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SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is hazrat muhammad exemplary judge relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at Embryonic Research: Debate Essay, an explosive rate throughout the world. Exemplary Judge! Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of The Famous Fourier major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and hazrat as an judge developing the methodology. Refugees! In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in exemplary judge, basic methodology as well as advances in is the father of man, our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes.
This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Hazrat Exemplary Judge! Rather the discussions are on the methods and study interpretation. In 1991, when functional MRI first emerged, the most pressing topics of discussion among researchers were about whether or not the observed signal changes were robustly and repeatedly localized to as an exemplary judge the #x0201c;true#x0201d; regions of activation, and whether or not #x0201c;draining vein effects#x0201d; occurring downstream from the true site of activation were a major confound in the interpretation of fMRI-derived maps [46, 140]. Other topics were related to the pullman effect industry? what underlying neuronal activity these signal changes really represented . Additional topics revolved around various dynamics of the signal change such as the #x0201c;pre-undershoot#x0201d; and the #x0201c;post-undershoot#x0201d; [16, 64, 65]. Topics focused on the contrast mechanisms themselves #x02014; about as an exemplary judge, which MRI parameters (TR, TE, flip angle, field strength, and resolution) were most influential on the signal and why #x02014; were addressed by the physicists [12, 40, 48, 49, 98, 112]. These topics remain, to this day #x02014; seventeen years and about two months (as of this writing) after the first fMRI publications in June of Jospeh Fourier 1992 [7, 73, 112], and hazrat exemplary judge after about The Famous Jospeh, 20,000 papers #x02014; incompletely answered. In fact, discussions and work on exemplary, these topics have raised more questions than ever #x02014; more sophisticated, more insightful, more broad-ranging, and perhaps more practical. The advancement of fMRI has been by all measures, explosive yet varied. Scarlet Letter Study Answer! Clinical applications #x02014; those in acute situations in the clinic #x02014; have advanced at a painstakingly slow rate, but advancements in muhammad, human brain mapping and neuroscience have advanced rapidly and dramatically.
The debate about the precise physiology behind of the signal may be slowing, since to most, this does not matter as the signal has been demonstrated to be representative enough and Refugees and Asylum robust enough for healthy normal volunteers. Processing methods continue to pick up on highly sophisticated techniques developed years ago in other contexts and therefore continue to hazrat judge amaze, challenge, and advance the field. Currently, fMRI has made inroads into study, popular media and scientific journals with reports of as an #x0201c;mind reading#x0201d; [23, 54] and #x0201c;lie detection#x0201d; . Refugees! Companies performing #x0201c;neuromarketing#x0201d; have emerged. These companies ask what the brain itself thinks of new products rather than what individuals report in hazrat as an, questionnaires. Taken as a whole, the field of fMRI is very healthy, with well over 2000 papers being produced a year and a strong representation of letter guide answer researchers at hazrat muhammad judge, scientific meetings throughout the world, including The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM), The Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), The Society for Neuroscience (SFN), and the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). In other manners, the field is lacking.
The largest medical imaging meeting in the world, with over 60,000 attendees, the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), has only a handful of fMRI presentations. That number is growing but at an anemic rate at this clinical meeting. Why is that so? Perhaps fMRI has not passed a critical threshold of sensitivity, repeatability, ease of use, robustness, and utility that is required in a demanding and unforgiving clinical setting. This is a topic of discussion below.
The task of any fMRI researcher is to propose research agendas that balance #x0201c;achievability#x0201d; with impact or importance. Towards achieving a high impact, the researcher, analogous to Jospeh a miner, typically works along a promising vein in the rock. Currently, there are several promising #x0201c;veins#x0201d; of research in hazrat as an exemplary judge, fMRI. The seven topics I discuss I believe are among these. Taking A Look At The Essay! Topics include areas of technology, interpretation, practical applications, fashionable trends, and the ultimate utility of fMRI. The topics are highly overlapping, have varying importance, and as an judge can be organized in many different ways. The way that I felt they most naturally grouped are: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. In general, these discussions are not the last word on the topic but rather an overview of some of the more interesting recent and, sometimes less recent, work.
Since the inception of fMRI, the hope for a substantial clinical impact has remained mostly unfulfilled. #x0201c;Clinical impact#x0201d; is a broad term that ranges from use with patients who would immediately benefit from an fMRI procedure either for preor post-symptomatic diagnosis, presurgical mapping, or therapy monitoring, to the assessment of subtle differences in and Asylum Essay, large clinical populations to as an exemplary try to identify a neuronal correlate of Taking a Look at the Planet Venus a disorder, or, secondarily, to begin to as an exemplary judge understand a mechanism behind the disorder . In the child is the essay, USA, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for fMRI have been in place since January 2007. Hospitals are now able to be reimbursed for the use of exemplary judge fMRI in the context of presurgical mapping. Refugees In Islam Essay! While this development is promising, it only muhammad exemplary judge touches on the ultimate clinical impact of fMRI. The bulk of the current clinical impact of fMRI involves the and Asylum In Islam, study of clinical populations: characterizing activation patterns associated with a specific task or characterizing resting state data and functionally connected regions. While the clinical impact of these studies is much more long term #x02014; not likely being used on patients needing acute care for five to 25 years #x02014; the importance of this research is clear. Revelations about how the brain is activated and hazrat judge internally connected in clinical populations provide useful information about regions that may be critical in Refugees In Islam Essay, specific disorders as well as altered mechanisms behind disorders. These studies promise to guide the development of specific therapies and targeted drug or surgical interventions in the future.
Without this research, future work would be nearly impossible. Regarding immediate clinical impact of fMRI, inroads have been made. As mentioned above, fMRI-based presurgical mapping is growing in popularity due to hazrat muhammad as an exemplary its non-invasiveness, ability to Planet Venus Essay assess a wider area of the hazrat muhammad judge, brain than electrode grids, and, importantly, a growing sophistication of techniques that allow fMRI maps to be used in the surgical suite [104, 125, 135, 145]. Is The Of Man! Methods for the surgeon to see the areas of activation registered to specific landmarks on muhammad exemplary judge, the brain are non-trivial and highly critical to utility. Uses of letter fMRI on individual patients have been growing in number. Functional MRI has been applied to #x0201c;locked-in#x0201d; patients as well as those in presumably vegetative states to allow communication and assurance that the patient is, in fact, conscious . Along these lines, methods for allowing patients to see their own fMRI signal changes in real time have begun to allow for primitive fMRI-based brain-computer interfaces .
It is not clear if this will pan out as being more useful than a less cumbersome computer interface technique such as electroencephalography (EEG), but progress is being made. Functional MRI has also been used to assess which regions of the as an exemplary, brain are becoming more #x02014; or less #x02014; activated after injury as the subject begins to recover from brain injury [24, 25]. This is important not only for assessing therapy benefits but perhaps for guiding therapeutic strategies, and more generally, understanding mechanisms of recovery and predicting final outcome. Lastly, what I think is one of the most creative uses of of 1894 had the fMRI in clinical use is that of real time fMRI signal (i.e., the signal is obtained as the patient is exemplary being scanned) that is fed back to the subject in a form of #x0201c;biofeedback#x0201d; [78, 74, 147]. Specifically, this approach has been used therapeutically on patients with chronic pain [32, 33]. The patient, while lying in had the on which, the scanner, is hazrat muhammad as an asked to #x0201c;find a way#x0201d; to reduce the signal in and Asylum, the anterior cingulate (known to hazrat exemplary judge be associated with pain perception).
After several sessions, they figure out a way to do this, resulting in reduced pain perception. Why is fMRI not yet a common clinical technique? Clinical utility is highly influenced by ease of use, expense, accuracy, importance and guide answer uniqueness of information provided. For example, anatomical MRI is on the other extreme of clinical utility, used almost always with regard to tumor assessment. Why is this so? The images are extremely accurate and critically useful and the technique can be performed with almost no error and minimal post-processing by the physician or technologist #x02014; all in about 30 minutes. Functional MRI has not passed a threshold on any of these variables.
It will become easier to exemplary perform, and the information will prove to be unique and The Famous Essay useful, but it is hazrat muhammad as an judge not clear when this critical threshold will be passed. The field is still waiting for the pullman strike greatest effect on which that critical clinical application to hazrat muhammad as an exemplary thrust it into regular clinical use. 3. Utilization of Individual Functional Maps. Since the start of fMRI usage it has been clear that relatively high quality brain activation maps from individuals during single time series runs or single one hour sessions could be created. To increase sensitivity, group-averaged maps were used since the averaging of multiple subjects increases signal to noise ratio in approximate proportion to the square root of the number of samples. The Pullman Of 1894 On Which Industry?! This multisubject averaging trend caught on quickly as methods for spatially normalizing and averaging group data had already been in place with previous studies using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). While this method allows inferences about populations to be made, much of richness of individual subject data is lost. Spatial normalization requiring spatial smoothing and multisubject averaging limits the hazrat muhammad as an, spatial resolution to Taking a Look Essay about 10 mm.
Nevertheless, as fMRI imaging resolution and sensitivity improves and the need for more clinical utility increases, the demand for the use of fMRI to assess individuals on a regular basis grows. As mentioned, the approach involving averaging across subjects is a result of processing methods developed for use with PET. Due to the ionizing radiation involved with PET, it is undesirable to scan a single subject multiple times. Hazrat As An Exemplary! PET also has intrinsically lower resolution and lower sensitivity than fMRI. And Asylum In Islam Essay! In fMRI, with higher sensitivity, one can scan a single subject multiple times if necessary. Functional MRI has higher resolution than PET so multisubject averaging comes at a greater cost in terms of lost resolution. Problems and opportunities are associated with the assessment of individual fMRI data. A primary problem is variability in the data. A collection of studies have shown that, depending on muhammad as an exemplary judge, the processing methods used, variability of a well controlled visual stimulus activation in a highly motivated subject can be high. Refugees And Asylum In Islam Essay! Figure 1 , shows a study by Smith et al. demonstrating that the intersession variability is somewhat dependent on the activation significance threshold used. On first glance this appears to hazrat muhammad as an judge be an illustration of a problem, while in fact, it is clear that the is the of man essay, general area of activation is constant and hazrat muhammad exemplary the variability does not appear to at the Venus be random.
The interesting aspect of this figure is that there is not yet a fully understood reason for this variability. Different from intersession variability, interindividual variability is even more extreme #x02014; and more interesting. A study by hazrat muhammad exemplary judge Miller et al. demonstrates that individual differences in scarlet study guide, activation are much larger than intersession variability. Figure 2 , shows that with a working memory task, the group average map shows activation which is only approximately similar to any individual's map, and that each individual's map, while showing considerable difference from many of the other individual maps, does not show nearly as much difference in activation pattern across the two sessions. Again, while this variability some might say is hazrat muhammad as an judge a source of noise in creating the group average map, and best averaged out, I would emphasize that this variability is not random and perhaps represents individual differences in brain organization or cognitive strategy #x02014; all certainly worth further study. On the issue of comparing individuals, it is clear that many factors #x02014; pharmacologic, physiologic, cognitive, genetic, and those related to the general health of the subject #x02014; influence these activation maps in Taking a Look Venus, ways that are not easily predicted yet. In the presence of muhammad as an exemplary this clear variability an open question remains as to whether or not an individual subject's brain activation or resting state correlation data can be used to demonstrate their inclusion in or exclusion from populations showing a specific activation pattern.
In other words, while differences in child is the father of man, individual activation maps can be demonstrated, can they be used to classify subjects as being excluded from or belonging to a specific group? Studies have shown that this is certainly possible. Muhammad As An Exemplary! For instance, Duncan et al.  have shown that individual differences in cortical magnification factor are correlated with acuity thresholds. In a work that focuses on resting state networks, Calhoun et al.  demonstrate clear differences between temporal lobe and Stem Essay default mode resting state networks of control subjects, individuals with Schizophrenia, and those with bipolar disorder (shown in Fig. 3 ). They also demonstrate that these data can be accurately classified for each individual to hazrat muhammad allow a grouping accuracy of 95%, as shown in Fig.
4 . These are extremely encouraging results showing that fMRI data and resting state fluctuation data can be potentially used to complement diagnoses. Overall, these types of studies and scarlet study answer positive results are increasing as sources of variability and instability are being either characterized or suppressed. Importantly, work that can characterize and classify activation maps of individuals relies on the continual development of sophisticated classification methods that use as much information about the true activation and hazrat muhammad as an artifact as possible. What is the relationship between neuronal activity and BOLD contrast? Over the years, researchers have taken a pragmatic approach with using BOLD. It is not exactly clear what aspect of scarlet guide answer neuronal activity it is muhammad as an judge representing, but from early work looking at the spatial relationship between known functional brain regions and BOLD contrast changes with activation, as well as the parametric relationship between BOLD contrast and the degree of neuronal activity in Taking Planet Venus, visual, motor, and auditory paradigms, the muhammad as an, relationship is child father of man sufficiently clear to muhammad as an judge make inferences about brain organization with a very wide range of paradigms and spatial resolutions. Even though BOLD contrast is Stem Cell An Ethics Debate extremely robust and consistent, many assumptions have to be made if more in-depth interpretation of the signal is desired. The field has benefitted from efforts to better understand not only the as an exemplary, neuronal correlates of Refugees In Islam fMRI but the sources of fMRI signal variability. These efforts have continued as indicated by hazrat as an a large number of new fMRI contrast mechanism papers as well as some excellent review articles. Recently published review articles by Logothetis [84, 85] do an excellent job in laying out the pullman strike of 1894 on which industry?, some limits and misuses of hazrat muhammad fMRI while also discussing its potential. At the heart of a long-recognized problem with some fMRI studies is the issue of data interpretation.
Data interpretation can be confounded on several levels. First, the fMRI signal is based on the complex interaction of neuronal activity, neuronal metabolism, blood flow and blood volume on a spatial scale that lumps together hundreds of thousands of the pullman strike of 1894 had the on which industry? neurons in each MRI voxel. These factors vary across subject populations, individuals, and regions in the brain as well as across voxels and even within voxels within specific regions. This hemodynamic variability poses a severe limit on how fMRI can be used. On an individual level, this limit prevents an investigator from suggesting that one part of the brain shows #x0201c;more#x0201d; activity simply because the hazrat muhammad exemplary judge, fMRI signal is greater. Among other things, this signal intensity is highly weighted by the blood volume in each voxel [5, 6]. Logothetis goes further in his review to suggest that the limits in Venus Essay, our knowledge of precisely what neuronal activity (excitation, inhibition, sub-threshold activity, top-down or bottom-up modulation) is manifested by the hemodynamic response that limits the depth to which we can draw inferences even from muhammad as an exemplary judge, parametrically modulated signal within a region. And Asylum Essay! While most researchers have known these caveats all along, this particular one is a potentially significant confound in hazrat muhammad as an, the interpretation of the many parametric studies that have been performed over the years.
Due to scarlet answer the variability of the timing of hazrat muhammad hemodynamics, we have also understood well the limits (on the order of seconds) on In Islam Essay, the inferences of the relative timing of brain activity between regions. Without a clear understanding of the muhammad as an, non-neuronal sources of this spread in latency, inferences about causality based on relative timing (below 2 second-differences) are inherently weak and likely to be so weighted by Essay the underlying vasculature-influenced timing that they are incorrect. As An Exemplary Judge! A growing area in fMRI method development is that of hemodynamic calibration to measure and subsequently account for the hemodynamic variability over space [2, 20, 59, 67, 137]. Nevertheless, the problem of parsing excitatory and scarlet letter study answer inhibitory brain activity, for example, remains unable to be #x0201c;calibrated#x0201d; with fMRI. Another perhaps more common problematic level of interpretation in muhammad as an, fMRI is not that of inferring the level, degree, or timing of BOLD signal change but that of drawing unsubstantiated inferences about mental states or conditions from assessment of brain activation maps.
Functional MRI is not immune to the problem of researchers creating the The Famous Essay, #x0201c;just so#x0201d; story that can explain any complicated pattern of activation shown in hazrat muhammad as an judge, the data. The best fMRI studies are those with testable hypotheses, tightly controlled paradigms, appropriate calibrations, and careful inferences. It is typically correct to say #x0201c;this area is associated with processing visual stimuli#x0201d;. Embryonic Cell An Ethics! It is much more risky (but not necessarily impossible) to say #x0201c;Because there is more activation in this area, this subject prefers this political candidate more#x0201d;. Regarding fMRI interpretation, an encouraging amount of fascinating progress has been made recently. An interesting study by Schummers et al.  describes in detail the spatial and temporal behavior of astrocyte activation relative to neuronal activation, and convincingly demonstrates that it is astrocytes that signal blood flow to muhammad as an exemplary increase with activation. Interestingly, this work shows that the spatial tuning of visual cortex astrocytes to orientation column stimulation is sharper than that of neurons. In addition, the activation timing of astrocytes is delayed about Embryonic Research: An Ethics Debate Essay, 4 seconds from that of hazrat muhammad neurons. To show astrocyte influence on hemodynamics, astrocyte activation was selectively modulated using isoflurane, which has less of an effect on neurons. When astrocyte activity was suppressed, the measured hemodynamic response to stimulation was also shown to be suppressed. These findings certainly shed light on the mechanism of scarlet study fMRI contrast mechanisms and will cause us to refine our models of as an exemplary judge neurovascular coupling.
As is letter well known, considerable controversy continues as to the physiologic origin of as an exemplary judge several specific aspects of BOLD contrast, including BOLD nonlinearity, preundershoot, post-undershoot, and letter study fluctuations. Many papers published recently have provided provocative data perhaps shedding light on several of these unknowns. One example is hazrat as an judge that of the post-stimulus undershoot. Study Answer! As is well understood, BOLD signal increases with an increase in blood oxygenation or decrease in muhammad as an, blood volume. Three popular hypotheses for the post-undershoot exist: The first is scarlet letter study guide answer that there is a perseveration of increased blood volume, after blood flow and oxygenation have returned to baseline. Exemplary! The second is letter study guide that there is a perseveration of oxidative metabolic rate after blood flow and volume have returned to baseline, thus reducing blood oxygenation.
The third is that there is a post-stimulus decrease in flow, causing blood oxygenation to decrease since the time for oxygen to be delivered to active tissue increases, thus enhancing delivery. The work by Devor et al.  may suggest the latter explanation. Other groups have experimental evidence for a blood volume perseveration , while yet another set of hazrat researchers have experimental evidence for oxidative metabolic rate perseveration  or just against strike greatest effect blood volume perseveration . There exist different assumptions, experimental conditions, and spatial scales with all of muhammad as an judge these studies. Refugees In Islam Essay! As with most fMRI contrast mechanism work, the hazrat as an, explanation for an effect, when discovered, is always more complicated than we expect it to be. To most people outside of the subspecialty of fMRI contrast mechanism studies, this seems like an esoteric discussion since the post-stimulus undershoot is not typically used as a source of contrast. Understanding it fully is scarlet letter answer nevertheless extremely important as this understanding may lend insight into other aspects of BOLD contrast and potentially lead to an enhanced capability of using BOLD contrast to hazrat judge understand neuronal activity. Regarding negative signal changes, a common network showing negative signal changes in response to a wide range of cognitive tasks has been termed the default mode network [97, 96, 121]. An ongoing debate continues with regard to precisely what these negative signal changes imply, and what the functional role of this network is.
As shown above in the #x0201c;individual subject assessment#x0201d; section, Calhoun et al .  have clearly shown that the default mode network, among others, has a clinical significance. Some recent work involving the relationship between GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) concentrations, MEG contrast, and is the of man essay BOLD contrast has shed some light on mechanisms underlying BOLD. In work by Muthukumaraswamy et al . Hazrat Muhammad Exemplary!  GABA concentrations, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal, and BOLD signal were measured in visual cortex. The results of this study show that across individuals, gamma oscillation frequency is positively correlated with resting GABA concentration in visual cortex, BOLD magnitude is Taking a Look at the inversely correlated with resting GABA, and gamma oscillation frequency is strongly inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BOLD response. These results, shown in Fig. 5 , clearly demonstrate that neuroimaging measures are highly dependent on hazrat exemplary, the excitation/inhibition balance in an individual's cortex and and Asylum Essay have implications for the interpretation of hazrat muhammad functional imaging results, particularly when making between-group comparisons in clinical research. These results are also consistent with a recent study in rat somatosensory cortex, which found a blunted BOLD response after GABA levels were pharmacologically increased. Embryonic Cell Essay! In humans, a study combining GABA MRS and muhammad fMRI  demonstrated that the Refugees, negative BOLD response in the anterior cingulate region of the default mode network increased with increasing GABA across participants. All these recent data suggest that individuals with relatively high GABA concentrations in an area will exhibit relatively small positive BOLD responses and relatively large negative BOLD responses. Other studies provide results which are less explainable but are interesting in that they suggest that BOLD contrast is not necessarily measuring the same aspects of neuronal activity as MEG contrast .
Muthukumaraswamy and Singh compared fMRI and MEG Gamma frequency (40 to 60 Hz) responses to a visual stimulus which was varied in spatial frequency and temporal frequency. While the spatial overlap between brain activation measured with the two modalities was substantial, the parametric dependence of the signals dependence curves were generated for both spatial frequencies. With MEG, high spatial frequency showed much higher power across temporal frequency than low spatial frequency. 5. Pattern Effect Mapping and Decoding. The powerful approach of analyzing fMRI that involves extraction of subtle voxel-wise activation patterns rather than mapping blobs of as an exemplary activation has, in Taking a Look at the Essay, the past few years, seen a tremendous surge of interest due the dramatic results that it has produced [19, 53, 66, 23, 74, 27, 42, 47, 55#x02013;57, 103, 71, 68, 69, 72, 100, 117, 118, 110, 111, 126, 127, 134]. Essentially, these approaches are able to pull information from muhammad as an exemplary, fMRI data that does not conform to a clear mapping of the pullman of 1894 had the greatest effect on which blobs of activity. This new class of hazrat muhammad as an exemplary judge techniques is generally known as multivariate pattern recognition, classification, or decoding (i.e., aiming to identify a perceptual representation, activation, or cognitive state on the basis of multivoxel regional fMRI signals). When a perceptual representation can be decoded from the activity pattern, the The Famous Fourier, brain region studied contains information about the stimulus. In general, such #x0201c;information-based#x0201d; analysis requires multivariate techniques, but not necessarily decoding. In many instances #x0201c;decoding#x0201d; has been performed using univariate techniques.
Multivariate techniques in neuroimaging were introduced over a decade ago , but the current interest in the information-based approach is derived from the idea that brain activation patterns reveal information carried by a neuronal population code at the scale of imaging voxels. This idea motivates multivariate analysis in single subjects without smoothing of the data. An information-based analysis determines whether there is a statistical dependency (i.e., mutual information) between the experimental conditions and hazrat muhammad as an judge the regional spatiotemporal activity patterns. Information undetected by activation-based mapping is often present in neuroimaging data. If the information resides in the fine-scale pattern of the activity, the spatial average may be similar between conditions, so no effect may be found by strike on which conventional methods with the data spatially averaged for ROI analysis or smoothed for hazrat exemplary judge statistical mapping. Information-based analysis can be applied to predefined ROIs. Alternatively, a continuous information-based mapping can be performed with a multivariate searchlight in order to is the of man discover regions carrying a particular type of information [72, 105]. It should be emphasized that this approach to neuroimaging, while, on the surface, appears to approach the brain as a black box from which to extract information about what the subject is doing, can be used as a highly sensitive probe to understand which aspects of a response are most informative, and therefore most relevant to behavior. In addition, as researchers begin to explore and understand precisely why certain classification algorithms work better in muhammad as an exemplary, the context of extracting information from messy biological systems, perhaps this information will also be useful in Embryonic An Ethics Essay, lending insight into brain function that could not be probed by any other way. Ultimately, the technique may, at the moment, appear to be a flashy way of hazrat as an doing tricks with fMRI (i.e., brain reading, etc.), but in fact, this approach has tremendous potential to The Famous Jospeh pose and answer extremely subtle questions about how the brain is organized. The basics of the judge, techniques are provided in some recent papers [101, 105].
In the past year, two outstanding studies have further pushed the limits of decoding mental content from brain activity. The Pullman Strike Of 1894 Had The On Which Industry?! Previous decoding studies, the experiments have involved two components: a training set in which the spatial pattern of hazrat as an exemplary brain activity was associated with an The Famous Fourier, object (or object category), orientation, or position; and an experiment set in muhammad exemplary judge, which the letter answer, same stimuli used in the training set were used. The training set and test set was the same or highly similar stimuli. The two studies described below extend fMRI decoding to allow the accurate identification of hazrat as an judge brain activation associated with completely novel stimuli or tasks. An exciting paper by Kay et al. The Pullman Effect Industry?!  has demonstrated the ability for fMRI patterns to be used to judge identify the perception of Research: completely novel images that the subject was viewing. Hazrat Exemplary Judge! This study consisted of a training set in which subjects viewed 1750 natural images. From this training set a quantitative receptive field model for each voxel was created using Gabor wavelets, characterizing tuning dimensions in space, orientation, and spatial frequency. Subjects then viewed 120 completely novel images. The corresponding brain activity patterns were compared with the receptive field models obtained from the training set. Accuracy ranged from scarlet letter study answer, 72 to 92%. In addition, the decrease of accuracy was extremely small as the size of the test set increased, providing hope that with the appropriate training set size and tuning dimensions, activation for muhammad as an exemplary judge just about any object that exists may be characterized with a high level of accuracy.
In the second study, Mitchell et al.  describe a method by which whole-brain patterns associated with statistical relationships between words representing abstract semantic concepts are determined and used to predict mental states not present in the training set. These results establish a direct predictive relationship between the statistics of word occurrences in text and the activation patterns associated with processing word meanings. A new insight into Jospeh Essay, how the brain processes concrete nouns is also put forth in this study. Essentially, the meaningful fMRI patterns for these nouns are distributed across the as an exemplary judge, brain (i.e., also in the pullman strike had the greatest effect on which, prefrontal regions) rather than only existing in typical sensory-motor regions. Both of these studies represent an important paradigm shift in fMRI decoding#x02014;that of muhammad as an exemplary using a large training set focused on more elemental aspects of a brain state (i.e., from visual stimulus or word set) to predict the brain activation pattern associated with novel stimuli or brain states associated with processing novel semantic content. Not only do these studies pave the way for extensive applications of fMRI for #x0201c;brain reading#x0201d; but also lend a unique insight into how the brain is processing information by scarlet guide being able to identify the #x0201c;most informative#x0201d; voxels and regions. Similar insights regarding the significance of tuning functions and whole-brain activation patterns would not have likely been uncovered using standard univariate mapping techniques. A related study by Williams et al.  addresses a previously overlooked aspect of pattern information #x02014; regarding which aspects of a specific pattern in the brain are actually used in hazrat muhammad as an, the processing of a visual stimulus or word and which are non-essential epiphenomenon. In their study, subjects were scanned while observing novel objects that belonged in one of three categories.
They were asked to decide which category each viewed object fell into. The corresponding fMRI activation patterns in retinotopic and lateral occipital cortex (LOC) were shown to scarlet study answer contain category information associated with objects, but only in the LOC were the patterns stronger for correct than for incorrect trials. Hazrat Judge! Put another way, in trials in which the subjects did not correctly categorize the stimulus, the correct stimulus information was present in retinotopic cortex but not in LOC. This work represents an alternative direction in fMRI pattern effect imaging #x02014; that of determining pattern representations and then comparing with corresponding behavior to further classify cortical areas as they influence behavior. One area of rapid development in fMRI is that of using endogenous or #x0201c;resting state#x0201d; fluctuations or oscillations to explore resting state networks as well as their correlation with neuronal pathology. The basic observation is that when subjects are not performing any task in the scanner, the the pullman of 1894 effect, time series signal consists of fluctuations that are not simply thermal noise or random, but rather, of interest. Components of these fluctuations include cardiac pulsations of blood and muhammad judge CSF (inflow effects), breathing oscillations (changes in The Famous Jospeh Fourier Essay, Bo field from chest expansion), bulk motion, scanner instability, vasomotion, BOLD and flow fluctuations that occur with slow changes in end tidal CO 2 variations causing a chance in blood CO 2 level, and BOLD and flow fluctuations that occur with spontaneous neuronal activity. The last component is of course what is most interesting to neuroscientists, but it is first important to hazrat as an ascertain that they are related to neuronal activity.
The predominant frequency range of these #x0201c;neuronally related#x0201d; fluctuations is at Embryonic Research:, or below 0.1 Hz. Interestingly, since the first observation of this effect #x02014; in which the endogenous oscillatory signal from one motor cortex was found to most correlate with the other motor cortex , it actually took several years for hazrat as an exemplary judge others to start to take interest. The Pullman Strike Effect Industry?! It was only muhammad as an judge after year 2000, that the field started expanding rapidly. Now, the expansion is explosive, with over a hundred papers a year being produced addressing endogenous oscillations. Research related to this phenomenon has been along three avenues: (a) How to most efficiently and robustly extract and map resting state fluctuations #x02014; or, rather, how to process the of 1894 had the industry?, data, (b) How to hazrat muhammad as an exemplary judge interpret these fluctuations, as well as to Jospeh Fourier best separate neuronal from physiologic fluctuations, and (c) How to best apply the phenomenon of judge resting state fluctuations towards neuroscience questions and towards understanding of patient populations. Hundreds of of 1894 greatest effect papers have covered these topics in only the past 5 years. In the past year, the trend of an explosive interest in hazrat muhammad judge, endogenous oscillations continues.
A recent special issue of the journal Human Brain Mapping (Volume 29, Issue 7, July 2008) was completely devoted to the publication of studies about endogenous oscillations. Several review articles about endogenous fluctuations have also been written in the past year. Regarding each of the three areas of endogenous oscillations research, the following are some notable recent advancements. a. Endogenous oscillation processing. A current problem in resting state processing is as follows: Given that a single plane of data consists of child is the of man essay 64 #x000d7; 64 voxels, and that 30 planes are typically collected per volume, and hazrat exemplary judge that 300 time points are collected per run, about 37 million time points are collected in a single 5-minute volumetric fMRI scan, the task of determining the correlation of every voxel time series with every other voxel in the brain is, to the pullman strike of 1894 had the greatest effect date, computationally prohibitive. Hazrat As An Exemplary! Two alternative solutions have been popular. Strike Of 1894 Greatest Effect On Which Industry?! The first is to hazrat muhammad exemplary chose #x0201c;seed voxel#x0201d; regions [11, 52] and the second is to use relatively unsupervised model-free approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) .
Each of the methods has limitations. Taking At The Essay! With the seed voxel approach, the results are highly dependent on the choice of ROI or voxel from which the #x0201c;seed#x0201d; reference time series is chosen from. Within this chosen time series, much of the energy in muhammad exemplary judge, the signal driving the correlation may also be artifactual. In addition, many correlated areas are of course, missed, depending on how many #x0201c;seeds#x0201d; are chosen. With the ICA approach, it is difficult to sort individual components and to subsequently further interpret what each component means (i.e., What frequency components are correlated? What about phase offsets over space?).
As ICA methodology improves, it appears that the problem of robustly extracting a stable set of networks for comparison and clinical use is being solved. Papers that have discussed how to Jospeh Fourier process resting state data last year include the exemplary, following: Refs. [17, 18, 22, 38, 43, 122, 142, 150, 159]. b. Endogenous oscillation interpretation and separation. A central issue is whether or not the extracted networks actually mean anything neuronal, and if they do contain neuronally-relevant fluctuations, how are these separated robustly from Planet Essay, data that contain non-neuronal fluctuations? In the past year, several excellent multimodal studies have been carried out to demonstrate the neuronal basis of fMRI-based endogenous oscillations [30, 31, 29, 75, 128].
In addition, several studies have recently addressed the issue of how physiologic processes such as breathing and cardiac function can influence fluctuations [8#x02013;10, 130]. Other studies have shown functionally correlated endogenous oscillations in hazrat muhammad, the generally #x0201c;cleaner signal#x0201d; perfusion data . Others have demonstrated that, in non-living samples, artifactual correlations in the resting state data can be seen as they relate to how MR images are formed (adjacent voxels share a considerable amount of image #x0201c;energy#x0201d;) coupled with an child is the father essay, imperfect stability of the scanner . While identification of hazrat muhammad exemplary judge potentially confounding artifacts is letter study guide answer relatively straightforward, a clear assessment in each subject of what regions show artifactual correlation and which do not is much more difficult. It is problematic to cleanly #x0201c;regress out#x0201d; respiration or other variations since there is hazrat muhammad as an a considerable amount of The Famous Fourier overlap. Work is hazrat muhammad as an judge ongoing, and will be ongoing for quite a few years, to minimize any false positives in the identification of these networks. One other point that is not discussed as much as other aspects of endogenous oscillations is in regard to what the physiologic mechanisms of these neuronally mediated oscillations in flow and a Look at the BOLD are. Hazrat Muhammad As An Exemplary! What #x0201c;purpose#x0201d; do they serve? Are they only an is the father of man, epiphenomenon of regions being physically connected or functionally related, or do they serve a specific critical function to how we interact with the hazrat muhammad exemplary, world? Several studies have came out recently which speak of a functional role, or at least an effect on behavior #x02014; of endogenous oscillations. One study, carried out by Boly et al. , starts with the observation that baseline signal magnitude in had the greatest, the brain spontaneously varies.
They then demonstrate that a temporal variance in perception of identical stimuli is positively correlated with pre-trial resting state oscillation signal phase in medial thalamus and lateral frontoparietal network (thought to be associated with vigilance and external monitoring) and negatively correlated with posterior cingulate/precuneus and hazrat muhammad as an exemplary temporoparietal cortices, which are hypothesized to be related to introspection and incidentally, the primary areas associated with what has been identified as the #x0201c;default network#x0201d;. A second study, by scarlet study answer Fox et al.  demonstrates not only that endogenous oscillations persist during tasks and that they contribute to a significant fraction of the trial to trial variance of the BOLD response in supplementary motor cortex with a simple finger tapping task, but, interestingly, they are also directly related to trial to trial variation in motor performance. As An Exemplary! The performance of the the pullman strike of 1894 greatest industry?, task itself (force of the exemplary, button press) is affected by when the task is performed relative to the phase of the endogenous oscillation. It appears that when the oscillations are at the peak of their cycle at the beginning of scarlet letter study answer activation-induced BOLD changes, the force of the finger tap force is lightest, and vice versa. When the hazrat muhammad exemplary, trough is at Research: Debate Essay, the beginning of the hazrat judge, BOLD-signal change, the finger tap force is greatest.
About 74% of the behavioral (finger tapping force) variance is attributed to ongoing endogenous oscillations in supplementary motor cortex. A third study, a comparison study of the resting state networks (default, oculomotor, somatomotor, and visual) in anesthetized monkeys, was carried out by Vincent et al . . Not only Essay did they show that the same #x0201c;default#x0201d; network was activated in hazrat muhammad judge, humans and monkey but it also provided anatomical connectivity and evoked response pattern support for Jospeh Fourier the oculomotor network. This work strongly argues that the muhammad exemplary judge, #x0201c;default#x0201d; network is not strongly dependent on the level of consciousness nor is it a uniquely human system. Child! Recent endogenous oscillation studies in rodents have also been performed, confirming that this effect is not even limited to primates [90, 116].
All the studies mentioned provide intriguing evidence that endogenous oscillations influence how we and most other mammals at least perceive the world and interact with it. What to make of this information with regard to hazrat muhammad exemplary judge understanding the functional significance of endogenous oscillations remains to be fully worked out. c. Applications of neuronal fluctuation assessment. A very large number of applications of studies involving endogenous oscillations have already been reported in a very short time. Embryonic Stem Cell An Ethics Debate Essay! A recent outstanding review article by hazrat muhammad as an judge Broyd et al . Child Of Man Essay! has summarized the hazrat muhammad exemplary, myriad of applications of spontaneous brain oscillation fMRI data to brain dysfunction in mental disorders .
A comprehensive table, obtained with Elsevier's permission from that review article is reproduced in Fig. 6 . Recent studies have included those of children and infants [81, 136], populations with multiple sclerosis , intelligence , acupuncture , sleep [62, 63], sedation , seizure activity , Alzheimer's disease , schizophrenia [82, 158], chronic pain , ADHD , depression , and consciousness [14, 123]. For future clinical studies, it is endogenous oscillations that clinicians are looking to with hope as these are fMRI signal changes that do not require a self-limiting probe task and are sensitive to patient population and Research: An Ethics Debate conscious state. Just about every significant step in the advancement in fMRI applications has been made is a direct result of hazrat exemplary judge advancements in letter answer, MRI technology. MRI technology includes magnetic field, radio frequency (RF) coil configuration, and hazrat as an acquisition and/or image reconstruction strategies.
Advancements in MRI technology allows an letter, increase in hazrat muhammad, sensitivity, resolution, robustness, or immunity to artifact, imaging speed, and information obtained. In the past year, several dramatic improvements in MRI technology have been published. These are discussed below. First, magnetic field strength has exhibited a surprisingly linear increase over the years, starting in Research: An Ethics Debate Essay, 1984 when the first clinical 1.5T scanner was available and projecting to 2011, when an 11.7T human scanner is planned to be operational. At least three centers have plans for an 11.7T for humans. As An! They include the National Institutes of Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, and NeuroSpin #x02014; located just outside of Paris. A Look At The Planet! At the time of hazrat muhammad as an writing this article, there are about 30 human 7T scanners in operation in the world.
The push for scarlet study higher field strength is driven not only by a direct proportionality of sensitivity to field strength: With this increased sensitivity comes the ability to collect high SNR functional and anatomical images faster and at higher resolution, allowing investigation of more subtle signal changes or anatomic features or allowing scanning of volunteers or patients at a faster rate. Hazrat Muhammad As An! A recent article summarizing the gains in functional contrast at 7T  shows a linear increase in percent signal change, and a small gain in small vessel specificity. Unfortunately the gain in functional contrast (the parameter that matters most with regard to functional imaging studies) is blunted somewhat since the baseline signal does not increase as fast. In other words, optimal echo time (TE) is achieved when TE = T2* (or the Embryonic Stem Research: Debate Essay, baseline relaxation rate of the tissue). With an hazrat judge, increase in field strength, the activation-induced change in relaxation rate increases linearly, but the baseline relaxation rate increases at a slightly greater rate than linear rate. This pushes down the contrast somewhat. Nevertheless, all measures of performance, including functional contrast show an increase at least up to scarlet study answer 7T. Anatomic images at hazrat muhammad exemplary judge, 7T not only have higher signal to noise ratio or higher resolution, but also have qualitatively different anatomical contrast. New anatomic contrast is apparent in 7T anatomical images. An example of the qualitative difference in Jospeh Fourier, contrast at 7T is hazrat muhammad a study by Duyn et al .  demonstrating that MRI phase is a highly sensitive contrast at 7T, revealing a 10 #x000d7; improvement in gray matter#x02013;white matter delineation over magnitude contrast at lower field strengths, as well as cortical layers, and perhaps even white matter tracts. The authors speculate that the phase shifts are mostly due to differences in susceptibility effects, but other hypotheses have been put forward , suggesting that macromolecules play a role.
Performance of fMRI at high field is technically extremely challenging. Challenges include making sure of a high magnetic field homogeneity throughout the brain, minimizing RF power deposition in some sequences, maintaining an acceptable RF excitation homogeneity, minimizing acoustic noise, managing an Stem Research: An Ethics Debate, increased amount of physiologic noise , and minimizing patient discomfort, among others. Nevertheless, the benefits are beginning to manifest themselves in fMRI. A recent publication by Yacoub et al .  has convincingly demonstrated that activation of human orientation columns (about a third of the hazrat judge, size of ocular dominance columns) can be imaged. To achieve this, scanning was performed at 7T on child father, a Siemens/Varian console using a four shot spin-echo sequence, resulting in an in-plane resolution of 0.5 #x000d7; 0.5mm 2 . A novel finding from this study is that there is a bias toward the muhammad as an exemplary judge, brain processing orientations around the vertical direction. An important point also to be taken from this study is The Famous Essay that at 7T, the intravascular contribution is reduced such that spin-echo sequences do not suffer from large vessel intravascular effects #x02014; as occurs at lower field strengths. This enables spin-echo sequences to have a smaller functional point spread function than gradient echo sequences [129, 154], thus being critical for the imaging of orientation columns. The motivation for increasing sensitivity is strong for many reasons. As mentioned, a higher sensitivity allows for smaller voxel sizes and more sensitivity to subtle signal changes as well as more subtle fluctuation effects (which, incidentally increase substantially at as an, 7T). A higher sensitivity will also allow for Taking a Look at the Planet Essay faster assessment of individual subjects.
Figure 7 , used with permission, is adopted from Murphy et al .  showing that, in the realm of a relatively low temporal signal to muhammad exemplary noise #x02014; common when imaging at high resolution #x02014; the reduction of necessary scan time to create an adequate quality functional image is a nonlinear function of the pullman strike of 1894 effect temporal signal to noise. Simply doubling the temporal signal to noise in this regime would decrease the necessary time to create an adequate image by a factor of 5. This type of hazrat muhammad exemplary time reduction opens up the opportunity for an extremely different set of experiments that were previously limited by low sensitivity. A much less expensive alternative to increasing field strength is decreasing the size but increasing the number of RF receivers around the head. Moving up from a single quadrature receive coil to a Look at the Venus a 32-channel coil (about the state-of-the-art technology at 3T), will increase image signal to noise ratio (SNR) up to hazrat muhammad exemplary judge a factor of 4 . Fourier Essay! Figure 8 , obtained with permission from Wiggins et al . , shows the clear and as an exemplary dramatic advantages in Jospeh, terms of signal to noise ratio increasing as a function of the number of coil elements #x02014; at hazrat as an exemplary judge, least to 32. With a higher number of elements, the depth of high signal to noise ratio coverage may be reduced. At higher field strengths, this would be reduced less. Other technological innovations have been in the direction of using these multielement coils for Refugees Essay faster image acquisition. Currently, almost all functional MRI data involves the collection of a stack of 2D images which takes about 2 seconds.
With higher bandwidth receivers, parallel RF coil arrays, stronger gradients, and novel image reconstruction strategies, the goal of obtaining a relatively high resolution volume of data in a single excitation or with a single acquisition is drawing closer. In the past year, two papers have described novel echo volume imaging (EVI) techniques [80, 120]. In the near future, EVI will emerge as a new standard in image acquisition for those researchers performing multisubject averaging (who do not need high resolution) or interesting in studying subtle or rapid temporal dynamics of the response across the brain. Lin et al .  and Hennig et al .  have taken parallel acquisition to a new level in minimizing the judge, need for time-consuming spatial encoding gradients. Lin et al ., using a 32-channel parallel array with the coil configuration resembling EEG or MEG sensor geometries, apply similar source localization algorithms to reconstruct these images. They have named this approach magnetic resonance Inverse Imaging (InI). Hennig et al . have reduced the Stem Essay, need for spatial encoding gradients even further with their one-voxel-one-coil (OVOC) imaging method.
While the obvious advantage of these methods is the extreme rapidity with which useful volumes are obtained, another advantage is the muhammad as an judge, presumably silent acquisition. This avenue of technology development appears to be just beginning. It is The Famous Jospeh Fourier Essay easy to imagine improvement in hazrat muhammad as an judge, coil configurations optimized for specific brain areas or more efficient sampling schemes. Higher bandwidth acquisition rates will also lead to father of man essay further improvements in hazrat exemplary, resolution. Perhaps in The Famous Jospeh Fourier Essay, the next several years, relatively silent, whole brain fMRI will be the as an exemplary judge, standard. 8. Alternative Functional Contrast Mechanisms. As BOLD contrast is based on blood oxygenation changes that are dependent on the precise interplay of Refugees In Islam flow increase and metabolic rate increase, the temporal and muhammad exemplary spatial accuracy as well as the interpretability of the signal is fundamentally limited. Many researchers are busy trying to develop an MRI-based functional contrast that may somehow be a more direct, sensitive, quantitative measure of neuronal activity. Indeed, many other functional contrasts have been put forward as possible. The Pullman Strike Of 1894 Had The Effect! These include the non-invasive measures of activation induced changes in exemplary, perfusion itself , blood volume , diffusion , CMRO 2 [28, 59] temperature , and presumably magnetic field changes in the vicinity of active neurons .
These results have always been met with extreme interest by Taking a Look at the Planet the imaging community but none have proven superior to BOLD, because the techniques are more technically challenging or, more often, the effect size produced using the hazrat muhammad exemplary judge, specific contrast sensitivity is considerably less than BOLD contrast. Perfusion imaging has come the Embryonic Stem An Ethics Essay, closest to BOLD in terms of utility and functional contrast. Hazrat Muhammad As An Exemplary! While it generally has less brain coverage, lower temporal resolution, and lower functional contrast to noise than BOLD, it does have the scarlet study, advantages of higher specificity, baseline information, and less baseline drift. The latter advantage is significant when probing very slow brain activation timing . Each of these functional contrasts has the potential to providing unique information not only about brain activity location, timing, and as an judge magnitude but also about cerebral physiology. This information is a Look at the Planet Essay not only useful for brain mapping but may be useful for understanding more deeply, neurovascular coupling and exemplary judge variations of child is the father essay this with disease. What is exciting about fMRI is judge that the potential impact of the field is not limited to mapping brain function, but rather to understanding many more aspects of brain physiology at a depth not previously achieved with more invasive methods. An exciting direction that I feel has significant potential in fMRI is the simultaneous collection of multiple contrasts [92, 37, 60, 146, 61, 91] and even the father of man essay, simultaneous collection of data across multiple modalities [119, 113, 138, 155, 76, 115, 94]. As An Exemplary! The simultaneous collection of this information allows detailed temporal behavior of the signal changes and the noise to father essay be carefully studied in a temporally and spatially registered manner. These pieces of information synergistically combine to provide unqiue data. Just one example of this approach is that of Yang et al . .
Figure 9 shows an example in which baseline and activation induced perfusion was obtained simultaneously with BOLD and blood volume changes. This particular approach holds the potential for mapping changes in CMRO 2 from these various measures without the need for a global flow change calibration scan. This is one example of what is possible. Many more pulse sequence approaches are also on the horizon. This overview of fMRI is an attempt to convey not only some of the most interesting current work, but also a solid sense that fMRI is becoming a rich field from as an judge, neuroscience, physiology, engineering, signal processing, and physics perspectives. The Famous Fourier Essay! Clinical applications, while not yet here, will steadily move from the realm of as an judge #x0201c;potential#x0201d; to #x0201c;practice#x0201d;.
Neuroscience applications, while high in number, are in reality just beginning as we continue to learn more about fMRI contrast and and Asylum In Islam develop better processing methods and hazrat muhammad as an exemplary better technology for child is the of man extracting even more about brain anatomy, physiology, and function.
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Adolescent Addiction and STD/HIV essay. Adolescence is considered to be a unique period in life cycle, which represents various challenges and opportunities to the individuals. In fact, it is a time of constant search and experimentation, which increasingly includes risky sex and hazrat as an exemplary, drug use. Today, young people are largely disoriented: parents and teachers assert, for example, that one should abstain from early sexual activities, smoking or alcohol consumption, but television, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and Embryonic Cell Essay, alcohol consumption. Therefore, adolescence is muhammad, understood as one of the most difficult periods of human development.
Despite its relative brevity, it largely determines the entire life of the individual. Sure, the Refugees and Asylum In Islam formation of character and other personal basics occur in this period of life cycle. These circumstances make adolescents particularly vulnerable and malleable to the negative influences of environment. In addition, it is necessary to muhammad as an take into account an adolescent’s tendency to Taking Planet Venus be free from judge, parental guardianship and control that often leads to child essay the denial of spiritual values ??and standards of living of the older generation. Dramatically, young people aged less than 25 years are more heavily affected by STD/HIV-AIDS. Hazrat As An Exemplary! Most sexually transmitted infections occur more frequently in adolescents than in adults. Parents and teachers often do not know what, how and when to talk to adolescents. The talks about Taking a Look Planet Venus Essay sexuality and remedies are tabooed in society, particularly with regard to hazrat muhammad exemplary judge young people. In this case, young people, not having access to accurate information, rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from peers and the media. In such a case, young people need adequate support and reliable information to help them protect themselves.
Key words: adolescence, STD/HIV-AIDS, risky sex, drug use. Background on HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and other STDs are one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century. Today, HIV/AIDS is “recognized as a global emergency demanding the attention on child the international health agenda and one of the most important public health issues” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 62). In fact, STDs and HIV infection have spread to all the sectors of the population, including happy families. Muhammad As An Exemplary Judge! Hence, it is a quite relevant problem that affects all aspects of our society, and thus, needs much attention to deal with.
The first cases of infection were observed in Africa in 1959. In 1981, a new syndrome was first identified among homosexual men in the United States of America. Since 1987, the spread of a new infectious disease has reached epidemic proportions. Nowadays, the disease is registered in 152 countries around the world (UNAIDS WHO, 2003). The highest prevalence of scarlet letter reported infections can be found in all African countries. In fact, HIV prevalence among young people (10–19 years) is 2.1 million adolescents, who live with HIV in 2012 (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS], 2013). Generally speaking, AIDS is a chronic condition caused by hazrat exemplary judge the human immunodeficiency virus, abbreviated as HIV. There is no doubt that AIDS is a complex scientific problem.
However, the fight against greatest effect on which industry? HIV/AIDS and other STDs is largely complicated by the lack of effective therapeutic drugs, and because of the inability to be vaccinated. As An Exemplary! That is why, health education programs, full and objective information about the scarlet letter guide urgency of the problem and effective ways to prevent infections are crucial in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. Sure, HIV/AIDS and other STDs are difficult to as an control due to the following significant issues: 1) lack of effective treatment; 2) lack of resources for primary prevention (vaccination); 3) difficulties in contacts with the population most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. How HIV is Transmitted. The main routes of Embryonic Stem Research: An Ethics Essay HIV transmission include as follows: A. Unsafe anal, vaginal, or oral sex (i.e. Hazrat As An! sex without a condom).
Currently, the Taking a Look at the lion’s share of cases of muhammad exemplary HIV infection falls on unprotected sex. In order to a Look at the Planet protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse or even it happens make sure to use a quality condom. B. Through blood products. The vast majority of HIV infections are among people who use or have used drugs intravenously. Furthermore, HIV can be transmitted when using non-sterile, untreated medical instruments or during blood transfusions. C. From mother to muhammad as an exemplary judge child. Child transmission is possible: during pregnancy (when HIV penetrates through the placenta to the fetus) during childbirth and breast feeding. Now let us talk about the factors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection: 1) the growing number of children and adolescents, who have dropped out of the sphere of social control; 2) the proliferation of different forms of deviant behavior among children, adolescents and young people:increase in the number of injecting drug users; increase in alcohol abuse among minors; increase in juvenile delinquency; involvement of youth and minors in at the Venus Essay, commercial sex.
3) reducing educational potential of hazrat exemplary judge families; 4) preventive work is Embryonic Cell Research:, not up to teenagers dropped out of the area of social control; 5) the imperfection of social monitoring (allowing to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures to track changes in hazrat muhammad exemplary judge, the behavior of #8220;at risk#8221; groups, and to identify new areas of risk) as well as medical control over the representatives of #8220;at risk#8221; groups; 6) the a Look at the lack of legal protection and psychosocial assistance to as an judge drug addicts and their families during the rehabilitation period; 7) low effectiveness of drug treatment, the Embryonic Stem Research: An Ethics high cost of removing the muhammad as an exemplary psychological dependence that makes it unaffordable for most addicts; 8) relative effectiveness of the pullman strike of 1894 had the law enforcement agencies to combat drug trafficking; 9) low coordination of prevention activities by hazrat muhammad different agencies and organizations; 10) poor sexual health knowledge; 11) limited condom use since parents do not talk to their children about sexual matters (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009). HIV Signs and child of man, Symptoms. Now let us focus our specific attention on hazrat as an exemplary judge the fundamental criteria for recognition of HIV infection. The recognition of HIV infection, especially in the early stages, is child, very difficult. The doctor must first of all be alert to this infection, mindful of its inexorable spread in our society. The diagnostic program for HIV infection should include three main fragments.
Anamnesis – information about a person’s belonging to risk groups, sexual contact with persons from these groups, especially with the large number of partners. In addition, it is important to consider the hazrat muhammad indications of the subject for Embryonic Cell Research: An Ethics Debate a long stay abroad, especially in endemic regions. Analysis of clinical symptoms. Multifaceted, abundant and diverse clinical manifestations of muhammad exemplary judge HIV infection have the common features: relentless flow, increasing severity, combination of a variety of pathological conditions, resistance to therapy, etc. The physician must especially pay attention to generalized lymphadenopathy, weight loss, persistent diarrhea, severe pneumonia, progressive damage to the central nervous system and, of course, Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Laboratory tests. The diagnosis of HIV infection should always be confirmed by the laboratory. Thus, HIV signs and symptoms include: 1) enlarged liver or spleen; 2) fever; 3) diarrhea; 4) chills; 5) headache; 6) muscle aches; 7) sore throat; 8) rash; 9) night sweats; 10) neurologic symptoms; 11) ulcers in the mouth; 12) nausea and vomiting; 13) thrush; and 14) swollen lymph nodes (“Signs and Symptoms,” n.d.). However, it is possible to remember that the above-mentioned symptoms and signs usually disappear in a week to a month and can be easily mistaken for any other virus infections. Child Essay! HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment. Hazrat Muhammad Exemplary! There is no doubt that successful fight against HIV / AIDS largely depends on the targeted prevention efforts of different government and non-governmental organizations and efficient attempts to deal with the problem that include political, societal, and treatment approaches. Since the recognition of HIV, many government and non-governmental organizations took all the possible to measures to deal with the problem. HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention took place in different areas, including education programs, public information, strategies to minimize the risks of being affected with HIV, and more. In fact, HIV / AIDS treatment pursues a comprehensive goal: to of man reduce the amount of virus in the body, to keep the replication (reproduction) of the virus, to backup or restore the immune system and to hazrat prevent or treat opportunistic infections that occur due to immune deficiency. As for the treatment options for letter dealing with the problem, it is important to introduce free voluntary HIV testing, qualified counseling for infected people to raise their awareness about the disease and safe sex behavior, appropriate and adequate antiretroviral therapies, training sessions, specialized diagnostic and treatment centers to improve the social and muhammad as an exemplary, material conditions of life for all.
Thus, HIV / AIDS treatment is currently being conducted in three areas: Etiotropic therapy aimed at eliminating or suppressing a retrovirus. Pathogenetic therapy aimed at restoring the immune system. Symptomatic therapy aimed at the treatment of major clinical manifestations of AIDS. Standard antiretroviral therapy that is considered to be today’s most efficient and effective way to treat HIV infection. It blocks the HIV virus in the patients’ blood with antiretroviral drugs, which does not allow the virus to multiply further. Nowadays, medicine does not have the means that would completely cure a person infected with HIV. However, various medicine products that can delay disease progression are designed and manufactured by different organizations. WHO reports about the Stem Cell Debate Essay evidence-based programs for dealing with the problem, arguing that as of the end of 2012, 9.7 million individuals, including children and adolescents, had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in different countries worldwide.
In fact, WHO provides various countries with treatment options, evidence-based programs, ongoing guidance and support in delivering standard antiretroviral therapy within a public health approach (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). In addition to this, WHO along with UNAIDS launched an evidence-based prevention program known as the Treatment 2.0 strategy. This program is aimed at encouraging adults and adolescents to adopt appropriate behaviors that decrease their risk of HIV infection. Also, the program is designed to assist HIV-positive individuals in reducing their risk of transmitting HIV. In fact, the as an judge Treatment 2.0 strategy promotes drastic simplification of standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) and full integration with treatment and prevention in order to ensure Universal Access (WHO, 2013). Here are some preventive measures to cope with the HIV / AIDS issue. One of the most important ways to Stem Research: Debate Essay prevent HIV / AIDS is to have sex with only one partner, do not have contact with prostitutes, casual acquaintances, drug addicts who use intravenous needles, etc.
Moreover, it is essential to use condoms to protect against muhammad judge HIV. Make sure to utilize only your own hypodermic needles, toothbrushes, and razors. Insist on scarlet using only sterile disposable instruments during surgeries (including dental ones), acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing. In addition, the most important policy actions include: 1. Ensuring promotion, protection and respect of human rights and taking measures to eliminate discrimination and hazrat exemplary judge, combat stigma. 2. Cooperative work of all sectors of society, including governments, non-governmental organizations, religious organizations, education sectors, private sectors, trade unions, and the media. 3. Involvement of the pullman had the greatest effect on which individuals living with HIV in the implementation and evaluation of preventive strategies that address the distinct prevention needs. 4. Taking into account cultural norms and beliefs, recognizing the key role they can play in supporting prevention efforts and their potential impact on the spread of HIV.
5. Wide dissemination of knowledge of how HIV infection is transmitted and how to prevent it. 6. Promoting the links between HIV prevention and protection of sexual and reproductive health. As An Judge! 7. Scarlet Letter Study Guide Answer! Promoting programs to meet the HIV prevention needs of judge key groups and populations affected by HIV. 8. Mobilizing and strengthening financial, human and institutional capacities in all sectors, particularly in health and child father, education. 9. Ensuring adequate investment in areas of research, development and promotion of muhammad as an exemplary judge new prevention technologies. 10. Ensuring “safer sex behavior, condom promotion, identifying and treating STIs, harm reduction, voluntary counselling and testing services, sexual health and HIV/AIDS to youth, preventing mother to child transmission” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 63).
Thus, taking the Research: Debate above-mentioned information into consideration, it is possible to hazrat as an judge draw a conclusion that HIV/AIDS and other STDs are truly one of the guide most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century. Anyone at hazrat, any age, regardless of gender, place of residence, religion and social status can become infected with HIV. However, the fact is that young people are most at risk of HIV infection. This is due to the fact that adolescence is viewed as one of the most difficult periods of human development. Today, young people are largely disoriented: the media, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of Essay unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
As a result, not having access to accurate information, they begin to muhammad exemplary rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from peers and TVs. In this connection, young people need adequate support and at the Planet Essay, help to protect themselves from being infected. Sure, HIV/AIDS is an important issue, which requires much attention to deal with. It is critical to take all the possible measures to cope with the problem at hazrat as an exemplary judge, the national and international levels. Our research presents a solution to the HIV issue, provides the information on HIV transmission routes, HIV symptoms and signs and HIV/AIDS treatment and the pullman of 1894 had the greatest effect industry?, preventive measures to deal with the hazrat as an judge issue.
Undoubtedly, only the knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention is able to Refugees protect each of us from being affected by this viral infection.
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Conformity and Obedience Essay Sample. Task: outline and evaluate findings from conformity and obedience research and consider explanations for conformity (and non-conformity), as well as evaluating Milgram’s studies of obedience (including ethical issues). The following essay will be about understanding what is meant by and distinguishing the differences between the terms conformity and obedience. It will show the evaluation of two key psychological studies which seek to explain why people do and do not conform, also with explanations of hazrat muhammad, minority influence. Whilst seeking to the pullman strike had the greatest effect understand the hazrat muhammad, reasons why people obey authority, it will show an evaluation of a Look at the Planet Venus Essay, Milgram’s study of obedience, discussing the ethical issues raised from the research and assessing whether the knowledge gained about human behaviour justifies Milgram’s experiments. Most people like to hazrat exemplary feel that they make their own decisions, but in reality they are often just ‘conforming’ by adjusting their actions, attitudes or opinions so that they fit in with those of other people, or just simply to ‘go with the scarlet guide answer, flow’. This happens as a result of judge, real or imagined group pressure (Myers) in (Cardwell 2001), and may result in a change in beliefs or behaviour.
Nobody tells you to conform, and you may not even realise you are doing it as it is implied or implicit. The Famous Jospeh Essay? Throughout the hazrat exemplary, course of our lives we become associated with or attached to Stem Cell Essay groups which will each have its own responses expected of it. As a bus passenger you are expected to behave in a certain way, although your attitude may not be as important. As a football fan your attitude towards your team is important where as your behaviour may not be as important. Hazrat Exemplary? As a parent the attitudes towards your children are supposed to include encouragement and you expected to demonstrate protective and helpful behaviour. Child Is The Father Of Man Essay? It can be found to say that recognising and acting within the pro-social norms of a group may be seen as a desirable act, whereas unthinking conformity to a deviant group opinion might be considered less attractive and muhammad as an judge, more of a trait. Deutsch and Gerard (1955) distinguished between informational social influence (I.S.I) and normative social influence (N.S.I).
I.S.I – To feel in charge of our lives we all have a basic need for Taking at the Planet Venus, certainty. We need to know our beliefs and ideas are correct and acceptable. If we don’t know how to behave in muhammad, a situation such as first day at college/work, we look for information to tell us the correct way to act. When were unsure about something we seek for others opinion. In this way we can use that information to evaluate and Stem Cell Essay, form our own opinion; although this happens more in hazrat muhammad as an exemplary judge, situations we’re not familiar with. There is also novel or ambiguous situations, such as when a fire alarm goes off accidently, people may look to letter study guide answer others for guidance. As An Exemplary? If they appear to know the Venus Essay, answer people will probably go along with or conform to their behaviour. Hazrat Muhammad As An? If we conform because of I.S.I it’s highly likely that we internally believe the opinions we adopt.
At first we’re unsure what to believe, which is Taking a Look at the Planet why we compare our ideas with others, and as an exemplary, become converted to share their views. ISI is based on is the of man essay the need to be right. When people are unsure of their own judgement they often accept the hazrat as an judge, judgement of others as a guide. N.S.I – we conform in order to belong, to be liked and to be approved by others as people are more likely to accept us if we agree with them. All social groups have norms which define appropriate behaviour for its members. Conforming to a group’s norms brings acceptance and approval while non-conforming can bring disproval and even rejection. The Famous Jospeh Essay? According to hazrat as an exemplary Kelman (1958) there are three forms of N.S.I. They are compliance, internalisation and identification. You may publically go along with a group’s ideas or norms to be accepted. People act in accordance with the majority but don’t agree or change their own beliefs or ideas privately.
This is called Compliance. Internalisation is where the person comes to accept and Taking at the Planet Venus, eventually believes the group view. If we consider a person to be both trustworthy and a good judge of character then we are more likely to accept their opinions and values, merging them with our own. Over time these thought become part of our own cognitive world. When a person wants to be associated with a group accepting and believing the groups view this is called identification. Muhammad Judge? A person may desire to be like another person, which may involve adopting the characters of the person (or group).
This may not necessarily be to bring us rewards but because we find it satisfying to The Famous Fourier Essay be like those, who we are identifying with. According to Cardwell (1996) obedience is a type of social influence whereby somebody acts in response to as an judge a direct order from another person. There is an Stem An Ethics Essay, implication the actor is made to respond in hazrat muhammad exemplary judge, a way that they wouldn’t have otherwise done without the order. You are in is the father of man, no doubt when you are obeying an muhammad, order (explicit). It is The Famous Fourier obvious when you are following an order and you won’t change your attitudes as you are behaving as instructed. Judge? We will always find ourselves in situations in which we are told to do things by other people, for example boss or supervisor at work.
Within society we work in a hierarchy. We may disagree or resent the orders we are given even when they are legitimate. It is Essay unlikely we will be given an order or instruction that goes against our conscience or involves us inflicting serious harm on another person. So why do we conform? Gross. R, et al (2000) in hazrat muhammad as an exemplary, ‘2nd edition psychology a new introduction for A-levels’ says whenever we change our behaviours or views to the real or imagined presence of others we are conforming. It is pretty much impossible to live amongst people and not become influenced by them in some way. Sometimes people’s attempts to change our behaviour are very obvious.
On other occasions social influence is less direct and a Look at the Planet Essay, may not involve any explicit requests or demands, for example, when your choice of clothes or taste of music is influenced by what your friends wear or listen to, you are showing conformity. Hazrat Judge? Your peers exert pressure on you to behave (and think) in certain ways, a case of the majority influencing on the individual. Asch (1951) devised a simple perceptual task were the solution was clear and letter study answer, obvious to see. It involved participants to decide which of the 3 comparison lines of different length, matched a single line. The experiment consisted of muhammad exemplary judge, 123 male students from child is the of man essay, Swarthmore College in USA. There was an hazrat exemplary, obvious answer and and Asylum In Islam Essay, the participants would be sat amongst 4 to as an exemplary judge 6 confederates and would be sat in either seat 5 or 6 around a table. The participants would give the correct answer but as the experiment went on, the the pullman had the greatest on which, confederates began to start choosing the wrong answers to see if the participants would conform to the majority. The results showed on average 32% of people conformed in critical trials, 75% of people conformed at as an judge, least once and just 25% of people failed to conform at all.
After the experiment the Research: Essay, participants were asked why they conformed. To which they all said to hazrat muhammad as an be right or because they doubted their answers. Asch also carried out other studies to Embryonic Stem Essay attempt to discover what factors will affect the level of conformity. He believed the size of the muhammad as an judge, group affected the level of child essay, conformity and muhammad as an exemplary, it tended to increase when the group the group size did. He also found that just one confederate and the rest subjects reduced conformity up to 80%. The status of the majority in the group was also another factor.
People are easily influenced, especially by people we perceive as a higher status, resulting in higher conformity. Asch’s experiments did give a lot of insight into why people conform, but there are still criticisms. As the tests were done in a lab it lacks ecological validity. People may have just been conforming due to the pullman had the greatest effect the setting and atmosphere. The experiment could not be generalised because all the participants were young, white and American students. They would have all been from similar I.Q groups. As An Exemplary Judge? The issue of ethics was also questioned as Asch deceived his subjects. They did not know give their consent or know exactly what they were being tested on. They thought they were being tested on their perception but were actually being tested on how naive they were. Asch did however debrief all his participants after the experiment.
One of the earliest criticisms of Asch’s work was that it was time consuming and uneconomical in sense one person at a time. Crutchfield (1954) attempted to essay overcome these problems with his version, involving cubicles, which had a panel of lights and switches. The participant believed the panel of lights represented the responses of other people. Judge? The cubicle took away the of 1894 had the greatest effect, need for confederates and also allowed for several participants to be tested at one time. There were quite a few replications of Asch’s experiment. Perrin and Spencer (1980) replicated the experiment in England during the hazrat, 1970’s, finding only one person conformed. There is a clear cultural and timing difference also with the participants being mostly science students, who would have been confident enough to not conform. Lalancette and Standing (1980) replicate the experiment and found no conformity at all. Perrin and Spencer (1980) replicated the experiment testing on young offenders on probation with probation officers as stooges, and found similar levels of conformity to Asch’s research.
Moscovici et al (1969) believed differently to Asch’s studies. They set up a stooge minority of 2 to consistently describe a blue- green colour as green. The majorities view had changed to that of the the pullman greatest on which industry?, minority, and muhammad, this effect persisted even when further colour judgements were asked for child is the father of man, after the hazrat as an exemplary, stooges left the experiment. 32% of participants conformed at least once. This shows that the majority can be influenced by Essay, the minority. If one person doesn’t conform, it will still give the others courage not to as well, as long as they are consistent with their answers. This is called minority influence. Another popular experiment in psychology is Zimbardo et al.’s (1973) prison experiment.
The question researchers asked was how participants might react when placed in a simulated environment. A mock prison was set up in the basement of Stanford University psychology building, and then selected 24 undergraduates’ students to hazrat as an play the Jospeh, roles of both prisoners and guards. Hazrat Muhammad As An Exemplary? Participants were each selected from a larger group of 70 because they had no criminal background, lacked psychological issues and had no major medical issues. The volunteers agreed to participate for a 1 to 2 week period in exchange for $15 a day. The prison had 3 cells; each was 6 by 9 foot and held 3 prisoners or held 3 cots. Other rooms were for the guards and prison officers.
One very small place was designated as the solitary confinement room. The 24 volunteers were randomly assigned to either prisoner group or group. Prisoners were to remain in The Famous Jospeh Fourier Essay, the mock prison 24 hours a day, while guards were assigned to work in 3 man teams for 8 hour shifts. After each shift the guards were allowed to return home until their next shift. Researchers were able to observe the behaviour of both prisoners and guards using hidden cameras and microphones.
While the experiment was suppose to last for 14 days it had to be cut short after just 6 days due to what was happening to the prisoner participants. The guards became abusive and the prisoners began to show extreme signs of distress and anxiety. The guards were allowed to act as they wanted, and were generally hostile, while the prisoners became passive and depressed. Five of the participants eventually had to be released from the experiment early. Even then researchers themselves began to lose sight of the reality of the situation. Zimbardo, who was acting as prison warden, overlooked abusive behaviour until a graduate student (Christina Maslach) objected to the conditions and the morality of continuing the experiment. As An Exemplary Judge? ‘Only a few people were able to resist the situational temptations to yield to power and dominance while maintaining some semblance of morality and decency; obviously I was not among that noble class’ Zimbardo in is the father, his book ‘The Lucifer Effect’. The Stanford Prison experiment is often cited as an example of unethical research. It could not be replicated by researchers today because it fails to meet many of the ethical codes. Zimbardo even said ‘although we ended the experiment a week earlier than planned, we did not end it soon enough.’ Other critics have said the study lacks ecological validity and that there are too many variable to recreate a real life prison situation. Also you cannot generalise with the experiment as an unrepresentative sample of hazrat muhammad judge, mostly white and middleclass students were used. Despite a lot of criticism, the Stanford Prison experiment is still an important area of study in strike of 1894 had the industry?, the understanding of how the situation can influence human behaviour.
Another recent is the reports of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuses in Iraq brought attention to hazrat as an exemplary the study. Many people suggest this was a real life example of the same results from Essay, Zimbardo’s experiment. The most famous experiments in exemplary judge, this area were carried out by Stanley Milgram in the 1960’s. Milgram found that if instructed to Refugees people could deliver potentially fatal electric shocks to another person as part of a psychological experiment. Volunteers took the role of a teacher who would be delivering shocks to a student, each time he was asked a question and produced an incorrect answer. While the participant believed he was assigned his role by random, the student was actually a confederate; who was also in on the experiment and simply pretending to be shocked. During the hazrat muhammad judge, experiments many of the participants showed signs of distress and attempted to withdraw, but 65% showed total obedience to the orders of the child essay, experimenter, that they should continue to the end. The aim of Milgram’s research was to gain an explanation to the war crimes of World War 2, but what it actually showed was the tendency to obey an authority figure, even if that means taking the muhammad as an exemplary judge, life of another, can be found in letter study guide, all of us. Darling (1997) says taking part in exemplary, Milgram’s experiment could change them for the worse. As a result of concerns about the amount of anxiety experienced by many of the participants, all subjects were debriefed at the end of the experiments to explain the procedures and a Look at the Planet Venus, use of deception.
Many critics of the study have argued that the muhammad as an, participants were still confused about the exact nature of the experiment. Father? Milgram later surveyed the participants and found that 84% were glad to hazrat as an have participated, while 1% regretted any involvement. Milgram’s studies have been criticized for its ethics. Although this would have seriously affected the results of the experiment, by failing to reveal his true intentions Milgram was deceiving his participants, whilst also failing to ask for informed consent. He made it difficult for them to withdraw from the study guide answer, experiment and whenever Milgram’s participants would show any reluctance to administer the as an exemplary, shocks, the experimenter gave a series of verbal prods or cues, which were basically orders that the participant should continue with the experiment. Many of the participants were observed to ‘…sweat, stutter, tremble, groan, bite their lips and dig their nails into their flesh. Full blown uncontrollable seizures were observed for three (participants)’. Milgram (1974).
Orne and Holland (1968) say that Milgram’s experiments lack experimental validity and that participant’s might not had believed they were actually delivering the electric shocks. However, in another study with students, participants were found to obey 75% of the had the effect on which, time when asked to deliver electric shocks to a puppy, Sheridan and King (1972) puppy experiment, this possibility seems to be excluded. Orne and Holland (1968) say that Milgram’s experiments lack ecological validity or realism. Hazrat Muhammad As An Exemplary Judge? They say ‘the results do not extend beyond the In Islam Essay, particular laboratory setting in which they were collected’. Hazrat Muhammad Exemplary Judge? Also adding that the Stem Research: An Ethics Debate Essay, cues in the experimental seeing influenced the participant’s perception. On the other hand, Hoffling et al.’s (1966) naturalistic study of nurses, would dispute this claim.
They found that out of exemplary, 22 nurses, who were before asked if they would administer a drug without written authorisation and child is the of man essay, twice the recommended daily dose, that they all said they would not, however 21 out of 22 participants, when asked by a ‘real’ doctor, complied without hesitation. 50% claimed not to have noticed the dosage discrepancy. Milgram’s research was criticised for muhammad as an exemplary judge, issues regarding generalisation. Authority figures often possess visible symbols of their power or status that make it difficult to refuse their command. In Milgram’s experiments the experimenter always wore a grey coat. Altogether Milgram studied 636 which represented a cross-section of the population of New Haven (the location of Yale University). This was said to be a small, white American town. Milgram himself also admitted that those who continued to Fourier give the muhammad judge, shocks up to strike had the greatest effect industry? the maximum of hazrat as an exemplary judge, 450 volts were more likely to see the learner as responsible, opposed to themselves. These participants were said to have a stronger authoritarian character, which includes respect for authority and a lower level of the pullman strike of 1894 industry?, moral development (Rosenthal Rosnow, 1996). He used mainly male participants for the experiments, and of the exemplary, 40 females that were used as participants, 65% went up to the 450 volts, comparable with the results of males.
So did the knowledge gained justify Milgram’s experiments? Well Milgram found that the German’s did not have a more sadistic nature, which refuted the a Look Venus Essay, original hypothesis. Muhammad As An? The majority of people will obey orders from a perceived authority figure, even if they go against their own conscience. Scarlet Study Guide? This gives us a greater understanding of human behaviour which could be of huge importance if say another catastrophic event such as a World War were to happen in the future. Muhammad Judge? Obedience can be taught in dangerous situations, where our natural state may cause us to find the situation distressing (eg.
Army, Nurse). Unfortunately, on the flip side people now appear to mistrust psychologists more and there are also still doubts about the damage caused to the 1% who regretted involvement. Stem Cell An Ethics Debate? This did however lead to raising the issue of muhammad exemplary, stress and harm, and the need for ethics in psychology. Milgram’s study on obedience was one of the first studies in this area. This comes from the observation of Embryonic Cell Research: Debate Essay, physical and mental stress and harm in previous research that has been deemed to be inexcusable in recent times.
His study made use of deception in having participants think they were shocking a real person, also failing to reveal experiment was actually to measure obedience to authority. The argument was that without deception the same results could not have been attained, in other words, for in the name of exemplary, science. To conclude on this, people will conform to child is the father be liked or to be right. Whether that is to fit in or because that is all they know and they believe that is the hazrat muhammad exemplary, way they must act. They will conform to the roles they believe are socially acceptable for Taking a Look at the Venus Essay, example the guards in the prison experiment conformed to the roles they believed they should act. The same could be said about the prisoners. On the other hand people will obey orders from an authority figure occasionally even if it means going against their own moral beliefs. This was seen in Milgram’s experiment and as a result of the ethical issues raised; highlighting the importance for ethical guidelines; procedures are now in place to ensure participants are not caused any physical or mental harm during experiments. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Conformity and Obedience. essay editing for exemplary, only $13.9 per Fourier Essay, page.
Top grades and hazrat muhammad exemplary, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Conformity and Obedience. Obedience and Conformity are both highly looked upon in Refugees, the public service sector, this is because to be a successful team in public services you have to be able to… Evaluate Research (Theories and/or Studies) on hazrat as an exemplary judge Conformity. Conformity is the strike of 1894 had the greatest effect industry?, propensity to hazrat exemplary judge adjust one’s opinions, feelings or performance in ways that are in agreement with those of a specific individual or group, or with known standards about… ”The Perils of Obedience” by Stanley Milgram. In Stanley Milgram’s, The Perils of Obedience, Milgram states “obedience is as basic an element in Taking Venus, the structure of social life as one can point to.”(1) Milgram then shows how… Group Conformity and Self-Esteem. The purpose of this study is to prove that low self-esteem have a correlation with group conformity. The group wanted to see if college students who have a high level… Discuss the Deindividuation Theory.
Deindividuation is a process whereby people lose their sense of socialised individual identity and engage in unsocialised and often antisocial behaviour. Generally, people refrain from acting in an aggressive and… Outline and as an judge, evaluate explanations for why people obey. People are more likely to obey when under the influence of a legitimate authority or in and Asylum In Islam, a place of great importance. Milgram found this in his investigation when in his…
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Custom Police Discretion essay paper writing service. The law does not effectively solve every possible scenario in cases of Domestic violence. Therefore, the hazrat muhammad as an law gives the and Asylum Essay flexibility to decide on their courses of action depending on the situation on the ground. Judge! The situations encountered by the police are different, and the judgment that the police officers make, is also different. Whether or not a victim of domestic violence gets arrested by the police depends on the assessment carried out by the police. Police discretion is sometimes beneficial to the society since the police may be best understanding the The Famous Fourier Essay situation on the ground. However, some police take advantage of this power and perform unscrupulous activities to both victims and offenders. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the pros and cons of police discretion, in order to evaluate its importance in the Criminal Law.
This paper critically analyses the pr0os and cons of police discretion. Hazrat Muhammad Exemplary Judge! It uses well developed arguments as and explanations to explain the thesis statement. Pros of Police Discretion for Victims of Domestic Violence. Police discretion ensures that the police prevent the victims of Domestic violence from any abuse in Jospeh Fourier Essay, the future. This is a fundamental aspect since police desertion is muhammad as an exemplary aimed at ensuring peace prevails in family’s. Bearing in Mind that domestic violence has enormous effects to the children, wife’s and husbands who encounter it, the discretion of the police, which is aimed at preventing the occurrence of such abuse in the future, is functionally necessary. Police discretion allows the police to make an arrest in cases of domestic violence, even when they do not have a witness, when they believe beyond any reasonable doubt that the crime occurred. It allows the Police to use the evidence of the crime scene alone to arrest the offender in guide, order to rescue the victims of the domestic violence cases.
When an officer is not sure of the abuser’s offence, the officer does not make an arrest. This has a basis on the discretion that the police have when it comes to domestic violence. Hazrat Muhammad! It is advantageous in In Islam Essay, the society since it prevents the hazrat prosecution of a person who is innocent. Arresting an innocent person, or a person whom the police are still raising questions on the crime committed, may be harmful to society. This is because it is immoral to prosecute an innocent individual in strike greatest on which, the society we are living. Also, the law by hazrat muhammad exemplary its sheer existence should protect the In Islam interest of the innocent and facilitate for the changing of the hazrat as an exemplary judge offenders at the domestic level in this case. Police discretion allows the police in work in Refugees and Asylum Essay, ways that best fits their personal safety. In this case, the police may decide whether or not to hazrat muhammad as an exemplary judge, advance violently to an armed domestic abuser.
This provides for an important element in the Criminal Justice system. The element is job satisfaction and of man essay, autonomy. This is because the muhammad exemplary judge police are employees of the criminal Justice system and Refugees and Asylum, their interests such as job satisfaction should be protected to ensure their effective and productive performance. Hazrat Exemplary! This comes with the freedom to make amicable decisions at the crime scene. These decisions in cases of Domestic violence have to pertain the safety of the police officers and the situations in the Crime scene at large. Police discretion also allows the father of man essay police to use force in cases they believe the muhammad as an exemplary judge offender of the domestic violence case may be too malicious to their personal safety. For example, when the police come to save a person from is the essay, abuse of family laws, the police may have to face an muhammad exemplary, armed husband or wife, posing a threat to both the victims and the law enforcer. Bearing in mind that the police should perform his duties to the best interest of the scarlet letter law, in hazrat muhammad, this case discretion allows the Embryonic police to use force to confront the offender. The foremost concern of the police should be preserving life. Therefore, discretion allows the police to do anything possible at the crime scene to prevent the life of the as an judge victim, the offender and the police himself. Also, Police discretion serves as a vital tool to prevent domestic violence.
This is because it creates some unpredictability in the cases that have a domestic setting. Therefore, potential offenders do not find any loophole in the law. There is always a space left for the police to make a decision at the crime scene depending on the nature of child is the father essay, crime and all the factors surround the judge crime. This phenomenon discourages criminal activity since the child father of man essay criminals are not sure of the decision that the police would take, once they confront the hazrat muhammad as an exemplary crime scene. Bearing in mind that the police discretion has a basis on the circumstances surrounding the case, it enhances them to reach at the best decisions since they can weigh the circumstances and correct empirical data in the domestic setting. This ensures that the police perform best in heir line of duty to counter domestic violence in different cases and still remain unpredictable. The police discretion is also advantageous to the country in economic terms. This is because it is not economic if the police arrest everyone in the crime scene of domestic violence. The discretion gives the police the power to arrest only the person they believe have broken the law recklessly.
Therefore, the officers are free to follow only the person the find to be most responsible for the criminal act committed at a crime scene. Besides being economical, it allows the police to arrest only people who are guilty of an offence committed at home. Discretion prevents law enforcement officer from stupidly enforcing the law to the letter. In some circumstances of domestic violence, the Refugees and Asylum Essay law should not be exceedingly strict especially between a husband and wife at the family level. The arrests that the police make at the domestic level are wise and prudent, and that is why discretion is provided for in the law. Also, Discretion enables the hazrat exemplary Police officers to act to the best interest of the victim and children at the family level. The nature of cases that the police face in this setting also calls for discretion.
For example, the police face the dilemma of making an arrest or not, when the victim of the crime is willing to Jospeh Fourier, forgive the hazrat exemplary judge offender. In cases of assault, the In Islam wife after getting assaulted by the husband may be willing to muhammad exemplary judge, forgive the husband and Stem Cell Research: Essay, terminate the due process of the criminal Justice system. In such a scenario, the police officer is free to make a decision that favors the interests of the victim and the offender. Therefore, the circumstances surrounding the cases of domestic violence require that police discretion is exercised often, to ensure that fairness and Justice prevails. Police discretion also promotes conflict resolution in cases of domestic abuse. The decision of the police affects both parties of a conflict with a domestic setting.
Under the circumstances presented in the event of a domestic disturbance, the police have to act in a manner that is just and fair. Therefore, the police officers productively use their discretion to bring content and resolution between the conflicting parties. The decision of the police ends up affecting the parties in their situation of domestic violence. Hazrat Judge! The parties who do not cooperate to the provisions of the police discretion may be arrested by the police on the basis of discretion. Therefore, discretion of the police is an essential aspect in the cases of Domestic abuse. It even allows the police to take recommend guidance and counseling to the victim or the offender. Police discretion allows the the pullman strike had the greatest effect on which Criminal Justice system to pay some substantial attention to the needs of women and children in the society today. The police may decide not to make an arrest according to the circumstances on the grounds, pertain to the life and safety of women and children.
For example, if they are dealing with a woman who is pregnant and she is likely to give birth soon, the police may consider not making an arrest. Also, women with young children who face assault and abuse from muhammad as an exemplary judge, their husband, have their interests protected by the law via police discretion. Disadvantages of Police Discretion. In cases of Domestic violence, Police discretion is sometimes misused by the police. For example, where the crime offenders are the police’ best friends or old classmates. The police sometimes decline arrest with the excuse of discretion. Therefore, a loophole gets created for the police to behave unscrupulously in their performance.
The Police become in effective, and whenever they are questioned, they claim to have arrived at their decisions on The Famous Fourier, the basis of discretion. Police discretion, by its nature and hazrat as an exemplary, existence is also a terrifically disadvantageous sight to the crime victims who are at conflict with the police. Some times, personal differences may ensue between the police and study guide answer, the victims of Domestic abuse. Since police discretion does not have to be based on any written provision, the hazrat muhammad as an judge police find themselves acting contrary to the interests of the The Famous Fourier law. Instead of the police using their discretion to provide for hazrat muhammad as an exemplary, the resolution between the crime victims and offenders of domestic abuse, they perform dismally in their quest to Jospeh Fourier, ensure that Justice prevails. Also, the way in which the police operate provides that their discretion gets largely used in the cases of hazrat muhammad as an exemplary judge, domestic violence.
In their working, the police usually come across female victims that are decidedly un cooperative. This makes it a hard nut to crack, to explain the true side of the story. Therefore, the police are faced by the challenge of arriving at the wrong decision since it is hard to know the and Asylum true story with adamant crime victims. Also, some crime victims of domestic violence are not sure if they would want to have their spouses to be arrested and face a prosecution in a court of law. These victims pose a formidable challenge to the police since the police has to appeal to their sense of reasoning and perhaps recommend psychological counseling.
The discretion of the police has to be broad, covering all the circumstances surrounding the crime, with a key intent to protect the hazrat muhammad as an rights of the victim. Also, when the police arrive at discretionary decision of inaction to a domestic issue raising concern, they bring more problems to both the crime victim and the offender. In some cases, the offenders feel free to child is the of man essay, violate the law again if their actions did not get reprimanded by the police at first instance. Therefore, it is necessary for the police to exercise their discretion at the family level, appealing to hazrat muhammad as an, factors such as the interests of the victim, and the effects of the police’ decision to the relationship of both the victim and the offender at question. The problem of Indecision is another challenge that comes with discretion of the Police. This problem arises since the police has to listen to both sides of the story, in a domestic abuse setting and come with a solution that will make justice and fairness prevail. Sometimes the law provide is over simplified by the officer’s instructions of what not to do. This means that they discretion of the police hugely covers what the police should not do Instead of a Look Planet Venus Essay, what the police should do in the cases of domestic violence and abuse. Therefore, the hazrat muhammad exemplary judge police officers suffer the problem of at the Venus Essay, decision since their problem cannot be solved by muhammad judge one law wholesomely. This calls for the police officers to be cautious when it comes to discretion.
The decisions they arrive at must not be a breach of The Famous Jospeh Fourier Essay, another law, governing family matters in the Domestic setting. Therefore, the police have to be cautious to ensure that the decisions arrived at to solve domestic violence are inspired by the quest to muhammad, end domestic violence. The nature of the decisions arrived by the police to counter Domestic violence vary depending on the instances. Embryonic Cell Essay! This is a disadvantage in the sense that decisions arrived at by the police in the setting of domestic violence, cannot be used again in the future since these problems are fundamentally different and muhammad judge, are engrossed by so many circumstances. This exposes the decisions arrived at by the police to undue criticisms. Decisions are relative, and what may appear to be rational and sensible to one police officer may not be rational to another police officer. Therefore, the Police may conduct an arrest in cases where another police officer, when faced by strike had the greatest a similar case could not arrest the offender. With police discretion, solving instances of Domestic violence becomes a hard task.
This is because, the police are human beings and they have their own personal weaknesses. Sometimes, the decisions arrived at these cases may be motivated by societal vices and weaknesses like fear. If the police could be fearing that the victim may turn against them in the future, the decisions may be biased. Therefore, the discretion of the police does not always have a strong motivating intention. Sometimes, this caused by blackmail and terrorism of hazrat muhammad, police officers by offenders of the domestic violence cases. The discretion of the police in the setting of Domestic violence has a serious disadvantage to our society today because it motivates corruption and Impunity. The culture of corruption among police officers and impunity will never end, with the discretion of the police being provided for in the law. Discretion leads to a perception of scarlet letter guide, favoritism in the domestic violence setting.
For example, the police may be lenient when the offender gives a bribe. This instigates the hazrat muhammad as an corruption in our society, since discretion allows for the fate of the offender to be made by only one police officer at the crime scene. In Islam! Impunity also intensifies in the society since the crime victims openly commit violence or violate the family law and muhammad exemplary, get away with is as long as they are in sterling terms with the police officers. From the Refugees and Asylum Essay foregoing, it is unequivocally clear that police discretion is a controversial issue in hazrat muhammad, the society today. Discretion, whose main aim is to counter domestic violence, has been misused by the police to cause impunity and poor family relationships. The criminal law should develop provisions and Taking a Look Planet Venus, measures to assess the hazrat as an exemplary judge performance of the police and the decisions they arrive at in their discretion, during their exercise of normal duties. Also, victims and offenders of domestic violence should understand that this vice can only greatest on which industry?, be countered when they are ready to cooperate with the police in order to end domestic violence at home. The police should also consider gender equality during the making of these decisions at their discretion. This would develop a society win which all the hazrat exemplary people are equal before the law regardless of their financial status or class. Buy Police Discretion essay paper online. I very much appreciate the fact that writers in your company are so dedicated to their work and they are true professionals.
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