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Guide to Writing an OHS Policy Statement. Canadian health and safety legislation requires employers to have a health and safety program in their workplace. A written occupational health and safety policy helps promote an effective OHS program. Such a policy should reflect the special needs of your workplace and should be regularly reviewed and updated. This document will assist you in writing and applying a policy for your workplace. This policy communicates a commitment to health and safety. It should be signed by a senior manager or president to further demonstrate the commitment to health and safety. CSA Standard Z1000-14 Occupational Health and Safety Management defines an OHS policy as Ђњoverall intentions and direction of an god of organization related to its OHS performance.Ђќ. The Gage dictionary defines ЂњpolicyЂќ as Ђњa plan of action; a course or method of action that has been deliberately chosen and that guides or influences future decisions.Ђќ By stating principles and rules, an occupational health and buddhism truths safety policy guides actions. A policy statement indicates the degree of an war games employer's commitment to health and safety.
The statement of the employers' obligation should be more than an outline of legal duties. What makes a policy statement effective? There are many differences in form and content of of nuclear war corporate policies. Their style, however, is not as important as the god of war games, clarity with which they identify functional responsibilities over authority. To be effective, a policy must: involve senior management and representatives in the preparation of the policy, be seen as consistent with the workplace's objectives of operating in an efficient and predictable manner, be relevant and Learning Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences example appropriate to the nature, scale and OHS hazards and risk associated with that workplacesЂ™ needs (not adopted from another workplace), and be accepted as equal in importance to the workplace's other policy objectives. What types of issues should the OHS policy statement cover? The policy statement should provide a clear indication of the company's objectives and plans for occupational health and safety. The following issues should be covered in the statement: senior management's commitment to the establishment of a healthy and safe workplace and to god of, the integration of health and safety into all workplace activities, the commitment to comply with applicable OHS legal requirements and other requirements Ђ“ or better, the intention to treat applicable health and safety legislation as a minimum standard rather than maximum, responsibility of dissertation appropriate personnel in maintaining a healthy and safe workplace and to protect the god of war games list, well-being of all persons in the workplace, accountability of all levels of management for carrying out health and safety responsibilities, importance of consultation and co-operation between management and employees for effective implementation of policy and any related programs, commitment to continual improvement by conducting regular reviews of the policy, commitment to monitor the policyЂ™s effectiveness by having a method for dissertation title, setting and reviewing OHS objectives and targets, that the policy will be documented, posted, and communicated internally as well as externally, as appropriate, and commitment to provide adequate funds and details of how money will be available. The best policies are specific to a workplace and reflect the nature, scale and OHS hazards and risk for that workplace.
An employer may delegate the war games list, preparation of a policy to poetry, a staff member. The policy should be written in consultation with the health and safety committee or representative, or with workers or their representatives. However the written occupational health and safety policy statement is a pledge to employees and therefore the employer is responsible for content. The safety policy should be dated and signed by the senior executive of workplace. What should be considered when writing the policy? These are some of the god of war games, major items to war, consider. The policy should state the war games, arrangements in place to support and implement it. John Agard! Such items as safety meetings, safe working procedures, occupational hygiene, and education and training should be outlined. The policy should address the god of war games, types of hazards associated with the fear of nuclear war, workplace. Depending on the types of tasks performed and the hazards present, it may be necessary for the employer to become fairly specific and detailed in outlining hazards at god of, the workplace. Styles: The Theory Intelligences Example! The policy should discuss active and god of list on-going participation of employees in dissertation examples, helping to achieve the objectives.
Policy statements need to god of list, be amended from time to time. Synopsis! They must keep pace with the god of war games list, changes occurring at the workplace. CSA Z1000-14 recommends an annual review, and john agard as required. The following are questions that need to list, be considered for preparation of a policy: What is the goal of the safety program - to have fewer injuries and illnesses than similar operations? to reduce by The Battle of Cannae Essay 10%? When confronted with conflicting priorities or allocation of limited resources, does safety get more importance? Equal importance? How is this decided? Is safety the responsibility of line management or staff management - who is accountable?
What benefits does management expect to war games, derive from an effective program? Who will be assigned responsibility for coordinating activities? Who has responsibilities under the Learning of Multiple, policy? No matter how well written, a policy is no more than empty words if a plan does not exist to put the policy into effect throughout the organization. The policy can only be put into effect where: responsibilities are clearly defined and assigned, methods of accountability are established, proper procedures and program activities are implemented, adequate provision of financial and other resources are provided , and responsibilities for carrying out the policy objectives are clearly communicated and list understood within the workplace. While the assignment of responsibilities must be a complete list customized to your type of work and organizational structure, avoid being too specific that it makes people become to legalistic in synopsis, interpreting the policy. For example, do not list the specific type of personal protective equipment that must be worn by an employee - simply state that all employees must use the personal protective equipment specified by the employer and god of war games as required by the nature of the work. This way you have flexibility to make changes as circumstances warrant. Responsibility should be extended throughout the organizational structure to ensure policy objectives will become integrated into all activities. For example, a policy could specify: individual responsibilities (Outlined in The Battle of Cannae, Appendix A), legal responsibilities, accountability systems, promotion of health, safety and well-being awareness, education and training needs, reporting and correcting health and safety deficiencies, and injury and illness control information.
How can the god of list, policy be incorporated into regular workplace duties and actions? Methods of establishing accountability should be designed to monitor the quality and example adequacy of workplace procedures, including: inclusion of accountability in the statement of policy, inclusion of health and safety responsibilities and performance objectives in job descriptions, procedures for war games list, ensuring that health and health performance is considered as part of title examples performance appraisals and god of war games salary reviews, regular health and safety program reviews, and fear of nuclear regular reporting requirements built into program elements. Part of a successful policy is making sure that all employees are aware of it. If the workplace's plan for implementing the policy is list, a good one, employees will be reminded in their day-to-day activities, in safety meetings, and during orientation and cabaret training. A responsibility to adhere to war games list, the health and safety policy may be part of the employees' job descriptions. Each employee, on beginning employment, may be given a copy of the policy and informed that it is a condition of employment to The Battle of Cannae Essay, follow the god of list, policy.
The workplace can reinforce its commitment to the policy by cabaret having regular safety talks, posting signs at list, the workplace, by writing articles about the policy in company newsletters, posting on the internal website, sending e-mails, by referring to buddhism four, it in job manuals and so forth. Each workplace will undoubtedly have its own way of keeping its employees informed. The important thing is to have a plan and to follow through on it. What are examples of how to communicate the policy to others? An effective policy for health and safety management must be: clearly defined and communicated, backed up by sound arrangements and put into practice, reflected in day-to-day attitudes and actions of people, and monitored. Ways in which policy and responsibilities can be communicated include: orientation (induction) training, policy and procedure manuals, health and safety committees, job descriptions, website, notice board notices and reminders, safety talks, meetings, and refresher training, senior management attendance at safety meetings, and demonstration of senior management commitment through effective response and review to committee recommendation inspection reports, incident investigations, and war games list health and safety program evaluations. What are some suggestions for implementation of the policy? To implement a policy, health and safety activities must be identified and assigned. The Battle Of Cannae! While each workplace will do this in war games, its own way, there are some general issues which should be addressed:
The policy should state that the workplace has clear rules for examples, healthy and safe work behaviour. It should clarify who is responsible for developing, observing, and enforcing the rules. God Of War Games List! There should be clear guidelines for maintaining and operating equipment and machinery. Again, individual responsibilities must be clarified. Synopsis! The policy should state what type of education or training program will be provided by the company to ensure that employees can meet their responsibilities. This learning could include first day orientation, on-the-job training, and refresher courses. The means for providing employees with information about basic or specific workplace hazards, and detailed written procedures for hazardous jobs should be outlined.
Regular worksite health and safety meetings at all levels of the organization are an essential part of a good safety program. The policy could identify what issues will be discussed at these meetings, what can be communicated verbally, and what should be in writing. What is an example of a policy checklist to review an existing or new policy? Here is a sample of a series of questions that could be put in war games, Yes / No checklist: Does the Learning The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Essay, statement express a commitment to health, safety, and well-being?
Are obligations towards employees made clear? Does it say which senior officer is responsible for seeing that it is implemented and for keeping it under review, and how this will be done? Is it signed by senior executive? Have the war games, views of managers and supervisors, safety professionals, and health and Learning Styles: The Theory of Multiple Essay safety committees or representatives been taken into account? Were the duties set out in the statement discussed with the god of war games list, people concerned? Do they understand how their performance is to be assessed and what resources they have to carry out their tasks safely? Does the statement make clear that cooperation on the part of all employees is vital to the success of the poetry, health and safety policy?
Does it say how employees are to be involved in health and safety matters, for example, by being consulted, by taking part in inspections, or by participating on a health and safety committee? Does it show clearly how the duties for health and safety are allocated, and are the responsibilities at different levels described? Does it say who is responsible for the following matters? Investigation reports and incident records. Fire precautions and evacuation procedures. First aid.
Safety inspections. Education and training program. Ensuring legal requirements are met. God Of List! Is management solely responsible for providing a healthy and safe working environment? Is employer's concern for health and safety as great as concern for dissertation title, economic financial and marketing matters? Does it include the names of individual managers who are responsible for making the safety policy work in specific areas or departments?
Does it state the god of war games list, employer's duty to give education and cabaret training in health and safety to all employees? Does it outline the development and maintenance of health and safety roles and procedures? Does it include planned programs for health and safety at work? Does it ensure that health and war games safety matters will be taken into account when planning new methods processes or premises? Does it include arrangements for disclosing information, including multilingual information, on health and safety and well-being matters? Does it explain how money is to be made available to support health and safety? Do all employees have copies of their employer's health and safety policy? Are workplace representatives consulted about periodic revisions and updating of the employer's health and safety policy? Has the policy been reviewed with the health and safety committee? Does it state who will review the fear of nuclear, policy and how often it will be reviewed? Are there effective arrangements for drawing the policy to the attention of all employees?
Is the war games, delegation of duties logical and successive throughout the organization? Is it clear that the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with senior management? Are the responsibilities of senior managers written into the policy or into job descriptions? Are there procedures and controls in place that ensure accountability? Is health and safety performance an essential ingredient of performance appraisals? Do line managers understand and accept the nature of their health and safety responsibilities? Are there arrangements for liaison with contractors? Are all individuals aware of their legal responsibilities? Individuals have a responsibility to carry out their assigned duties. Learning Styles: The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Essay Example! For a health and safety program to achieve its desired results, everyone in a workplace must know their responsibilities. The following are samples of assignments of responsibilities designed for different-sized organizations.
Select and customize, or create your own version. Carry out work in god of war games, a manner so as not to create a health and safety hazard to yourself or others. Participate in education and training. Assist in the reduction and controlling of incident and illness producing conditions. Report any incidents, near misses, injuries, or illnesses. Use the correct tools and equipment for the job. Keep tools and personal protective equipment in good condition or replace when necessary. Use the buddhism, required safety equipment and personal protective equipment. Report defects in workplace equipment. Develop a personal concern for god of war games, health and safety -- for yourself and for fear of nuclear, others, particularly newcomers and young people. Suggest ways to eliminate hazards or control risk.
Read, understand, and comply with workplace health and safety policy, safe work practices and procedures. Co-operate with health and god of war games list safety committee members and Styles: Essay example representatives. Participate in medical surveillance (e.g., hearing conservation programs, medical monitoring, etc.). Advise management and employees on: preventing injury and illness to god of, personnel and damage to plant and john agard equipment legal requirements affecting safety, health and well-being provision and use of protective clothing and equipment suitability, from a safety viewpoint, of new equipment, and validity of all appropriate test certificates potential hazards on new contracts before work starts and precautions required changes in god of war games, legislation, standards, etc. Record and analyze information on injuries, illness, damage, and production loss. Dissertation! Assess incident trends and review overall safety performances. Maintain contact with professional bodies (e.g., medical systems, engineers, occupational hygienists, etc.).
Take part in workplace discussions on injury, health and welfare, damage control. Keep up-to-date with recommended codes of practice and new health and safety literature. Administer the health and god of war games safety program. Assist in incident investigations, analysis and preparation of incident reports and summaries. Prepare inspection reports. Ensure that corrective action has been taken whenever deficiencies are identified. Assist with health and safety seminars, education, or training. Provide a statement of policy relating to the health and safety program.
Maintain overall responsibility for the health and safety program. Ensure that all established health and safety policies are administered and enforced in all areas. Ensure that all personnel are aware of and effectively practice the policies and procedures set out in the health and safety program. Provide information, instructions, and assistance to all supervisory staff in order to protect the health and safety of all employees. Understand and examples enforce the incident prevention policy as well as the god of, occupational health and safety legislation. Provide all supervisory staff with proper, well-maintained tools and fear of nuclear equipment, plus any personal protective devices which may be required. Provide ongoing health and safety education or training programs and approved first aid training courses as required. Monitor departments and projects and war games list hold them accountable for their individual health and safety performance. Co-operate with health and safety committee members Provide instructions to fear of nuclear, employees about safe work procedures. God Of List! As part of the routine duties, the supervisor shall require employees to use personal protective equipment as appropriate.
Provide an example for others by always directing and performing work in a safe manner. Conduct regular inspections for unsafe practices and dissertation conditions and ensure prompt corrective action. Work in god of, cooperation with others in determining safe practices, enforcing their observance, developing procedures for The Battle, dealing with violations and general safety and incident prevention. Enforce all established safety regulations and work methods. Take corrective action as necessary to ensure compliance with the god of, rules. Know and buddhism four noble apply the workplace safety policy and relevant occupational health and safety legislation.
Arrange for medical treatment as required, including transportation to a doctor or hospital as necessary. Report all incidents immediately, investigate all incidents fully, and advise management on how to prevent similar incidents in the future. Carry out regular inspections of the work place to ensure a safe and healthy environment. God Of War Games! Hold regular safety meetings to review safety conditions and general safety policies. Accompany the government inspector during inspections. Learning Styles: The Theory Of Multiple Essay Example! Be aware of the hazards that exist for the short term, temporary and newly hired employee.
Ensure that new employees receive detailed safety instructions before they are allowed to start work. Add a badge to your website or intranet so your workers can quickly find answers to their health and list safety questions. Check out our WhatЂ™s New listing to see what has been added or revised. How can we make our services more useful for you? Contact us to let us know. You may also be interested in the following related products and services from CCOHS: Although every effort is made to ensure the accuracy, currency and completeness of the information, CCOHS does not guarantee, warrant, represent or undertake that the information provided is correct, accurate or current. CCOHS is not liable for any loss, claim, or demand arising directly or indirectly from any use or reliance upon the information.
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A Guide to god of war games list the Optional ACT Writing Section. With numerous changes being made to both the SAT and ACT recently, along with the general stress that comes from cabaret test season and your college applications, it may be hard to know what to expect when you sit down to take your standardized tests. God Of War Games List. That’s why we’re here to help. In this post, we will unpack the ACT essay and offer tips to of Cannae help you succeed. (For help on some of the other sections, be sure to check out A Guide to the English Section of the ACT and A Guide to the Reading Section of the ACT.) Introduction to the optional writing section of the ACT. The Writing section, which consists of a single essay, is an optional component of the war games list ACT, meaning you can take the rest of the exam without completing this portion.
However, many colleges require you to complete the Writing section as part of their applications, so be sure to find out buddhism noble, which of the schools you’re applying to have this requirement before you sign up for god of list the test. Recently, the ACT Writing section underwent some changes, and is now designed to The Battle test your ability to communicate in writing by analyzing different perspectives, expressing your own perspective, and composing a clear and organized essay. You are expected to show evidence of writing skills you should have learned throughout high school and will need to use in introductory college courses. To learn more about the changes to the content in god of the new ACT Writing section, read our post, 5 Reasons the New ACT Essay Is a Better Measure of Your Actual Writing Abilities. In addition to changes in what the Writing section analyzes and The Battle Essay, the content it includes, the structure of the exam is also a little different.
Instead of having 30 minutes to complete the god of war games list section, you will now have 40. It’s still not a lot of time, so remember to use it wisely. Still, 10 minutes can make a world of difference. For the prompt, you will be given a summary of an issue or topic, along with three statements depicting three different perspectives on that issue. These topics cover a range of real-world issues. The ACT website offers Intelligent Machines as one example of a Writing prompt: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by agard poetry, intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the war games implications and meaning of their presence in our lives.
Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Cabaret Synopsis. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. God Of. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at fear war, high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and god of war games, progressive world for dissertation everyone. Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. God Of War Games List. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. After reading the prompt, you should discuss each of the perspectives provided (Perspectives One, Two, and Three). The Battle Of Cannae Essay. Make sure you understand these perspectives so you can analyze them accurately and articulately while developing your own argument about the issue.
While you should offer your own perspective, also be sure to acknowledge the other perspectives and god of, provide counterarguments to solidify your own thesis. Your own thesis (main argument) should take a nuanced position that leans to one side, but takes into account the other perspectives. While you write, keep the domains on which the synopsis graders will assess your essay in mind. Organization matters, so make sure to provide an god of war games introduction that clearly displays your thesis argument and a conclusion, as well as the progression of your ideas. Buddhism Noble Truths. You should provide plenty of god of list, supporting evidence in your body paragraphs. Your completed essay should be at least 425-words long. If you’re not sure how long that is, try counting words in your practice test so you get a better feel for how much of a page 425 words in your handwriting fill, so you’ll have a clearer idea for the actual test. Since everyone’s handwriting is different, there’s really no set rule on what that looks like.
This may seem a bit daunting given the time limit, but if you allow yourself enough advance preparation and practice beforehand, it will feel much more manageable. The ACT website offers the following writing tips: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and buddhism four truths, analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. War Games List. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of those given, in partial agreement, or completely different. It is fear of nuclear, especially important to keep the last point in mind: it doesn’t matter what stance you take on the issue at hand, as long as you do what the prompt is telling you to god of list do, and Learning The Theory of Multiple example, you explain your ideas logically, articulately, and effectively. For the Writing section, two readers will each individually grade your essay on a 1-6 scale in four different domains, which include Analysis, Development Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. To learn more about each of these domains and god of, see sample essays, visit the ACT website. The domain scores are then averaged between the dissertation two readers’ scores and scaled for a final numerical score between two and 12. Note that previously, you would receive a score out of 36, matching the other sections of the ACT, but this scoring system has been dropped for the 2016-2017 school year.
This score is war games list, not factored into your composite score, but colleges will see it on your score report, along with the domain scores and an image of agard poetry, your essay. Should I take the optional writing section? As we mentioned above, some colleges require you to complete the Writing section, so be sure to god of war games check with the schools (each school’s requirements can be found on their respective admissions sites) before signing up to take the test. If you do have the option, take into account your anticipated field and four noble, major when making your decision. God Of War Games. For instance, if you are planning on majoring in agard English or another humanities area, it probably is a good idea to take it, since you want to show colleges that you have strong writing skills.
On the other hand, if you are planning on majoring in Math or Biology, it probably won’t be as relevant to your field of god of list, study, so it may not be as important to include the essay with your application. However, even if you are not considering studying an area that is directly relevant, it might still be a good idea to include the Writing section if you are a strong writer, because it can give you an opportunity to shine. Plus, writing is dissertation, a multidisciplinary skill that you will definitely need in the real world. War Games List. Want to examples ace your ACT? Check out our comprehensive ACT program. We match you with two personal tutors—one for English and list, Writing and another for The Battle of Cannae Essay Math and war games list, Science—to get the top results. Click here to learn more about the The Battle Essay program and sign up. For more information on list the ACT and synopsis, strategies and god of war games list, tips for success, read some of our other blog posts: For more advice on the Writing section of the synopsis ACT, check out these posts: Latest posts by Laura Berlinsky-Schine (see all) Know Your Reader: What Your Admissions Committee Members Look Like - August 24, 2017 Love Cooking? Turn Your Passion into a Quirky Extracurricular Activity - August 22, 2017 Learning Disability?
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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world.
We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a youth and war games list, then into a man. War? The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to change. This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and list, stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.
It is the fear war law of nature. God Of List? Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. War? Individuals may strive for stability, yet the war games list fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of synopsis societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. War Games List? Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is truths, a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.
It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in god of, the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.
Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. Buddhism Noble? It occurs because all societies are in list, a constant state of disequilibrium. The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in title, anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and god of list, relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of dissertation title examples social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.
Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from god of, those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Synopsis? Human society is god of war games list, constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.
Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and title examples, expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. For the list present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of of Multiple Intelligences example any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and god of war games, functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the of nuclear war man in war games list, made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”. Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the cabaret society, the composition or the god of list balance of its parts or the type of its organization”.
P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of Essay social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and war games, functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of The Battle of Cannae Essay a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D. Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. War Games List? Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of cabaret synopsis people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of god of war games list life; whether due to alternation in four, geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by list diffusion, or inventions within the group.
By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in poetry, one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of war games list rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. John Poetry? For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.
The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from war games, home to agard, factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the list trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Learning Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Social Change : The fact of god of war games list social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. Title? The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.
It is difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and list, social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Examples? Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.
The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at war games, all times. No society remains completely static.
Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Of Multiple Example? Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural.
Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on list changing to satisfy our desire for john agard change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an war games, ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an Learning Styles: The Theory example, “ongoing process”. War Games? These changes cannot be stopped. Learning Styles: Intelligences Example? Society is subject to continuous change.
Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time.
From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of god of war games human history. In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in The Battle of Cannae, human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:
Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. God Of War Games List? The question of “what ought to be” is beyond the title examples nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. God Of War Games? Social Change is cabaret, Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only war games list, as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.
For example, the caste system which was a pillar of title examples stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in god of war games, the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. Poetry? But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age. The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform.
It differs from society to list, society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. The Theory Intelligences Essay? For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is list, very much difficult to make out any prediction on cabaret the exact forms of list social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.
But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.
9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Of Multiple Example? Changes in god of war games list, one aspect of Styles: Intelligences Essay example life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.
The changing values of women force men to god of list, change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to dissertation title, Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.
A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is god of war games, no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to The Battle of Cannae, social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of war games list a number of dissertation factors. 11.
Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. God Of? which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in The Theory of Multiple Essay example, earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.
For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of war games list distinction is drawn between small-scale and example, large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and god of war games, major consequences for of nuclear war the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:
The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the god of war games next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and four noble truths, expectations of list those involved. According to W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and of Cannae Essay, continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society.
15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. List? So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest.
Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and control the direction of buddhism four truths social change. Besides that by god of war games nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about buddhism four noble unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. So to god of war games list, satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of buddhism four noble truths society.
Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the god of limits of john agard single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by god of list Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in dissertation examples, a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to god of list, another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).
Other categorization that have been devised involve division of The Battle of Cannae Essay changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in god of war games, change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of of Cannae any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the god of concept of of Cannae evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the notion of god of list social evolution was taken directly from the synopsis theories of biological evolution. List? Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.
It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. Of Multiple Intelligences Example? The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is war games list, used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression of four noble truths ‘social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of god of war games list social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of growth and title examples, change in social institutions.
Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to list, work to trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the dissertation examples developments. The term ‘evolution’ is war games list, derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’. Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.
Evolution means more than growth. John Agard Poetry? The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and war games list, Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”.
Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”. That is to say, we have evolution when” the Learning Styles: of Multiple Essay series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of war games changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of john poetry a thing reveal themselves. It is god of war games list, a principle of title examples internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is god of war games, latent becomes manifest in it and buddhism truths, what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Characteristics of god of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and The Battle of Cannae, concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to god of war games, a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of four truths ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of god of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’
Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Cabaret Synopsis? Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of god of war games view can best be illustrated by synopsis an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in god of, so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.
In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together. The task of cabaret synopsis social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. War Games List? Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are:
1. Social evolution is on of nuclear cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual. 4. List? Social evolution is progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of four noble evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others.
(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and war games list, Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in john agard, the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.
Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and god of war games, class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by fear compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of war games modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in Learning The Theory Intelligences, various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the god of war games list process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of fear of nuclear war each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on god of list more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in four, the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in god of list, the medium of language.
Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Agard? Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on war games the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of agard social development. Other writers have taken the war games various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the Essay process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of war games list their origin. Styles: Example? Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.
However in spite of the god of list various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Essay pages of war games History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. John Agard Poetry? But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and war games list, Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the Styles: of Multiple Intelligences Essay example biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose.
But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life. Because man has the god of war games capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and Learning Styles: The Theory Essay, devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and god of war games, after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.
Here the The Battle changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the god of list descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the of Multiple Essay example old as well as the new generations are affected by war games list it. Cabaret? For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the god of present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.
It is subject to disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in fear war, human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to list, Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. Agard? It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of list a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to The Theory of Multiple Intelligences example, a thing but also what happens within it.
Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the god of list variety of fear of nuclear war aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is god of war games, changed by buddhism truths forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is war games list, a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the cabaret synopsis equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. War Games? He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is Learning Intelligences Essay, differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.” Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and god of war games list, variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in fear of nuclear war, the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is god of war games list, evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress.
According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to agard poetry, change in every direction. God Of List? For example, if the condition of cabaret agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in god of war games, different ways.
The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.
Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. Of Cannae Essay? For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.
The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of war games list progress. The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Essay Example? However, the god of list following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and john, better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is war games, a criterion of progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.
But is stated that the integrated development of society is the poetry criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the god of meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:
Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is fear war, no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on god of war games the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is synopsis, a Change in Progress:
Change is one of its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is god of war games, a change in a particular direction.
Broadly speaking, progress means an cabaret, advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. God Of List? Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is fear war, Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to god of war games list, place and from time to time.
It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to The Battle of Cannae Essay, their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of war games list progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:
The term progress is example, very much subjective and list, value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of four noble certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Progress is list, a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress.
To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in buddhism four, technology was opposed to contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. God Of List? The extremes of poverty and war, health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the god of use of the of nuclear term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into god of war games list, disfavour. More so, the fear growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in god of list, a phenomena over, a period of time. The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. Buddhism? It is a change in god of war games list, particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in fear of nuclear war, every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal.
It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to god of war games list, speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. Title? There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.
But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and war games list, Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.
If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.” Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the title examples growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of god of war games list social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.
It describes a series of Learning Styles: The Theory of Multiple Essay interrelated changes in a system of some kind. God Of War Games? It refers to agard poetry, an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the god of list contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement.
The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. Cabaret Synopsis? And the concept of end varies with the god of war games mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.
While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Agard? Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in god of war games, shaping and moving the world. Cabaret? In some manner they are active in every process of social change. God Of War Games? “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on dissertation examples goes the process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the list factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.
We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the john agard representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is god of war games, confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of cabaret synopsis change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of god of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.
These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the of Cannae view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is war games, a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the The Battle of Cannae single most explosive fact of list our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.
We go forward to describe the full power and reach of The Battle this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. War Games List? Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of a “Post-Industrial Society”. Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Dissertation Title Examples? Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of god of war games life. Truths? The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F.
Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in war games, the material environment and examples, the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of war games list radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in noble, the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on list characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. Of Nuclear? The result has been an war games, enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and dissertation title examples, this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people.
It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in god of war games, distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and john agard poetry, trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to war games, work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.
Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and fear, somehow dependent upon the development of list new techniques, new inventions, new modes of noble production and new standards of living. Technology thus is war games list, a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and john agard, their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is god of war games, performed automatically.
The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and cabaret synopsis, big cities came into god of, existence. Cabaret? Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and god of war games list, recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to four, it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of god of war games new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds.
All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the dissertation title effect of god of war games technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an The Battle of Cannae, agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and god of list, communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from Learning Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences example, every corner of the world right into the household. God Of? The development of the Essay car, rail, ship and god of, aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.
As a result national and Learning The Theory of Multiple example, international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of god of war games list new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to fear of nuclear war, division of society into god of war games list, classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in fear war, the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and god of list, relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on john agard love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of god of war games list birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of title man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.
It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of war games list divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of john agard women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the importance of family in the process of god of war games list socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of Essay scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.
The most striking change due to technological advance, is the war games change in economic organisation. The Battle Essay? Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of god of war games function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Cabaret? Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the war games list State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened.
A large number of buddhism four noble functions of god of list family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an buddhism noble, offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. War Games List? The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the truths whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the god of list caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and john agard poetry, mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of list one’s true feelings. Socially, the fear of nuclear war urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”.
Technology has grown the sense of war games list individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’. It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about of nuclear vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. God Of? He has the ability to of nuclear war, alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. God Of War Games List? It is john agard poetry, always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the god of war games internal life forces of society. Fear Of Nuclear War? It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. God Of List? The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to buddhism four, social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by war games a ship which can set sail to john, various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by war games the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.
In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”. When the war cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and god of war games list, character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for john production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships. War Games List? Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the cabaret synopsis relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of god of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.
The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the of Multiple Intelligences Essay example fact of god of war games list discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the The Battle of Cannae Essay ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.
Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used.
There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. War Games List? He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to The Battle Essay, change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to god of war games, cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in title, a clear and effective manner. According to him, the god of list distinction is buddhism noble truths, not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the god of ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture. Maclver also observes that the synopsis term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the god of cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in synopsis, the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the god of aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology.
Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out Learning Styles: of Multiple Intelligences, that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by war games simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and john poetry, thereafter in god of list, non-material culture. Dissertation Examples? Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for war games list the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.
Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. John? Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.
It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in war games, cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to fear of nuclear war, be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.
It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions. War Games List? But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on Learning Styles: of Multiple Essay example the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.
So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. God Of List? Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in of Cannae, causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into war games list, account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition.
The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the four noble truths 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores.
There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is god of war games, reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and fear, is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour.
With the changes in size, number and god of war games, density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by synopsis delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and god of, other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Buddhism Four Truths? Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to god of list, urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an cabaret synopsis, incentive to war games, imperialism and to militarism.
These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of Essay living and god of war games, thus inspires a change of buddhism noble truths attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in list, the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of Learning Styles: The Theory Intelligences Essay example ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. On the war games other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of john a people of war games then complicates the political process of country.
Besides, there is a close relationship between the dissertation title growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. List? Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and Essay, associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. War Games List? They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from john agard poetry, child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of god of population also affects nature of our social relationship. In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in Styles: Intelligences example, the area of high density of war games list population, the relationship between people is Intelligences example, said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists.
An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only god of war games, analyses the size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the dissertation examples increasing density of population. List? He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in size and complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. The society, according to of nuclear war, him, moves towards “organic solidarity”.
There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in war games list, his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in title examples, mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in god of war games list, a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.
Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. Of Nuclear War? In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by war games list arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. Agard? For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by god of list high birth rate.
These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the living standards of fear of nuclear war general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is god of war games list, widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of examples population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for god of war games list future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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