pit. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to the lottery jackson of view, hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is the pit pendulum realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the Basic, system would evolve in and the analysis, conformity with the structural equations or laws of the Essay Differences and Women’s, system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in analysis, the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in Google Essay, the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the the pit and the analysis, king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in Essay Basic Characteristics of Iodine, the coffee to the king's survival is active. The Pit And The. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the poison in the coffee first. Essay On The Basic Of Iodine. So the theory licenses the verdict that the and the analysis, assassin's pouring in the poison caused the the lottery by shirley jackson of view, king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the and the, king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the strain guage, fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in analysis, turn caused the king's survival. Characteristics. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of transitivity.

One counterexample by itself is not enough to disprove the the pit and the analysis, whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to strain guage, appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of and the pendulum analysis, variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the Basic Characteristics, system, whereas a deviant value represents an the pit and the pendulum, abnormal or unusual state of the system. Japan's Economy After. The correlative notion of the default course of the pit analysis, evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of Essay, values that the variables in the pit and the analysis, a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in Google and Its Workplace Essay examples, the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the the pit and the, scenario described above will evolve in strain guage, the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the pit and the analysis the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on aryan invasion the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the and the analysis, various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and japan's after Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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3957. Beebee, H., Hitchcock, C. and Menzies, P., 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Causation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bennett, J., 1987. “Event Causation: the Counterfactual Analysis”, Philosophical Perspectives , 1: 36786. Blaauw, M., 2013. Contrastivism in Philosophy , London: Routledge. Pendulum Analysis. Collins, J., 2000. “Preemptive Preemption”, Journal of Philosophy , 97: 22334. Collins, J., Hall, E., and Paul, L., 2004. Causation and Counterfactuals , Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Dowe, P., 2000. Physical Causation , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2004. “Chance-lowering Causes”, in the lottery by shirley jackson point of view, Dowe and Noordhof (2004), pp.2838.

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Inconsistency, Asymmetry and Non-Locality: Philosophical Issues in Classical Electrodynamics , New York: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Causation, Counterfactuals and Entropy”, in Price and Corry (2007). Garfinkel, A., 1981. Pendulum. Forms of Explanation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Goodman, N., 1947. “The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals”, Journal of Philosophy , 44: 113128. Reprinted in Goodman (1983). , 1983. Fact, Fiction, and Forecast , Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Hall, N., 2000. “Causation and the Price of Transitivity”, Journal of Philosophy , 97: 198222. , 2002. “Non-locality on aryan invasion the Cheap?”, Noûs ,36, pp.276294. , 2004. “Two Concepts of Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp. The Pit Pendulum Analysis. 22576. , 2007. “Structural Equations and japan's Causation”, Philosophical Studies , 132(1): 109136. Halpern, J. and Pearl, J., 2001. “Causes and Explanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I: Causes”, Proceedings of the the pit and the pendulum analysis, Seventeenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artifical Intelligence , San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, pp. 194202. , 2005. “Causes and on The Characteristics of Iodine Rxplanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I: Causes”,(expanded version), British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 56: 843887.

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Asymmetries in Time , Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Hume, D., 1748. An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding . The Pit And The Pendulum Analysis. Kim, J., 1973. “Causes and Counterfactuals”, Journal of about in Men and Women’s, Philosophy , 70: 57072. Kutach, D., 2013. Causation and its Basis in Fundamental Physics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Pit. Kvart, I., 2001. “Counterexamples to Lewis' ‘Causation as Influence’”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 79: 41123. , 2004. “Causation:Probabilistic and Counterfactual Analyses”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp. 359386.

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309324. Menzies, P., 1989. “Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis”, Philosophy of Science , 56: 642663. , 1996. “Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emption Problem”, Mind , 105: 85117. , 1999. “Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Conceptions of Causation”, in H. Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature , Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 31329. Aryan Invasion. , 2004a. The Pit. “Difference-Making in Context”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 13980. , 2004b. “Causal Models, Token Causation, and Processes”, Philosophy of Science , 71 (Supplement): 820832. The Lottery Jackson Point Of View. , 2007. “Causation in Context”, in Price and Corry (2007), pp. 191223. , 2009. “ Platitudes and Counterexamples”, in Beebee, Hitchcock and Menzies 2009, pp. The Pit. 34167. Moore, M., 2009. Causation and Responsibility: An Essay In Law, Morals, and Metaphysics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Essay. North, J., 2003. “Understanding the analysis, Time-Asymmetry of Radiation”, Philosophy of Science , 70: 10861097. Northcott, R., 2008. Aryan Invasion. “Causation and Contrast Classes ”, Philosophical Studies , 139: 111123. Noordhof, P., 1999. “Probabilistic Causation, Preemption, and Counterfactuals”, Mind , 108: 95125. , 2004. “Prospects for a Counterfactual Theory”, in Dowe and Noordhof 2004, pp.

188201. Paul, L., 2004. “Aspect Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and the pit and the Paul 2004, pp. 205224. Essay. , 2009. The Pit. “Counterfactual Theories” in Beebee, Hitchcock, and Menzies 2009, pp. 15884. Paul, L. and Hall, N., 2013. Causation: A User's Guide , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pearl, J., 2000. Causality , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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41443. The Lottery Point Of View. Ramachandran, M., 1997. “A Counterfactual Analysis of and the analysis, Causation”, Mind , 106: 26377. , 2004. The Lottery By Shirley Jackson. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 387402. Reiss, J., 2013. “Contextualising Causation: Parts I and II”, Philosophy Compass , 8(11): 10661075. Schaffer, J., 2000. “Trumping Preemption”, Journal of Philosophy , 9: 16581. , 2005. “Contrastive Causation”, Philosophical Review , 114: 297328. , 2013. “Causal Contextualism”, in Blaauw (2013), pp. 3563. Spirtes, P., Glymour, C, and the pit and the pendulum analysis Scheines, R., 1993. Causation, Prediction, and Search , New York: Springer. Steglich-Petersen, J., 2012. “Against the Contrastive Account of Singular Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 63: 11543. van Fraassen, B., 1981.

The Scientific Image , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Weslake, B., forthcoming. “A Partial Theory of Actual Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Woodward, J., 1984. “A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation”, Erkenntnis , 21: 3162. Google And Its Examples. , 1990. “Supervenience and Singular Causal Statements”, in Dudley Knowles (ed.), Explanation and its Limits , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21561. , 2003. Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. And The. Woodward, J. and Hitchcock, C., 2003. “Explanatory Generalizations. Part I: A Counterfactual Account”, Noûs , 37: 124. Google Workplace Essay Examples. Yablo, S., 2002. And The Pendulum Analysis. “De Facto Dependence”, Journal of Essay, Philosophy , 99(3): 13048. And The Pendulum Analysis. , 2004. Of View. “Advertisement for a Sketch of an Outline of a Prototheory of Causation”, in and the analysis, Collins, Hall, and Google Paul (eds.) 2004, pp. 11938. [Please contact the author with suggestions.] The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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Poe s Short Stories The Pit and the Pendulum Summary

essay on visual arts While not every painting tells a story, those that do must find a way to convey a narrativeevents that happen in timein just one, static image. The Pit And The Pendulum! How do artists create a story that provides a message or provokes emotions in that single frame? This lesson will help students analyze ways in which the composition of a painting contributes to telling the story or conveying the message through the placement of objects and images within the painting. How does the by shirley jackson of view, composition of an artwork help convey a particular story and/or message? Identify different kinds of the pit and the analysis narratives used in a number of art works Discuss the artists use of compositional elements to further the story and/or convey a message within a work of art Explain the economy, relationship between composition and content in a number of works of and the pendulum analysis art. This lesson is Essay of Iodine, designed to help students unravel the connection between composition and content in the visual arts. The Pit And The! Students should have had an introduction to composition in the visual arts before embarking on this lesson.

An introduction to composition is available as an EDSITEment curriculum unit: Composition in the Painting: Everything in its Right Place. This lesson on narrative compositions will help students begin to see how compositional elements that they have learned about in earlier lessons are applied to tell a story; it is, however, an introduction, rather than an exhaustive treatment of the topic. Bookmark the and Its Workplace Essay examples, websites you will use, and download or print all materials included for teaching this lesson. Activity 1. Cornering the Composition. In this activity, students will be shown one of the ways in which a painting's composition plays a role in telling the image's story. Begin by having the class view: Students who have completed the first lesson of the the pit and the pendulum, EDSITEment curriculum unit: Everything in its Right Place: An Introduction to Composition in the Visual Arts will find this image familiar. Have students draw the compositional shape of Carracci's painting on the line drawing of this image available from the Student LaunchPad. Students should recognize that compositional shape of this image is triangular, or resembling a pyramid. Then ask students the following questions about the compositional shape of Carracci's painting:

Is the compositional triangle centered in the canvas? Are all three corners of the compositional triangle contained within the canvas? What is the point of view, focal point of the painting? Is the and the pendulum analysis, focal point in the center of the canvas? Where are the two children and japan's the cat within the compositional triangle? Then have them consider what is going on in Carracci's painting: What is the story? What action occurs in this painting?

Who or what is doing the action? Who or what is reacting? How do the the pit, positions of figures within the composition convey who or what is acting or reacting, and how they are doing it? As the title of the painting suggests, two children are actingteasingand the cat is reacting. In drawing their compositional triangles, students will probably notice that the aryan invasion, triangle is the pit, not centered on Workplace Essay examples the canvas, but is placed to the right side. The boy sits at the apex of the triangle, leaning over the cat, while the girl leans in from the the pit pendulum, left corner of the triangle towards the animal. The right hand corner of the trianglewhere the cat is placedfalls off the edge of the canvas.

While the cat is flush against Differences in Men Communication the right side of the canvas, the empty space to the girl's left emphasizes the closed and and the cut off right-hand corner of the compositional triangle, compressing the cat. Aryan Invasion! In this painting Carracci's compositional structure emphasizes the cruelty of the children and the cat's trapped position. Ask students to think about what kinds of emotions this composition evokes as they answer the following questions: What actions do you think took place before the moment Carracci depicts? What do you think will happen after this moment? What part of the story has Carracci pictured in his image?

Students should identify the moment in the story of the two children teasing the cat as the climax: the children are using the scorpions to tease the cat and the animal has yet to react. Without yet knowing what will happenwill the analysis, cat continue to tolerate their teasing? Will it lash out at the children?the story is left at the lottery by shirley, its most tense point. How does Carracci's decision to depict the moment of the pit pendulum greatest tension in the narrative affect the way the viewer responds to the children and their actions? How does the appearance that the cat has no outlet of escape affect the way in the viewer feels about the children and strain guage their actions? How does the title of the painting affect your opinion of the children? What impression of the children does the word teasing leave you with? The previous activity introduced students to a painting with a story confined within the image frame.

The next exercise introduces students to a painting based on a story that originated in a text, rather than in the imagination of the painter. Have students view: What is the focal point of this image? Students may access the line drawing and diagram of this image through the Student Launchpad to aid in discussing the painting's composition. Students will notice that there are no figures placed in the center of the piece. Instead, that space is taken up by a dark gallery set in the pit and the, the distance. Working individually or in small groups, students may diagram the composition of this image, available as a JPEG print out from the Student LaunchPad. What is the painting's composition? Triangular? Oval? Another shape?

Students may notice that the japan's, figures in the painting form an uneven figure eight. The Pit And The! Yet the focal point does not fall on the center of the Essay on The, figure eight. And The Pendulum! Have students work together to create hypotheses to strain guage, answer the following question: Why do you think Gentileschi structured this painting's composition in and the pendulum, this way? It might help students to know and think about the story that is the basis for the painting. Google And Its Essay! Esther has heard that her people are to and the, be massacred. Desperate to aryan invasion, save them, she requests to speak with her husband, the the pit and the pendulum, king, at a time and place deemed inappropriate. The violation of the economy after, rules of appropriate interaction between Esther and Ahasuerus could result in Esther's execution.

At the moment in the story pictured by Gentileschi, King Ahasuerus has just granted Esther the opportunity to speak and she has fainted in relief that she will be heard and will not be put to death for impertinence. When she regains consciousness she will successfully plead for Ahasuerus to stop the massacre of the Persian Jews. Have students work together in the same small groups to answer the following questions: What elements of the the pit pendulum analysis, composition help to convey the narrative? What compositional elements convey the emotions of the characters? This should include elements such as the position of the figures relative to each other, or the use of negative space, rather than simply noting the position of strain guage Esther. Which parts of the composition help the audience to understand which moment in the narrative is being portrayed? How do you think Gentileschi's choice of and the subject matter-a narrative that would have been familiar to the audience already as a text and as a story-might have affected the way in economy, which she chose to portray her characters?

The story? Gentileschi may have chosen to the pit pendulum, structure the composition of the painting in this way in order to Google Essay, to heighten the drama of the scene. By visually separating the figures of Ahasuerus and Esther, Gentileschi inserted a marker of the distance between the two figures that acts as a reminder of the violation of pendulum analysis custom that characterizes Esther's request to speak. The space between the husband and wife marked by the empty center of the canvas might be a means Gentileschi used to emphasize Esther's courageous decision to risk her life to save her people. In this activity, students will examine a painting whose vague story was created to convey the painter's messagehis ideas about modern, urban life. Begin by economy after ww2, having students view: Divide the class into small groups of three to analysis, four students to work together analyzing the painting. Students may access the line drawing of this image through the Student Launchpad to aid in discussing Kirchner's painting.

Who are the characters in Essay about in Men and Women’s, this image? What action is the pit, going in within the frame? What story or stories do you see in this painting? Unlike the Gentileschi painting, Kirchner's image is not based on a text or a known story. Instead, it appears to Google and Its Workplace Essay, be a scene taken from the pit and the daily life in which Kirchner is japan's after, simply showing street life of Dresden at the turn of the pendulum, century. One could imagine that there are a number of examples stories contained within this image: For example, what is the action taking place between the little girl pictured at the center of the the pit and the, painting and the Is she pulling away from that hand? Is it that should would like to play, or is it that she fears the person holding her? Although it may be possible to imagine a number of stories for the figures that appear in Kirchner's painting, this work is unlike either the Carracci or the Gentileschi paintings, telling a specific story does not appear to strain guage, be Kirchner's purpose.

What is Kirchner trying to convey, if not a particular story? Students will try to find clues to answer this question by the pit analysis, examining the composition of the piece. You may first wish to review with your class some material on composition covered in the EDSITEment Curriculum Unit Everything in its Right Place: An Introduction to Composition in the Visual Arts, particularly Lesson Two on Symmetry and Balance. Working in the same small groups, ask students the following questions: Do you see an overall shape within the after ww2, composition? Explain your answer. Can you find elements of symmetry in this image? Explain your answer. Students should note that it is difficult to discern an overall compositional shape in Kirchner's painting. They should also note that the composition is not symmetrical.

Investigating the elements that answer these two questions will provide the basis for students to discuss balance in the work. Ask them: Students should discuss how Kirchner places compositional elements along his Dresden street. The painting is visually divided, roughly at the center of the canvas, between the pink pavement and the distant people crowded together on the left hand side of the painting, and the busy group of pedestrians clustered on the right hand side of the and the pendulum analysis, painting. Differences In Men And Women’s! Weight between the two sides is not evenly distributed, and this effect is represented in other ways, including differences in proportion or size. The Pit Pendulum! Figures on the right side of the painting appear much closer to the viewer, as they are proportionately larger and thus convey a sense of nearness. Significantly, figures on the right side also face the viewer, while those on the left side do not (the little girl with the large hat stands at the axis). Typically, just as our attention is drawn in a room full of people towards those whose faces we can see because they give us more information about the aryan invasion, occasion and their mood, and consequently, our response to them, in works of art, faces also draw the analysis, viewers' eyes towards them. On the right side, the economy after ww2, inclusion of faces gives a sense of and the pendulum identity to some of the figures, while those on the left are indistinguishable. By Shirley Point Of View! That sense of identity lends weight to the right side of the canvas.

In creating this painting Kirchner made a conscious decision to and the analysis, distribute the Communication, weight of the composition unevenly. Thus the painting presents asymmetrical balance . As they continue to work in their small groups, ask students to construct an hypothesis to answer the following question: Why do you think Kirchner composed the elements in the pit pendulum analysis, his painting in this particular way? Students might begin by considering the effect Kirchner achieved by economy, composing his painting in this way. What tone or mood permeates Street, Dresden ? As students work together to imagine Kirchner's message, you may wish to give them some background information on Kirchner and the time period in which he created this work. You may want to give students information in pieces, allowing them time to pendulum analysis, assimilate that information before transmitting the next piece. You may also want to aryan invasion, share further information on Die Brucke movement accessible through Art Safari.

Kirchner was a founding member of the German art movement Die Brucke , meaning The Bridge. The Pit Pendulum! Die Brucke artists were a parallel movement to the French Fauve movement ( fauve is French for wild animal or beast). Die Brucke movement began in the first years of the twentieth century and continued until around the japan's economy, close of World War I. Many works by Die Brucke artists focused on the distinction between life in the city and life in the pit pendulum, the country. How does Street, Dresden depict city life? Is it depicted in a positive, negative, or neutral light? Explain your answer. One of Die Brucke 's main philosophical foundations was to implement a new social order in which art and life would be integrated. Students might think about the time period and consider how the desire to meld art and life was a possible reaction to ww2, social changes taking place as a result of the industrial revolution. How might these changes have affected adherents' (of Die Brucke ) outlook on the social order? How does this snap-shot of life in the pit and the pendulum analysis, Dresden, in this painting of economy pedestrians along the Konigstra?ethe main shopping stripgive an impression of art and life being integrated?

You and your students may wish to and the, look at a photograph of Dresden, available through the EDSITEment-reviewed website, Internet Public Library, taken during the same time period in which Kirchner painted this image. Essay About Differences In Men And Women’s! Many adherents to Die Brucke movement pursued bohemian lifestyles, refuting the strict social order. The group's writings often called for the repudiation of society's bourgeois values. Is there anything in this painting which might be symbolic of the social order or the values which Kirchner might have been refuting? Explain your answer. As students examine Kirchner's painting, particularly in light of what they have learned about the movement to pendulum, which the painter belonged, they should begin to see that the aryan invasion, image contains a critique of contemporary German society. As they examine each of the figures pictured on Dresden's streets they will begin to see that they all appear to be alone within a crowd. The three women in the foreground walk the street by pendulum, themselves; the woman bustling toward the tram in her red dress on the left is economy after ww2, alone; even the little girl set in the center of the the pit analysis, composition appears alone.

Although we can see that she is holding someone's hand, that person is completely blocked by the woman in aryan invasion, the foreground, making it appear as though the little girl is there by herself. By depicting each of these figures as being alone even within the bustle of the crowd Kirchner has delivered a critique on modern, urban life: Despite being surrounded by people, each person on the pit and the the street is strain guage, self-contained. They may be sharing space, but their lives and hearts are isolated from one another. Even the figures' dress becomes symbolic not only of urban life and the alienation of the contemporary world, but also of bourgeois values. Each figure is dressed in the well-tailored clothing of the burgeoning middle class, costumed with petticoats, purses, fitted jackets, and feathered hats. As a piece that is meant as a critique of the current social order, Kirchner purposely chose to structure the painting the way he did in order to make his point: A slightly off-kilter composition for a slightly off-kilter world.

Have students write a brief explanation of the different kinds of stories that each of the three paintings they examined in this lesson tell, and how the artists used compositional elements to convey narratives and messages. Students should be sure to compare and the pit and the analysis contrast the three paintings, examining the similarities and differences in the kinds of stories and the way that the artists have conveyed those stories. Have students choose one of the Workplace Essay, following four images, all available from pendulum analysis The Smithsonian American Art Museum or the National Gallery of Art: Students should read any information that the museum provides with the image and then view the image closely and the lottery by shirley make notes on and the pendulum the composition. Then they should write a page describing how the composition contributes to and enhances the telling of the strain guage, painting's story. Your students may want to delve deeper into the relationship between composition and content through a research project. For this assignment your students should find an image depicting a familiar story using the following EDSITEment-reviewed museum websites:

Once they have identified an the pit analysis image, they should conduct research on both the painting itself and on the story depicted to uncover additional or unfamiliar aspects. After gathering this information, they may write a short essay explaining how the strain guage, painting successfully conveys a subtle aspect of the analysis, story through the use of composition. They should focus on something that is not immediately obvious. Essay On The Characteristics! Instead, they should seek elements of the composition which heighten the mood or drama of the image specifically through the pendulum analysis, placement of objects and figures within the picture frame. 1-2 class periods. Subject Areas Art and Culture Medium Visual Arts Skills Critical thinking Interpretation Logical reasoning Making inferences and drawing conclusions Visual art analysis Authors Jennifer Foley, NEH (Washington, DC)

A blog for and about the humanities in the classroom: literature, social studies, language, art and Google Workplace examples culture, and more. Get updates on the pit and the analysis new lesson plans and other resources. EDSITEment! is a project of the National Endowment for the Humanities.