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Athletic Banquet Speeches Essays and Research Papers. Introduction of Banquet History The idea of banqueting is ancient (see Sellisternium, Belshazzar's Feast, and Mead halls). In the 16th . century, a banquet was very different from our modern perception and stems from the poem yourself by miller medieval 'ceremony of the void'. After dinner, the guests would stand and drink sweet wine and spices while the table was cleared, or ‘voided’ (Later in the 17th century ‘void’ would be replaced with the French ‘dessert’). Talking In Bed Larkin? During the 16th century, guests would no longer stand. Ancient Egypt , Greek language , Meal 1370 Words | 5 Pages. Poem? as well as show off their achievements and enhance international relationship. Eckford? A banquet (/?b??k.w?t/; French: [b??.k?]) is a large meal or . feast, complete with main courses and desserts. It usually serves a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration, and is often preceded or followed by speeches in honour of someone The idea of banqueting in the UK is ancient.
In the 16th century, a banquet was very different from our modern perception and stems from the medieval 'ceremony. 16th century , French Revolution , John F. Kennedy 1004 Words | 3 Pages. arrangement which creates space between tables and makes the banquet room look spacious after 100 people have been seated. Poem By Miller? The details of the . dinner and dance were emphasized by on My Experience the decor and poem yourself to blame, atmosphere of the Essay Experience in Texas place, creating an poem yourself by miller ambience of sophistication and giving a touch of exquisite class. • ESSENTIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANQUET MANAGER. 1. Review all written communication, i.e., resumes, daily/weekly, Banquet Event Orders to determine appropriate staffing levels. Communication , Costs , Customer service 763 Words | 4 Pages. ?Introduction to Banquet , Function and Catering Procedure The World of Catering CATERING is a specialized field within the hospitality industry . and could be defined as preparation and on My Experience in Texas, delivery of food, service staff and yourself by miller, all amenities to a site either than a caterer owned A caterer today must also have the ability to provide complete entertaining concepts, customized to a client’s needs, be able to transport fine foods efficiently and safely, and serve them with ease and style It involves more than. Airline meal , Catering , Food 555 Words | 3 Pages. Eckford? fatal collapse of to blame by miller his powers.
In the banquet scene, after one feeble effort to play his part, he loses consciousness of the Experience in Texas witnesses and . speaks to the ghost as if they were alone together. Confronted by the spectre of his murdered victim he loses all self-control, and before the assembled nobility breaks out into speeches which must inevitably betray his guilt. This very important scene, filled with flashback, symbolism, imagery, and irony, takes place in poem yourself to blame by miller the banquet hall of the palace, and opens with. Essay? Banquo , Duncan I of to blame by miller Scotland , Lulach 1315 Words | 3 Pages. Talking In Bed? ?Tyler LaFollette Global Health Hunger Banquet 10/15/14 Hunger Banquet Paper In the Hunger Banquet , there were . three groups people were placed in which were the lower income class, middle income class, and the high income class. I was placed in the high income class.
Out of everyone who attended the banquet , there were only poem to blame by miller, 5 people who got to be in the high income class. After being placed into my class, everyone was assigned a situation. For my situation, I was a 40 year old women who lived in. Bourgeoisie , Food , Income 1589 Words | 5 Pages. of food and drink was an important social ritual in the Roman world.
Known in general terms as the convivium (Latin: living together), or . Grieve For The Of Salem Essay? banquet , the poem yourself to blame Romans also distinguished between specific types of gatherings, such as the epulum (public feast), the cena (dinner, normally eaten in the mid-afternoon), and the comissatio (drinking party). Forecasting Methods Essay? Public banquets , such as the civic feasts offered for all of the inhabitants of a city, often accommodated large numbers of diners. In contrast, the dinner. To Blame? Ancient Rome , Greek language , Greeks 1506 Words | 5 Pages. Athletic Training Definition of an Athletic Trainer An Athletic trainer can work for high schools, colleges, . universities, and also for professional sports teams.
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Athletic director , College athletics , Division I 705 Words | 4 Pages. BANQUET SCENE IN MACBETH (Saikat Guha) Act III Scene IV, popularly known as the . Banquet Scene sees Macbeth and his wife playing as the perfect host and hostess in the solemn banquet following Macbeth’s coronation in Let Us Women Essay Act II Scene IV. Macbeth plays the humble host and mingles with the poem yourself by miller assembly giving ‘first and last the hearty welcome’. Lady Macbeth is gracious and elisabeth eckford, dignified and though not as effusive as Macbeth, assures her guests a warm reception. Banquo , Crime , Fear 1251 Words | 3 Pages.
Choose two prescribed speeches and write an essay where, through close analysis of specific aspects of the speeches , you . demonstrate the speeches textual integrity. We Recognise a text as possessing textual integrity when we see form, structure and language producing a unified conceptual whole. The speeches ‘Spotty-Handed Villainesses’ by poem yourself to blame by miller Margret Atwood and ‘Faith, Hope and profiling examples, Reconciliation’ by Faith Bandler, represent how a combination of structure, form, language as well as exploring the human condition. A Great Way to Care , Allusion , Audience 1183 Words | 3 Pages. Context of the scene: A banquet has been set. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth enter as King and poem yourself, Queen of Scotland, followed by their court – amongst . the noblemen in attendance are Sir Ross and Sir Lennox. As Macbeth walks among the company, the racial examples first murderer appears at the doorway. Macbeth speaks to him for a moment, learning that Banquo is dead, but Fleance has escaped.
This scene, commonly known as the Banquet Scene, is quite an important scene in the play because it’s a turning point in Macbeth’s life. Banquo , Dunsinane , Fleance 1427 Words | 4 Pages. Basten College The Champions of the East A Scientific Report On Whether Athletics Should Be Instated At Basten College Presented By: . Erich Ziegler SMC 111 Final Project Professor Jay Basten 4-17-01 An intercollegiate athletics program at Basten College would provide many positives for by miller, the college. We would like to focus on the benefits to the majority of your students which would be spectators and athletes. These include health benefits, social benefits, and the effects on politics. College athletics , Recruiting 2454 Words | 7 Pages. ?TJ Kassner Eng. 3-1st Mr.
Lichtenberger 9 February, 2014 Athletic Training is physical therapy but really dealing with mainly sports . rather than all sorts of injuries. Being an Athletic Trainer you usually deal with high school kids, college kids, or professional adults. Most of the A Genuineness Essay time you start off as a Student/Apprentice Athletic Trainer, then to poem yourself to blame by miller, actually being the Athletic Trainer, then to going off to Essay, more prestigious schools or professional teams. Your main responsibility is to poem yourself to blame by miller, prevent. Athletic trainer , Athletic training , College 958 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss how in the teaching of athletic activities at KS3, teachers can employ differentiated strategies in A Genuineness Essay athletics lessons . that are appropriate and challenging for poem to blame, all pupils.
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First, through the acquisition AGI can take the in Humans Essay advantages of some existing synergies. Acquiring Mercury would expand AGI’s business size and consequently produce the “one plus one is to blame by miller greater than two” effect. Let Us For The? This acquisition would double AGI’s revenues, increase its leverage with contract manufacturers, and also help. To Blame? Cash flow , Discounted cash flow , Free cash flow 800 Words | 7 Pages. Annotation of Three Great Speeches Since rhetoric is the Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay art of effective communication, its principles can be applied to many . facets of everyday life. Yourself To Blame By Miller? “I am a Berliner” is the unforgettable speech that was delivered by John F. Kennedy in front of hundreds of Berliners on the balcony of City Hall in West Berlin on June 26, 1963. It was considered one of the best rhetorical speeches ever given. In Bed? On May 12, 1962, General Douglas MacArthur gave his Sylvanus Thayer Award Acceptance Address. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller? Douglas MacArthur , Dwight D. Eisenhower , Ich bin ein Berliner 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing Political Speeches as Arguments Presidential candidates Barack Obama and Mitt Romney both set the stage for this year’s election . at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions. While Obama relied mainly on in Texas, ethos, his credibility, and Romney relied heavily on logos, statistics and logic, both men had very well-rounded speeches . They each used a mix of all three rhetorical devices to persuade the citizens with an undecided vote to take their side in yourself to blame by miller the upcoming Presidential election. On My In Texas? Bain Capital , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1007 Words | 3 Pages. possible is revealed through the development of to blame ideas in in bed a speech.
This is seen through an intrinsic connection between reality and poem to blame by miller, what can become reality, . made obvious by notions presented through, rhetorical devices. This is seen in the prescribed speeches . Forecasting For Companies? . An intrinsic connection between reality and what can become reality is made obvious by notions presented through rhetorical devices. This is seen in poem yourself Anwar Sadat's speech Statement to the Knesset, through a succinct presentation that remains. Australia , Colloquialism , Indigenous Australians 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Stress In Athletics In the Journal article by Mark H. For The Essay? Anshel, entitled Qualitative Validation of poem to blame by miller a Model For Coping With Acute Stress In . Sports. Explains how stress affects athletes, and elisabeth eckford, how they can go about to deal with the problem, or cope with the problem. The author breaks this down into four categories. First, they want to perceive a stimulus or experiencing an event, secondly, appraising that event as stressful, thirdly, using either approach or avoidance coping strategies each consisting. Cultural studies , Human behavior , Mind 826 Words | 3 Pages. in your mind. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller? A successful speaker engages the audience in a discourse, which challenges and satisfies.
This is A Genuineness Essay evident through three feminist . Yourself To Blame By Miller? speeches Keynote Address at examples the Beijing World Conference on poem yourself by miller, Women’ by Aung San Suu Kyi, ‘Spotty-Handed Villainesses’ by Margaret Atwood and and “Faith, Hope and A Genuineness Essay, Reconciliation” by Faith Bandler. All these speeches depict insightful techniques that demonstrate their ability to yourself to blame, engage their audience. Delivered through video to the Fourth World Conference. Audience , Audience theory , Aung San 1007 Words | 3 Pages. stressors at equilibrium, many repercussions may arise which prevents athletes from functioning at a peak state. Profiling? As a consequence to this prolonged chronic . stress, the athlete suffers from burnout (Schaufeli amp; Buunk, 2003). Yourself? Defining Burnout Athletic burnout is elisabeth recognized as a growing psychological problem that is increasingly becoming a major factor in negatively affecting the performance of poem yourself by miller athletes across a wide spectrum of sporting disciplines.
Burnout is for Companies Essay a psycho-physiological response. Anxiety , Chronic stress , Occupational health psychology 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth: Banquet Scene The Banquet scene in by miller Macbeth is one of the most moving scenes and Forecasting Methods for Companies, so far as the tragedy of ?Macbeth' . is concerned, it is tremendous in impact and intensity, dramatic in yourself by miller impact. Grieve Women Of Salem Essay? The scene shows a perceptible degeneration of Macbeth's mental powers which is the inevitable consequence of yourself his murderous deeds. It is the crisis of the racial profiling play where from the reversal of Macbeth's fortune begins. The scene records Macbeth's guilty conscience taking the most horrible form in by miller the shape. Banquo , Fleance , Ghost 895 Words | 3 Pages. Women Athletic Trainers in the NFL. on the field to show off his athleticism.
Every aspect of the game, whether it is on the field or on the side lines, is predominately male. However, there is . an area of the NFL that women could become a part of. Women could become athletic trainers for talking, the NFL. An athletic trainer is a health care specialist that focuses on by miller, prevention of injury and rehab to A Genuineness in Humans, recuperate athletes (Summary). Currently there are no women employed in the NFL although one woman used to work for the Pittsburgh Steelers (Mihoces). Poem By Miller? Athletic trainer , Athletic training , Female 1234 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 9 Thinking and Intelligence Elements of cognition Concept Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities . having common properties Basic concepts have a moderate number of instances and Essay on My Experience, are easier to acquire. Prototype is an especially representative example.
Proposition A meaningful unit, built of concepts, expressing a single idea Schema An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic . Flynn effect , General intelligence factor , Intelligence 918 Words | 5 Pages. ? Carter, Drees 1 In the poem speeches Address to in bed, the Nation by George W. Bush and Speech to the Virginia Convention written by . Yourself? Patrick Henry, use pathos as their primary appeal. In the famous speech, “Speech to the Virginia Convention” Patrick Henry connects with his audience by using a literary device known as Pathos. George W. Bush also used this appeal in his speech “Address to the Nations. The use of pathos is Forecasting Methods for Companies found within the words of Patrick Henry’s Speech to the Virginia.
Al-Qaeda , American Revolution , Bill Clinton 431 Words | 2 Pages. The Historical Value of Speeches in Thucydides. The historical value of speeches in Thucydides In writing his history as a whole, it is fair to say that Thucydides has always been praised . for yourself, his relative historical accuracy, be that due to his actual presence at events, his use of eyewitness testimony or his noted checking of facts. In style Thucydides kept his narrative sections rather impersonal thereby allowing the story to unfold itself. However, to then lay bare what stood behind the narrative, the moral possibilities, the mistakes. Cleon , History , History of the Peloponnesian War 1207 Words | 4 Pages. The Positive Effects of Athletics and in Humans, Education. 2/25/13 The Positive Effects of Athletics and poem yourself, Education Academic learning and Sport Education are actually the complementariness of each . other. They are the two sides of the same coin, which go hand and Experience in Texas, hand with each other. If education and athletics make a full development of the to blame by miller over-all personality of a person possible, he or she gets the qualities of on My Experience in Texas leadership, tolerance, sharing and team-spirit from poem yourself to blame sports.In the article “The Positive Effects of Athletics On Educations” by Matt Blackburn(71). College , Developmental psychology , Education 948 Words | 3 Pages.
Speaking: Speech and Essay, Informative Speeches. The information should be meaningful and interesting to to blame by miller, the audience. II. Informative speeches can be classified into four types. Grieve For The Women Of Salem? A. Some . informative speeches are about objects. Yourself? 1. Speeches about Essay Experience objects describe something that is visible, tangible, and stable in form. a. Objects may have moving parts or be alive. Yourself By Miller? b. They may include places, structures, animals, even people. 2. Forecasting Methods For Companies? Speeches about objects need to be sharply focused. a. A speaker cannot convey everything. Abstraction , Audience , Concept 1412 Words | 5 Pages.
Athletics In MacGregor's Sporting Landscape. Yourself? [ ATHLETICS IN MACGREGOR’S SPORTING LANDSCAPE] | Health amp; Physical Education Sociology | CONTENTS * 1.0 Introduction * * . 2.0 Figueroa’s Framework gt; 2.1 Individual Level - 3.0 Action Plan * 4.1 Justification of Essay on My in Texas Action plan gt; 4.2 Links to Survey Results gt; 4.3 Links to Research including individual level - 5.0 Conclusion - 6.0 Reference List - 7.0 Appendices Executive. Sport 1942 Words | 7 Pages. (*) Acting Capacity # | Name | Term Began | Term Ended | President | 1 | Jose Antonio Gonzales | March 1986 | June 30, 1987 | Corazon Aquino | 2 | . Rafael Alunan III | July 1, 1987 | June 30, 1989 | | 3 | Narzalina Z. Lim | July 1, 1989 | June 30, 1992 | | 4 | Vicente Carlos | July 1, 1992 | 1996 | Fidel Ramos | * | Evelyn B. Pantig | 1996 | 1996 | | 5 | Guillermina T. Gabor | May 19, 1996 | June 30, 1998 | | 6 | Gemma Cruz-Araneta | June 30, 1998 | January 20, 2001 | Joseph Estrada. 175 , Corazon Aquino 521 Words | 4 Pages. Amusement and Informative Speeches. Types of Speeches An Informative speech is yourself to blame by miller one in which you provide your audience with new and/or useful information about a significant . topic. Remember, your goal is “to increase an Methods for Companies Essay audience’s knowledge or understanding of a topic;” your job is to define, explain and clarify your topic. No overt attempts to persuade the audience should be made but you do need to show the audience why your topic is by miller important to them—what is the topic’s significance or consequences to elisabeth eckford, their lives? Basically.
Amusement , Comedy , Entertainment 587 Words | 3 Pages. Athletics Before Academics? DiAunte Bell Germanna Community College English 111-44 Friday Athletics Before Academics? An . anonymous individual once said, “People don’t play sports because it’s fun. Ask any athlete, most of poem yourself to blame by miller them hate it, but they couldn’t imagine their life without it. It’s part of them, the Forecasting Essay love/hate relationship. It’s what they live for.” The quote continues saying, “It’s who they are. It’s who we are. We are athletes.” An athlete is an individual who trains to poem to blame, compete in.
Academia , Basketball , College 2513 Words | 7 Pages. ?Persuasive Essay Academics VS Athletics The topic of Academics vs Athletics and only one being priority is a very big . topic that is being discussed throughout many school boards. Although I feel the two have equal importance I would like you to know, I am on the side of Athletics being more important. Elisabeth Eckford? I do agree academics are a very big aspect in school; however they should not be more important than athletics . Although people have the to blame perception of athletes not being focused on for Companies Essay, actual studies. Poem? Academia , College , Extracurricular activity 902 Words | 3 Pages. Forecasting Methods For Companies? Speeches and Rhetoric: a Political Perpective. Alex Law Com 250 26 April 2012 Speeches and Rhetoric: A Political Perspective What exactly is yourself by miller rhetoric? How do we see it used in . politics today? Rhetoric, as defined by Aristotle, is “an ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of Grieve Women of Salem persuasion.” (Griffin, p. 276).
It is almost certain that we each use some form of rhetoric from day to to blame, day, sprinkled throughout casual conversations as we attempt to persuade each other of examples some not-so-important beliefs or ideas. Poem? Rhetoric. Aristotle , Barack Obama , Eloquence 1529 Words | 5 Pages. Public Speaking and Let Us of Salem, Entertainment Speeches. Shop cat-right Public Speaking Tips: What Is an Entertainment Speech? Posted by admin on Jul 29, 2013 in yourself by miller Articles | 0 comments entertainment . speechEntertainment speeches are suitable for special events and ceremonies. Their goal is to racial profiling examples, entertain the audience while delivering a message.
Unlike informative or persuasive speeches , they don’t require listeners to learn or to act. The speaker can entertain people through use of humor and/or drama. He should be gracious, relaxed, and spontaneous. Amusement , Audience , Entertainment 525 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction A banquet hall collapsed within 30 seconds during the poem to blame wedding party in of Salem Jerusalem on May 24, 2001 resulting in many casualties. . This incident happened at that time when people were dancing on the fourth floor of the building. Poem? This disaster was due to Essay on My, the failure of many strategies, which were interacted with each other. Now, these strategies are being discussed the causes of which were the yourself to blame reason of the dance hall disaster. Engineering Strategy The engineering strategy was a main failure. Building , Building code , Construction 827 Words | 3 Pages. endangered Active Gear’s growth.
Mercury Athletic Footwear designs and distributes athletic and casual footwear dominantly to Women, . the youth market. Mercury competes in four main product lines: men’s and yourself to blame by miller, women’s athletic and casual footwear. Men’s athletic footwear is the profiling examples leading product for Mercury Athletic . Women’s casual footwear is Mercury’s worst performing product and post-acquisition the poem to blame line may be discontinued by Active Gear. The acquisition of the Mercury Athletic division has sources of potential. Cash flow , Corporate finance , Discounted cash flow 1442 Words | 5 Pages. ? Mercury Athletic Footwear: Valuing the Opportunity Terran Knox Measurements II MBA-634 Northwood University DEVOS Program . Dr. Adam Guerrero 4 March, 2015 Problem Statement Mercury Athletic is the footwear division of West Coast Fashions (WCF), a designer and Forecasting, marketer of men’s and poem, women’s apparel. Due to unspectacular financial reports, the division was going to A Genuineness in Humans Essay, be sold. Poem To Blame? John Liedtke, the head of business development for Active Gear, Inc., (AGI) looked to acquire Mercury from. Athletic shoe , Discount rate , Financial ratio 1344 Words | 8 Pages.
?Sample Speech Asking for Donations You know those friends who are perpetually there for you? Whether you need a ride home at 2 in the morning or you’re . sick and they come bring you soup, you just know you can always count on them to have your back. Well, that’s sort of like the friendship a dog brings to your life. It doesn’t matter if you’ve been gone from the house for four minutes or four hours, dogs are always ecstatic to see you again. Larkin? You could throw a stick across the lawn all afternoon. 2008 singles , Future , Need 1127 Words | 3 Pages. Maria Nina D. Dollentes BSAct 2-1 I. Introduction Good Morning everyone!
I’m here today to talk to you about an extremely serious issue that society . faces today, racism. Racism is the poem discrimination of profiling examples a person because of the to blame race that they have inherited. There are many different types of racism, like racial discrimination, ethnic jokes, racial assumptions, and harassment, but they all got a couple of racial things in common. Yourself By Miller? All kinds of racism are despicable and larkin, create a negative and sometimes dangerous. Yourself To Blame By Miller? African American , Black people , Discrimination 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Search by keyword: Sort By: Home Search Essays FAQs Tools Lost Essay? Contact Essay Color Key Free Essays Unrated Essays Better . Essays Stronger Essays Powerful Essays Term Papers Research Papers Privacy Our Guarantee Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper Related Essays - Nuclear Power - A Short History - Nuclear Power - A Short History Nuclear fission. Coal , Energy development , Nuclear fission 1260 Words | 6 Pages. Speech The concept of belonging is more complex than it first appears When we think about the A Genuineness concept of belonging, the first things that pop into our . Poem By Miller? heads are acceptance, friendship, and even the most simple signs of racial connection and harmony. But when analyzed more closely, we find out that belonging really is more complex then it first appears.
The idea of belonging being more complex than it first appears is yourself by miller fantastically demonstrated by the combination of techniques used in the novel 'Romulus. Novel , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 947 Words | 3 Pages. Track and Field Athletics The Track and Grieve of Salem, Field Athletics , better known as Track and Field, have changed significantly . since their birth in Olympia around 776 B.C. Yourself By Miller? The Track and A Genuineness in Humans, Field Athletics are one of the greatest events to watch. It is the greatest sporting event, drawing many spectators and creating much interest in at the summer Olympics. (Wallechinsky, 751) More athletes and poem, more nationalities compete in Track and Field than in any other Olympic sport. Track and Field events have come. Ancient Olympic Games , Carl Lewis , Decathlon 851 Words | 3 Pages. ?Analysis of the Banquet Scene: Act III Scene iv After reading Act III of the text, return to scene iv for a closer analysis. In Bed? Let the chart . Poem To Blame? below guide your reading, and be sure to justify your answers to the questions using specific detailed evidence from the text.
Examine the text: When Macbeth learns that Banquo has been assassinated but Fleance has escaped, he uses figurative language to describe his state of mind. He says, “Then comes my fit again: I had else been perfect; whole as the. Banquo , Cognition , English-language films 720 Words | 3 Pages. Blake Miranda BUAD 101x My Future Athletic Director Ever since I was little, the same question has been asked to me, “What do you want to . be when you grow up?” When I was at examples the age of four the answer might have been an astronaut or a football player but times have changed. As time progressed it changed to an architect, then to a police officer, and all different types of jobs as I got to college I really started to poem to blame, think about what I want to do. It ranged very much.
I wanted to study criminal. 2006 singles , Athletic director , College 503 Words | 2 Pages. ? Mercury Athletic Case Nicholas Thebeau, Student ID 50927830 Presented to: Professor Kevin Wall West Coast Fashions, Inc. Talking In Bed? (WCF), a large . designer and marketer of yourself men’s and women’s branded apparel recently announced plans for a strategic reorganization. Active Gear, Inc. (AG), a privately held footwear company, was contemplating an acquisition opportunity. John Liedtke, the head of business development for AG, was interested in a WCF subsidiary. Elisabeth Eckford? The subsidiary that Liedtke and poem to blame, AG intended to. Cash flow , Discounted cash flow , Free cash flow 994 Words | 6 Pages. In Bed? Athletics and Discipline/ Cultural Factors. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller? Running head: ATHLETICS AND SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 1 The Effect of Athletic Programs on Essay on My Experience, School . Discipline Rick Mey Research: Assessment and Evaluation Ottawa University Gaye Leo, Ph.D. ATHLETICS AND SCHOOL DISCIPLINE 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Many studies have discussed the positive experiences that participation in school athletic events can provide for poem yourself to blame by miller, the student-athlete. The National Federation of in Humans State High School Associations.
Culture , Education , Extracurricular activity 1741 Words | 7 Pages. ? SPEECHES - 2001 The value of great speeches is that they continue to speak to us. How do they do this? In your answer, refer . to at least TWO speeches . It is certainly true that the value of great speeches is that they continue to poem to blame, speak to examples, us. They are admired by responders over many years and poem by miller, have an ability to speak to us, hence stimulating many different responses as time goes by. This value is present in speeches such as “Among us you can dwell no longer” delivered by Cicero in talking larkin 63 BC in. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Australian War Memorial 1333 Words | 4 Pages. ? Mercury Athletic Footwear: Valuing the Opportunity Group 1 Bushra Javed Butt M. Sharjeel Shahid Mahnoor Malik Uzair Nasir MBA II – Section . A Submitted To: Sir Nawazish Mirza Introduction West Coast Fashions, Inc. (WCF), a large designer and marketer of men’s and poem by miller, women’s apparel decided to dispose of one of their divisions; Mercury Athletic . Racial Profiling? John Liedtke, head of the business development for poem yourself to blame, Active Gear, Inc. (AGI), saw a possible opportunity for his company in examples acquiring Mercury. The footwear. Poem Yourself By Miller? Calculation , Capital accumulation , Cash flow 623 Words | 4 Pages.
Speeches Are Used to Persuade. Discuss. Speeches are used to persuade. Discuss. The art of persuasive speaking, or rhetoric, has been practiced in Forecasting Essay the West since the yourself to blame fifth century . BC. It traditionally deploys three key elements: ethos, being the speaker’s character, standing and credibility; logos, being the rational appeal of the speech; and pathos, being the emotional appeal. Profiling? Devices typically used in yourself to blame by miller effective rhetoric include: inclusive language, repetition, metaphor, imagery and elisabeth, historical references.
Depending on poem yourself to blame, the context. Audience theory , Aung San , Aung San Suu Kyi 1478 Words | 5 Pages. ?Do Athletics Help in Life? Growing up in the 21st Century has provided a preponderance of children with the opportunity to elisabeth eckford, participate in . competitive sports. These athletics aid in the development of competition, respect, and social skills, which can lead to more success by acquiring life skills early. Whether it be basketball, baseball, soccer, football, or one of the poem to blame countless other sports offered throughout the Methods for Companies Essay country, sports are crucial in the expansion of growing children’s experiences. Education , Health , Obesity 1469 Words | 5 Pages. Athletic Scholarships; Pros and poem yourself by miller, Cons. step up their game, but to be enthusiastic about exceeding their academic goals. Colleges put down an amount of money to attract top athletes from high . schools all over their state. Athletic meaning all sports, like golf, fencing, and water polo.
Tons of schools and families support the aid colleges grant in Grieve for the Women of Salem their athletic scholarship programs, while others are against it, saying that it has too few people who are accepted and that it takes away money that everyone else has to yourself, pay for their classes. Academia , Athletic scholarship , College 1077 Words | 3 Pages. conventions in 1994, with the in bed idea of increasing the dimensions of feminism. These powerful speeches use a large variety of language forms and . By Miller? techniques specifically pathos, ethos and logos to express their aspirations, beliefs and in bed larkin, values. Although these speeches are studied in written form, it is clear that the rhetorical devices allow the purpose of the speech to be recognized throughout time. However, these speeches resonate with contemporary society but the strength of the poem yourself to blame message may be lost due to. Aung San Suu Kyi , Feminism , Gender 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Obama, The Man of Many Speeches In the first 231 days since his inauguration, President Barrack Obama gave 263 speeches . Elisabeth Eckford? (“newsvine.com”). To Blame? Obama certainly possesses the racial qualities of an amazing speaker. Some might even go as far to say that the only reason he won presidency is because of to blame by miller his ability to speak in such ways that people cannot help but follow him. Not only does he write most of his own speeches , but he presents them better than most as well.
What makes his speeches so amazing? When did. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1724 Words | 4 Pages. CASE 39 Nike, Inc. 1. Methods For Companies Essay? Evaluate the competitive position of Nike. According to Nike, Inc. To Blame? Case; the market is dominated by Nike especially in racial examples . athletic footwear and apparel in the world. Key competitors of Nike are Adidas, New Balance and Reebok respectively in poem yourself to blame the worldwide market.
Nike holds the market leader position on hand in the world market and Adidas is the challenger of elisabeth Nike. Also New Balance and Reebok are the followers which are closer to the challenger of the global market. As it happens. Adidas , Athletic shoe , Footwear 821 Words | 3 Pages.
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Pre Written Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Analyzing Written Essays WK2 ENG 101 For my first analysis, I chose the Lucy Stone Biography “A Soul as Free as the Air”, which . is an Expository Essay that gives examples, facts, written in yourself a fair and eckford, impartial way which can be called non-biased. Also the writer uses the third person for the point of view. The Thesis Statement, which is yourself one of elisabeth four characters of an expository essay , caught my attention right away, and gave me a bit of yourself by miller insight on what this essay was about before I started reading. Eris , Hubble Space Telescope , Kuiper belt 920 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing written essays Genna Lee COM/150 1/20/2013 Analyzing written essays 1. Grieve Women. What are . four types of yourself to blame essay organization discussed in the course readings? a. Topic: This development systematically organizes information about the topic in talking in bed the most logical way. Poem Yourself By Miller. b. Time order: It is using sequential or chronological order to write an essay . It organizes the information from one time period to another. c. Space order: This involves the occupying organization of ideas.
Chronology , Essay , Essays 807 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Poorly Written Communication Poorly Written Communication 2 Thesis: After . Elisabeth Eckford. a poorly written memo caused hard feelings and poem, loss of morale, the company decided to start writing courses, believing that the effectiveness of enhancing written communication skills within a work place is necessary for any successful business. In A case for clear writing C. Petrini states, the ability to communicate written information in a clear, concise and accurate. Communication , Creative writing , Essay 1104 Words | 6 Pages. always seem to do.
I do know that It’s important to finished my studies and I am trying I am. All my other studies I finished in Let Us Grieve of Salem good amount of poem by miller time, I think . I’m just having problem with this specific studies because I have to write essay for this studies and writing essay was and never is one of my favorite in Women Essay high school then and it’s not now, but I’m trying by poem yourself to blame best to finished it because I would like to get my degree. There are thousands of people that have struggled for many years trying to balance. 2008 albums , 2008 singles , 2009 singles 1505 Words | 3 Pages. constitute solid evidence to this question. There’s plenty of talking in bed larkin evidence that you can believe, or disbelieve, but the yourself to blame by miller, biggest proof that you can get is to . encounter something paranormal yourself. With most topics, you can find pictures or articles written with evidence to prove something, but how can you prove something is real when you cannot see it? After all, for most people, seeing is believing right? Not necessarily.
I find myself to believe in the paranormal world two-thousand-and-ten percent. Demon , Divination , Ghost 846 Words | 3 Pages. colonists, it appears that they decided to Forecasting Methods, come up with two written documents. Poem By Miller. The Articles of Confederation as well as the Constitution branch . themselves to in bed larkin, help aid and distinguish themselves to be a new nature; just with the articles being a small step in poem to blame becoming a better nature, and Essay on My, the constitution branching out to a much broader topic. Paragraph Topics Paragraph One: Articles and Constitution Topic Sentence: The Articles was first written up by the federalists who wanted to help make a much.
American Revolution , Articles of to blame Confederation , George Washington 1422 Words | 5 Pages. Farewell To History (PF's Longest Essay ) - MajorityRights.com majorityrights.com/weblog/. /a_farewell_to_history_pfs_longest_essay/? Sep 22, . 2007 - A Farewell To History (PF's Longest Essay ). IT'S INTERESTING to larkin, see how history is distorted in the act of grasping it: how it bends to fit the . What I Did On My Birthday, The World's Longest Essay About Nothing nothingbutbonfires.com/2010/02/what-i-did-on-my-birthday? What I Did On My Birthday, The World's Longest Essay About Nothing. To Blame By Miller. Posted: Feb 11. 1920 , 1941 , 1947 532 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH III 1ST ASSIGNMENT AN EASY WAY TO MAKE AN ESSAY Name: Rani Ersalina Trisnawati Class: Accounting 3/ 2011 ID Number: 008201100039 . Mr. Marc President university Jababeka education park Jalan ki hajar dewantara Cikarang The word Essay coming from the term Assay which means “to try”, try to explain people, method, and on My, everything that can be explained.
Essay needs at least five paragraphs that consist of one introductory paragraph, three main body paragraphs and one concluding. Copy editing , Editing , Essay 860 Words | 3 Pages. On-line Tutorial Pre -Writing (This resource was created by Richard Wing, Yale University, July 2009) Pre -writing is poem yourself to blame perhaps . the larkin, most important part of the writing process as it lays a foundation for the writing that is to come. During this stage, writers establish the purpose of the work and the audience for whom it will be written as well as their argument and yourself, an outline for Forecasting Essay, the piece. Poem Yourself By Miller. It is also a period during which preliminary research on the topic is conducted. Optimal pre -writing strategies. Carbon dioxide , Composition studies , Global warming 1392 Words | 4 Pages. Short Essay: Pre- Socratic Philosopher- Pythagoras. Short Essay : Pre - Socratic Philosopher- Pythagoras Introduction Pre -Socratic philosophers are Greek . thinkers of the on My, 5th and 6th century who first explored the world and the position man hold in it. They were attributed as the yourself by miller, first scientists and philosophers of the Western tradition.
The Pre -Socratic philosophers made tremendous developments in philosophy, art, and Forecasting Methods, science. Besides, they explored the nature in a rational way, making educated guesses about how the universe, the earth, and. Anaximander , Empedocles , Ontology 704 Words | 3 Pages. years ago. From our perspective that environment is better in old days so; however did anyone concern about environment twenty years ago? Let’s take look at . two authors’ essays to discuss. The first essay is A Fable for poem, Tomorrow, written by Forecasting for Companies Rachel Carson (1907-1964), another one is “But a Watch in poem to blame by miller the Night”: A Scientific Fable, written by James C. Rettie (1904-1969). Talking In Bed Larkin. To begin with I will provide a brief background about yourself to blame two authors. Rachel Carson who wrote A Fable for Tomorrow was born in Pittsburgh.
Earth , Essay , Essays 1804 Words | 5 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the profiling examples, definition is vague, . overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of poem yourself to blame by miller daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. to enhance student success, the SRTF [Semester Review Task Force] did not see significant evidence that a calendar conversion from quarters to semesters . Forecasting For Companies. would result in improved student outcomes,” the task force wrote in its report. Argumentative Essay First Assignment About 12 years ago, the CSU, East Bay campus community (students, faculty, and staff) voted about poem to blame by miller making a change from quarters to semesters. Obviously, the vote was for elisabeth eckford, staying on the semester system. In the CSU, LB article.
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Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of by miller . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). Racial Profiling. So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre -Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed . essay and yourself to blame by miller, you will need to Methods for Companies, write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the by miller, same length as the Let Us Women of Salem Essay, essay in WRITING TASK 3. Yourself. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre -Sessional course. Please select a title from the A Genuineness in Humans, list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the poem yourself to blame, problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.
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Personal Essay Writing Help Writing a personal essay can be a really daunting task. Indeed, this essay type . differs from other creative texts and essays . Anyone who reads an essay should see a real person behind the lines and words. It is for the Women of Salem not easy to express your own thoughts and poem yourself by miller, describe life or even experiences with words as there are things that seem to Methods for Companies, need no description (like personal feelings). So, when you are sitting down to write an essay , you need to remember that you have to express. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1812 Words | 5 Pages. more than four written tasks, if they want to? Yes. Students may write as many tasks as they wish. However, teachers have some say in how many . tasks they will give first draft feedback for, above the required minimum; it is not reasonable for students to submit many extra tasks and expect repeated feedback. Nor is it acceptable for yourself to blame by miller, students to repeatedly submit ”extra” tasks that are in fact slightly altered versions of the same material. Teachers should approach the creation of written tasks as an.
Activity , Education , First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC 864 Words | 3 Pages. and grammar as well as the writing process, organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays . and profiling examples, several paragraphs. Yourself. The content of the course focuses on racial profiling, American culture and to blame by miller, issues facing new immigrants. The course is designed for Limited English Proficient students at Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre -tech or degree program. In addition, the course may attract LEP people in the Cincinnati area who are not enrolled in a program at Cincinnati. Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages.
Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the elisabeth, word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an yourself, opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an elisabeth, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by yourself Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Lab Report http://www.ehow.com/how_2066040_write-introduction-lab-report.html Top 5 To Try • How to Let Us Essay, Write a Good Conclusion • How to . Write a Strong Conclusion • How to Write Introductions Conclusions for an Essay • How to Write a Good Essay : Beginning, Middle Conclusion • How to Write a Conclusion • How to Write an Introduction for poem yourself to blame, a Lab Report • How to Write a Lab Report for Experiments • How to Write an Introduction for racial profiling examples, a Book Report • How. Conclusion , Experiment , Introduction 1202 Words | 4 Pages. ? Written task – SL Language and Literature Weighting: 20% 1. A written task demonstrates the poem to blame by miller, student’s ability to choose an . imaginative way of exploring an aspect of the material studied in the course. It must show a critical engagement with an profiling, aspect of a text or a topic.
2. Students complete at to blame, least three written tasks, one of which is submitted for external assessment. The written task is assessed according to the assessment criteria published in this guide. In Humans. 3. The maximum mark for. Assessment , Fiction , Linguistics 835 Words | 3 Pages. Aflevering Analytical Essay Obama. ? Analytical Essay – Obama. Anders Hornb?k Engelsk • Aflevering • Gladsaxe gymnasium • 25. To Blame. March 2015 The essay . “Obama. Racial Profiling. ” is poem to blame by miller written by the American author and comedian David Sedaris, and is featured in his essay collection “Let’s Explore Diabetes with Owls” from 2013. David Sedaris is living in a small village in Let Us Essay the Normandy, France. It is not a place with a lot going on, and it is therefore not that hard to get written up in the local newspaper, if you just stand out a little.
As. African American , Barack Obama , Bill Clinton 958 Words | 3 Pages. Pre and poem to blame by miller, Post Islamic World Comparison Essay. thriving off of for Companies scarce resources. The rise of Islam in Saudi Arabia grew until1600. Both pre -Islamic and post-Islamic civilizations were . egalitarian, this is to blame by miller because in nomadic societies there isn't much one could do to be distinguishable and in Islamic societies it is believed that Allah does not call for distinguished social classes; also in both societies the Qur'an was looked to for life relations in pre -Islamic society, it also was looked on almost as a code of conduct, and in post-Islamic society. Arabic language , Islam , Muhammad 984 Words | 3 Pages. personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed . down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on profiling examples, which whole books could be written . Arguable - A thesis statement should not be a statement of fact or an assertion with which every reader is likely to immediately agree. (Otherwise, why try to convince your readers with an argument?) Relevant - If you are responding to an. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.
trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the poem yourself, big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an Experience, . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for poem by miller, me to write down our thought on the given assignment. Essay. My English is not good and grammar is poem yourself to blame by miller worse. I was really afraid of racial profiling examples writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. Poem. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages.
?Social Media Marketing Note On Smo Marketing Essay Social Media Optimization can be defined as a process of on My Experience achieving Marketing Communication . and Branding goals through the use of various Social Media Websites. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller. It is a process to Grieve for the Women, optimize web sites, so that they are easily connected or interlaced with online communities and community websites. Primarily the Focus of to blame Social Media Optimization is to Methods, drive traffic from poem to blame Sources other than the for Companies Essay, Search Engines. Yourself To Blame By Miller. Social media can take many different forms. Blog , Facebook , Instant messaging 1777 Words | 6 Pages. The two essays that I chose to talking in bed larkin, read were, ‘A Soul as Free as the Air’ and ‘How to yourself, Succeed as an racial examples, Online Student’. These two essays . showed distinct characteristics that marked them each as one of the four types of expository essays —topic, time order, space order, and informative process. Both essays used facts and evidence to convey the concepts of the essay while also supporting the poem yourself by miller, thesis statement, making it obvious that they are expository essays . Also, the information conveyed in both of these. Chronology , Communication , Essay 413 Words | 2 Pages.
(HL) (External Assessment) Written assignment 20% Creative writing of talking in bed larkin 500-600 words plus a 150-word rationale, based on poem yourself to blame by miller, one of the . literary texts read. The task: Students produce a piece of creative writing that may be chosen from the recommended text types listed for paper 2 (see below). It will be based on a work of literature that the student has read as part of the course and examples, may use related information from poem yourself other reading material. Examples of written assignments could be writing a. Assessment , Creative writing , Evidence 947 Words | 5 Pages.
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Common law , George Costanza , Larry David 1432 Words | 4 Pages. You will distinguish between a poetry analysis essay and a summary. You will be able to formulate a thesis that demonstrate a new understanding . Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller. of the Essay Experience in Texas, poem, and select textual support for your thesis. Yourself To Blame By Miller. You will write a poetry analysis essay , with be clear introduction, a supporting body correctly citing direct and indirect quotes using the MLA style guide, and a powerful conclusion. Finally, using the Six Traits, you will evaluate and revise your essay , with particular attention to ideas, content.
Bibliography , Linguistics , Literature 1759 Words | 7 Pages. |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. Elisabeth Eckford. | . | | |* Content includes excellent details. | | | |*The writer’s perspective is well-developed and poem to blame by miller, clearly stated. | | | |*The topic written about is. Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. Carmeka Portis Jeannie Anderson English 1101 11/09/12 Informative Essay Informative Essay Advertising today is a bitter . sweet form of communication. Advertising can be a very reliable source of information. It also can be used to contribute to the over spending, depression and in aiding society to live above their means. At an early age, little girls are shown the images of princesses in Disney movies. These movies depict the importance of Essay on My beauty and how one is accepted in poem society because. Essay , Human skin color , Stepfamily 890 Words | 3 Pages.
Foulger's ecological model (Foulger 2004), and an expanded model of communication (Eunson 2012). In this essay I have used a conversation I . had listened to which was between my friend (from here on Women, will be named George) and his friend (from here on will be named Mark). Problems that arose during the yourself, conversation will be explained as well as how George and Mark overcame them. Racial Profiling Examples. From there the essay will compare and contrast the three communication theories and decide which of these best simplify the conversation. Communication , Communication theory , Instant messaging 1104 Words | 5 Pages. ?ENC 1101 Formal Paper Assignment 2: The Exemplification Essay (worth 125 points) All papers must be typed in 12-point Times New Roman font . using proper MLA format. In a reasonably coherent thesis-driven essay of between two-and-a-half to three typewritten, double-spaced pages, address one of the following prompts listed below: 1. Despite her many flaws, Jeanne Murray is able to affect Liz in many positive ways—from the poem yourself by miller, girl’s determined resistance to Essay, drug use to her sense of being loved to. Point , Thesis or dissertation , Times Roman 815 Words | 5 Pages. ? Analyzing Written Essays Brittney Scarborough ENG/101 March 20, 2014 University of Phoenix Analyzing . Written Essays The four essay organizations are topic, time order, space order, and to blame, informative process.
Being in Essay on My Experience in Texas a logical order that lets the information flow makes these an expository essay . Poem Yourself. The topic organization puts the information in a logical fashion, like most important to least. The time order puts the information in talking larkin a logical order of how the events happened. This organization. Article , Demonstration , Essay 394 Words | 3 Pages. ?Analyzing Written Essays What are the four types of poem essay organization discussed in the course readings? What . characteristics make these essays expository? The four types of Forecasting Essay essay organization discussed in the course readings were topic, time order, space order, and informative process. The characteristics that make these essays expository are topic which is developed by topic systematically organizes information about a topic in the most logical fashion.
Time order is involved with the sequential. Arrangement , Chronology , Essay 379 Words | 1 Pages. ?Strategies for the TExES Essay Assignment Prepared by Gene Young, Professor of English at Sam Houston State University The . essay portion (officially called the poem yourself, “Constructed-Response Assignment) counts 20 percent of Forecasting Methods for Companies your score. The general assignment will always be the poem to blame by miller, same—writing an essay in which you are given two literary passages (usually poems or excerpts from long or short fiction) and elisabeth, asked to compare them based on theme or themes and the authors’ use of poem yourself by miller literary elements and/or literary. Article , Essay , Five paragraph essay 2441 Words | 4 Pages. Analyzing Written Essays: Farthest, Faintest, Solar System Objects Found Beyond Neptune.
The two essays I chose to read were “Farthest, Faintest, Solar System Objects Found Beyond Neptune” and “How to Succeed as an Online Student”. . The four types of essay organization discussed is topic, time order, space order and the informative process. The characteristic which makes the eckford, above mentioned essays expository is it uses facts to inform about the poem yourself to blame by miller, topic with a strong thesis statement. The information is given in fact form and Essay Experience in Texas, not in a biased manner by the writer. Space organization. Essay , Essays , Grief 869 Words | 3 Pages. Essay plan Essay Question: “The literary canon is more a creation of political than artistic judgment” Discuss.
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Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 944 Words | 3 Pages. A Child Called It Essay Book Written by Dave Pelzer. Book written by Essay Dave Pelzer This book report is based on the book A Child Called It, Written by Dave Pelzer. This paperback . edition was published in 2000 by Orion Books Ltd, and is copyrighted 1995 by Dave Pelzer. The book A Child Called It was written by Dave Pelzer. Dave Pelzer is famous for his books about his life The Lost Boy, A Man Named Dave, My story and A Child Called It.
Dave has worked hard to overcome the obstacles of his childhood to become a better and productive person of poem society. A Child Called It , A Man Named Dave , Abuse 1122 Words | 3 Pages. As I’ve read the pre -Spanish era given by Mr.Ralph, there are a lot of things I’ve learned, things that recalled me about the A Genuineness Essay, history of . the Philippines and the situation we had in the arms of the poem yourself to blame, Spaniards. Talking In Bed. First, when it comes to the people who were involved in the whole history about poem yourself our country, many of them exert their efforts and their ideas on how things are possible and how it can work. Different places also contributed their ideas to the development of the history by observations that. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language , Filipino people 979 Words | 3 Pages.
The Written Process Kimberly Williams COM/105 11/07/2012 University of Phoenix The Written Process * Consider how the . Profiling Examples. writing process you read about in this class differs from the process you have used in the past. What specifically have you done in the past compared to what you have read about this week? A lot of the writing process that I read about in this class is different in some ways from what I am used to and in other ways do not use contractions or informal language in academic. Creative writing , English grammar , Orthography 1169 Words | 4 Pages. ? Pre -Production Essay When planning a film production a lot of to blame things need consideration, for example money is an Essay on My Experience in Texas, important . element that will be needed to fund the production of the film, with the crew/cast needing payment for their work. Props need buying and depending on to blame, the dialogue of the movie they may be quite expensive along with the Forecasting Methods for Companies, equipment needed to to blame by miller, record and edit the movie and the setting of where you are going to film whether it be public or private property. Talking In Bed Larkin. And also such things as. Fiction , Film , Film budgeting 499 Words | 2 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . Poem To Blame. certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to talking in bed larkin, include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of poem statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are one of the most common forms of academic writing and can be quite easy to elisabeth eckford, construct once the basic form is understood. When writing . essays one must pay attention to overall essay structure, paragraph structure and poem yourself to blame, sentence structure.
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disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. For Companies Essay. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in yourself by miller telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Essay In Texas. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. RUNNING HEAD: ENLIGHTENMENT ESSAY Enlightenment Essay Felicia Troublefield Grand Canyon University HTH 469 March 28, 2013 . To Blame By Miller. Enlightenment Essay Ever since God created the world it has been filled with activity, and for three hundred years until about fifty years ago we have been under the influence of the A Genuineness in Humans Essay, age of modernity. However, modernity is fast giving way to postmodernism and again the force this change will undoubtedly cause people to once again change their perspective of the world. Bible , Christianity , Immanuel Kant 1103 Words | 4 Pages. in the living room having a cup of poem yourself to blame tea whilst discussing school and Essay, University work) Ayse: Thank God! It’s nearly Christmas I was sick of poem to blame all these mock . GCSE exams!
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Kids walk around with their class schedules in their back pockets, stopping and investigating the potential of each and every one of poem yourself their friends' list of classes. Freshman English, Freshman Science, Algebra I, World History, and for the Women Essay, Fundamentals. American football , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1980 Words | 5 Pages. The Meaning of yourself by miller Oral and Written Communication. purpose of this essay is to describe the meaning of oral and written communication and to Essay Experience in Texas, explain ways in which you can use both . oral and written communication to manage a business organization effectively. In this regard, the essay focuses on the theories of oral and written communication and ways in which you can use them to manage business organizations as described by authors like Shirley tayler (1999), Nkonde (2008), kreitner (2009) and Woollcott and to blame by miller, Unwin (1983). The essay shows that although.
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Short Essay on The Educational System in poem yourself to blame India. Education is an important activity in society, it gives an opportunity to man to profiling examples understand the world around him and his place in it In ancient times man was completely at the mercy of to blame by miller nature which was a complete mystery to him. The dark forces of nature were beyond the comprehension of man and to console himself he had to Essay on My depend upon the existence of supernatural powers and this led to the growth of religion and superstition. The invention of poem tools, domestication of animals and growth of agriculture led to organization of society and along with this, developed social sciences. Thus, in education we combine the study of natural laws with the laws governing the development of Forecasting for Companies society- Knowledge and understanding come to us through the study of natural sciences (chemistry, physics, biology, etc.) and the social sciences (history, political science, etc.).
Image Source: ipadairgadgets.com. The acquisition, interlinking and the transmission of this knowledge and understanding is the primary function of poem education. Ideally speaking, it is through education that members of society, particularly the youth, come to understand the working of A Genuineness Essay society. Education should enable the youth to improve the working of the yourself society. Seen in this light, the purpose of education is not just to help students acquire degree and obtain jobs. If the society is not organized properly, jobs become difficult to acquire, degrees lose their meaning and racial profiling examples, education becomes a national waste as it is poem yourself, happening in many countries in the world today. Education, properly speaking, should develop a spirit of inquiry and rational thinking in the youth so as to elisabeth enable them to to blame understand the society and change it wherever it is found lacking. Ever since India attained Independence in 1947, we have been following, for inexplicable reasons, Lord Macaulay’s system of education. This system has since lost its relevance to the changed socio-economic scenario in A Genuineness in Humans the country. As is well known, Lord Macaulay was an ardent champion of the British Raj.
Therefore, it was natural for by miller him to devise an educational system for India which would not foster real awareness and education. It aimed at in Humans Essay, producing loyal, committed ‘babes’ to eater to the clerical needs of the British colonial Government of India. But it was essential for poem yourself to blame the Indian administrators to change this educational system. A different system more suited to the requirements of an independent progressive India has to be evolved. From time to time, seminars or symposia were held to discuss the question of educational reforms and suggest an ideal educational system. However, nothing much could be achieved in this behalf.
Syllabi continued to be theoretical in nature, and irrelevant to the socio-cultural and in Humans, economic contexts. Teaching methods and system of examination continued to be obsolete. The result was that our educational institutions and universities, Instead of being citadels of learning and enlightenment, became dens of unrest and frustration. Our students became irresponsible and directionless mob, out to destroy the very fabric of society. To Blame! Instead of contributing to the progress of the nation, they became, to a large extent, a burden on the nation’s economy and society. The first policy document on examples, education was adopted in 1968, by poem yourself to blame by miller the Government after Independence. The National Education Policy, 1968 aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and Grieve Women, culture, and to strengthen national integration. It called for radical reconstruction of the educational system and for greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral values and closer relation between education and the life of the people. However, even the Government admits that the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy did not get translated into a detailed strategy of implementation. Some achievements since 1968 listed by the Government are: (a) acceptance of a common structure of education throughout the yourself by miller country and the introduction of the 10 plus 2 plus 3 system by most States; (b) laying down of common system of studies for boys and girls; (c) incorporation of science and mathematics as compulsory subjects ; (d) restructuring of the courses at under-graduate level; (e) setting up of Methods Essay centres of advanced studies for poem by miller post-graduate education and research.
A new draft National Policy on elisabeth, Education was approved by Parliament (n May 1986. The ‘Programme of Action’ to poem implement the new policy was adopted by the Government in August 1986. The new education policy is broadly based on a document called “A challenge of education a perspective” laid by the then Education Minister in Parliament on elisabeth eckford, 20 August 1985. Education in India, says the new education policy document, stands at cross-roads today. Neither normal expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation.
The catalytic action of education in the complex and dynamic process of our country needs to be planned meticulouslyand executed with great sensitivity life in the coming decades, it points out, is likely to bring new tensions together with unprecedented opportunities. “To enable the people to yourself to blame by miller benefit in the new environment will require new designs of human resource development. The coming generations should have the ability to internalize new ideas constantly and talking in bed larkin, creatively. They have to be imbued with a strong commitment to yourself by miller human values and social justice. All these call for better education, stresses the document. The new Education Policy, 1936 calls for a National System of Education in racial profiling which all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex, should have access to education of to blame by miller a comparable quality.
The system will be based on a national curricular framework which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible. In higher education, technical education in particular, steps will be taken to facilitate inter regional mobility by providing equal access to Essay Experience every Indian of requisite merit, regardless of his origins. The policy gives importance to removal of women’s illiteracy and obstacles inhibiting their access to, and retention in, elementary education. Major emphasis will be laid on women’s participation in vocational, technical and poem, professional education at different levels. The central focus of the policy in the educational development of Scheduled Castes and profiling examples, Tribes in their equalization with the non-SC and ST population at poem to blame, all stages and levels of education, in all areas and in all the four dimensions rural male, rural female, urban male and profiling examples, urban female. The policy also aims to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the yourself to blame general community as equal partners, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence. The policy outlines a vast programme of adult and continuing education through establishing centers of continuing education in rural and urban areas; post-secondary education institution; wider promotion of books, etc., radio, television and films; distance learning programmes; need and interest based vocational training programmes, etc. The new thrust in elementary education emphasizes two aspects; (1) universal enrolment and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age; and (2) a substantial improvement in the quality of education. The policy pledges to provide essential facilities in Let Us for the Essay primary schools, including at least two reasonable large rooms usable in all weathers, and necessary toys, blackboards, maps, charts and other learning material.
At least two teachers, one of them a woman, should be there in every school, the number increasing to one teacher per class as early as possible. To this end, the ‘Operation Blackboard’ has been launched all over the country to improve primary schools. The policy also introduces a non-formal form of education for school dropouts, for children from habitations without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend whole day school. In order to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly from the rural areas, the government launched in 1985-86 a scheme to establish Navodaya Vidyaiaya on an average one in each district. These vidyalayas are fully residential and coeducational and provide education in the streams of Humanities, Commerce, Science and Vocational up to to blame +2 levels and are affiliated to CBSE. There are at present 359 sanctioned Vidyalayas in the country operating in 30 State/ UTs. The National policy on Education (NPE), 1986 accorded high priority to vocationalisaiion of education at the secondary stage. The NPE as revised in 1992 set the target of achieving diversion of 10 percent of the Let Us students at the +2 level to the vocational stream by poem by miller 1995 and 25 percent by A Genuineness in Humans Essay 2000 AD. Poem To Blame! A Joint Council for Vocational Education (JCVE) was set up in April 1990 for elisabeth policy formulation and poem to blame by miller, coordination at in Humans, the national level. In the field of higher education, provision will be made for minimum facilities and admission into colleges and universities and will be regulated according to capacity.
Courses and programmes will be redesigned and the present affiliation system will be replaced by a freer and more creative association of universities and colleges. Research will get more support. The Open University system has been initiated to augment opportunities for higher education. The Indira Gandhi National Open University established in 1985 will be strengthened. The policy provides for declining degrees from jots for which university degree need not be a necessary qualification. Its implementation will lead to a refashioning of job-specific courses and afford greater justice to those candidates who, despite being equipped for a given job, are unable to get it because of an unnecessary preference for graduates, the document explains. In the area of Technical and Management Education the policy maintains that reorganization should take into account the anticipated scenario by the turn of the poem to blame century, with specific reference to the like changes in the economy, social environment, production and management processes, the rapid expansion of knowledge and the great advances in science and technology. Step will be taken to make technical and management education cost-effective. The Computer Literacy and Studies’ in Schools has been made a centrally-sponsored scheme from 1993-94.
The curricula and talking in bed, processes of education will be enriched by cultural content in poem to blame as many ways as possible. Children will be enabled to develop sensitivity to beauty, harmony and Methods, refinement. Linkages will be established between the university system and institutions of higher learning in art, archaeology, oriental studies, etc. As regards languages, the language policy of the yourself by miller Education policy of 1968 will be implemented more ‘energetically and elisabeth, purposefully’ the document says. The new policy also promises to make efforts to secure easy accessibility to books for poem to blame all segment of the population. The policy envisages reorganization of the methods of recruiting teachers to ensure merit, objectivity and conformity with spatial and functional requirement.
The new programmes of teacher-education will emphasize continuing education. District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) will be set it to organize pre- service and in service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education. Selected Secondary Teacher Training Colleges will be upgraded to complement the work of the State Council of Education Research and Training. To give the policy a practical shape, lot of funds would be required. The policy says that resources will be raised by mobilizing donations, asking the beneficiary communities to maintain school buildings and supplies of some consumables, raising fees at A Genuineness in Humans, higher levels, and by effecting saving by efficient use of facilities.
Institutions involved in research and development of technical and scientific manpower should also mobilize funds by leaving cuss or charge on poem yourself, the user agencies, including Government departments and entrepreneurs. The Government and the community in for the general will find funds for programmes: universalisation of elementary education liquidating illiteracy, etc. The Government’ stagy to make the new system work consists of (a) better legal to, and the g-eater accountability of, teacher; (b) provision of improved students’ services, and insistence on observance of yourself by miller acceptable norms of behaviour; (c) provision of threshold facilities to Let Us Women Essay institutions; and (d) creation of a system of performance appraisals of institutions according to standards and norms set at the National or state levels. The new policy has been criticized on poem to blame by miller, the grounds that. (i) The new thrust in the field of universalisation of education is non-formal education.
Non formal education, educationist point out, can never be equivalent to elisabeth eckford regular schooling. This will create a dual education system. (ii) Navodaya Schools will create further disparities. (iii) The new policy suffers from an elitist bias as it also promotes privatization of education. As a result, one who is poem by miller, able to pay more will get better education as compared to a common person. (iv) Education is sought to be commercialized Reeducation of subsidies will mean that students will have to finance their own education.
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7 words smart job candidates avoid in cover letters. Tedious, yet mandatory: writing a cover letter to pitch your qualifications and your personality in only a few paragraphs is usually the most difficult part of applying for a job. Poem Yourself To Blame. The worst part: as a general rule of thumb, a cover letter can make or break your likelihood to get called in for an interview. On My Experience In Texas. #8220;Cover letters give you a way to make a first impression and to directly address the key requirements of the position, helping to yourself, get you past the initial screening and encouraging the HR officer to elisabeth, read a little deeper,#8221; explains business psychologist and executive career coach Kate Sullivan. #8220;The best cover letters present you as a unique person with valuable skills, telling a story about your background and experience that lets the recruiter immediately envision you fitting into by miller the company culture. It should always be customized to the position and its requirements and should hook your reader in eckford like a great novel.#8221; But hey, no pressure. By Miller. A couple of starter pieces of in bed advice are important. The one firm rule for to blame a cover letter is to Methods for Companies Essay, keep it short: No more than two or three short paragraphs.
And don#8217;t revisit every single big job you#8217;ve had, because they can see that on your resume. Poem Yourself By Miller. The cover letter exists purely to distill your achievement and put then in a new light. As a launching pad of creativity to get you inspired, take the advice of career experts and coaches who shed light on the type of words you should probably CTRL+F and #8216;Delete#8217; out of Methods for Companies Essay your cover letter ASAP. While a wildly different endeavour, consider the last time you went on to blame by miller, a bad first date. Was the person negative? Or difficult to get to know? Since your cover letter is the first introduction into who you are and what you offer, using an talking in bed, absolute word like #8216;never#8217; isn#8217;t recommended by career coach Cheryl Palmer. She explains that some entry-level applicants or those who have recently switched direction may be tempted to over-explain their lack of experience. Instead, she says to make some lemonade out of those lemons. #8220;Remember, if you are a new graduate or someone transitioning into a new field, it is understandable that you don#8217;t have experience in that area yet, but it is not to your advantage to draw undue attention to this fact,#8221; she notes. #8220;Instead you can talk about internships you may have had or experience that may not be directly in the field but is still relevant.#8221; Another absolute word, that while positive, can be misleading in your cover letter according to Palmer is #8216;always.#8217; Why? There#8217;s little to zero chance that you#8217;ll #8216;always#8217; be the best at everything you do, so why set that expectation from the get-go? #8220;The trap with this word is that it can lead the job hunter to overgeneralize and sound over the top. Even if you #8216;always#8217; do an excellent job with your work, because the person reading it doesn#8217;t know you, that person#8217;s first assumption could be that you are exaggerating,#8221; Palmer says.
Instead, she says to by miller, replace the #8216;always#8217; statement with a few examples that demonstrate while you would be the ideal hire. These should include accomplishments you#8217;ve had in eckford other jobs, including measurable proof that you can speak more to when you#8217;re called in for a face-to-fact chat. This will prove your credibility, so then they can actually see how #8216;always#8217; on poem yourself to blame by miller, top of your game you actually are. Sullivan notes that #8216;to whom it may concern#8217; is an outdated way to approach job applications, especially when you have the Experience, Internet at poem yourself, your next click. Because you can search for the names of eckford whoever might be your manager or the poem yourself by miller, director of Let Us for the Essay HR at the company you#8217;re trying to land a gig at, addressing them anonymously may appear lazy. #8220; To whom it may concern is impersonal, outdated, and poem yourself to blame by miller shows that you didn#8217;t do your research. When opening your cover letter, address it directly to the hiring manager, as #8216;Dear Mr./Ms. X,'#8221; Sullivan says. #8220;If you don#8217;t have contact information for a manager and profiling can#8217;t find the right person to address your letter to, simply ignore the opening salutation and yourself launch straight into your letter.#8221; Even though it#8217;s easy to Women, say #8216;even though#8217; don#8217;t. Much like the by miller, compliment sandwiches that your mama taught you to practice when arguing with your roommate in college (and ahem, later, your spouse), setting up a sentence with #8216;even though#8217; in your cover letter can send a Debbie Downer message to your potential employer. #8220;I have seen cover letters where job seekers say something like this, #8216;Even though I have not worked with XYZ software before.#8217; This type of statement automatically points the reader#8217;s attention to a deficit,#8221; Palmer explains. This is where placing the emphasis on what you have done, instead of what you haven#8217;t, could outshine any doubts your could-be boss might have on your abilities. #8220;A better alternative would be to Essay in Texas, talk about software that you have used that serves the same purpose and/or is very similar to poem, the software that the Grieve, company is asking that job seekers have experience in,#8221; Palmer notes.
Ever have someone really, really like you, but you don#8217;t quite really, really like them? It can be a turn-off, and poem to blame by miller the same goes for in bed applying for by miller a gig. Sullivan notes that using #8216;really#8217; may make you come across as over-eager or like you#8217;re trying too hard. It also usually doesn#8217;t add anything to a sentence: saying #8216;I#8217;m really good at in Humans, Photoshop#8217; isn#8217;t more effective than saying #8220;I have more than five years of experience using Photoshop daily.#8217; #8220;Be specific instead of using generic adjectives like #8216;very#8217; and #8216;really.#8217; It#8217;ll make sure you sound as suited for to blame the position as you are,#8221; Sullivan suggests. True statement: you probably do feel like you#8217;ve stumbled upon the most amazing, perfect job that you could ever, ever apply for. Also a true statement: your employer doesn#8217;t need to know that, quite yet.
In fact, having #8216;feel#8217; in your cover letter can make you seem less mature, secure or qualified for the opportunity. Instead of A Genuineness in Humans Essay writing feel-good vibes, Sullivan suggests crafting your cover letter in yourself to blame a way that makes the person on the other end reading it feel like you#8217;re the Methods, surefire hire. #8220;Your job is to convince the recruiter that you are perfectly suited to contribute to the organization. State your qualifications as fact, and poem yourself to blame by miller do the racial profiling, same with your assertion that you#8217;ll make a good addition to by miller, the company,#8221; Sullivan says. #8220;Project confidence through your assertions, rather than hedging your bets by saying you feel that way, which makes it into an opinion and examples opinions can easily be disregarded.#8221; She also suggests that while you#8217;re at it, axe #8216;believe#8217; and #8216;think#8217; from your cover letter, too, for the same reasons: they can make you sound uncertain about your abilities. Poem Yourself By Miller. Honestly, #8216;honestly#8217; is a big mistake. When you#8217;re hired for a new gig, your first task is usually attending some sort of training where you learn about the ethics the eckford, company abides by. Even if you#8217;re not saving lives or fighting fire, being honorable and poem yourself by miller trustworthy is elisabeth considered a given in every workplace.
So when you say #8216;honestly#8217; it might make you come across as insincere. Poem Yourself. #8220;The last thing you want is to have a recruiter questioning whether you#8217;re telling the eckford, truth about anything on your resume or in your background. Even in an innocuous sentence like #8216;Honestly, I love accounting and can#8217;t wait to put my skills to use for your company,#8217; it#8217;s not appropriate,#8221; Sullivan says. Yourself To Blame. #8220;In this case, the word adds nothing to your statement—no nuance or additional information—and could backfire by sounding like you#8217;re trying too hard to assure the recruiter of your feelings. Just delete it.#8221; Lindsay Tigar is Grieve Essay a seasoned lifestyle and travel writer. When she's not busy writing, she's collecting another passport stamp, taking a boxing class or trying new foods. Yourself To Blame. A full collection of her work can be found at lindsaytigar.com. New neuroscience reveals 4 rituals that will make you happy.
You get all kinds of Essay happiness advice on to blame by miller, the internet from people who don’t know what they’re talking about. A Genuineness In Humans. Don’t trust them. Trust neuroscience. How to answer the ‘Tell me about yourself’ interview question. Rather than dread this question, a candidate should welcome this inquiry.
Properly answered, this question puts the candidate in poem by miller the driver's seat. Talking. Job interview preparation: What to do before, during, and after an interview. Poem Yourself By Miller. Knowing what is expected of on My you before, during, and after an interview will put you in the best position to prove you’re the best candidate for yourself to blame any job. The best bosses see employees as humans. Good bosses challenge their employees.
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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from poem yourself by miller year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.
The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in Forecasting Methods for Companies, fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to poem by miller individuals and examples, state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the poem to blame by miller, National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the talking in bed larkin, relief efforts of poem yourself to blame other organizations.
FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. As for for Companies the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the damage caused by floods. The NFIP also encourages an yourself to blame by miller, expansion of federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird America’s system of Essay on My Experience handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. Poem Yourself By Miller! State, local, and on My, private organizations should play the to blame by miller, dominant role. For Companies! Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.
Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Poem Yourself To Blame! Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by elisabeth executive order in 1979 to poem to blame coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in helping communities respond to both natural and man-made disasters. Grieve For The Women! However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.
Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to poem by miller the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and A Genuineness Essay, local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and poem to blame by miller, more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. Let Us For The Women Of Salem! 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.
Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to to blame by miller the activities of the A Genuineness Essay, U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the poem yourself to blame, 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and in Humans, magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is yourself, appropriate under the American system of federalism. State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and elisabeth, relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. Poem To Blame! The Coast Guard’s search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.
And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to transfer money from federal taxpayers to racial state and local governments and individuals for disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in yourself to blame by miller, funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of Methods disaster response in the United States. Poem Yourself! The next section discusses the threat posed by talking in bed larkin the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.
Some of its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at yourself FEMA’s ongoing grants to elisabeth eckford state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. Yourself To Blame! The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the NFIP and in Humans, move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and poem yourself by miller, radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.
Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. Eckford! 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to poem by miller provide some modest aid. A Genuineness! 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the country to help rebuild the town. To Blame By Miller! 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of yourself by miller earthquakes.
The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to elisabeth exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on the area to buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the poem yourself by miller, federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the process led to for the Essay large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the town was part of the poem by miller, District of Columbia at the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.
In 1835 the A Genuineness in Humans, Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Poem Yourself By Miller! Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. Forecasting Methods Essay! The U.S.
Army helped to poem yourself restore order and Let Us Essay, provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the yourself by miller, disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay, nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in poem yourself to blame, coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the in Humans Essay, Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for in Humans disaster relief operations at poem the request of elisabeth eckford a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of state governors are available to by miller aid in A Genuineness in Humans, law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.
In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about poem, constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the Let Us Women of Salem Essay, General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the poem to blame, limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and racial examples, killed about yourself to blame by miller, 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. Let Us Grieve! 20.
The San Francisco earthquake is yourself to blame by miller, remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. Talking In Bed! 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for by miller example, each donated $100,000.
22 Charitable groups, including the profiling, Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. The health care and home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from to blame more than 100 different companies. 24 The companies ended up paying out on My Experience in Texas, a massive $225 million in to blame by miller, claims, which was equal to what the Forecasting for Companies Essay, entire U.S. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! insurance industry had earned in profits in in bed, the prior four decades.
25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to poem all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.
His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. In Bed Larkin! 27 Within five days of the poem by miller, earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the on My Experience in Texas, city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the poem yourself to blame, first of Forecasting Methods for Companies his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. To Blame! 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to A Genuineness Essay relief efforts.
31. What about the government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for poem yourself to blame years from a corrupt local government. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. Elisabeth! 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the poem yourself, Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.
In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the Forecasting Methods, most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. 36 High winds and poem yourself, massive flooding caused destruction and in Humans, more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in to blame, numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.
It was built on a flood plain, so when the city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to for Companies the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. To Blame By Miller! Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the in Humans Essay, central funder and organizer of relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to poem yourself by miller rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for thousands of people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.
He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and talking in bed larkin, medical amenities for workers. But he was also an aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. Yourself To Blame! 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to for the save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in yourself to blame by miller, detail about the A Genuineness, 1913 disaster. 41 One of her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of aid by affected individuals and yourself, communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and Women Essay, the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.
These days, sadly, the yourself by miller, situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of fraud in relief programs in the wake of Essay disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is to blame by miller, appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in Let Us Grieve Women, U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and poem yourself to blame, tributaries broke out of elisabeth eckford levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to yourself to blame flood control.
44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the profiling examples, Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the poem yourself by miller, Red Cross’s huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of people food and shelter in temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . On My Experience In Texas! The safety of the United States is to blame by miller, its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for natural disasters remained modest and examples, sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of emergencies.
In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in poem, substitution.” 50. In the in bed, decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. Poem Yourself! As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for elisabeth eckford individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the poem to blame, National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for talking flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and yourself to blame, paying for special relief bills passed after floods.
The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and local governments and A Genuineness, individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to poem to blame create and structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to create the Essay on My Experience, new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to yourself by miller Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of in Humans Essay 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in various departments.
FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out yourself to blame by miller, aid and to coordinate the federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMA’s response. 53 The governor of a state may request the president to declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments and that federal assistance is racial profiling, necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to poem to blame aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.
Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to year depending on on My Experience in Texas, events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and poem yourself to blame, local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and A Genuineness Essay, the rest was spent on administration and other costs. 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the poem yourself, other 25 percent. But the president can increase the federal share of Women these costs, and poem yourself by miller, he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.
58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to Essay Experience administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.
Few of the “major disasters” declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is poem to blame by miller, simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into elisabeth eckford, law the Homeland Security Act creating the to blame, massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out that way. DHS’s budget tripled from $18 billion in 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. Essay Experience In Texas! For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is over-budget by $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to to blame by miller the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.
The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to eckford the agency’s failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for to blame by miller FEMA and Essay, other federal agencies for the Katrina response and rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the poem yourself to blame, disaster. 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an elisabeth, estimated 159 deaths and poem to blame, tens of billions of dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the elisabeth eckford, lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.
70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is poem to blame by miller, supposed to lie with the Methods for Companies Essay, states. The federal government is to blame by miller, only supposed to racial profiling examples play a supporting role in the largest of poem to blame by miller disasters. Let Us Women Essay! Here’s how the by miller, Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.
The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in racial examples, the community and poem by miller, neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. Forecasting! If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and poem yourself to blame, the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the Methods for Companies, disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is yourself by miller, there to aid the eckford, disaster response process through the National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to poem yourself to blame by miller coordinate federal resources in response to state requests—not to be in for Companies Essay, the lead or take command. 71.
A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to poem yourself the federal government are “few and elisabeth, defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and yourself to blame by miller, prosperity of the State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and elisabeth eckford, resources that are on the scene and available to to blame by miller immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in Essay on My Experience, police forces and to blame, fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of our nation’s critical infrastructure is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is a troubling development. Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.
Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in talking in bed larkin, charge.
Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on poem, the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and local and private organizations carry out the bulk of in Humans Essay response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in poem to blame by miller, disaster areas have “no directive authority and can only request or suggest actions by profiling the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on poem to blame, Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for most disasters, the racial profiling, purpose of yourself by miller federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. In Texas! The only federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.
76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the poem yourself to blame, state’s ledger to the federal government’s and racial profiling examples, the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the poem yourself to blame, typical disaster—even the typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. A Genuineness! 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.
The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. Yourself By Miller! 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of A Genuineness in Humans receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the poem yourself to blame, most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for Ronald Reagan in Let Us Grieve Essay, 1984, George H. W. Poem To Blame By Miller! Bush in 1992, and Essay, Bill Clinton in 1996. George W. Poem! Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the racial profiling, threshold that FEMA uses to yourself to blame determine whether federal aid is appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. Essay! 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per capita damage threshold to poem yourself to blame determine if federal aid is Essay, needed. In 2012 the threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in damage.
81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. Poem To Blame By Miller! 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the elisabeth, smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of poem yourself that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?
As noted, it goes against the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the Essay in Texas, great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Poem Yourself By Miller! Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by elisabeth eckford state and local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and poem to blame, rebuilding because of Forecasting for Companies all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to poem yourself by miller obtain advance approval for each project and pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay, a timely fashion the thousands of to blame by miller state and local projects submitted to it for approval after a large storm.
86. Another problem with federal intervention is that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of talking in bed living in yourself by miller, more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of on My in Texas other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the poem to blame by miller, full costs and benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to talking live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the by miller, incentive for Experience in Texas state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to yourself by miller make it easier to racial examples qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.
A Heritage Foundation study finds that the to blame by miller, states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to racial profiling the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of poem federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against in bed larkin, federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to poem yourself to blame by miller take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at in bed larkin America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and yourself, concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to ask for Essay maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the poem yourself to blame by miller, 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the on My Experience in Texas, availability of federal aid had encouraged state and poem yourself to blame by miller, local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of elisabeth eckford FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, “As the governor of by miller a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the current system.
98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for in Humans terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for yourself to blame example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.
And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into Forecasting Methods, service for relief in truly major disasters. But nearly all of poem yourself to blame FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and racial examples, relief that should be funded at the state, local, and poem, private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of on My in Texas major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to security expert James Miskel. By Miller! 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.
Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and profiling examples, was the third most costly hurricane in poem to blame by miller, U.S. Talking In Bed Larkin! history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of damage and to determine the needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of yourself by miller actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to elisabeth eckford Andrew’s landfall, the poem to blame, Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. Forecasting For Companies Essay! 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.
Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by yourself to blame by miller the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew … Time and again the in Humans, federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. Poem To Blame! 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of elisabeth eckford electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of utility workers from to blame across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the of Salem, huge number of outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Poem Yourself To Blame! Katrina resulted in talking in bed, the flooding of by miller New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in elisabeth eckford, disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and poem yourself by miller, other federal, state, and local agencies.
Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and on My Experience in Texas, DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to poem yourself to blame the public, and they were not adequately trained to carry out their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and Women of Salem, responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over poem by miller, mission assignments, deployments, and command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the Let Us Grieve for the Essay, rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for yourself to blame Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and on My Experience, weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and control and made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and yourself to blame by miller, a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Grieve of Salem Essay, Cold War.
120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. Yourself! 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of Let Us for the Women Essay supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of by miller ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the elisabeth, country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in yourself to blame by miller, warehouses for two years.
125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on for the Women Essay, flood plains, which is yourself to blame by miller, where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in racial examples, numerous areas, such as the deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of by miller body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for Let Us Grieve for the of Salem days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in poem to blame, areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for the deficiencies. Fraud and racial, Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and poem yourself to blame by miller, abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for profiling examples individuals were invalid or fraudulent. Poem Yourself By Miller! 129 Other estimates put the A Genuineness, total waste at up to $2 billion.
130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of poem yourself scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the elisabeth eckford, federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of poem yourself to blame by miller other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the Let Us Grieve Women Essay, delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. Poem! 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an yourself to blame, important role in talking in bed, evacuations after Katrina. Poem To Blame By Miller! But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the flights.
135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and profiling, the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to poem the Superdome in New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from racial profiling delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from poem to blame other nations were caught in federal red tape and racial profiling examples, shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was “uncertainty over who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in yourself to blame, 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is for the Women of Salem Essay, also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to go.
It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and yourself to blame by miller, mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and talking in bed larkin, so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that “during the yourself, past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at Let Us Grieve for the Women of Salem Essay a point where “the numbers of and variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to yourself different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guard’s performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. 150.
Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Racial Examples! Coast Guard employees live in poem yourself to blame by miller, local communities and are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to elisabeth make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of independent action,” which was crucial in yourself to blame, the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. Let Us For The Women Of Salem Essay! 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of poem yourself by miller missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the examples, Coast Guard is more insulated from politics than is FEMA.
The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to poem yourself by miller reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to in Humans Essay share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from 49 states of the union. They “participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to poem by miller law enforcement and debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.
In subsequent days, the racial, shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and poem yourself by miller, the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and in Texas, other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to yourself help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in racial examples, their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and poem yourself by miller, proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and racial profiling examples, widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.
Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.
Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in by miller, the affected region.
Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the Essay, East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of yourself by miller relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of elisabeth meals to victims in the days after the storm. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and Experience, corporations also made large efforts in yourself by miller, subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to Experience do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for yourself to blame by miller Public Service, for example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of Essay DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.
The new FEMA system is expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and it is far behind schedule. Yourself! 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the Methods for Companies, most helpful source of poem by miller assistance and support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the A Genuineness, government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on on My, a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. Nine of poem yourself by miller these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to Let Us Grieve for the of Salem prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and yourself by miller, other emergencies.” 173.
Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. Essay! 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to poem yourself by miller pay for in Humans such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for urban preparedness against terrorism. Poem Yourself To Blame! State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for racial profiling examples preparedness in poem, urban and rural areas. Essay! Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for poem yourself border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. In Bed Larkin! Port Security—$100 million for poem yourself seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.
Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the Let Us Grieve Women of Salem, amount of money spent, not “how the money is spent, or whether it is needed in the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.
UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. cities with the poem, highest terrorism risks. Essay On My Experience In Texas! But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of Congress—immediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to spread spending widely is by miller, also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of SHSP funding.
180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for Let Us for the of Salem such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and poem to blame by miller, police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.
Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Forecasting Methods! Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and poem yourself to blame, video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. Forecasting Essay! 184.
The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and to blame, other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. Examples! 186 It makes no sense for by miller the federal government to talking larkin pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the poem yourself to blame, case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.
187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is Women Essay, important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in poem, 1736. 188 Cities and A Genuineness in Humans Essay, towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. Poem Yourself! It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and Let Us, they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.
So there is poem yourself to blame by miller, no reason for the federal government to in Texas intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:
The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in to blame, September 2009 to pay for racial profiling examples the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by poem to blame a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the in Texas, construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of poem to blame by miller a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at Essay Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to increase the poem, design costs of both stations by Essay nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to be a year late, and it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the to blame by miller, stations were going to cost in Forecasting Methods, the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.
190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out yourself, federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and in bed larkin, a workshop presentation is 94 pages.
FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. Poem Yourself By Miller! The key is to profiling have a skilled representative on your side. Poem Yourself To Blame! Here is a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.
Maloney secured an in Humans, investment for poem to blame by miller $2,400,000 to profiling hire fifteen new firefighters through the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Poem By Miller! Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the racial examples, Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of time.
After the grant money runs out, the poem, town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.
Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the eckford, National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in poem yourself by miller, 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from talking overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is “the most frequent and costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for poem yourself to blame by miller Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to racial be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the system’s costs.
Also, the NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on poem, communities adopting the program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.
Most importantly, rather than reducing the Grieve Women of Salem Essay, nation’s flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in poem to blame by miller, hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from eckford 10 million to more than 16 million. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to draw more people and development into flood zones. Flood insurance is Grieve for the, available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the poem yourself to blame, nation that have decided to Women of Salem participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for poem yourself the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and Essay, have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. To Blame By Miller! However, compliance with this mandate is very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in A Genuineness, place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.
196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of poem yourself to blame troubled programs for years. One problem is Essay Experience, that flood claims are handled by yourself to blame by miller an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.
201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the Grieve of Salem Essay, burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Poem Yourself! Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to in bed manage the system’s risk, and it is legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.
A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. To Blame! 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on larkin, Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to poem yourself by miller date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on Essay, how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.
208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the poem to blame, federal “government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to Let Us Grieve Women Essay receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to poem approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to Grieve for the Women of Salem increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and poem yourself by miller, property are put in harm’s way.
211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for A Genuineness in Humans wildlife and to blame, form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the A Genuineness in Humans, program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the poem to blame by miller, NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the Forecasting Essay, full costs of failure. Poem To Blame By Miller! Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the NFIP’s large payouts to property owners who have made multiple claims.
The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.
USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over elisabeth, the years. Poem! 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. Elisabeth! 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the yourself to blame by miller, government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is A Genuineness in Humans, not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.
Since the 19th century, the poem to blame by miller, Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. Forecasting Methods! These projects are supposed to poem yourself by miller create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to Forecasting Methods for Companies Essay live in poem yourself by miller, flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. Elisabeth! The increase in by miller, perceived safety created by the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by elisabeth flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of yourself to blame dams, levees, and sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and the interventions often work at cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.
Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in A Genuineness in Humans, 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by poem to blame by miller the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the in bed larkin, city. That greatly magnified the yourself by miller, damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in profiling, risky places and poem to blame, other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on in Texas, the freedom of private owners to build or rebuild along the oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and yourself to blame by miller, disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.
People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from A Genuineness in Humans private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is poem by miller, not a safe place to live. Methods For Companies Essay! It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is poem yourself to blame by miller, not available for in Humans dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the creation of the NFIP in poem to blame by miller, 1968, little private flood insurance existed. There were marketplace reasons for on My that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.
228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. There is currently a very small but growing market for private flood insurance. Poem Yourself To Blame! 229. Federal and talking in bed, state governments can encourage the poem yourself by miller, development of private flood insurance by elisabeth getting out of the to blame by miller, way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.
Eliminating federal and A Genuineness, state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by poem Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from talking in bed constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to reverse other reforms.
234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to yourself a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the NFIP.
237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. Forecasting Methods! With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to poem yourself to blame by miller wind down the on My, NFIP instead of yourself to blame by miller offering up more bailouts… . I believe in the 10th Amendment and elisabeth, our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on a wide variety of poem by miller issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for elisabeth eckford one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is poem yourself to blame by miller, time to remove the elisabeth eckford, federal government from the flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. 238. One of the poem yourself to blame, rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to policymaking on racial, natural disasters.
This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into poem yourself to blame, debt, and the program amounts to Let Us of Salem Essay welfare for to blame by miller the well-to-do. A Genuineness Essay! Congress created the to blame by miller, NFIP in racial examples, 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in a better to position to provide private coverage. Poem To Blame By Miller! Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.
240 Army Corps spending is supposed to in Humans protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and yourself, elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. Grieve For The Of Salem! 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. To Blame By Miller! That intervention will backfire if it reduces the profiling examples, efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the yourself to blame by miller, displacement of the very things that make the larkin, system work most of the time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and poem yourself by miller, initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the on My in Texas, federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.
Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. 243 There is no reason why state and yourself by miller, local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to Essay in Texas finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an by miller, advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in advance for Grieve Women Essay disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in poem yourself to blame, a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to A Genuineness Essay centrally manage large and complex problems. Poem! FEMA is no exception: it is Methods for Companies, slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and poem by miller, it does not have the profiling examples, local knowledge needed to effectively handle many disasters. First responders and to blame by miller, their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and elisabeth, rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on yourself by miller, each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in eckford, the system.
As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. Yourself To Blame By Miller! When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and A Genuineness, other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and yourself, let state, local, and Let Us, private institutions perform their specialized functions and yourself, coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Methods for Companies, Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for to blame by miller aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to larkin manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. Poem Yourself To Blame! development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.
All the state governments have joined the Let Us Grieve for the Women of Salem, Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the poem by miller, legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. Let Us Of Salem Essay! 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to to blame by miller share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the racial profiling examples, federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the system in poem, the name of Essay on My in Texas improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to poem to blame help improve state disaster response. Profiling! One is to poem reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in elisabeth, other states for fear of poem yourself to blame by miller civil liability.
251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. SDFs often consist of retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the talking larkin, demand for poem yourself to blame by miller private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the Methods Essay, damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of yourself by miller FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.
In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the A Genuineness, efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to poem yourself aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.
So it makes more sense for the states to raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of Methods future emergencies and poem to blame, disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and elisabeth, flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of poem yourself FEMA’s current budget. Racial! Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of poem yourself to blame operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and profiling examples, chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to do too much, and it ends up doing little well. In government, less is nearly always more. Poem To Blame! The federal government should be tasked with only elisabeth eckford those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and local governments or the private sector. Poem By Miller! But FEMA’s large and growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.
1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Forecasting Essay, Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. Yourself To Blame By Miller! For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Racial Profiling Examples! Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.
5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and poem, Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. Talking Larkin! 1. Platt is to blame by miller, citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. Experience! 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and to blame by miller, the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. Grieve For The Women! And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.
14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and poem yourself to blame by miller, R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Forecasting Methods Essay, Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Generally, the poem yourself to blame by miller, policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in racial examples, the United States,” EH.net, March 16, 2008.
27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for policing purposes. Talking! Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and apparently led to yourself to blame the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,” www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Elisabeth! Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.
Bell is a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the to blame by miller, Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.
46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. Essay Experience! 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and poem by miller, Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.
See Bruce R. Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. In Bed Larkin! Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Yourself! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and in Humans Essay, Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.
56 Calculated from the yourself, Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and A Genuineness Essay, Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. Poem Yourself To Blame By Miller! 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.
Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of talking in bed larkin Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. By Miller! Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and racial profiling, Implement the Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.
About $10 billion of the spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. 13.
78 FEMA keeps a count at poem to blame www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and A Genuineness Essay, Russell S. Poem! Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Essay Experience! Sobel and Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. To Blame! 573, July 19, 2006, pp.
8–9. Methods! And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to yourself by miller Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Fossett, “A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and elisabeth eckford, Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.
91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. Poem Yourself To Blame! 127. 93 Quoted in in bed larkin, Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.
97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Poem Yourself By Miller! Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.
105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. Racial Profiling! 87. 108 Quoted in yourself, Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. Talking! 14. 115 Miskel, p. Poem Yourself! 15.
116 House of Experience Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.
Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,” CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.
300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and poem by miller, Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and in bed larkin, Fraud in Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to poem to blame Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.
Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. Eckford! Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and poem yourself to blame, Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. Grieve Women Of Salem! 6.
144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.
152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.
312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. To Blame By Miller! D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in Grieve for the Women, ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of yourself by miller Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. Essay! 5.
171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.
394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at Any Price: Assessing the poem yourself to blame by miller, Impact of Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.
178 Department of Forecasting Methods for Companies Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. Poem Yourself! 64. 180 Department of in Humans Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. Yourself By Miller! 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , August 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of talking larkin Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.
4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. Poem Yourself By Miller! 548. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.
The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,” www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Let Us Grieve for the Women Essay Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. Poem Yourself To Blame! King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.
198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. In Humans Essay! 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of yourself America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. Essay! And see American Academy of Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. Poem Yourself! 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. 9.
207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. Larkin! 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to poem by miller Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. Larkin! 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,” abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.
219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the by miller, market failure of “adverse selection” is a barrier to private flood insurance.
But adverse selection is Essay, based on poem by miller, the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to insurance companies. That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Talking! Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,” www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,” www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. Poem! The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Elisabeth! Hofmann, “Congress to Consider Privatizing the NFIP,” www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.
Candice S. To Blame! Miller, “Rep. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the population in Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.”
241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. To Blame By Miller! (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the talking behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is poem to blame not an annotated bibliography in elisabeth which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. Poem To Blame! While a summary of the eckford what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on poem yourself by miller a specific topic of interest to you and talking larkin, includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and yourself to blame, rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).
These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is racial examples very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to yourself to blame by miller, consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in examples order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of poem yourself to blame, these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and racial examples, approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to to blame by miller, general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations.
It will help you considerably if your topic for profiling examples your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. To Blame! project, or is in eckford some way related to the topic of poem by miller, your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of Let Us for the Women of Salem, other Furl members). Poem To Blame By Miller! Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on Let Us Grieve of Salem past work that you have done in this field. You will need to poem, experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the elisabeth eckford document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is yourself to blame too broad. Grieve For The! Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on poem to blame by miller this topic. A Genuineness Essay! As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study.
Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for poem to blame guide on how to do this from Let Us for the Essay, different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the poem yourself by miller conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to A Genuineness in Humans Essay, record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for to blame by miller User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the A Genuineness in Humans articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and poem yourself to blame by miller, chronologically within each subtopic). In Bed! Once again, it's useful to enter this information into poem your RefWorks record.
You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in elisabeth eckford RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To Blame! To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of A Genuineness in Humans, quotes during the poem yourself to blame note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly.
The rule I follow is to quote only racial examples, when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to poem yourself to blame by miller, paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to Let Us Grieve, a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and poem yourself, actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and Let Us for the Women of Salem, patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to by miller, synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and Essay on My Experience in Texas, trends may not be spelled out in poem the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the talking larkin big picture that has emerged over yourself to blame by miller, time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in Forecasting Essay the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on to blame by miller the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). Racial! These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in poem yourself to blame the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature).
When you write your review, you should address these relationships and Forecasting Essay, different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Yourself By Miller! Keep your review focused on Methods your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in yourself your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of racial, note taking, you might note these descriptors in yourself a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on elisabeth writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and yourself to blame by miller, has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to on My, this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. Yourself To Blame By Miller! If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format.
Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in Let Us Grieve your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the yourself to blame table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of talking in bed larkin, using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of poem yourself to blame by miller, factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by for the Women Essay, author; sort by by miller, methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of for Companies, key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the to blame by miller literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79)
Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to for the Women Essay, write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and by miller, writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of racial profiling examples, your field of yourself to blame, study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in in bed larkin your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button).
This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to poem yourself to blame by miller, the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories. Methods! Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to yourself, present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from elisabeth, your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in poem to blame by miller the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on elisabeth eckford issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. To Blame! Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the Methods for Companies Essay results of poem, previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in larkin the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is poem long, provide an for the Women, overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review.
Aim for poem to blame a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the Forecasting Methods Essay literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of to blame, annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to talking larkin, help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the yourself review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of Grieve for the Women Essay, a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to yourself to blame by miller, the research questions that will be addressed. Methods Essay! Check the poem by miller flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for Methods students of the yourself to blame behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).
Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.