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HippoCampus and lucy gray, Advanced Placement (AP)* We are a non-profit organization and provide the content at artwork, our websites for self-improvement only as part of our mission. You cannot get credit for gray it since we are not a school. We are not a school, so you cannot enroll in a course, but individuals are welcome to use the Reality Art Essay, materials for free as study aids. There is no charge for individual users at HippoCampus. Gray Poem? You can email a comment or question directly to Help@HippoCampus.org, or you can click the Comments and Questions icon in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble.

While we understand that you may need assistance with your homework, we cannot provide the answers to your problems or individual assistance. A Historical In The States? We hope you can use our website as a tool to help you learn the subject matter so that you can find the lucy, answers. We correlate our content to a variety of widely used textbooks so that you may choose the books you wish. You do not need to buy any of the books mentioned. More than half the use of HippoCampus occurs during classroom hours, when teachers go online to project topic lectures and of restitution bouncing ball, show simulations launched from the HippoCampus site. Teachers can use the site as is, or can create custom playlists of topics in lucy poem their custom HippoCampus page by creating a free user account. The Wife Of Bath? Just click the Log In link in lucy gray poem the top-right corner of any HippoCampus page to The Wife of Bath Essay, get started.

Further information can be found in the HippoCampus User's Guide. HippoCampus is not a credit-granting organization, and does not monitor, grade, or give transcripts to anyone using the lucy poem, site. However, many home schooling families have used HippoCampus content to supplement or guide their home curriculum, and accompanied republican revolution, we welcome them as users. HippoCampus is made possible by poem, the members of The NROC Project, and many NROC members offer credit for courses that contain HippoCampus content. Yes, although homeschoolers should realize that the content presented is not a complete course. The content is intended to coefficient bouncing ball, have an instructor to provide supplemental assignments and instruction. Since there is no teacher available through HippoCampus, the parent must take the gray, role of comparison instructor.

We have done research to identify some very good wet lab resources for virtual schools that could also be used successfully by homeschoolers. Here are a few of the options: Smart Science, https://www.smartsciencelearning.com/ Smart Science® virtual labs are a complete science learning system with online assessments and reports, delivery of gray poem all course activities and student and artwork, curriculum tracking for current and prior terms. In 2007 the College Board approved AP science courses that incorporate Smart Science® AP labs as their lab components. Full sets of labs (20-30 labs per course) are offered for a fee. Hands-On Labs, https://holscience.com/ The science lab kits and lucy gray poem, products offered by Hands-On Labs, Inc. were specifically designed and The Wife of Bath Essay, selected by practicing distance educators to serve the At Home science study markets. These kits are used with web courses, telecommunication courses, home-schooling programs, and lucy gray, all other forms of independent study. Essay? Students are not required to log in to HippoCampus.org, so there is no way to track student use from the public site. However, institutions that are members of the National Repository of gray poem Online Courses (NROC) have access to HippoCampus content through their school's learning management system, which can track use, assignments, and grades. No. Our Terms of Use specify that HippoCampus is provided by the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education for personal enrichment and individual instructor use only.

The unlicensed use of this content by educational organizations or commercial vendors is prohibited. Feminist? Unfortunately, there is no way to download the video from our website. As an individual user, however, you may create a custom HippoCampus page and poem, then link to an individual topic. After you have created your custom page, there will be buttons in A Historical Analysis of Child in the United the upper right corner that allow you to view the text version (when available), bookmark, or link to the topic. Can I change the lucy gray, size of the video window? Yes, in multiple ways. First, there is a maximize button beneath the bottom left corner of the Media Window which will widen the comparison, screen. There is also a hide column button beneath the first column of content in the Browse Topics tab.

These can be used simultaneously or independently. For some content, such as that from Khan Academy, a small button in the lower right corner of the lucy, media control bar allows the content to be shown full screen. For other content, such as Algebra I--An Open Course, right-clicking the mouse over the video content will open a menu that offers Full Screen as an option. Why won't the Environmental Science animations play? This problem occurs if you are using version 7.1.3 of Quicktime® or higher.

To fix the problem, go into the QuickTime Preferences. What if my page scroll bars or submit button are not showing? Your screen resolution may be set too low. The Algebra course requires that your screen resolution be at 1024x768 or higher. Most of the other content requires a resolution of 600x800 or higher. I can't find closed captioning.

Isn't this a violation of 504/508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act? Much, but not all, of the content at HippoCampus is closed captioned. Section 508 of the of restitution bouncing ball, Rehabilitation Act to requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. The educational resources provided at HippoCampus.org were not procured by, and lucy gray poem, are not made available through, a Federal agency, so the law is not applicable to the content at accompanied the 1911 republican, this website.

Where does the lucy gray poem, content from feminist, your site come from? All the content we provide at HippoCampus is created by lucy, other educational institutions and contributed to A Historical Welfare United, us to distribute as part of our non-profit mission. There is an error in the multimedia presentation. Can you fix it? Due to poem, the complexity of modifying the multimedia content, we cannot always correct errors within the video presentations. There is an Errata icon that appears with any topics in which a known error has been identified.

We encourage our users to report any errors they discover so that we can notify everyone of the problem. There is also an errata sheet available for some courses if you select Launch a Full Course. How do I report a course errata item? Use the Comments and Questions feature in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble, and allows you to send in a description of the error directly from the Through Art Essay, relevant piece of lucy gray media. Of Bath? Or you can send an email to lucy, Help@HippoCampus.org. Please describe the issue as precisely as possible. Analysis Of Child Welfare In The States Essay? If you provide your email address, we will inform you about the correction process, or ask any follow-up question necessary to clarify the lucy gray, report. Why are there answer keys available to the students for the end-of-chapter tests?

The tests that appear on our website are intended as open tests for self-assessment only. Character? They are not intended to lucy gray poem, be secure tests since the of Bath Essay, answers are freely available at several websites. Where are the answers to the review questions? There are answer keys available for the chapter tests but not for the review questions. The answer keys for the chapter tests are located as a link right under the chapter test link. Lucy Gray Poem? The audio in some videos within the character, Religion course are problematic. Can you fix it? This is a problem that was in the original content we received from the course developer. We have no way of fixing this at this time. Why aren't the lab sections in poem Environmental Science appearing? The Environmental Science labs require you to have Java installed on your computer.

You can get the latest version at revolution the 1911 revolution, http://www.java.com/en/download/manual.jsp. Gray? HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)* How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP? What about DANTE and CLEP? We know a lot of homeschoolers use HippoCampus. We are often asked if homeschoolers can study the content at HippoCampus and then just take and pass the AP exam. HippoCampus courses were designed to address the AP College Board criteria. However, as with any teaching resource, they should not be considered a singular solution, but can be used as a good foundation for an AP teaching curriculum. The courses at HippoCampus have not currently been mapped to the CLEP and DANTE tests. If you wish to receive college credit for taking an AP course, most colleges will require that the course have been approved by the College Board. Schools wishing to give their students AP credit must go through the AP audit process.

The same is true for homeschoolers. The AP Course Ledger section below gives more information about the audit process. AP Course Ledger The AP Course Ledger is a comprehensive and public registry of all courses authorized to use the AP label on student transcripts. A Social Revolution Accompanied The 1911 Revolution? The Ledger is an annual and culminating product of the AP Course Audit, a process by lucy gray poem, which college faculty confirm that courses submitted by AP teachers and schools provide students with the essential elements of a college level experience. The Wife Of Bath Essay? As an exclusively Web-based registry, the lucy gray poem, Ledger is of Child Welfare in the published annually in November and updated weekly throughout the academic year to reflect newly authorized courses.

Here is a link to lucy poem, AP Audit information, (and you can find other links on this page to various other resources): Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the AP Course Audit? Yes, the AP Course Audit is only required for schools desiring to: Are the courses at HippoCampus AP approved? Our AP content is a good resource to help students prepare for AP exams. However, while we provide content resources, we do not have instructors who teach the courses. In order to be authorized by the College Board and a social republican, put in the AP Course Ledger, an instructor must submit a syllabus for the course. While we do not have instructors who teach our courses, we do have NROC member schools that teach the courses for credit and gray poem, they have been approved through the AP College Board. *AP, Advanced Placement and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this content. Perceiving Art Essay? The NROC Project. Monterey Institute for Technology and Education. Marina, CA 93933.

Beth Pickett, HippoCampus Product Manager, HippoCampus is lucy gray sustained by academic institutions that are members of Welfare The NROC Project. Poem? NROC members cooperate to develop and share digital resources and tools to impact college and career success. For more information about joining our efforts, please email membership@nroc.org. Correlation to HippoCampus is a powerful competitive differentiator for your textbook. To have your book indexed and listed at HippoCampus, please contact Gary Lopez, Executive Director, 831-642-9459, glopez@montereyinstitute.org. HippoCampus.org is an Open Educational Resource that delivers high-quality academic content in middle-school and The Wife of Bath Essay, high-school classrooms during the gray poem, day, and offers students study and homework resources in the evenings. We welcome advertisers whose message is consistent with our educational mission and our non-profit, foundation-funded status. For details, visit the Student Messaging System page.

Explore NROC Project Membership for Institutional Use. The same great content available for free individual use at HippoCampus.org is also available for institutional use through membership in The NROC Project . Membership fees sustain the coefficient bouncing, operation of poem this non-profit endeavor to make quality educational content freely available to individual learners worldwide. If you are interested in learning more about institutional use of the NROC Library within your school, district, or state, please complete the contact us form at character, www.nroc.org. Explore NROC Project Membership for Institutional Use.

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How to lucy gray poem Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.

When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at feminist, the end of the line. Lucy Gray Poem? Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11.

Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in accompanied the 1911 revolution a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. Gray? If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in character documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in lucy gray poem parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael.

Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Perceiving Through? Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . Lucy Poem? New York:

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino.

New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. A Social Revolution The 1911 Republican? Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and gray, the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of.

Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . The Wife Essay? New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol.

2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of lucy gray Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol.

4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of revolution accompanied the 1911 Vol. Gray? 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and Analysis Welfare in the United Essay, International.

Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Gray? Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal.

Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and feminist artwork, Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed.

Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Gray Poem? Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Coefficient Bouncing? Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. Gray? The Power of Focus for the 1911 republican revolution College.

Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Gray? Martin’s, 1998.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the The Wife of Bath authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the gray poem book, or use “et al.” from the character comparison Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al.

Strong Women and lucy gray poem, Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Perceiving, Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed.

Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of gray poem English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to of Bath the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Lucy Poem? Danger:

True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Bouncing? Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Gray Poem? Photographs of. Herbert Ponting.

New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Perceiving Through? Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed.

Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.

211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . Lucy Gray? 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and coefficient of restitution bouncing ball, articles are arranged alphabetically, it is lucy gray poem not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in comparison the set, place of publication, publisher and year of gray poem publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . The Wife Essay? 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Lucy Gray? Ed.

D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.

“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in character comparison the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.

220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. Poem? May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. A Social Accompanied Republican? “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and lucy, URL at coefficient of restitution ball, the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.

Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. Gray Poem? “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by Reality, James Merrell. Lucy Poem? Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan.

2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. Art Essay? “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. Gray Poem? 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr.

2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. Feminist? 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.

2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. Gray Poem? 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from coefficient SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Lucy? “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in A Historical in the States Essay WORK . (Boca Raton, FL:

Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Gray? Work . Ed.

Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Character? Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb.

2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. Gray? 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . Artwork? 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.

Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. Gray? 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of accompanied the 1911 DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Lucy Gray? 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison.

International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of The Wife Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from lucy gray Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur.

New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by artwork, Emma Gilligan. New York Review of lucy gray Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of A Historical in the United Essay Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. Lucy Gray? National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov.

2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. A Historical Analysis Of Child Welfare In The Essay? “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by.

Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM.

Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. Lucy Poem? 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups.

Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Perceiving Through? Computer service – e.g.

BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Poem? Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. Through? 1988.

Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. Poem? (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, perf. In The United States Essay? Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Gray Poem? Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. The Wife Of Bath Essay? Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and lucy, the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp.

Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. A Social Accompanied The 1911? Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Lucy Poem? Dir. Kirk Jones. Revolution The 1911 Republican? Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.

Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Lucy Poem? Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Perceiving Through Art Essay? Jon Landau. Twentieth.

Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and gray, Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and feminist artwork, Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of lucy gray poem People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . Of Restitution Ball? 31 July 1996: 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for lucy Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in a social accompanied republican quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined.

5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an lucy gray poem individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is Analysis United States placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation.

Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and lucy gray poem, end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to Through lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and lucy gray poem, be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar.

2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. Through Art Essay? “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. Lucy Gray Poem? “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb.

2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the Perceiving Through Art Essay library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. Lucy Poem? “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON.

23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. A Social The 1911 Revolution? Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Lucy? Leave out character comparison, page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”.

Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at lucy gray, home, leave out the location of the Reality Art Essay school.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Gray Poem? 10 Apr. A Historical Welfare In The Essay? 2006. Lucy Poem? http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . A Historical Of Child In The Essay? 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629.

“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Gray? 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. Essay? 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec.

2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in gray poem a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003.

Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview.

JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. Republican? 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997.

State. Historical Society of lucy Wisconsin. A Historical In The States Essay? 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for gray an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. A Historical Analysis Welfare In The United? 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. Lucy Poem? “Re: Link to feminist Musicals101.com.” E-mail to lucy I. Lee. 10 May 2003.

“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. A Historical Analysis Of Child In The States Essay? Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of lucy poem Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. A Social Accompanied? 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for lucy poem an online posting, forum, letter to Analysis of Child States Essay the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.

Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005.

PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U.

School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Lucy Poem? Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. Of Restitution Bouncing? 2002. U of St. Lucy Gray Poem? Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/

Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. A Historical Analysis In The States? 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct.

2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Lucy Gray? Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and bouncing ball, Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No.

16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Lucy Gray Poem? Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size.

Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov.

1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Character Comparison? Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by lucy gray, another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. A Social Revolution Republican? Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview.

Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. Lucy Poem? 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. Feminist Artwork? E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of gray poem speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay? “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to gray poem Be Disbanded.” Letter.

Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan.

2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. The Wife Of Bath Essay? Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Gray Poem? Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to artwork Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar.

1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Lucy? Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.

2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Revolution The 1911 Republican Revolution? Map. Lucy Poem? Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.

Components: 1) Name of The Wife composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. Gray Poem? 9, no. Perceiving? 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of lucy ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written.

4) Place of Reality Through Art Essay publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . Lucy Poem? 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and feminist artwork, Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. Lucy Gray? 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for feminist citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined.

3) Date artwork created. Poem? 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of feminist artwork owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Gray? Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse.

The Great Sphinx . Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay? [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . Lucy Gray Poem? 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace,

Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used.

7) Author or editor of book. Reality Through Art Essay? 8) Place of lucy publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Perceiving Reality? Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Gray? Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929].

McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. A Historical United Essay? 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.

A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. Lucy? 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay? [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979.

31. Michelangelo. David . Lucy Gray? 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. Analysis Of Child Welfare In The United Essay? The Great. Masters . Lucy Gray? By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.

Wainright Building . 1890-91. Comparison? St. Lucy Gray? Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Essay? Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek.

Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Gray? Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Revolution Accompanied The 1911? Sao Roque,

Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). Gray? 2) Name of of Child Welfare in the United Essay person who took the photograph.

3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Lucy Gray Poem? Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Reality, Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent.

3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.

“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and lucy gray, Irene Mecchi. Coefficient Of Restitution Ball? Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by lucy poem, Elton John and Tim Rice.

Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.

The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber.

Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Accompanied Republican Revolution? Harold Prince. Based on novel by lucy gray poem, Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . Comparison? By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,

Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of lucy gray episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. Analysis Welfare In The States? 3) Title of series. Lucy Gray? 4) Name of network. Coefficient? 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto.

12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Lucy Gray? Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. Artwork? 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.

“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. Lucy Poem? 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of of restitution ball author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks).

3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Lucy Gray? Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.

The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and feminist artwork, Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. Gray? 1997].

Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and in the, 770E . Lucy Poem? Diskette. Vers. 1.0.

Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Reality Art Essay? Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Gray Poem? Solid Ground. Analysis Of Child Welfare In The States? Cassette tape recording from lucy poem album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.

by J.K. Coefficient Of Restitution Ball? Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir.

Jesse Dylan. Gray Poem? Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. A Social Accompanied The 1911 Republican? Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the lucy gray poem Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf.

Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf.

Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Revolution The 1911 Revolution? “The Military and lucy poem, the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. A Social Accompanied? “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss.

Columbia U, 1962.

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11 Tips from HR Pros on Making Your Resume Stand Out. If you want to get your resume out of the slush pile and into poem the hands of someone who’s ready to States, interview you for the job, you have to make sure it's accurate and chock-full of qualifications, skills, and experience. But sometimes that's still not enough to make your resume stand out from a sea of lucy gray, equally qualified candidates. We talked to a number of human resources professionals, recruiters, and hiring managers to a social the 1911 revolution, get their advice for job seekers. If you're on the hunt for a new job, here's what they say you should do to make a lasting impression. Lucy Poem! You want to grab the hiring manager's attention right off the bat, says Rebecca Barnes-Hogg, a recruiter and author of The YOLO Principle: The Ultimate Hiring Guide for Small Business . Today's reality is that you have less than 10 seconds to The Wife of Bath, get the attention of the lucy gray, person who reads your resume, she says. Feminist! The first two sentences on your resume are the most important. Poem! These days, most experts recommend skipping the objective statement, though. Instead, consider a short description of your role, placed right underneath your contact info. Essay! I like to see a very short summary at the top that gives me a sense of who the individual is, says human resources professional Jana Tulloch.

The best way to grab the attention of a hiring manager is to use their own words from the job posting on lucy gray, your resume and cover letter, says Lauren McAdams, a career advisor and hiring manager at ResumeCompanion.com. There are probably a few key things they are looking for, and using their exact language on your resume is States going to gray, draw their attention, McAdams says. Make your resume sound like it's directly replying to the job post. This is a social revolution also a great way to organically add keywords to make it through the poem, applicant tracking system, she adds. Speaking of which. Most companies have some form of automated applicant tracking system that will assign a rank to character comparison, each resume. If you are not an 8 or higher, your resume will probably never be read by a human, warns Barnes-Hogg.

Think in terms of SEO and keywords. This means using buzzwords that highlight what the employer is lucy likely seeking: words like achieved , managed , and delivered , for example. You might also list industry-specific skills—especially ones that are mentioned in Reality Through, the job description—where they seem appropriate. Overdo it, and it'll be obvious you're trying to game the lucy, system. Through Art Essay! You probably want to squeeze in all the highlights you can, but keep in mind that your resume should also be easy on lucy gray, the eyes. Resumes are often pretty boring and repetitive, says Tulloch. If someone wants to make theirs stand out, keep it simple, uncluttered, and highlight the important stuff. Realistically, it's a pretty quick glance to start with and if the resume looks too time-consuming or confusing, it'll likely get tossed aside.

Tulloch adds that she likes to see quick hits that highlight applicants' core competencies, like strategic planning, budget management, staff oversight, team training, and so on. When it comes to work history, be sure to highlight what you brought to the company and a social revolution accompanied the 1911, how you added value, Tulloch says. Try to keep everything included on a single page, too, says Brad Stultz, a Human Resources Coordinator for Totally Promotional. A candidate wants to lucy poem, draw in a hiring manager with their resume. The quickest way to the bottom of the stack is of restitution a poorly composed and constructed resume, he says. 5. ASK NOT WHAT YOUR EMPLOYER CAN DO FOR YOU. You’re certainly trying to sell yourself (or at least your professional skills) when you create your resume, but it's useful to think about your employer's needs, too. When you know what they're looking for, you can hit on their pain points, so to speak, and poem, give them what they need. If an employer is looking for a web designer, for A Historical Essay example, you may want to highlight the fact that you’ve helped companies increase traffic or convert more site visitors into customers. Resumes need to speak to what the candidate can do for gray poem the company, not what the coefficient of restitution bouncing, candidate is looking for, Tulloch says. Lucy Gray Poem! “If you have a portfolio, project examples, or other demonstrable outcomes that can be viewed, include them as well.

These can be links in the resume or as a link in the email when you apply. It sounds counterproductive, but trying too hard to stand out coefficient bouncing ball, can be problematic, too. Ironically, it's what everyone else is lucy trying to do, says Tony Warren, CEO at BreatheSimple. “I have spent too many Friday evenings going through piles of resumes all striving to artwork, be better or different but all having read the same books on 'how to gray poem, write a good resume,' Warren says. A Historical Analysis United States Essay! So heavier paper, colored paper, gothic font headings, long waffling statements like, 'I am a roll-up-the-sleeves type of gray, person ready to get to work early Monday mornings to make a real difference.' Yawn! Warren warns that trying too hard can actually highlight already lackluster work experience. Instead of being unique for the sake of being unique, applicants should stand out because of what they offer. He echoes advice about focusing on the value you bring to the employer. Character Comparison! The fundamental problem with a resume is that it is about the applicant and not about the company,” Warren says. 7. FOCUS ON WHAT YOU ACHIEVED, NOT WHAT YOU DID. One resume consultant (who preferred to remain anonymous) told us that applicants should focus on achievement instead of gray, completion.

Sure, you've done things. But were you any good at of restitution bouncing them? To prove how amazing you are, don't just write about the tasks you completed. Instead, write about your achievements. An easy way to convey this is to start each bullet related to work experience with a verb. For example, if you want to show that you were 'involved in gray, making a marketing plan,' write: 'Co-developed a marketing plan that delivered $500,000 in profit,' our source says. The worst resumes I have personally reviewed have included multiple spelling errors and relied too heavily on graphics, says Stultz. A candidate should rely heavily on spell check and Perceiving, be willing to proofread their resume several times to ensure accuracy. Lucy Poem! Even better, send it to a friend who can give it a glance with a pair of fresh eyes.

It can work in your favor to Through, get a little personal, too. Make sure you include accomplishments, volunteer experience, or other activities outside of work. Lucy! Seeing a good cross-cut of extracurricular activities on a resume is a good indication that a candidate has initiative and drive to further their personal and professional development, says Stultz. These individuals tend to be more passionate and dedicated to their work. Feminist! This also makes you relatable. If you can humanize yourself beyond Job Applicant No. Lucy! 67, it'll make it easier for of restitution ball employers to envision talking to you in person. Tailor your resume format to highlight your best experience and skills, says Maritza De La Cruz, a Senior Staff Recruiter for Combined Insurance. This may mean foregoing the usual chronological order. Lucy Gray! For example, a resume in a chronological format showcases what you have done most recently and of Bath, moves backwards. Poem! A functional format more specifically highlights relevant skills and experience and may be a better format for someone looking to make a career change or with a gap in their employment history, De La Cruz says.

This one is so obvious it hurts, but I've come to learn the most obvious strategies are often forgotten, says McAdams. It doesn't matter what the position is, from janitor to rocket scientist, how much experience and familiarity you have with a given type of work is of restitution ball going to be clear. Hiring managers know what they want and gray poem, they also know how to spot a fake or over-hyped resume. If you're skilled and character, qualified for the role, an gray, experienced hiring manager will be able to tell. And even if a bloated resume helps you score an interview, it likely won't land you a second one, McAdams says. So be honest and coefficient of restitution bouncing, specific about your skills and experience and apply to positions you will be competent with. Beware of This New Phishing Scam Targeting Netflix Customers.

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Milk Process Automation In Dairy System Using Plc-Scada. As we have selected 'MILK PROCESS AUTOMATION IN DAIRY SYSTEM USING PLC and SCADA' after observing a lot of projects, because we have observed that automation is widely used in most of the companies for various processes. In today's generation it is needed in each field. Thus all the lucy poem, process needs a few operators to control automation. Many processes are done in a dairy so to operate and control the processes need many operators. Our aim is to accompanied the 1911 republican revolution, reduce operators and to save time and money.

This will be achieved by automation and we have use PLC and SCADA in this project for automation. Lucy Gray. SCADA is the software for this process. In dairy process, first of all raw milk will be collected in the tank. Then after filtration and clarification of milk will be done and collect into a balanced tank. Perceiving Art Essay. After that pasteurization of milk will be done.

Further, the process of separation of lucy gray milk takes place and next standardization of milk will be done. In standardization, milk will standardize in different quality. Feminist Artwork. Now after packing process will take place. In packing process, this different quality of milk will be packed in bottle. Lucy Poem. This all processes are done with automation using PLC and SCADA. At last we will get different quality of milk in artwork, bottle like Silver, gold, platinum etc. Here, we shall conclude that we have different quality milk in bottle from raw milk in lucy gray poem, real time with automation process. The first ideas about fully automating the milking process were generated in Essay, the mid seventies. Cost of gray labour in several countries was growing and this was one of the main reasons to start the development of automation around milking.

The first applications were automatic concentrate feeders. A further step in the automation of milking parlors was the development of automatic cluster removers. In the early eighties, automation in milking parlors was expanded with the development of milk yield recording equipment and sensors to detect udder health problems. All these developments and new milking technology reduces the The Wife of Bath, labour input during milking, resulting in a higher output per man-hour. The final step in the automation development seemed to be the development of automatic teat cup attachment systems. The idea of course was to develop a fully automated automatic milking system. An Automatic milking system is in use for 24 hours per day, needs adjusted cleaning and poem cooling procedures, complicates visual control and the milking frequency varies from cow to cow and from day to day. One of the a social revolution accompanied, aspects affected by lucy gray poem automatic milking is milk quality.

The quality of milk is a very important aspect of coefficient bouncing milk production. Milk payment systems and consumer acceptance are, to a great extent, based on it. Automatic milking is a fully automated process. Lucy Poem. Visual control of the milk is not possible as during conventional milking. Therefore, the feminist artwork, milk quality needs to be managed in a different manner. Several devices such as sensors for conductivity, color and temperature of the milk, yield measurement and poem machine on time figures are integrated and The Wife Essay inform the lucy gray poem, farmer on the status of the milk. We only know that in India there are huge numbers of coefficient people depends on lucy, milk giving animals. They supply milk to Dairies and it reaches to us in the form of various milk products like cheese, milk, butter, milk powder and so on. Actually what happens to the milk, how it is processed?

What makes the milk conducive to health? What treatment it receives? And how various milk products are prepared? Even though with modern automation in place, the need to configure design process itself, specifically looking at methodologies for generating optimal dairy processing. Flow sheets over a range of scales, from raw milk to final product and packaging, are most sought after. Automation is delegation of human control functions to technical equipment for The Wife increasing productivity, better quality, increase safety in working conditions reducing manpower reduced cost. Gray Poem. Manufacturing of products under the of Bath, control of computers and programmable controllers, manufacturing assembly lines as well as stand-alone machine tools (CNC machines) and robotic devices can be used for lucy poem dairy automation. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in Analysis Welfare States, combination attract the need of the project for its capability to provide over lucy gray, all fast and reliable control for large process automation needs. Automation in various process industries using PLC and SCADA has gained high importance due to Perceiving Through Art Essay, efficient reliable control.

Dairy industry is one area in which automation plays an important role to control, automate and stream line the process. Modern day dairy plants are capable of processing large volume of products, from raw milk to final packaging of various milk based products. The dairy industry is divided into two main production areas: ' Primary production of milk in gray poem, farms. ' Processing of milk The aim of this project is to study the dairy process automation, to of Bath Essay, suggest any scope of improvement in the milk processing and packaging and to lucy gray poem, implement them using PLC SCADA. Brief History Of Work. 2.1 History Of PLC. The first PLC can be traced back to The Wife of Bath Essay, 1968 when Bedford Associates, a company in Bedford, MA, developed a device called a Modular Digital Controller for General Motors (GM). The MODICON, as it was known, was developed to help GM eliminate traditional relay-based machine control systems. Because relays are mechanical devices, they have limited lifetimes.

They are also cumbersome, especially in lucy poem, large applications where thousands of them may exist. With so many relays to The Wife, work with, wiring and troubleshooting could be quite complicated. Since the MODICON was an electronic device, not a mechanical one, it was perfect for GM's requirements, as well as for many other manufacturers and users of control equipment. With less wiring, simpler troubleshooting, and easy programming, PLC technology caught on quickly. PLCs are often defined as miniature industrial computers that contain hardware and software that is used to perform control functions. A PLC consists of two basic sections: the central processing unit (CPU) and gray poem the input/output interface system.

The CPU, which controls all PLC activity, can further be broken down into the processor and memory system. The input/output system is physically connected to field devices (e.g., switches, sensors, etc.) and feminist artwork provides the interface between the lucy poem, CPU and Analysis Welfare the information providers (inputs) and poem controllable devices (outputs). PLCs can be divided into at least three categories: ' Full-size, for top level applications requiring fast program execution with very short instruction cycle times. They are capable of supporting several CPUs for multiprocessing to provide more processing power. They offer the TCP/IP communication capability over general purpose networks to the supervisory workstations, and support field bus data transmission with equipment controllers. ' Middle-size, intended for industrial automated systems of medium power. They offer a large choice of analog and digital input/output modules. They are usually connected to a field bus on one side and to of Bath, the equipment on the other side; their speed is not an important parameter, the amount of data transferred is small and the average price per function is low. ' Small or micro-size, for direct interface with sensors and actuators. They are very simple electrically and mechanically and are sometimes integrated with the intelligent sensor itself, they are characterized by short reaction times and they transfer a small amount of gray poem data.

To operate, the of Child Essay, CPU reads input data from connected field devices through the use of poem its input interfaces, and then executes, or performs the control program that has been stored in its memory system. Programs are typically created in ladder logic, a language that closely resembles a relay-based wiring schematic, and are entered into the CPU's memory prior to operation. Finally, based on coefficient bouncing, the program, the PLC writes, or updates output devices via the output interfaces. This process, also known as scanning, continues in the same sequence without interruption, and changes only when a change is lucy made to the control program. As PLC technology has advanced, so have programming languages and communications capabilities, along with many other important features. Today's PLCs offer faster scan times, space efficient high-density input/output systems, and special interfaces to allow non-traditional devices to feminist, be attached directly to the PLC. Not only can they communicate with other control systems, they can also perform reporting functions and diagnose their own failures, as well as the failure of a machine or process. When you consider all of the advances PLCs have made and all the benefits they offer, it's easy to lucy, see how they've become a standard in the industry, and why they will most likely continue their success in the future. 2.1. (A) Interacting With PLCs. Occasionally, users will need to Reality Through Art Essay, interact with the PLC to program or configure it.

They also need a means through which the PLC can communicate errors or alarms. Users interface with PLCs in a number of gray poem ways. All PLCs include ports or network capabilities through which they can receive the user programming. Coefficient. For other interactions, some PLCs employ a series of switches or LEDs, while others use a text-based display. Still others employ a web-based interface that connects with users through a PC. PLCs are finding their application in accelerators, technical services, experiments and in the laboratory for equipment test-beds. Lucy Gray Poem. The technical requirements of the Perceiving Through, accelerators, the technical services and lucy the experiments are mostly the same. Thus, a range of PLC products is needed for general purpose applications in revolution accompanied revolution, a large diversity of fields such as electricity, water, gas, cryogenics, cooling, ventilation, process control, magnet control, machinery, personnel access and safety systems. It is planned to use PLCs for accelerator specific systems like: interlocks for gray poem main magnet power supplies, beam targets, dumps, stoppers, collimators, aperture limiters and beam extraction electronics. 2.2 Diagram Of Process Flow Chart.

Figure.2.0 Process Flow. 2.3 Process Flow. Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. A Historical Analysis Of Child In The States Essay. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of gray many diseases in the baby. It also contains many other nutrients. As an agricultural product, milk is Essay extracted from poem mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for Perceiving Through humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about poem 730 million ton of milk in 2011. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. Perceiving Reality Art Essay. New Zealand, the gray, European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and of Bath Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and lucy poem milk products.

Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and The Wife milk products. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in developing countries. Improvements in livestock and dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and poem malnutrition in the world. Despite all the preventive hygiene measures, the raw milk delivered to dairies by Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States agricultural businesses still contains unwanted foreign substances ' such as somatic cells and blood from the udders, contaminants from the air and dirt from contact with the milking machines, the milk lines and the transport vehicles. The flow chart involves the various following processes: 1. Milk receipt tank. 2. Filter and clarification. The each and every above process is briefly explained as follows: 1. Milk Receipt Tank: This tank consists of the poem, milk that is brought to the industry from source like farms.

Here the milk is just stored and care is taken that the feminist, stored milk is safe and will then further it is poem taken for Perceiving Reality the further process. Separation and poem clarification can be done at the same time in one centrifuge. Particles, which are more dense than the a social republican, continuous milk phase, are thrown back to the perimeter. The solids that collect in the centrifuge consist of dirt, epithelial cells, leucocytes, corpuscles, bacteria sediment and sludge. The amount of solids that collect will vary, however, it must be removed from the lucy gray, centrifuge. More modern centrifuges are self-cleaning allowing a continuous separation/clarification process. This type of centrifuge consists of a specially constructed bowl with peripheral discharge slots. These slots are kept closed under pressure.

With a momentary release of pressure, for about 0.15 s, the contents of sediment space are evacuated. This can mean anywhere from 8 to 25 L are ejected at Intervals Of 60 Min. For One Dairy, Self-Cleaning Translated To A Loss Of 50 L/Hr Of Milk. Filtered milk (UF milk) is a sub classification of milk protein concentrate that is Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay produced by passing milk under pressure through a thin, porous membrane to lucy, separate the components of The Wife Essay milk according to their size, permitting greater efficiency in cheese making. Lucy Poem. Specifically, filtration allows the smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, while the larger protein and fat molecule are retained and The Wife concentrated. The removal of water and lactose reduces the volume of milk, and thereby lowers its transportation and storage costs. Filtration makes cheese manufacturing more efficient and can benefit consumers if cost savings are passed on. Pasteurization or pasteurization is a process of heating a food, which is usually a liquid, to lucy gray poem, a specific temperature for a predefined length of time and Welfare United Essay then immediately cooling it after it is removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage caused by microbial growth in the food.

Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all micro-organisms in lucy gray, the food. Instead, it aims to reduce the comparison, number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurized product is stored as indicated and is consumed before its expiry date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the lucy poem, product. Certain foods, such as dairy products, may be superheated to The Wife of Bath, ensure pathogenic microbes are destroyed. Milk should be clarified by lucy poem separators to improve milk quality ' for good reason: As a basic food, milk is subject to national and international laws. Coefficient Bouncing Ball. The aim of these laws is to ensure that milk and dairy products are brought into circulation only in perfect condition which will not harm health. Centrifuges can be used to separate the cream from the skim milk. Lucy Gray. Under the influence of revolution accompanied the 1911 revolution centrifugal force the fat globules (cream), which are less dense than the lucy gray poem, skim milk, move inwards through the separation channels toward the axis of rotation. The skim milk will move outwards and leaves through a separate outlet. The streams of skim and cream after separation must be recombined to a specified fat content. This can be done by adjusting the The Wife Essay, throttling valve of the cream outlet; if the valve is completely closed, all milk will be discharged through the skim milk outlet.

As the lucy, valve is The Wife of Bath Essay progressively opened, larger amounts of cream with diminishing fat contents are discharged from the cream outlet. With direct standardization the lucy gray poem, cream and skim are automatically remixed at the separator to provide the desired fat content. 3.1 What Is Automation? Automation is the use of various control system for Reality Through operating equipment such as machinery, processes in gray poem, factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships or aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The biggest benefit of comparison automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department. Gray. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, and electronic and computers, usually in combination.

Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. 3.2 Types Of Automations. a. Feedback control. b. Sequential control and logical sequence control. c. Computer control. a. Feedback Control. Feedback control is accomplished with a controller.

To function properly a controller must provide correction in a manner that maintains stability. Maintaining stability is a principle objective of control theory. As an example of feedback control, consider a steam coil air heater in Perceiving Through, which a temperature sensor measures the temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is constantly fed back to the controller, which compares it to the desired setting (set point). The controller calculates the difference (error) then calculates a correction and sends the correction signal to adjust the air pressure to a diaphragm that moves a positioned on the steam valve, opening or closing it by lucy gray poem the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and feminist artwork control of poem a single variable are called a control loop.

The complexities of this are that the quantities involved are all of different physical types; the temperature sensor signal may be electrical or pressure from an enclosed fluid, the controller may employ pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or electronic techniques to artwork, sense the error and send a signal to adjust the air pressure. The first controllers used analog methods to perform their calculations. Analog methods were also used in solving differential equations of lucy gray poem control theory. The electronic analog computer was developed to solve control type problems and electronic analog controllers were also developed. Analog computers were displaced by digital computers when they became widely available. Common applications of feedback control are control of temperature, pressure, flow, speed. B. Sequential Control And Logical Sequence Control. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of of Bath a adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is gray a timer on a lawn sprinkler. Of Restitution Bouncing Ball. An elevator is an example that uses logic based on the system states. A basic form of sequential control is relay logic by lucy gray which electrical relays engage electrical contacts which either start or interrupt power to a device.

Relay logic was developed when starting and stopping industrial sized electric motors, opening and closing solenoid valves and starting and stopping other devices was done with relays, timers and other electrical hardware. More complicated examples involve start up and shut down sequences for equipment, in which a number of safety precautions can be taken by good design of control logic. Comparison. The number of relays, cam timers and drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in gray, some factories. Special computers called programmable logic controllers were designed to A Historical Analysis Welfare in the States, replace many of lucy poem these hardware items and to add a higher level of Perceiving Reality Art Essay functionality. In a typical hard wired motor start and lucy gray poem stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a Start or Run button that activates a pair of electrical relays. The lock-in relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and Perceiving Through Art Essay the stop button is normally closed contact.). Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in the main power circuit. (Note: Large motors use high voltage and experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches.). Lucy Gray. All contacts are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a stop or off button is pressed that de-energizes the lock in relay.

See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-auto With Start-Stop. c. Computer Control. Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are a type of special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in feminist artwork, relay logic. General purpose process control computers have increasingly replaced stand alone controllers, with a single computer able to perform the operations of lucy gray poem hundreds of controllers. Process control computers can process data from a network of PLCs, instruments and controllers in order to implement typical (such as PID) control of of Child United many individual variables or, in some cases, to lucy poem, implement complex control algorithms using multiple inputs and mathematical manipulations.

They can also analyze data and create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for engineers and management. Control of an automated teller machine (ATM) is a example of an interactive process in which a computer will perform a logic derived response to Perceiving Reality Art Essay, a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. Lucy Poem. The ATM process has a lot of similarities to other online transaction processes. Of Bath Essay. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Such processes are typically designed with the aid of use cases and flowcharts, which guide the lucy poem, writing of the software code.

3.3 Different Control Systems Used In Automation. a. HMI Controller based control system. b. DCS based Control system. c. PC based control system. d. PLC Based automation system. a. Human Machine Interface (HMI) In complex systems, the human-machine interface is typically computerized. The term Human-computer interface refers to this kind of systems. The engineering of the human-machine interfaces is by considering ergonomics (Human Factors). The corresponding disciplines are Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Usability Engineering (UE), which is part of ball Systems Engineering. Tools used for lucy gray poem incorporating the a social revolution accompanied the 1911 revolution, human factors in gray poem, the interface design are developed based on knowledge of a social accompanied computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages.

Nowadays, we use the expression Graphical User Interface for Human-Machine Interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics. Primary methods used in the interface design include prototyping and simulation. b. Distributed Control System (DCS) A distributed control system refers to lucy gray, a control system usually of a social revolution accompanied a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the poem, system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. c. PC Based Control System.

Compact, low-cost and yet advanced process-control engineering can be achieved based on Programmable Controllers. d. PLC Based Automation System. PLC Automation panels are used in Process Control application in comparison, industries such as . Gray. Steel / Aluminum / Wire and Cable / Tyre Tube / Packaging / Plastic / Polyfilms / Pharmaceuticals / Defense / Automobile / Power Plant / Marine / LPG Gas Oil / Cement / In fracture / Crane Automation etc. Programmable Logic Controller. A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is Essay a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. The abbreviation PLC and the term Programmable Logic Controller are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company (Rockwell Automation). PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Lucy Gray Poem. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and a social revolution resistance to vibration and lucy gray poem impact.

In essence, a programmable logic controller reads its input signals and responds to them by turning the output modules on or off. It functions under the classic if/then scenario, only on a much more complicated scale since it controls multiple input and output devices, all of which must be responded to immediately and of restitution bouncing ball constantly as designated by the user program. The unit's output modules usually consist of devices like lights, switches, starters, valves, solenoids, and displays. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLCs are incredibly valuable pieces of technology, since a single unit can often replace hundreds or thousands of relays. Though they were originally designed for the automotive industry, PLCs have since been implemented in a number of different fields.

In large part, the automation processes in most modern factories are facilitated by PLCs. These devices are designed to gray poem, follow their programming instructions precisely, which is especially vital in a factory assembly line setting where a small mistake or miscalculation can result in costly errors. Some PLCs function on of restitution bouncing ball, a very basic level; others are capable of controlling higher-level, more complicated processes. They can be used for a wide variety of input/output functions and timing applications. They also offer motion control and gray complex networking capabilities. Figure-4.1 Multiple Inputs And Multiple Outputs PLC. 4.1. (A) PLCs Are Preferred Because: 1) Consistency in a social revolution the 1911 republican revolution, manufacturing can be easily achieved. 2) Complete control of the manufacturing process can be achieved. 3) Accuracy and quality can be improved.

4) Productivity can be improved. 5) Makes it easy to work in difficult or hazardous environment. 4.2 Why PLC Is Used In Automation? PLC play a vital role in automaton, programmable logic controller device can manage and gray poem control entire industry to produce better and quick Response. A PLC is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, like controlling machinery or factory assembly lines. Unlike desktop computers, PLCs are have multiple inputs and outputs, operate under extended temperature ranges, have immunity to electrical noise, and have resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are usually stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. The main difference between PLC and other computer is of restitution bouncing that plc has multiple inputs and outputs then can do multiple works at moments, you can produce more output quickly. 1. Less cost to implement: For the lucy, cost of relays and timers to automate about 3 lines for conveying product from finishing machine to packaging machine, you could pay for a PLC to do the same job. In general, a PLC system would make production more flexible and responsive.

2. Artwork. Reliability: Relays and Electro-mechanical timers (magnetic control), are susceptible to electrical / mechanical failure. With PLCs the control logic is non-mechanical, (solid state). And with the gray, PLC, you can program extra logic to accompanied revolution, monitor and test itself for possible failure at no extra cost. This would make safety circuits more safe, and lucy poem reduce process variability. With PLC control you could increase compatibility with existing equipment, scalability, improving ease of use, and providing a common look and artwork feel. 3. Speed: The PLC can speed up operation of machines that you could not obtain with that old out dated relay logic. Control logic makes decisions more accurate and faster than a human operator could hope to lucy poem, achieve. Timers can be set to hundredths of Art Essay a second to compensate for external variables, and poem enhance safety. 4. Greater functionality: PLCs have the ability to compare real-time values and make decisions based on feminist, that comparison.

They can do complex mathematical functions, and adjust the machine accordingly. Poem. The greater functionality allows you to design logic that can automatically adjust for character comparison different machine products, there by reducing downtime for setups and machine change over. 5. Safety: In the gray, past with relay control logic, safety circuit implementation was weighed out on Essay, a cost verses likely hood method. In other words, the basic emergency stop button, relying on operators to stop the lucy poem, machine before an accident occurred. Usually do to distractions and slow reaction time of humans, the Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay, button wasn't pressed until after the damage was done. With PLCs, you can cover 99% of all the possible safety risk, and the only cost is the time it takes to add a few rungs of lucy poem logic to your program. Safety curtains are about the most expensive item, but well under the cost of an accident. Using the PLC to monitor safety risks is of Bath equivalent to having a full time employee watching, but with quicker reaction time than any human.

6. Less downtime: Downtime can be broken down in to two separate areas. Scheduled and non scheduled. DuPont has been quoted as saying: Maintenance is the single largest controllable cost opportunity, representing $100-$300 million per year corporate-wide. Scheduled down time will be less if that time is for machine modifications, which require less work with PLCs. Some of the preventive maintenance can be automated through the PLC to even further reduce down time. Unscheduled downtime can be broken down (no pun intended), further into two groups: Troubleshooting and repair. The more complex our systems become, the more beneficial it is to write logic that will not only lucy isolate failures but also indicate potential failures that may occur in the near future.The trouble shooting down time can be reduced by 90%. This is A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United States accomplished by utilizing the gray poem, sensors already in place, to do testing through PLC logic to isolate where trouble is originating. Repair is ball usually only a fraction of the time it takes to find the problem. Lucy Gray. It's not uncommon to spend hours tracking down a limit switch that is Analysis Welfare in the States bent, or a dirty proximity sensor. The cost to gray poem, find the problem is more expensive than the cost to repair it.

With PLCs the feminist artwork, cost to find the problem is greatly reduced. A PLC has following sections and each section has unique job to perform. 1) The sensing section. This section consists of limit switches, photoelectric sensors, push buttons etc. These incoming hardware devices provides input signal to the PLC. These devices are also called as field input devices. The term 'field input is used because this device provides incoming signals that are tangible items that you physically connect to PLC. Figure-4.2 Sensing Section Of PLC Source.

2) Input section. This section is majorly divided into lucy gray poem 2 parts: First, the physical screw terminals, where incoming signal (i.e. Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay. input), from the field input devices (e.g. limit switch) are connected to the PLC. The second portion of the input section is the PLC's internal conversion electronics. This section converts and lucy isolates the high-voltage input level from coefficient of restitution field input devices.

High-voltage signals from field input devices are converted to +5 volts direct current (VDC) for lucy gray a valid ON input signal, and a 0 VDC for a valid OFF input signal. Incoming signal conversion and isolation is necessary because microprocessor components operate on +5 VDC, whereas an input signal may be of 24 VDC, 120 volts alternating current (VAC), or 220 VDC. If 120 VAC signal is inputted, for example, into Perceiving Through 5 VDC, circuit will quickly destroy your PLC. The controller is also known as central processing unit (CPU), or simply as the processor. Central processing unit controls or supervises the entire process. Lucy Gray Poem. The central processing unit solves the of Bath, user program and apparently updates the lucy, status of the outputs. The programmer is a device used by the programmer or operator to character comparison, enter or edit program instructions or data. The programmer can be handheld unit, a personal computer, or an industrial computer programming terminal. 5) Output section.

The ON or OFF status of the inputs are read and the information is used to solve the poem, user ladder program and the updated signals is sent to the output section. The output section is of restitution bouncing ball simply a series of switches, one for each output point, that are controlled by CPU and are used to lucy gray, turn output field devices ON or OFF. Figure-4.3 Input and output section. 6) Field hardware devices. The devices that are controlled by the PLC's output section screw terminals are the field hardware devices. 4.2.(b) How does a PLC work? Microprocessor is the heart of any computer; it is A Historical Analysis in the United Essay also called as processor, or CPU.

The central processing unit supervises system control through the user program. Lucy Gray. After reading the Essay, input signal, the CPU follows the instructions, that a programmer or operator has stored in gray poem, the PLC's memory. Depending upon the result of the solved program, the field control devices or outputs are turned ON or OFF. When the PLC is running and a social the 1911 following the gray, programmer's instructions, it is called as solving the program. 4.2. (c) How can we register instructions into the PLC's memory? The instructions which we want our PLC to carry out can be transferred to the controller memory using either handheld programmer or a personal computer. The first step is to develop the user ladder program. Once the user ladder program is artwork verified for lucy poem correctness, the feminist artwork, next step is to download the program into the processor's memory.

The process of lucy gray transferring the user defined PLC program from character comparison personal computer's memory into PLC memory is called as downloading the lucy gray, program. But before downloading the user program, the Analysis of Child Welfare in the United, processor must be in program mode. Now, if all the inputs and gray poem outputs signals are wired to the correct screw terminals, the processor can be put in run mode. In run mode, the feminist, program will continuously run and poem solve the programmed instructions. The process of solving the programmed instruction is sometime called as solving the logic. This constant running of the program in a PLC is called as scanning. 4.2.(d) The PLC's purpose. The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. Bouncing. A program is written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal program.

In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. However, a PLC is designed to gray, be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a PLC to control not only simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole house, including switching lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built security system, etc. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. Comparison. A PLC can run an automatic machine for years with little human intervention. They are designed to withstand most harsh environments.

PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet. Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. Lucy Gray. Other options include various field buses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in revolution accompanied the 1911 revolution, the List of lucy automation protocols. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to The Wife of Bath, some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to lucy gray, have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communication links are also often used for Through Art Essay HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. Technicians or other users write unique programs that direct the function of the PLC. The programs are written on poem, a PC in feminist artwork, one of the standard programming languages and then downloaded to the PLC directly through a cable or over a local network.

The information is then stored in the PLC's memory. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming, a model which emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and lucy gray coils of relays) which PLCs replaced. This model remains common today.

The most frequently used programming language for PLCs is The Wife ladder logic; however, other languages are also common. The table below explains each of the five languages most often used for PLC programming. Programming Language Description. Ladder Logic Ladder logic is a graphical language that includes math operations, timers, counters, and similar functions. Function Block Diagram Function block diagram is gray poem a programming language that illustrates data flow and republican signal paths. It aptly expresses the relationships between control system algorithms. Structured Text Structured text is a text language that is gray poem highly structured and supports a broad spectrum of functions.

It is similar to the programming language PASCAL. Instruction List Instruction list is a simple assembly language, and it is widely used in PLCs. Sequential Function Chart Sequential function chart is a highly structured language and A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare United States Essay is best for complicated control systems. It manages complex tasks by dividing them into smaller tasks. 4.5 Basic PLC Operation. PLCs consist of input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output modules or points. An input accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from lucy various field devices (sensors) and converts them into character a logic signal that can be used by the CPU.

The CPU makes decisions and gray poem executes control instructions based on program instructions in memory. Output modules convert control instructions from the CPU into a digital or analog signal that can be used to coefficient bouncing ball, control various field devices (actuators). A programming device is used to input the desired instructions. Lucy Gray. These instructions determine what the accompanied the 1911 republican revolution, PLC will do for a specific input. An operator interface device allows process information to be displayed and new control parameters to be entered.

Figure-4.4 Scan cycle of PLC. (Source: www.software.inv ensys.com) If input power fails and power supply can no longer deliver voltage to the system; power backup preserves any program that has been inserted into gray the CPU RAM. Power Supply - This module can be built into the PLC processor module or be an external unit. States. Common voltage levels required by the PLC are 5Vdc, 24Vdc, 220Vac. Lucy Gray Poem. The voltage lends are stabilized and often the PS monitors its own health. The power supply gives the voltage required for electronics module (I/O Logic signals, CPU, memory unit and peripheral devices) of the PLC from the coefficient of restitution bouncing, line supply. The power supply provides isolation necessary to protect the solid state devices from most high voltage line spikes. As I/O is expanded, some PLC may require additional power supplies in order to poem, maintain proper power levels. Figure- 4.5 Block Diagram of PLC.

(Source: www. plc-scada.html) Pushbuttons (sensors), in this simple example, connected to PLC inputs, can be used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter (actuator). Figure-4.6 Motor Start/Stop Using PLC. Figure- 4.7 Types of feminist artwork PLC. 4.6 Advantages Of PLC. The same, as well as more complex tasks can be done with a PLC. Poem. Wiring between devices and relay contacts is character comparison done in the PLC program. Hard-wiring, though still required to connect field devices, is poem less intensive.

Modifying the application and correcting errors are easier to handle. It is Perceiving Reality Art Essay easier to create and lucy change a program in a PLC than it is to character, wire and rewire a circuit. Following are just a few of the advantages of PLCs: ' Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions. ' Easier and faster to lucy, make changes. ' PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions. ' Diagnostics are centrally available.

' Applications can be immediately documented. ' Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively. ' Reliability in operation. ' They are attractive on Cost-Per-Point Basis. ' Flexibility in control techniques. ' Flexibility in character, programming and reprogramming in the plant. ' Cost effective for controlling complex systems. 4.7 Disadvantages Of Programmable Logic Controller. 1. Gray. There's too much work required in Reality, connecting wires.

2. There's difficulty with changes or replacements. 3. It's always difficult to find errors and require skillful work force. 4. When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long. 4.8 PLC Vs Microcontroller. Microcontrollers (MCU) are complete computer systems on a chip. They combine an gray, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), memory, timer/counters, serial port, input/output (I/O) ports and a clock oscillator. Programmable logic controllers (PLC) are the control hubs for The Wife automated systems and processes.

They contain multiple inputs and outputs that use transistors and other circuitry to simulate switches and relays to control equipment.They're also programmable via standard computer interfaces and proprietary languages and network options. Programmable logic controllers have been used for industrial control systems for lucy gray many years. Their proven reliability in harsh environments and artwork design to handle many inputs and outputs has made them the foundation of lucy many factory automated systems. Analysis Welfare. PLCs can be combined with most other technologies to provide a sophisticated control and monitoring system. 4.9 Difference Between PLC And Microcontroller. PLC is a special microcontroller designed for industrial application. It is for controlling machinery or processes. A microcontroller is a microprocessor that can be used for any type of application. The basic difference between PLC and microcontrollers is only the way of programming.

Most common way of PLC programming is with graphical language Ladder logic programming which looks a little more similar to electrical schematics than a computer programming language. There is some ways like functional block diagrams, as well mnemonic (like assembler), stages etc. Second significant characteristic is the infinite loop (cycling) through the poem, ladder start-to-end and again from A Historical of Child Welfare Essay start. This was for the regular plcs; some newer plcs have event driven capabilities. Also plcs are more restricted in calculations. A PLC is a modular device which one can program using Ladder diagrams (relay logic) or Statement List. It is lucy gray optimized to handle several digital inputs and outputs, and artwork is more rugged for use in industrial applications. Basically it scans the inputs, and determines the outputs based on the logical conditions programmed into it by the user. It internally uses a microcontroller to handle all input, output and logic scans. Application area is mostly industrial automation. Then, Microcontrollers are cores that will do anything you program them to do.

They probably can be used in each of the above applications, but with varying effectiveness. As always, your work is in discerning which option will work best in a given situation. 5.1 Introduction Of Ladder Diagram. Ladder diagrams are specialized schematics commonly used to document industrial control logic systems. They are called ladder diagrams because they resemble a ladder, with two vertical rails (supply power) and as many rungs (horizontal lines) as there are control circuits to gray, represent.

If we wanted to draw a simple ladder diagram showing a lamp that is controlled by a hand switch, it would look like this: We can construct simply logic functions for feminist artwork our hypothetical lamp circuit, using multiple contacts, and lucy gray poem document these circuits quite easily and understandably with additional rungs to our original ladder. If we use standard binary notation for the status of the switches and lamp (0 for un-actuated or de-energized; 1 for actuated or energized), a truth table can be made to show how the logic works: Now, the Perceiving Reality Through Art Essay, lamp will come on if either contact A or contact B is actuated, because all it takes for the lamp to be energized is to gray poem, have at least one path for of restitution current from wire L1 to wire 1. What we have is lucy gray poem a simple OR logic function, implemented with nothing more than contacts and a lamp. We can mimic the AND logic function by feminist artwork wiring the two contacts in series instead of. Parallel: Now, the lamp energizes only if contact A and lucy contact B are simultaneously actuated. A path exists for current from wire L1 to the lamp (wire 2) if and the 1911 only if both. switch contacts are closed. The logical inversion, or NOT, function can be performed on a contact input simply by using a normally-closed contact instead of a normally-open contact: Figure-5.4 NOT logic function.

Parallel contacts are logically equivalent to an OR gate. ' Series contacts are logically equivalent to an AND gate. ' Normally closed (N.C.) contacts are logically equivalent to a NOT gate. ' A relay must be used to invert the poem, output of a logic gate function, while simple normally-closed switch contacts are sufficient to A Historical Analysis of Child United States, represent inverted gate inputs. ' A rung of ladder diagram code can contain both input and output instructions. ' Input instructions perform a comparison or test and set the rung state based on the outcome. ' Normally left justified on the rung. ' Output instructions examine the rung state and execute some operation or function.

' In some cases output instructions can set the rung state. ' Normally right justified on the rung. ' This is a programming language, which expresses a program as a series of 'coils' and 'contacts', simulating the lucy gray poem, operation of character comparison electromechanical relays. ' The resultant program is the equivalent of an equation, which is executed continuously in lucy poem, a combinatorial manner. ' The advantage of A Historical Analysis of Child Welfare in the United Essay this language is the familiarity many electricians have with the simple operation of lucy relays. Supervisory Control and character Data Acquisition System (SCADA) 6.1 What Is SCADA? This acts as an operator station.

The operator can monitor as well as control the process parameters from these stations. Apart from online process data the gray, operator will have access to historical and a social revolution accompanied revolution real-time trends, alarms and reports. The operator can give commands to control hardware for opening the valve, change the set point, start the pump etc. 6.2 Features Of SCADA Software. The common features of SCADA include Dynamic process mimic, Trends, alarm, Connectivity with hardware, Recipe management etc. 6.3 Applications Of SCADA. SCADA systems have many applications right industrial automation, power distribution to water management. Basic dairy processes have changed little in the past decade.

Specialized processes such as ultra filtration (UF), and modern drying processes, have increased the opportunity for the recovery of milk solids that were formerly discharged. In addition, all processes have become much more energy efficient and the use of electronic control systems has allowed improved processing effectiveness and cost savings. Implementation of the Project / Simulation. Working / Implementation of the Project work/ simulation. 7.2 Aim Of The Task. The aim of the task is that a can or says an object which is placed at left corner should move to gray poem, the heating chamber automatically. It should be heated as per requirement and ball have to return on poem, its place.

The aim of the task is that a can which is at the left end position on a conveyer belt, has to be moved automatically. We need the the 1911 republican revolution, following components to complete the lucy gray poem, task: At an instance the bouncing ball, can is at zero position. Lucy Poem. When it is at coefficient bouncing zero position at that time the sensor 1 will be on. It will remain in gray poem, the on state until the can doesn't move along. A switch is provided to control the Perceiving Reality Through, or say to on lucy, the whole system. User input value is provided so that user finds flexibility in giving the desired temperature to the heating chamber. At the very starting of the system we have to The Wife Essay, provide the user value. For example if we have given the user value as '30' then the heating chamber will heat the object for 30 seconds. After providing the user value, the can will move along on poem, the conveyer belt. Of Child Essay. As long as the can is lucy gray moved the sensor1 will be turned off.

The conveyer is provided with the value of feminist 1000 in its properties. That means the lucy gray, length of the belt is 1000. As the object be moved along, the valve will be open and the valve will let the door be automatically open. An object when reaching near the open door at that time the sensor 4 is on. The Wife Essay. The object will pass through the open door and lucy poem the door is closed again.

Sensor 2 will be on The Wife of Bath, sensing the lucy, object inside the heating chamber. The heater will heat the object as per scheduled by the user value. Authorised person can even change the user value and can increase or decrease the number of seconds. A counter is placed so that we can visualize the of restitution bouncing ball, seconds of the heating chamber. When the timer is lucy gray poem done with the counting at that time sensor 3 is on.

And after the object is moved away, that sensor will again turned off. Motors and coefficient of restitution bouncing ball wheels will move forward and lucy gray reverse with respect to the object. As soon as the object is heated the Perceiving Through Art Essay, door is lucy gray opened again and the heated object moved out of the chamber and reverses in the direction to coefficient of restitution ball, its original position. Poem. Whole the above process is implemented in the programming ahead. IF sw==1 AND x==1 THEN v=1;ELSE v=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==0 THEN s4=1;ELSE s4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==0 THEN x=1; ENDIF; IF v==1 AND door120 THEN door=door+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN s1=1; ELSE s1=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND door==120 THEN s2=1;ELSE s2=0; ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND h==0 AND door==120 THEN k=1;ELSE k=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k==1 AND ob0 THEN w1=w1+5;ELSE w1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND k==1 THEN ob=ob+10;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==0 THEN x=0;ENDIF; IF v==0 AND door0 THEN door=door - 5 ;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND ob==620 THEN s3=1;ELSE s3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door == 0 AND s3==1 AND hui THEN h=h+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==ui THEN x=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==ui THEN x=0; ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==120 AND h==ui AND ob=620 THEN d=1;k=0;ELSE d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND d==1 AND k==0 THEN w2=w2+5; ELSE w2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob0 AND d==1 THEN ob=ob - 10;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==0 AND ob==0 THEN h=0;ENDIF; 7.4 Outcome Of Task. Figure 7.4.(b) outcome of comparison heating an element(when switch is on)

Figure 7.4.(C) Outcome Of Heating An Element(Process While Heating An Element) 7.5 Milk Process Automation in lucy, Dairy system. Figure 7.5 Milk Process Automation In Dairy System. 7.6 Programming For The Milk Process Automation. IF sw==1 AND t100 THEN p1=1;t=t+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p1==1 AND k1100 THEN k1=k1 + 5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k1==100 AND t11000 THEN t1=t1+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t1900 THEN l=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t1==1000 THEN k1=0;p1=0;v2=1;l=1;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND v2==1 AND k2100 THEN k2 = k2+5;l=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND t21000 THEN t2=t2+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND k1==0 AND p1==0 AND t10 THEN t1 = t1 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 THEN k2=0;v2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 AND v2==0 AND k2==0 THEN h2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND h2==1 AND tm80 THEN tm=tm+1;h2=1;v1=1;p2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v1==1 AND p2==1 AND k3100 THEN k3=k3+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k3==100 AND k4100 THEN k4=k4+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k4==100 AND h1==1 AND k5100 THEN k5=k5+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k5==100 AND k6100 THEN k6=k6+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 THEN p2=0;v1=0;h1=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND tm==80 THEN p2=0;h1=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 THEN p3=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND p3==1 THEN tm=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 AND k7100 THEN k7=k7+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND k2==0 AND t20 THEN t2=t2 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND t31000 THEN t3=t3+20;k3 =0;k4=0;k5=0;k6=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==0 AND h2==0 THEN k7=0;p3=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 THEN c1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND c1==1 AND tm150 THEN tm1=tm1+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND tm1==50 THEN p4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 THEN tm1=0;c1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 AND k8100 THEN k8=k8+5;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND k7==0 AND p3==0 AND t30 THEN t3=t3 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND t41000 THEN t4=t4+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 THEN k8=0;p4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 AND tm250 THEN tm2=tm2+2;sp=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm2==50 AND t4==1000 THEN v3=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 THEN tm2=0;sp=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND k9100 THEN k9=k9+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND k8==0 AND p4==0 AND t40 THEN t4=t4 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND v3==1 AND t61000 THEN t6=t6+20;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 THEN k9=0;v3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND t5100 THEN t5=t5+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t5==100 AND k9==0 THEN v4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k10100 THEN k10=k10+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k101 AND t50 THEN t5=t5 - 5;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t5==0 THEN v4=0;k10=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND tm350 THEN t61=1;tm3=tm3+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k10==0 AND tm3==50 THEN t61=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND t61==0 THEN v5=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 THEN tm3=0;t61=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND tm3==0 AND v5==1 AND k11100 THEN k11=k11+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t60 THEN t6=t6 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t71000 THEN t7=t7+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 THEN v5=0;k11=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND v5==0 THEN c2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND c2==1 AND tm450 THEN tm4=tm4+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND tm4==50 THEN c2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm4==50 AND t70 THEN t7=t7 - 20;p1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==0 THEN tm4=0;ENDIF; Wonderware is the global leader in A Historical of Child Welfare in the, Human Machine Interface (HMI), SCADA and real-time operations management software.

Wonderware solutions enable production and industrial operations to synchronize with business objectives to achieve speed,flexibility and sustained profitability. Lucy Gray Poem. Wonderware software delivers significant cost benefits for designing, building, deploying and Welfare United States maintaining robust applications for manufacturing and infrastructure operations. Wonderware Supervisory HMI Software brings an empowering simplicity to lucy poem, managing plant operations through legendary ease of use, unparalleled scalability, matchless capabilities and standards-based, secure integration. Achieve improved operator awareness and The Wife of Bath productivity and reduce operational risks, response time and system downtime. Wonderware InTouch brings real-time visibility to a new level and transforms the way industrial user interfaces and Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are de'ned, moving from lucy poem merely presenting data to the next evolution of displaying information in context. Instead of the 1911 republican developing a library of 'symbols', the new features of InTouch enable application developers to focus on creating highly contextualized and interpretive visual content and assembling the lucy gray, most effective HMI applications and user interfaces for operational excellence and abnormal situation management. With InTouch 2014, the success rate of exception handling can be improved by 37% and the total time required to complete tasks can be reduced by 41%. KEPServerEX is an server which provides direct connectivity between hundreds of bouncing ball different PLCs, devices, and lucy systems, and a wide variety of client applications, including HMI, SCADA, Historian, MES, ERP, and Perceiving Reality Through countless custom applications. Employing the universally accepted standard, KEPServerEX maximizes the promise of lucy gray poem expedites project development through the use of Perceiving Art Essay a single server interface, regardless of the control system in use. Multiple device drivers can be 'plugged in' to one application which centralizes communications and poem greatly reduces user learning curves. Industrial Strength and Easy to Use Our intuitive interface makes industrial connectivity so easy that within minutes you can be providing data to your application.

KEPServerEX enhances single server interface, ensuring shorter product learning curves, reduced system training and maintenance costs, and improved network reliability, regardless of the control system in character, use. Methods used to manage and configure 3rd party OPC servers may vary from one. manufacturer to the next. This results in a continuous process of learning each new. OPC server when a new PLC or device is lucy used. If the goal of Reality Through Art Essay OPC technology is lucy poem to. provide a single, well defined and reliable interface to share data, then it would seem only natural that this goal should be matched with a single user interface to simplify configuration.

Experience High Performance Communications. KEPServerEX is artwork designed for lucy efficient operation throughout the entire product. Each driver plug-in is developed to a social accompanied revolution, take advantage of any operational gain that a given PLC or device offers for enhanced communication speed. Lucy. Kepware's development team has written drivers on nearly every Microsoft platform dating all the coefficient ball, way back to DOS. This depth of development experience keeps us keenly aware of how to develop and maintain high performance connectivity without sacrificing quality. Minimum Effort ' Maximum Throughput. KEPServerEX is gray a truly multi-threaded application where drivers support up to Analysis Welfare in the United States, 100 channels of communication and each channel isa separate task running inside the server application. Lucy Gray. By distributing the communication load across multiple channels, maximum throughput can be achieved.

The use of multiple tasks to feminist artwork, improve communication performance may immediately raise the concern aboutpotential negative impacts on the host PC. Rest assured, KEPServerEX has been real-world tested in applications actively polling over onehundred-thousand tags, producing only a negligible effect on the host PC's CPU usage and memory. 8.3 Wpl Software. WPLSoft is a software for PLC ( Programmable logic controller). PLC is a control system using electronic operations.When PLC is in operation, use WPLSoft to monitor the set value or temporarily saved value in timer (T), counter (C), and register (D) and force On/Off of lucy output contacts. Using Mouse and F1. F12 function keys.

1. Click 'File' 'New' to create a new document and enter the A Historical Analysis of Child in the, ladder diagram mode shown below. Figure-8.3(A) Create A New Document In WPL. 2. Click the poem, Normally Open (NO) contact icon on toolbar or press F1 function key. 3. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. You can select device name (e.g. A Historical Analysis Welfare United States. M) and number (e.g. 10), and enter comments (e.g. Internal Relay).

Then, click 'OK' to gray, save the setting. 4. Click the Output Coil icon on toolbar or press F7 function key. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. You can select device name (e.g. A Social. Y) and number (e.g. Lucy Gray Poem. 0), and enter comments (e.g. Character. Output Coil). Then, click 'OK' to save the setting. Figure- 8.3(D) Output Device Instruction.

5. Gray. Click Application Instructions icon or press F6 function key. Choose 'All Application Instructions' in Perceiving, the Instruction Type box and select 'END' instruction from the pull-down menu or type the 'END' instruction in the Application Instruction list box. Then, click 'OK' to save the setting. 6. Click the compiler icon to convert the ladder diagram to instructions. After compiler action is completed, the poem, numbers of steps will be displayed on the left side of the of Bath, start of the ladder diagram. 7. Gray. If the ladder diagram is not correct, a Ladder Diagram Error message will appear and point out the exact erroneous rows and feminist artwork addresses after the compiler action is completed. Figure-8.3(G) Ladder Diagram Error Message. Result And Analysis.

The outcome of our project includes Standardization Of milk Production, Quality Improvement, Improve Commissioning Time, Reduced Production Time, Improved Quantity of Product, and reduced Manufacturing Cost. Dairy industry is one area in which automation plays an important role to poem, control, automate and stream line the comparison, process. Lucy Poem. Modern day dairy plants are capable of processing large volume of products, from raw milk to character, final packaging of various milk based products. This objective is typically achieved by. ' Heat treatment to ensure that milk is safe for human consumption and has an extended keeping quality, and. ' Preparing a variety of lucy gray poem dairy products in bouncing, a semi-dehydrated or dehydrated form (butter, hard cheese and milk powders), which can be stored. The focus of this document is on lucy gray, the processing of milk and the production of milk-derived products butter, cheese and milk powder at A Historical Analysis Essay dairy processing plants.

' Our project includes processes taking place at a typical milk plant include: ' Receipt and filtration/clarification of the raw milk. ' Separation of all or part of the milk fat (for standardization of market milk, production of cream and butter and other fat-based products, and production of milk powders) ' Homogenization (if required) ' Deodorization (if required) ' Further product-specific processing. ' Packaging and storage, including cold storage for lucy gray poem perishable products. ' Distribution of artwork final product. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is real time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc' A SCADA system gathers. SCADA is used in power plants as well as in oil and gas refining, telecommunications, transportation, and water and waste control. Main advantage SCADA is Saves Time and Money , Less traveling for workers (e.g. Lucy Gray Poem. helicopter ride) , Reduces man-power needs , Increases production efficiency of a company , Cost effective for a social revolution accompanied revolution power systems , Saves energy, Reliable.

PLC SCADA Automation is the use of scientific and lucy poem technological principles in the services of machines that take over comparison, work normally done by humans. Applications manufacturing companies in virtually every industry are achieving rapid increases in productivity by taking advantage of automation technologies. ' Programmable logic control systema version2 EE IIt Kharagpur. ' Basic of PLC Programming,industrial control systems fall 2006. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is poem qualified to a high level in ball, our area of lucy gray poem expertise, and The Wife of Bath Essay we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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