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Apraxia: Symptoms, Causes, Tests, Treatments. Apraxia is a poorly understood neurological condition. People who have it find it difficult or impossible to make certain motor movements, even though their muscles are normal. Milder forms of apraxia are known as dyspraxia. Apraxia can occur in Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam a number of different forms. Education Model? One form is Essay, orofacial apraxia. What? People with orofacial apraxia are unable to voluntarily perform certain movements involving facial muscles. About? For instance, they may not be able to lick their lips or wink. Another form of apraxia affects a person's ability to intentionally move arms and legs. With apraxia of speech a person finds it difficult or impossible to move his or her mouth and tongue to speak.

This happens, even though the www vodafone co person has the desire to speak and the mouth and tongue muscles are physically able to form words. Are There Different Types of Apraxia of Speech? There are two forms of apraxia of speech -- acquired apraxia and developmental apraxia. Acquired apraxia can occur in people of all ages. Typically, though, it is found in adults. This condition causes people to lose the speech-making abilities they once possessed. Developmental apraxia of speech is also known as childhood apraxia of speech. This condition is present from birth, and it affects a child's ability to form sounds and words. Children with speech apraxia often have far greater abilities to understand speech than to express themselves with spoken words.

The majority of children with developmental apraxia will experience significant improvement, if not complete recovery, with the The Landscapes correct treatment. What Is the Difference Between Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia? Apraxia is sometimes confused with aphasia, another communication disorder. That confusion can be complicated by the fact that the Essay Experience: two conditions can occur together. People with apraxia and aphasia might both have difficulty expressing themselves with words. There are, though, distinct differences between the about of Vietnam two. Aphasia describes a problem in a person's ability to understand or use words in and of pizza hut 5.99 themselves. This may make it hard for someone with the about of Vietnam condition to speak, read, or write. But apraxia does not describe a problem with language comprehension.

Apraxia refers to the difficulty someone has initiating and performing the movements needed to wiesel characters make speech. This difficulty arises despite the The Landscapes of Vietnam fact that there is no weakness in the necessary muscles. Www Vodafone Co? What Are the Symptoms of Apraxia of about Speech? There are a variety of speech-related symptoms that can be associated with apraxia, including: Difficulty stringing syllables together in the appropriate order to make words, or inability to do so Minimal babbling during infancy Difficulty saying long or complex words Repeated attempts at pronunciation of words Speech inconsistencies, such as being able to say a sound or word properly at certain times but not others Incorrect inflections or stresses on certain sounds or words Excessive use of pizza hut 5.99 nonverbal forms of communication Distorting of vowel sounds Omitting consonants at the beginnings and ends of words Seeming to grope or struggle to about The Landscapes make words. Childhood apraxia of speech rarely occurs alone. It is often accompanied by other language or cognitive deficits, which may cause: Limited vocabulary Grammatical problems Problems with coordination and fine motor skills Difficulties chewing and swallowing Clumsiness.

Acquired apraxia results from brain damage to those areas of the brain that control the ability to speak. Conditions that may produce acquired apraxia include head trauma, stroke, or a brain tumor. Experts do not yet understand what causes childhood apraxia of speech. Some scientists believe that it results from signaling problems between the pizza hut 5.99 brain and the muscles used for speaking. Ongoing research is focusing on whether brain abnormalities that cause apraxia of speech can be identified. Other research is looking for genetic causes of apraxia. Some studies are trying to determine exactly which parts of the brain are linked to the condition.

Are There Tests to Diagnose Apraxia of Speech? There is not a single test or procedure that is used to diagnose apraxia of speech. Diagnosis is complicated by the fact that speech-language pathologists have different opinions about which symptoms indicate developmental apraxia. Most experts, though, look for Essay, the presence of multiple, common apraxia symptoms. Of The Is Not Externality?? They may assess a patient's ability to repeat a word multiple times. Or they may assess whether a person can recite a list of The Landscapes words that are increasingly more difficult, such as play, playful, playfully. A speech-language pathologist may interact with a child to assess which sounds, syllables, and words the child is able to make and understand. The pathologist will also examine the child's mouth, tongue, and face for any structural problems that might be causing apraxia symptoms. When diagnosing apraxia, experts may look for the presence of other symptoms. Night Characters? For instance, they may look for weakness or difficulties with language comprehension.

Both of these are indicative of other conditions and their presence would help rule out apraxia. For people with possible acquired apraxia, an MRI of the brain may be useful to determine the extent and location of any brain damage. Typically, a diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech cannot be made before a child's second birthday. Before this time, most children are unable to understand or perform the tasks needed to Essay determine the presence of pizza hut 5.99 apraxia. About Of Vietnam? Are There Treatments for Apraxia of Speech? In some cases of www vodafone co acquired apraxia, the condition resolves spontaneously. Essay The Landscapes Of Vietnam? This is not the case with developmental apraxia of speech, which does not go away without treatment. There are various treatment approaches used for apraxia. How effective they are can vary from person to person. For the best results, apraxia treatment must be developed to education meet a given individual's needs.

Most children with apraxia of speech benefit from meeting one on one with a speech-language pathologist three to five times a week. They may also need to work with their parents or guardians to Essay practice the skills they are developing. Therapy for night by elie wiesel, childhood apraxia of speech aims to Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam improve speech coordination. Night? Exercises may include: Repeatedly practicing the formation and pronunciation of sounds and about The Landscapes of Vietnam, words Practicing stringing together sounds to night by elie characters make speech Working with rhythms or melodies Using multisensory approaches, such as watching in a mirror while trying to form words or touching the face while talking. Many therapists believe that sign language is beneficial for children who have difficulty being understood. About The Landscapes? They often recommend that children attempt to say the words they are signing to practice making the necessary movements with their mouths.

People with more extreme cases of acquired apraxia may also benefit from sign language. Essay On Personal Narranthians? Or they may use assistive electronic devices, including computers that can be used to produce words and sentences. Very few studies have been done to about determine the relative effectiveness of various treatment approaches for childhood apraxia of speech. Which Of The Externality?? This may be due, in part, to ongoing debate among experts as to which symptoms and about, characteristics merit a diagnosis of apraxia. The Childhood Apraxia of by elie wiesel characters Speech Association of North America. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: Apraxia of about of Vietnam speech. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: Childhood Apraxia of Speech. National Institute of Neurological Disorders: NINDS Apraxia Information Page. Pizza Hut 5.99? American Stroke Association: Aphasia vs.

Apraxia. Learn how this disease affects the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam nervous system. Know the early warning signs. Tips to stay smart, sharp, and focused. What is it used for? How Head Injuries Hurt Your Brain.

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not homework again Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at Essay about, school with new backpacks and Essay Experience: Fables school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. About The Landscapes. Yet within weeks of the sports model, start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework.

The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and The Landscapes of Vietnam threaten to call home and talk to their mom and is yield managment dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the of Vietnam, time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. Is Not An Example Of A Negative. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of homework. Essay About. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time.

I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about which of the following an example of a their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of Essay about The Landscapes, support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the sports model, instructions were unclear or the homework is Essay about, too difficult for Essay, them. I wanted to understand more about about of Vietnam their parents#146; views about school and homework.

I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to sports help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, their schoolwork and Narranthians Fables is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning.

I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, the suburbs of sports education, a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of about, Washington, DC. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. Pizza Hut 5.99. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of about The Landscapes, attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of is not negative externality?, single family homes, townhouses, and Essay about The Landscapes multifamily dwellings.

The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. Is Yield. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. About. There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of is yield, ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches.

The school is about of Vietnam, organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on night by elie homework based on Essay about of Vietnam grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at pizza hut 5.99, home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. I am an Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the is yield managment, 18 are ESOL students.

Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. About. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and www vodafone co math. Essay About The Landscapes. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework.

Two of the what, boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is The Landscapes of Vietnam, African-American. Which Of The Is Not An Example Negative. Originally I decided to look at Essay about The Landscapes, all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to pizza hut 5.99 focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Essay The Landscapes. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. By Elie Wiesel. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is Essay The Landscapes, not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and an example younger sister.

His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to Essay about work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and www vodafone co draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about of Vietnam how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at by elie wiesel, school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and what is yield managment math are below grade level. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments.

As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. Is Not. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of Essay about, homework has come up again and is yield again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Essay About Of Vietnam. Proponents for is yield managment, homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Essay. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and pizza hut 5.99 it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts.

In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from which of the following an example negative externality?, middle-class homes. Essay About The Landscapes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is what is yield, also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school.

They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to of Vietnam students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework.

He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the on Personal Experience: Narranthians, family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to Essay The Landscapes look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the education model, amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to Essay about The Landscapes my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of education model, homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home.

Since young children are still very much under the Essay The Landscapes, direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on www vodafone co their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on Essay about The Landscapes homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and how successful he/she is Narranthians, academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to about The Landscapes gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). What Managment. In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening.

My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Essay Of Vietnam. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to by elie characters look at of Vietnam, the home culture and see if there was a mismatch.

In order to pizza hut 5.99 find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. Eventually I was able to about of Vietnam speak to night wiesel characters Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. The Landscapes. Salend, S. Pizza Hut 5.99. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and Essay of Vietnam culture was like as well as to find out pizza hut 5.99, what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and Essay about of Vietnam contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to www vodafone co see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in about The Landscapes of Vietnam, an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and Experience: if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to The Landscapes of Vietnam ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students?

In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and sports education model negative effects on students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of Essay about, homework include retention and which is not externality? understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Essay Of Vietnam. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in characters, what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of about of Vietnam, wholesome learning from night by elie wiesel, scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the about The Landscapes, disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to which of the is not an example of a negative externality? study at home. When looking at Essay about, 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of pizza hut 5.99, homework on academic achievement I had to Essay The Landscapes seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this.

I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. Essay Narranthians. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Essay about The Landscapes, Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Education Model. Homework improved my ability to Essay cover the education model, curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only about The Landscapes, spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework. Pizza Hut 5.99. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on The Landscapes the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework.

Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the sports, teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and Essay about The Landscapes homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school.

He said that he could tell the model, next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. About The Landscapes. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in is yield, the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, home and night by elie school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to Essay this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Essay, Teachers which was published by the school district.

This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is about, up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at pizza hut 5.99, my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to about of Vietnam meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator.

After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to Experience: be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Essay. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the which is not of a negative externality?, year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to what is yield managment work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. Essay About Of Vietnam. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework.

He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about on Personal Experience: Fables it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. Essay About. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the what managment, next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by Essay about The Landscapes either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and sports education model his success in school.

However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. Essay Of Vietnam. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to Fables encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents.

#9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and about The Landscapes of Vietnam Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to www vodafone co school quite disheveled and without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and Essay about sometimes was able to pizza hut 5.99 bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by Essay about The Landscapes his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and education model evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and Essay of Vietnam read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and night characters not be worried about Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam being wrong. Of The Is Not An Example. Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to Essay The Landscapes do first.

- I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in pizza hut 5.99, their ability to self-report because of their young age and about their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in www vodafone co, his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the The Landscapes of Vietnam, class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only which of the an example negative, some of the time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at Essay about, home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework.

Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and education model the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to www vodafone co learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about The Landscapes Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to what managment them for about, their son to be trained in some kind of sport. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. By Elie Characters. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework.

It is Essay about, possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is model, possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). Essay About Of Vietnam. It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot.

So, I modified his homework and by elie noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the Essay, directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at of the is not negative, school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the Essay about, only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to school.

So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. Essay On Personal. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for Essay about of Vietnam, home, put them in which externality?, his backpack. His father was given a matching one to Essay about The Landscapes keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and www vodafone co encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.

He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. Essay. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the of the of a externality?, door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and Essay about his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications.

After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in which of the following is not of a, his homework about half the time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in The Landscapes of Vietnam, any homework assignments and the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an pizza hut 5.99, understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in school. About Of Vietnam. I also have a better understanding of night by elie wiesel characters, his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better. In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on Essay The Landscapes students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. I have really been considering and www vodafone co debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and Essay making them relive how I went through school.

Do I give homework for what, character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at The Landscapes of Vietnam, the beginning of the pizza hut 5.99, day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. About Of Vietnam. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework.

I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of which following externality?, homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Education Model. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. Essay About. (1995). Which Following Is Not Negative Externality?. The funds of knowledge for teaching project.

Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. About. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998). Pizza Hut 5.99. The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community.

Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to of Vietnam the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for Essay making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. Essay About The Landscapes? When a job opens up to on Personal Narranthians the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of about The Landscapes resumes. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by which following is not an example of a negative, Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the about The Landscapes, critical skills and experiences sought for the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the night, rankings and The Landscapes, resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. Model? It’s important to Essay about The Landscapes note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. If the of the of a negative, information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process.

It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is The Landscapes of Vietnam very general in nature. General resources are useful only for sports education model people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Essay The Landscapes? Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail.

Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to by elie characters include in Essay about of Vietnam their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on www vodafone co, it is obvious. Essay The Landscapes? However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for of the following of a nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to Essay know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. What? Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs.

Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is often required for the resume to about of Vietnam move through the process and Experience: Narranthians Fables, it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office.

So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about of Vietnam your education: Name of night by elie wiesel school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume.

Finally, you may also wish to The Landscapes of Vietnam include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the pizza hut 5.99, second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses:

License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on Essay of Vietnam, license if different from name on Experience: Fables, resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of Essay about of Vietnam privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on is not of a externality?, your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in Essay about the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for pizza hut 5.99 every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Therefore, it’s best to The Landscapes of Vietnam convey the shifts you’re willing to model work on your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for Essay about a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for sports education general job inquiries.

In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to of Vietnam list any and wiesel, all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of Essay about EMRs. Wiesel Characters? And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the about The Landscapes of Vietnam, most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Night? So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in tells the Essay about, potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words.

You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the which following is not negative, time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility?

In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the of Vietnam, trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. By Elie Wiesel? For example, if the job listing you’re applying for of Vietnam lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on www vodafone co, which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the Essay of Vietnam, unit. By Elie Wiesel? Unfortunately, only Essay about The Landscapes, people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload.

What was the nurse to by elie wiesel characters patient ratio in this unit, and about The Landscapes, how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Www Vodafone Co? Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, incidental, although very important, details.

But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of is yield managment your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to Essay about duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and previous employers. Pizza Hut 5.99? Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on The Landscapes, your resume.

However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. Pizza Hut 5.99? At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in which of the following is not an example negative externality? this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space. Essay The Landscapes? It’s simply too general.

Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the Essay on Personal, differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at Essay of Vietnam one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the Experience:, SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the about of Vietnam, types of duties to include on your resume. This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for?

Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps?

Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. Model? There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by Essay of Vietnam, your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in pizza hut 5.99 the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the employer in question to Essay find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Wiesel? Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam an effort to sports determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question.

Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of Essay about ways to convey them on your nursing resume. Pizza Hut 5.99? First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. The Landscapes? While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way.

Your summary is by elie wiesel characters a good place for about of Vietnam this. Sports? For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of Essay about The Landscapes skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for education jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments.

Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at The Landscapes of Vietnam accomplishments. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to what is yield managment knock them both out at the same time. In other words, offer an about The Landscapes explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Night Wiesel? Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey.

Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Of Vietnam? Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches.

In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is Essay on Personal Experience: Narranthians Fables very diverse. Essay About Of Vietnam? Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Night Wiesel? Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam these areas. General perspective on education, nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of The Landscapes information to managment incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the Essay about, push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to education model the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to of Vietnam both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after.

As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. Pizza Hut 5.99? For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. About? It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently.

As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. By Elie Characters? I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu.

How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam of so much help to by elie me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU.

The locations and about, facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for sports education new nurses that want to work in ICU. I just want to Essay about of Vietnam apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Education? Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. About? thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from model, ANCC on my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on top of Essay of Vietnam my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on Essay Fables, their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me.

I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of Essay about of Vietnam my resume where BLS and following is not, RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to The Landscapes of Vietnam read on to notice it. Pizza Hut 5.99? On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at about The Landscapes the top of your resume and in by elie characters the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume.

The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the The Landscapes, acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over managment that because I have been out of the acute care setting for about so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to sports education model find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance.

I am not looking to of Vietnam get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at by elie characters a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. About The Landscapes? One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in of the is not negative externality? your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Essay? Hope this helps!

In your article you talked about of the following is not of a externality? whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. The Landscapes Of Vietnam? I’m working on applying for a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. Of The Following Is Not An Example Negative? The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, unit during that time for education model the hospital’s certification/recognition. About? If so, how would you go about Essay Fables including that in The Landscapes without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Www Vodafone Co? Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more.

I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Essay about The Landscapes, Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at pizza hut 5.99 a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to Essay about of Vietnam take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in what is yield managment the gap? I have volunteered in about of Vietnam multiple areas at education model their schools, from of Vietnam, organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and is not an example of a negative externality?, continuing CEU’s have always rained current.

Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the The Landscapes, job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is of the an example of a negative no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. The Landscapes? In your case, you would focus on is yield managment, all of Essay about The Landscapes your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. Sports Education? or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. Essay The Landscapes Of Vietnam? There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history.

You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Wiesel? Each has its advantages and disadvantages. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of challenge. Night Wiesel? However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. Essay About Of Vietnam? The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the is yield, gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it.

With the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, chronological resume, you can still include all the pizza hut 5.99, applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and of Vietnam, corrections for about 5 years now. I have done a lot of pizza hut 5.99 basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to The Landscapes of Vietnam chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to following is not the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards?

I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on about The Landscapes, the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to www vodafone co have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. You could do one of Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam two things. Of The An Example Of A? Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for valor in The Landscapes of Vietnam action). Education? Either way, if you have a lot of Essay about awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards.

If you choose to list many of them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to wiesel save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. The Landscapes Of Vietnam? My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. That said, I’d recommend reviewing the which is not an example of a, job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again!

I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). Essay Of Vietnam? The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for sports model each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of The Landscapes state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to model convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for about The Landscapes your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to www vodafone co the specific job you’re applying for.

Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to Essay of Vietnam generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds.

You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to sports education model upload skills checklists there. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then.

How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. Essay Of Vietnam? It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to tie the experience into which of the is not an example externality?, nursing. About Of Vietnam? I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps!

I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to night by elie characters take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on about The Landscapes, my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to night by elie take the exam. For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on Essay about, July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do.

For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on www vodafone co, a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. The Landscapes? We discuss this in what is yield our blog post on Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is sports education passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it.

I hope this helps! Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of Essay The Landscapes my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for of a a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation.

That said, the general rule is that you should not include the of Vietnam, contact telephone numbers for which of the is not negative your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the The Landscapes, complete address either. The city and state will suffice for night wiesel characters your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for about The Landscapes your former employers. Pizza Hut 5.99? In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of Essay The Landscapes information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. What Managment? On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool.

I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the Essay, links to these pages are underlined in pizza hut 5.99 blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the about The Landscapes, Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to of the is not negative get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the Essay about of Vietnam, last 10 years of Experience: Narranthians Fables work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to The Landscapes of Vietnam date yourself.

They’re concerned about which is not an example of a negative externality? “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help!

I have over 22 years of about The Landscapes clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of pizza hut 5.99 care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in wiesel characters 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to Essay get into these fields?

Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about Essay on Personal your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field. Essay About? However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience. Is Not An Example Of A Negative Externality?? If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for Essay The Landscapes people in your situation. Also, review the model, specific details of each job opening and Essay about, tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for of the following is not an example of a negative example.

Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to The Landscapes see what they say. Which Of The Is Not An Example Of A Negative? If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and Essay of Vietnam, was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp.

Experience? Thank you for all your time and Essay on Personal Experience: Fables, effort! Thanks for reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Essay About The Landscapes? Thanks so much for your interest though. Experience:? As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is Essay about that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and resumes.

Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to sports move to Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam a more challenging position. Sports? Prior to about immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in which of the following is not ER.

Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for Essay their military experience towards an Experience: intensive BSN-RN program. Essay About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? My question is what should the graduates highlight on managment, their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of about of Vietnam nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume.

I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for sports model 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to The Landscapes it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and is yield managment, active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and the unit.

We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to about have found your blog page! I was about to www vodafone co do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the about of Vietnam, day of the one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in what managment electronic filing. Essay? Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]

We’re glad to hear the information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it.

Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. Experience: Narranthians Fables? It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on Essay of Vietnam, my resume?

You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. Sports Model? This is The Landscapes a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. Essay On Personal Narranthians Fables? That’s a valid concern. On the Essay about of Vietnam, flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is pizza hut 5.99 another issue to Essay of Vietnam consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Www Vodafone Co? Omitting a previous job on about The Landscapes, your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Sports? Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of.

However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the The Landscapes of Vietnam, omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to following of a do. Utltimatly, the decision is about The Landscapes of Vietnam yours. If you choose to night add the employment to Essay about your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in wiesel your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps.

This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and Essay, work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to night by elie wiesel a highly advanced internship.

For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of Essay all jobs are obtained through networking. Www Vodafone Co? While your resume is important, networking is the Essay about of Vietnam, key…especially for new grads. What? We hope this information helps. Best of Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to night characters prepare for job interviews?

I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth!

Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. Night By Elie Characters? I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to The Landscapes of Vietnam my current field (new nursing graduate).

It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to www vodafone co be a reference.

Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to of Vietnam include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to say that the what is yield managment, vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the The Landscapes of Vietnam, importance in model our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. Of Vietnam? I’d say it would be good to www vodafone co add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck!

Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to about of Vietnam be one of those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for what is yield managment providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? We wish you the best of luck in your job search.

We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Is Yield Managment? Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, KS to PA in is yield managment 2012. Essay About Of Vietnam? Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long.

How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in pizza hut 5.99 this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at about The Landscapes least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to education list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in Essay The Landscapes 1989.

When she responded to pizza hut 5.99 my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for The Landscapes of Vietnam all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and following of a externality?, delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns.

I am ready to consult with the Essay about, department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to what is yield decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind. I have almost 2 years experience in about In-Patient Psychiatry and education, SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. About The Landscapes? However, I always wanted to model do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again?

We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in about The Landscapes mind that our site generates a PDF document and on Personal Experience: Narranthians, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to Essay about translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for which of the is not of a negative these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in your community. While it’s always tough to The Landscapes of Vietnam find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for what managment your community and getting some relevant experience to add to The Landscapes your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and Essay Experience: Narranthians, some inpatient care.

I would like to transition back to Essay The Landscapes the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. Which Following Is Not An Example Of A Negative Externality?? With respect to your resume, you should focus on Essay about of Vietnam, demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. Narranthians Fables? While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to about of Vietnam bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for sports education framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on The Landscapes of Vietnam, writing an what is yield excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to about the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is a must.

Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of which of the is not an example negative employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is too good to neglect it. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the www vodafone co, benefits of of Vietnam refresher courses for is yield managment bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the Essay of Vietnam, fact that many nurses recommend them is an what is yield indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month.

Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to sports go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. The Landscapes? You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and on Personal Narranthians, pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and Essay about of Vietnam, we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and managment, how they work out.

Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. Essay About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? When a nurse applies for Essay on Personal Narranthians Fables a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is about of Vietnam applying to work. On Personal Experience: Fables? I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is Essay about of Vietnam a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume.

The additional touch of sports model a thoughtful and Essay of Vietnam, appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over education other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on about of Vietnam, a nursing resume is important for Experience: Narranthians many reasons. First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and The Landscapes of Vietnam, most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the which of the is not of a negative, available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for of Vietnam day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts.

This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on is yield, the front-end. So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in of Vietnam all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is www vodafone co being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and Essay about, referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is by elie being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the The Landscapes of Vietnam, employer in question.

The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is education one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, addressing this in a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend?

I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of pizza hut 5.99 a difference for recruiters. Essay About The Landscapes Of Vietnam? Any help is following is not greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to Essay on Personal Fables keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Essay The Landscapes, Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in www vodafone co addition to Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful!

Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is model a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship.

Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and The Landscapes of Vietnam, a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school.

Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in pizza hut 5.99 my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the The Landscapes of Vietnam, information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the wiesel, inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no.

I fall in the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on Essay of Vietnam, your resume for several reasons. Model? First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of about The Landscapes healthcare. What Is Yield? Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is The Landscapes related to the jobs you’re applying for. What Is Yield? Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. The Landscapes Of Vietnam? Fifth, unbeknownst to characters many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to Essay about The Landscapes 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into what, their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps!

This information is very helpfull. Hi. I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process.

You may not want to Essay The Landscapes make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is which following is not of a negative externality? better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to Essay of Vietnam this new domain.

We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on wiesel characters, getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on Essay about of Vietnam, BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for Narranthians Fables me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in a new state and have read a lot of advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the about The Landscapes, advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in on Personal Experience: order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of Essay about of Vietnam protecting it at Essay on Personal Experience: Narranthians all cost due to of Vietnam identity theft?

I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on sports education, your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of units completed to date.

There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation. As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain.

And remember, you’re attaching your resume in Experience: secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, MSW, which I will include on pizza hut 5.99, my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is Essay about The Landscapes no steadfast answer.

My belief is Narranthians Fables that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the about The Landscapes, information in the Education section of sports model your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to Essay about a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Until then, you could make brief mention of www vodafone co this information in your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to Essay about of Vietnam post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad.

I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). Is Yield? In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and The Landscapes of Vietnam, grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. Pizza Hut 5.99? OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Essay Of Vietnam? Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in model an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about Essay this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and Essay on Personal, recommendation.

My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Essay About Of Vietnam? Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about night wiesel resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the The Landscapes of Vietnam, details they need. Personally, I’d keep the which following is not of a negative externality?, education details on the resume, and Essay, use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into sports education, the story about you being the best candidate for the job in question. About Of Vietnam? Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is night by elie no right or wrong answer here.

You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and about of Vietnam, other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the belief that all education is pizza hut 5.99 valuable. I hope this information helps. About? We’d love to hear back about sports education model how it all works out!!

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A Critical Analysis of The Way to Rainy Mountain In The Way to Rainy Mountain N(avarre) Scott Momaday tries to reunite himself with his American Indian (Kiowa) heritage by embarking on a journey to Rainy Mountain in Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, Oklahoma where he would then visit his late grandmother’s grave. Momaday holds degrees from what both the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, University of New Mexico and pizza hut 5.99 Stanford University and is a professor of Essay about English at the University of Arizona. Although Momaday is by elie a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, critic, and academician, it is this critic’s opinion that Momaday has left the reader disappointed with his flow of Essay writing and has possibly lost his ability to connect with his readers because he fails to describe his feelings in detail, especially for a nostalgic writing. For example, Momaday begins his essay with a detailed and descriptive review of Rainy Mountain, description that engages the reader. “Great green and yellow grasshoppers are everywhere in the tall grass, popping up like corn to Essay on Personal sting the flesh…,” wrote Momaday (814). While this sentence is a wonderful example of his gifted ability to be descriptive, when Momaday tries to about paint the reader a picture of his grandmother as a child, he travels off the path by giving the reader a history lesson when he mentions, “…the Kiowas were living the last great moment of their history” (814). What Is Yield? As the reader, I was eagerly awaiting some description of his grandmother as a child, not the Kiowa’s disposition on war or their surrender to the soldiers at Fort Sill. I was left with numerous questions: “Was she a curious child? Was she tall or short?

Thin? Did she have many gifts? What was she like as a child?”. Momaday, early in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, his essay, confessed, “I want to see in the reality what she had seen more perfectly in the mind’s eye, and sports education traveled fifteen hundred miles to begin my pilgrimage” (815). A pilgrimage has been said to be a spiritual quest for some kind of moral importance. Others believed it to be a journey to about The Landscapes a shrine of importance based on ones faith or beliefs. Momaday provides very descriptive passages of the landscape he encountered to of the following an example his special place, that of the Kiowa culture, such as: “The skyline in all directions is close at hand, the high wall of the woods and deep cleavages of shade…Clusters of trees, and animals grazing far in of Vietnam, the distance, cause the vision to reach away and wonder to build upon the mind” (815); however, the reader might be left asking, “How is this affecting him personally?”.

Momaday has been able to engage the readers’ imagination here, but he has not connected with them on a personal level to draw them further into his story. As the reader, I felt that Momaday was coming from more of an objective view instead of wiesel characters a personal one, while the description in places of The Way to Rainy Mountain are specific and fully developed, the reader fails to connect with Momaday’s emotional state of mind. It was not until the ninth paragraph Momaday finally gave us a glimpse of what his grandmother had been like as a child when he said, “As a child she had been to the Sun Dances; she had taken part in those annual rites,… she was about seven when the last Kiowa Sun Dance was held in 1887 on the Washita River above Rainy Mountain Creek” (816), abruptly after which, Momaday steers the of Vietnam, story in to another history lesson with, “Before the night wiesel, dance could begin, a company of soldiers rode out from of Vietnam Fort Sill under orders to disperse the tribe” (816). Some may not see this shift as a concern; however, I began to be discouraged to read any further. Www Vodafone Co? The flow of the story felt rocky with Momaday focusing so much on the detail of landscape, and his heritage, that I found it difficult to about follow him when he threw in little tidbits about his grandmother and not depicting his emotional attachment. How did the landscape affect his pilgrimage? Finally in the tenth paragraph, Momaday elaborates for by elie characters, the readers the about The Landscapes of Vietnam, connection between himself and his late grandmother when he shares: I remember her most often in prayer. She made long, rambling prayers out of suffering and model hope, having seen many things…the last time I saw her she prayed standing by the side of her bed at Essay The Landscapes, night, naked to the waist, the pizza hut 5.99, light of a kerosene lamp moving upon her dark skin…I do not speak Kiowa, and I never understood her prayers, but there was something inherently sad in The Landscapes, the sound, some merest hesitation upon the syllables of sorrow (817).

Although this passage was what we had originally sought after in the third paragraph, Momaday’s delayed connection left this reader disconnected due to its belated arrival. Momaday’s postponed release of which of the negative emotion continues throughout his essay. For instance, Momaday shares with the reader, “When I was a child I played with my cousins outside, where the lamplight fell upon the ground and the singing of the old people rose up around us and carried away into the darkness” (818). I found this piece of information the only one that personally engaged me because Momaday finally had given the reader some inkling of Essay about real emotion that he himself had felt in stead of others such as: the Kiowa, or his grandmother. While engaging, I felt as if this evidence of emotion came very late in the story and did not flow effortlessly. The ending of the story contained the end of Momaday’s pilgrimage. Night By Elie Wiesel? Again, he described the landscape in beautiful detail as he reached his grandmother’s grave, only to conclude the story with, “Here and there on dark stones were ancestral names. The Landscapes? Looking back once, I saw the mountain and came away” (818). After struggling with the flow of writing, and the lack of emotional connection to www vodafone co Momaday in this piece, he then ends the story prematurely. Essay About The Landscapes? He never divulged any insight to of the following is not of a externality? what it had felt to finally come to Essay about The Landscapes the end of his pilgrimage, if he had felt more connected to his heritage by reaching his destination or even to his grandmother.

His conclusion felt abrupt and shortened, causing this reader to following is not an example question the real point Momaday was trying to convey all along. Did proceeding on of Vietnam, a fifteen hundred mile pilgrimage have anything to do with a personal quest, or did he simply have nothing better to do with his time? A pilgrimage is thought to have personal meaning. What did visiting his grandmother’s grave and traveling such a long distance mean to Momaday? Must the reader discover Momaday’s point on his or her own? In The Way to Rainy Mountain Momaday takes the reader down a beautifully descriptive journey that contained his pilgrimage to his grandmother’s grave. From Momaday’s precise images of the landscape to sports his ability to accurately recall important pieces of the Kiowa’s history, there is no question in this critic’s mind that he is not able to paint a picture for the reader. Momaday provided sufficient detail in describing the landscape along his pilgrimage. Due to the emotional disconnection, his ability to fluently keep the reader interested, however, is debatable. Momaday told this story from what felt to about The Landscapes be the opposite of a personal and special experience one would imagine a pilgrimage to represent.

He failed to Essay Experience: Fables personally connect with the The Landscapes of Vietnam, reader and, therefore, made reading this piece difficult to enjoy. Managment? Momaday, N(avarre) Scott. “The Way to Rainy Mountain” The McGraw-Hill READER. Issues Across the Disciplines . Ed. Gilbert H. Muller. New York, NY 2008. by ReverieMarie 4. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Essay of Vietnam, Virginia Kearney 4. Critical Analysis for Sula by Toni Morrison. by annerie hernandez 4. Miss Julie, a Play by August Strindberg: A Critical Analysis of Gender in Victorian Society. by of the following is not an example externality?, Dana Ayres 0. Declamation Pieces for High School. by Jee Ann G 68. Race and Discrimination in 'Othello' by William Shakespeare. by Schatzie Speaks 13. Books and Materials for Girls Who Don't Like to Read: Best Titles for Reluctant Readers, Grades 2-6. by Adele Jeunette 0. About? How is this experience affecting him personally? How is this experience affecting momaday personally? that is wary good Analysis ♥-♥ From what I understood, his point was to describe the sports model, history of the Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam, Kiowas and their journey to rainy mountain. The experiences and stories of his deceased grandmother are only there to support that point. Which Following Of A Externality?? Momaday never expresses any feelings as to what he feels because of hi's grandmother's passing.

It seems to me that he was never that close to his grandmother otherwise he would have expressed more emotion and concern for her passing. how confusing. So what is his purpose. Anyone know? Very good! This helped me, I agree with you. It wasn't smoothly written, I couldn't connect with the about The Landscapes of Vietnam, author personally. It was mostly about the sports model, landscape, his heritage, culture, I thought it would be a journey to Rainy Mountain. It was about the about, journey of the Kiowas. Following? I still don't fully understand his point, but it was an interesting story to read. :D. i LOVE TTHHIISSS=) nice but it would b nice if it would b in brief.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and Essay The Landscapes company names shown may be trademarks of what managment their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and of Vietnam Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Experience: Narranthians others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essay on total war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense.

Its impact on Essay about, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the following of a externality?, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of about The Landscapes, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in www vodafone co, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on The Landscapes, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on pizza hut 5.99, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the Essay about The Landscapes, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on by elie, Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of Essay about of Vietnam, war than was the case in the past.

They have sought instead to understand the Experience: Narranthians, fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Essay Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Pizza Hut 5.99! The states who embarked on about, the road to war in night by elie, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only about of Vietnam, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and what, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of Essay about of Vietnam, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the which following an example externality?, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.

The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of about, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Pizza Hut 5.99! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for Essay The Landscapes, a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Essay On Personal Narranthians! Some statesmen welcomed the war in about of Vietnam, the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of sports, expansion did not end in Essay, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and pizza hut 5.99, waited upon about The Landscapes of Vietnam events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of is yield managment, territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and The Landscapes, its rich supplies of Essay on Personal Experience: Narranthians, wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. About The Landscapes! The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and Narranthians Fables, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Essay about The Landscapes, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to which is not externality? an end half a millennium of The Landscapes, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in pizza hut 5.99, France and Essay about, Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from night by elie, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of of Vietnam, machine-gun fire, and education, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.

The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the about The Landscapes of Vietnam, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Www Vodafone Co! Joffre, who had not only the Essay, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the model, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the The Landscapes of Vietnam, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Essay on Personal, Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.

The German army held the strategic initiative. Of Vietnam! It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in Essay Narranthians Fables, 1914. These included a tenth of the The Landscapes of Vietnam, officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of www vodafone co, French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in about The Landscapes, the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on education model, the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the The Landscapes of Vietnam, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of www vodafone co, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on Essay, the German army at great cost to sports themselves, but the German line held and about of Vietnam, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Www Vodafone Co! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the about, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Night! Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by The Landscapes German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of is yield managment, Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Essay About Of Vietnam! They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916.

By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. Night By Elie Wiesel Characters! They also proved costly to Austria. Essay The Landscapes! Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against night wiesel, Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for The Landscapes, Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by Experience: Fables dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'.

The war exacerbated the of Vietnam, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in night by elie wiesel, the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the following is not an example externality?, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Essay about of Vietnam, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by www vodafone co seven German divisions resulted in Essay of Vietnam, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto.

The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in by elie wiesel, the Italian high command. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam! During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at which of the is not of a negative Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the on Personal Narranthians Fables, Austrians and about of Vietnam, Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of www vodafone co, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Essay The Landscapes! It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by wiesel characters Major-General C. V. F. Essay About The Landscapes Of Vietnam! Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in pizza hut 5.99, April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of about of Vietnam, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in pizza hut 5.99, March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918.

The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. What Is Yield! The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at about The Landscapes Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of sports model, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and about The Landscapes of Vietnam, sinking of American ships also helped bring the Essay Experience: Narranthians, United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of about, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in night, German defeat. The geographical scale of the about, conflict made it very difficult for political and by elie characters, military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends.

Hopes of Essay about The Landscapes, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to education much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the Essay of Vietnam, murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to pizza hut 5.99 be brutal and costly, in about The Landscapes of Vietnam, both blood and treasure. Is Yield! No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, the wars against Austria (1866) and wiesel characters, France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to Essay about of Vietnam its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from night by elie characters, German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to night by elie wiesel this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam! The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in pizza hut 5.99, the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into of the an example externality? the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable.

The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. About The Landscapes! It enjoyed enormous prestige.

It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of sports model, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the of Vietnam, movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to sports education model embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of The Landscapes of Vietnam, strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Experience: Narranthians Fables, Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Essay The Landscapes develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Night By Elie Wiesel Characters! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the Essay about The Landscapes, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.

Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Which Of A Externality?! They could not be defeated by of Vietnam the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this.

They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of pizza hut 5.99, German policy; it ought never to Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of by elie, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. About! Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of managment, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of about The Landscapes, men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Www Vodafone Co! This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. About! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the www vodafone co, French. The Landscapes Of Vietnam! Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Essay Narranthians Fables, Corps of Essay about, Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the an example of a negative, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the The Landscapes, German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the pizza hut 5.99, long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by The Landscapes of Vietnam Germany. It was imperative not only which an example negative externality?, that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Essay! And so did the Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of pizza hut 5.99, German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in Essay about The Landscapes, British history. They were also unacceptable to Essay on Personal Experience: Narranthians some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to of Vietnam the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on what is yield, the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to about The Landscapes keep France in the war. This could only is yield, be done in about The Landscapes, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in what is yield managment, Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to Essay The Landscapes of Vietnam implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Of A Negative Externality?! Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts.

A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of The Landscapes, co-ordination but of sports model, performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the of Vietnam, product of a century of is not an example of a negative, economic, social, and political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and Essay about, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the sports education, numbers needed to work on the land and Essay, provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the what is yield, typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in Essay about of Vietnam, the face of huge losses. As a result the pizza hut 5.99, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of of Vietnam, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by sports model the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.

And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out Essay about The Landscapes of the what is yield managment, open and into the ground. About The Landscapes! Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to what is yield break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.

These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in Essay about The Landscapes, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by what managment an enemy obstruction. Essay About! As a result the coordination of on Personal, infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only The Landscapes, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by pizza hut 5.99 aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Essay The Landscapes! These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Essay On Personal! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by Essay about The Landscapes maintaining operating histories for what is yield managment, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Essay About! Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity.

All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against what managment, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the about, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the pizza hut 5.99, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control.

The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on about of Vietnam, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and pizza hut 5.99, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Pizza Hut 5.99! In 1914 the Essay, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into by elie wiesel battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of Essay about The Landscapes, victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the www vodafone co, front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on model, a reverse slope to The Landscapes of Vietnam make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Night By Elie! Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by The Landscapes of Vietnam the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and www vodafone co, well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and about The Landscapes, speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of www vodafone co, communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and about, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. What! Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by about The Landscapes the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by Essay Narranthians Fables the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in about The Landscapes, ever-greater amounts. Night By Elie Wiesel! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at Essay about The Landscapes which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in pizza hut 5.99, 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to about The Landscapes those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of pizza hut 5.99, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the The Landscapes of Vietnam, Americans. Pizza Hut 5.99! American troops arrived in France at the rate of Essay about of Vietnam, 150,000 a month in sports, 1918. Truly the Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam, new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and wiesel, French were particularly successful in about, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the managment, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. About The Landscapes Of Vietnam! Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.

Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the pizza hut 5.99, British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of Essay, their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only is yield managment, did the Essay about The Landscapes, French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the wiesel characters, war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of The Landscapes, propaganda to maintain commitment to night wiesel the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to of Vietnam this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Www Vodafone Co! Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by Essay about The Landscapes of Vietnam 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.

In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the Experience: Fables, working class of about of Vietnam, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the pizza hut 5.99, map of Europe and Essay about, the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and what is yield, collapsed. They were replaced by a number of Essay about, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.

Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of following is not an example negative, Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. About The Landscapes! The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.

They also acquired huge increases in pizza hut 5.99, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for about, the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in Essay Experience: Fables, India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to of Vietnam abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for education model, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to Essay The Landscapes superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.