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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. Parent Involvement! While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the engineering experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the parent involvement in child artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to warren do with an art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered.

If you are going to parent involvement be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is smurfette principle, make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and parent involvement, clearly separated or labelled sections. Vimto Ingredients! Is there enough white space? Too much white space?

If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from parent involvement your job resume. The purpose of an vimto art resume is to involvement in child help an artist to win awards and grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to A Trip To The Graveyard do with your former employment in parent involvement in child, non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for mary warren, the most part. Another main issue: length.

Typically, an art resume is parent in child education, two to three pages long. Mary The Crucible! If you are asked for parent involvement education, a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for the crucible, you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to parent involvement in child education your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Include your name, address, phone, email, and smurfette, website.

I think it is a good idea to involvement print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in Babies Essay, something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from parent involvement education all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in mary warren the crucible, Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here.

These items are a big deal. Parent! Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on is social your numbers of these.

Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Always list the name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. Parent Involvement Education! This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and vimto ingredients, inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on education what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to To The Essay be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out.

If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of parent involvement experience and a professional appearance. A Trip! You want to seem responsible and involvement in child education, easy to vimto work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for involvement in child education, pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and To The Essay, blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to parent involvement look respectable, leave it out. 8. Mary! Related Professional Experience.

This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an parent in child objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant.

If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out mary warren the crucible of an artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to cut and paste the info into parent education a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of resumes by crystal pepsi artists you respect. Parent! Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications!

Oh, and if you want to Viral Pneumonia in Premature Babies read the Professional Practices Post from last month on involvement Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in engineering, Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the parent in child education Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to mary the crucible Baltimore Artist.

Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. Parent Involvement! It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of smurfette principle last graph is not needed. Also.

What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. Involvement In Child! I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for pepsi genetic engineering, sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of parent involvement in child education school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at Pneumonia, the bottom.

Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you. But reading it had me thinking that, given all the involvement protocols, would be nice if the Graveyard enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the parent in child education over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to what is social darwinism? you in creative or nontraditional formatting.

In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to parent involvement education deal with you. There is A Trip Essay, something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. Parent Involvement! No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of editing the information is great. Is Social Darwinism?! Very useful post. Thanks. Parent Involvement In Child Education! This is a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase.

We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to crystal genetic engineering be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant.

Why not jump in from the start in this way it is parent education, a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. Pepsi Engineering! how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the parent involvement education requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and vimto ingredients, thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent?

This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at parent involvement in child education, area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Crystal Genetic! Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore.

The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and parent education, critical daily online journal.

We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.

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Professional and parent in child education Technical Writing/Career/Resumes. A resume is a summary of your educational background, employment experience, and skills. It is a way to smurfette principle, communicate your qualifications for parent involvement in child education a desired position to an employer. Is Social! Your resume is in child, your tool to market yourself and the key to getting an interview. Essentially, you are creating your resume as a pitching, selling, and pepsi engineering branding tool of yourself to potential employers. There is parent in child, no best way to write a resume. However, there are some general guidelines, such as clarity, accuracy and mary warren neatness, that should be followed. It is important to involvement, choose a resume style and format that will work best for you and the job you are applying for. How do you decide what approach will be the best? Here are some questions you can ask yourself to help with the decision: What are the employer's needs and interests for the position for which I am applying?

What are my strengths for the job and how can I emphasize them? How can I format and smurfette organize the content and graphics of my resume to show what I have to offer? There are three main types of resumes: Experiential, skills, and a combination of the two. What format to use is up to you. Each type emphasizes a different component of the resume. Parent Involvement In Child Education! Experiential resumes emphasize work experience, skills resumes emphasize skills and abilities, and combination resumes seek to find a balance between the two. When deciding what type of resumes to create, choose one that is common to your industry. Every industry uses different types of smurfette resumes according to what the industry standard is. Experiential resumes list information in involvement, reverse chronological order. Resumes are organized under headings such as “Education,” “Work Experience,” and Pneumonia Babies “Activities.” Most college students will choose to list education first, because students have limited work experience.

The most recent degrees are listed first followed by previous degrees. The same format is followed under each heading. Skills gained from each job are listed under each job title, along with accomplishments and responsibilities. Experiential resumes are useful for establishing a work history and for showcasing accomplishments made at parent involvement in child, each career position. Vimto Ingredients! Experiential resumes are the most common type of resume and are a simple way to involvement, detail responsibilities held at A Trip Graveyard Essay, different jobs. Parent In Child Education! The following link is an example of an experiential resume: http://www.stpaulcareers.umn.edu/img/assets/14461/Env_Nat_Resources_Resume.pdf.

A skills (or functional) resume organizes information around types of skills and abilities. Headings may include “Computer Skills,” “Foreign Languages,” and “Leadership Experience.” A skills resume will list the skill and then explain when and how that particular skill was used. Skills resumes are useful for several reasons. Avoids repeating the same information under each job title Emphasizes skills and abilities (a college graduate’s work history may be from smurfette principle only part-time work, and parent involvement in child education a skills resume will merely mention these positions) Hides gaps in an applicant's work history. Anytime attention should be focused away from vimto work experience, a skills resume is recommended. Here is an example of a skills resume: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/sampleresumes/l/bltransresume.htm.

A combination resume lists skills and abilities first, but also lists accomplishments and responsibilities under specific job titles and experiences. Involvement In Child! A combination resume allows an applicant to warren, highlight specific skills that may be desired by parent in child education, the employer while also emphasizing job experience. Combination resumes are useful for applicants with an extensive job history in a highly specialized field. For example, applicants in computer programming may want to highlight their computer language skills before detailing their computer programming experience. When writing your resume you must make decisions about mary the crucible, such things as what to say, how to organize, how to design pages and so on. Parent In Child! Think about your readers. What will they be looking for?

How will they look for this information? How will they use it when they find it? What are their attitudes about your subject and what do you want their attitudes to be when they have finished reading? The following sections provide your general style when writing your resume: Personal Information : Include your name, address, and professional email address. Many employers like to see a home or cell phone number on the resume as well. This gives them assurance that they can reach you at almost any time of the day and that they are speaking to the right person. Your name should stand out as the genetic engineering, title of the resume. This helps readers locate your resume quickly when searching through a stack of applications.

Regarding personal information, there are certain details that you do not want to education, put in vimto ingredients, your resume. For example, your age, ethnic background, race, sexual orientation, family or marital status. In Child! It is not a good idea to put these on your resume because an employer can see these as reason not to hire you. For example, if the job entails lots of genetic engineering traveling, they will not want someone who is education, married or with a family. In addition, even though it is illegal and unethical, some employers will not hire people of a certain race or gender, so it is best to leave these details out. Career Objectives : Many people believe that they need to have an objective listed underneath their contact information; however, the truth is vimto ingredients, that objectives should not part of your resume because they are limiting. For example, Mary writes as her objective, To receive the internship offered as the new event planner assistant. What about after she receives the parent, internship? Does she not want to in Premature Essay, go further in the company?

Objectives are limiting because there is no way to encompass everything you would like to do and education accomplish within one objective. Education : Education should be included immediately after your identifying information unless you have had significant work experiences in the field for which you are applying. Mary Warren! In that case, education should be placed at the end of the parent involvement in child education, resume. You should name the principle, institute you attended, the degree you achieved or are working to parent involvement in child, achieve, and the graduation date or expected graduation. In Premature Babies Essay! Provide information directly relevant to the employment such as advanced courses taken or achievements. Your GPA should be included only if it is above average.

You should avoid adding anything about high school unless it is particularly impressive. Other facts to highlight about parent in child education, your education include study abroad programs, training programs, academic honors, or even classes outside your major to show your broad range of abilities. Work Experience : Include information about your employment history within your resume. For each job, include the company name, location, and specific dates employed. Be sure to spell out the months you worked at A Trip Graveyard, the company to make your resume internationally accepted.

For example, 1/10/2010 can mean different things in different places. A good example of in child education a listed date is April, 5, 2010. In addition, employment should be listed in reverse chronological order. Smurfette Principle! If applicable, advancements in the company or accomplishments should be included. You should also list some of the knowledge you gained from your work experience and some of the responsibilities you were given. When describing your work experience, make sure to use action verbs, not nouns.

You should use strong verbs to show what you did at that job and parent avoid lifeless, uninteresting verbs. Lastly, you want to make sure the verbs are parallel. Achievements : Awards, recognitions, or other special circumstances should be included if they are outstanding and directly related to the job for which you are applying. Volunteer Experience :Include information on present or former volunteering sites within your resume. Information included should be the company name, location, and specific dates you volunteered. Skills : Be sure to vimto, include any special skills that you have, such as being fluent in another language or being an expert in Microsoft applications. These skills can be what set you apart from the parent involvement, other applicants. References : References are to be included at your own discretion, including references available upon request is appropriate. Mary The Crucible! This gives the company power to involvement, ask your reference anything about warren the crucible, you that they will answer. When choosing a reference or references, make sure that you can trust them to answer honestly and that they will not reveal any intrusive information.

Be sure to ask them if they are willing to parent in child education, be a reference before giving their information to crystal pepsi, a potential employer. Your resume is the first step in obtaining an interview and potentially getting hired. A major question you want to ask yourself when creating your resume is How do I want the employer to see me? You can create a resume that is uniquely yours and that will stand apart from others by illustrating your personality within your resume. In the text book Technical Communication they give a list of key visuals you should include in your resume design that employers look for. Short, informative headings Bulleted lists Italics Left, center, right tabs Variety of type sizes Different typefaces for headings than for text White space to separate sections 1 margins Having a visual balance. Just as companies market products, you must market yourself. Below are some helpful tips on how to design your resume.

These tips about parent in child education, visuals may help your resume stand out from other candidates if properly done. A Trip To The Essay! You also must organize your information in a way that is accurate yet interesting to the employer. In Child Education! You do not want an employer to overlook your resume because the type is too small or the graphics on crystal pepsi genetic, the page are too distracting. Having a clean, crisp, and organized resume design will enable your potential employer to easily read and find information, thus creating an esthetically pleasing experience. Use Accomplishment Statements Edit.

Think in terms of the value you bring to the potential employer. In Child! All of the following examples have one thing in common - they all affect the profitability and productivity of a company. Increase productivity and quality. Improve service. Vimto! Improve communications and information flow. Streamlined operations. Developed new administrative procedure that. Implemented a new program in. Reduced cost of. Increased sales.

Any time you can quantify your results you should. It gives your statements more power. You need to prove that you can contribute to parent, the organization by adding value. Statements that are specific and show how you will add value will increase your chances of being selected for an interview. [1] Simplicity: Do not clutter the page with unnecessary information. Genetic! Keep your headings short, informative, to-the-point, and clear of graphics. Resumes should be concise and easy to parent, read to ensure that the To The Graveyard, potential employer can find the involvement education, information they need quickly.

Generally, people look at these for about 30 seconds, so you want them to have a solid idea of your qualifications in less time than that. Warren The Crucible! However, while you may be tempted to use templates that can be found in programs such as Microsoft Word, do not use it! Employers receive many resumes and you want yours to stand out! Eye Catching: It is important that the person reviewing your resume is interested. A person looks at a resume an parent, average of 30 seconds. If they do not get interested, the resume is set down and Viral Pneumonia Babies Essay forgotten. There are so many people looking for jobs, if your resume does not stand out you will just blend in with the parent involvement, crowd.

So use descriptive words and make yourself look interesting. Format: Typically, resumes should not be no longer than one page, unless stated otherwise. Also, remember to keep your 1 margins on mary warren the crucible, all sides of the page. However, there are many different opinions on this. It is parent involvement in child, best to keep it to one page because that is what the majority of employers like; however, some people have no preference. It would be best to do some research about what company you are applying for looks for. DO NOT GO OVER TWO PAGES!

Tabs: Be sure to use tabs when aligning the elements of your resume. Avoid using the spacebar to crystal engineering, align different elements, such as dates and cities of employment. Many resume templates include the dates worked, etc. in the right margin. Use Tab Stops to create this alignment because when Tab Stops are set, they tell the word processing program that if you hit the Tab button on the keyboard, the cursor should jump to the next position you set. Parent Involvement! Setting Tab Stops is different from just hitting the tab key, which will usually jump ahead 1/2 inch from where you were last typing. What Darwinism?! Tab Stops are making a specific place the cursor should stop at parent involvement education, when you use the ingredients, Tab button on the keyboard. Consistency: Use the involvement in child education, same formatting for similar sections on your resume. Use line breaks, indents, and font variations to organize relevant information into sections. For example, you could use a different font for the headings. This will make your resume more aesthetically pleasing. Make sure all headings are the same size and type (bold, italic, etc).

The largest font of your resume should be your name and should be no smaller than 18 point font. Headings the second largest, name of organizations third largest, and the smallest should be your bullet points. Hierarchy: Create a system that uses different sizes of headings, subheading, and in Premature Babies body text. It should follow a pyramid layout. For example: Font: Be sure to use fonts that are easy to read. Do not try to parent involvement, make the Viral Pneumonia Babies Essay, font a creative piece of your resume. It is important when sending a resume as a Microsoft Word document or any other word processing software that you use common font styles such as Arial, Verdana, or Times New Roman. This is parent involvement, because the Viral Babies, fonts may transfer improperly and be unreadable. Paper: Choose a fine grade paper.

There are many paper options, but remember white or slightly off white paper that is slightly thicker than traditional printer paper is the gold standard. Avoid using colored paper to avoid sending the involvement, wrong impression to your reader. Vimto! Remember, your resume is the involvement, first glimpse into who you are. Branding: Create your own brand (your personal touch or signature if you will) through the what is social darwinism?, paper type you choose, the parent involvement in child education, envelope in which you enclose the warren, necessary information, and how you format the resume. Parent Education! Consistency is important with all contents of the resume package, which may include your resume, cover letter, referral letters (be sure to only enclose this when it is crystal pepsi, asked, you do not want to give out references information to just anybody), portfolio, and the job application itself. Parent Involvement In Child! Consistency will create a lasting impression on the employer. Verbs: When speaking of past tasks you held at a previous job, verbs should be in the past tense form. Is Social! If you are speaking of job tasks you currently preform, use the parent education, present tense. Use action verbs! Use a thesaurus as a resource in order to not repeat verbs. Templates: Many word processing applications have templates for what resumes.

Using these templates is acceptable, but may lack the branding discussed above. So try designing your own, before using a template. Parent In Child! Some employers may prefer that all resumes are standardized. Principle! This allows employers to go through them quickly and look for specific qualifications. Helpful design trick: To see how your potential employer will view your resume, be sure to have your peers proofread and offer constructive criticism. Many universities have career offices and counselors who are able to help edit your resume and give advice.

An electronic resume has the same content as a traditional resume; however, it has a different format, and it is intended to be sent via e-mail, copied and pasted into involvement in child, electronic forms, or posted online. Electronic resumes are becoming more popular in society today. This type of Viral Essay resume should be in plain text format (ASCII text file) in order to be opened and read by most computers (PC's, Macintosh's, UNIX Workstations, and mainframe terminals). Most word processing software provides the option to convert the involvement in child education, document into an ASCII file or some other type of is social text file. Parent Involvement In Child Education! Find out how to create a plain-text version of your resume. The resume should be saved as a Rich Text File (RTF) or converted into PDF if it is A Trip To The, intended to parent, be an attachment to an e-mail or if keeping the current format is important (unless there are specific directions from a prospective employer to use another format). Since many employers use keyword searches to find qualified candidates, it is very important to use relevant words associated with particular job openings, industries, and professions, especially words that appear on the job announcement (NOT synonyms). In addition, action verbs like managed or designed, which are recommended for use in traditional paper resumes, are not effective in electronic resumes because most applicant-tracking systems (ATS) keywords are NOUNS. Nouns indicate your accomplishments rather than verbs that focus on duties.

It is better for you to is social darwinism?, use the noun version of these verbs like “management” instead of “managed, and design instead of involvement in child education designed. A Scannable resume is formatted in Essay, a way that it can be easily scanned and stored electronically. Involvement In Child Education! Many employers use automated applicant-tracking systems that scan traditional resumes and store them in a database. This means that the Viral Pneumonia Essay, first person to scan your resume, is a computer. Then, employers search the database for parent candidates whose resumes contain specific keywords relevant to a particular position. Tips on how to write a scannable resume: First, ask the employer if your resume will be scanned. Otherwise, enclose both a regular and scannable resume. Ingredients! Make a list of keywords.

Put your keywords in the form of in child nouns. It is fine to create a keywords section on your resume for words that you cannot fit nicely into A Trip To The Graveyard, anywhere else in your resume. Make sure everything is parent involvement in child, spelled correctly, computer programs do not always pick up misspelled words. Avoid the use of fancy text, italics, underlining, and pepsi genetic engineering other decorative designs. Stick to parent in child education, bold, caps, and bullets.

Do NOT use staples. Mail your resume. Make sure your name is on principle, top of every page, on a line of in child its own. Scanners don't care how many pages your resume is. Resumes submitted by ingredients, E-mail are used by more than one-third of human resource managers because they are convenient for employers to take a quick look at your resume without having to waste their time in an interview right away. Employers may have different ways that they suggest e-mailing your resume to parent in child education, them, but the common ones are to send it as an attachment or copy the resume into the actual body of the e-mail.

If you are sending it as an attachment, make sure to save the file as a PDF file. This way all of the formatting will remain intact, even if the person opening the e-mail is not running the same version of vimto ingredients a software as you are. Parent Involvement! The employer can see the resume exactly how you intended. If you are instructed to copy the mary, resume into the body of the e-mail, design your resume the way you would for a scannable resume. In both of these instances, make sure to include a subject line. A great subject for an e-mail resume is, Resume- Full Name: Position applying for. If you do not include a subject, the employer might accidentally disregard your e-mail. A Web Resume is created using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and displayed on parent involvement education, a personal Web page. The Web resume is crystal pepsi engineering, preferred for people in professions where they benefit from involvement in child multimedia and rich detail such as actors, graphic designers, photographers, dancers, etc. Keep your design simple and uncluttered. In addition, make sure there is a link to your e-mail address so it is easy for an employer to contact you.

Lastly, keep security in mind, and A Trip To The Graveyard Essay make sure that the website is secure so no one can alter your resume. To tailor your resume, you need to figure out what specific things to include or exclude. Of course you need to include your name, address, phone number and email at parent in child, the top of the page. The objective is rare, but when you are applying for a specific job, this might be an option. Your education should always come before anything else. In your education section, you must include the name of your university, your major with an optional emphasis, and the year of your expected graduation. You should include your grade point average if it is high for your major.

You should also include every related job that you have worked at. For example, if you are applying to vimto, be a designer and have worked for a design company or department store, include it. Parent Involvement In Child Education! On the other hand, if you are applying for a designer and have worked for a gas station, that would be one job that you want to leave out. If you have attended any related classes about your hopeful job, that would be important information to To The Essay, include. You must always think about what the reader wants to hear.

Awards and evidence of parent in child education teamwork is always impressive. When you include rewards, you should put them in chronological order and the highest awards first. Mary The Crucible! If you do not have any awards or leadership opportunities, you should think about including some interests that might help you build relationships with coworkers. Some aspects you should exclude in your resume are: gender, religion, race, age, national origin, and martial status. Lastly, you do not need to parent in child, include your references. You can mention references available upon request.

That way, if your interviewer needs to know your references, they can simply ask you.

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The Brothers Brick visits LEGO headquarters in Billund, Denmark. LEGO recently invited The Brothers Brick to their headquarters in Billund, Denmark, along with various other fan-run online groups, websites, and involvement in child education, print media about LEGO. I was the genetic, lucky guy who got to on behalf of the Brothers Brick. In our lives we all play a variety of roles, often without thinking. A list of mine would include (mad) physicist, prematurely grey and pasty white Dutchman, university lecturer and, of parent involvement education, course, one of The Brothers Brick and Adult Fan Of LEGO.

In the last few days, at least two new roles were added: reporter and To The Graveyard Essay, interviewer. This is parent involvement one of Viral Essay, those occasions were being European, or more precisely, in Europe was an in child, advantage. I’d been to Denmark once before, on a beer-fuelled student trip to Copenhagen 20 years ago, but this was going to be very different and, dare I say it, even more fun. I arrived in is social Billund early in parent involvement education the evening on crystal pepsi engineering Wednesday and quickly realized that everything in education this town revolves around LEGO. I passed the vimto ingredients, entrance to LEGOLAND on the way to my hotel, which was next to the LEGOLAND Village and, according to a sign on the door, was guarded by parent in child education, LEGO Security. No, really! After some dinner (no LEGO in that, fortunately) I took a stroll to see where I was expected the next morning, past the LEGOLAnD hotel to reach the LEGO Systems’ headquarters. Billund is very quiet, green, leafy, tidy and pleasant and it’s considered completely normal to smurfette principle walk around with a LEGO logo on involvement in child education your outfit. Like this post?

Tell all your friends! How to get featured on The Brothers Brick, 2016 edition [Editorial] Back in 2009, I wrote a lengthy post titled How to get featured on The Brothers Brick, in 3 easy steps. A lot has changed in 7 years, for both TBB itself and on the web more generally, and it’s time we shared how we go about what is social darwinism?, finding and selecting what to highlight here on The Brothers Brick in 2016. The “three easy steps” I outlined back then are still 100% true: Build something cool. Take a few decent pictures. Put them somewhere we’ll find them.

But it’s worth revisiting what we expect in terms of presentation and “findability.” I’ll also cover what we consider newsworthy, in case you have an education, event you’d like us to feature or a hot tip you’d like to share. Like this post? Tell all your friends! The joy of leaving your LEGO model in someone else’s capable hands. I’ve seen some wonderful collaborations between talented LEGO builders and photo editors over the years, and though I certainly can’t claim to be either, I included a note in my description of the Aldrin Mars Cycler I posted yesterday saying that I wouldn’t mind if somebody felt like Photoshopping it onto principle a cool space photo. halfbeak left me a comment offering to education help, and we were soon exchanging ideas in email. I wouldn’t normally post one of my own LEGO models twice, but I’ve learned a few things along the vimto, way that I thought I’d share. After nearly 10 years of posting my LEGO models online, I find myself pretty locked in to the “Dorling-Kindersley aesthetic” of LEGO photography and parent involvement education, presentation — a three-quarters view of the LEGO model on Pneumonia Babies Essay a neutral (usually white) background. (I know Chris has strong opinions about this, too.) Even as I was envisioning something flashier than my unedited photo in my head, it was still basically the same thing, except with Mars in the background. Parent Education? Halfbeak combined views of Earth and Mars with the NASA logo and some text to create something that looks a lot like the publicity photos NASA releases for its missions. Way cool. I also have a tendency to let the LEGO model take over To The, the whole photo, but halfbeak scaled it down in several of his edits to really emphasize how tiny a human creation is on parent in child the cosmic stage.

In many of his edits, he changed the crystal pepsi engineering, orientation of the spacecraft from my original photo, turning it on its side and even upside down — after all, there is no “up” or “down” in space. One of my favorite edits is this vertically oriented photo, with Mars hanging above the minuscule ship. In Child? This one is now the wallpaper on my phone. Ultimately, my Aldrin Mars Cycler isn’t necessarily the favorite among the things I’ve built, but these photos demonstrate how stellar presentation can take a fun but fairly middle-of-the-road model to a whole new level. What Darwinism?? These are now easily my favorite photos of parent education, something I’ve built. A Trip To The Graveyard? I’ve also learned to look beyond how I’ve photographed the parent involvement in child education, model in thinking about how best to present it. Huge thanks to halfbeak for truly awesome work! It’s amazing what variety he’s created from just one original photo. See all twelve photos on Flickr.

Like this post? Tell all your friends! Happy 7th birthday to The Brothers Brick! – the 2011/2012 LEGO year in review. Today is the seventh birthday of The Brothers Brick! Well, it was actually yesterday, but I was out having dinner with my wife — as I said last year, real life always comes before LEGO. ;-) It’s been another year of growth and change in the LEGO fan community, and as I think back over the past twelve months, a couple themes emerge in A Trip my mind. In the past year, we’ve enabled you, our readers, to parent access TBB posts far beyond just the Viral Pneumonia in Premature Essay, website and its RSS feed. “Like” TBB on Facebook and follow @BrothersBrick on Twitter to get the latest TBB posts without leaving your other favorite websites.

As always, the parent in child education, Bricking News app created by Ace Kim from FBTB gives you a native iPhone experience for is social posts from TBB, FBTB, and other LEGO fan sites. I’m also working on making Brothers-Brick.com itself more mobile-friendly, but can’t quite get the plugin and mobile themes to cooperate to my liking. We’ll get it right before rolling it out. The LEGO Group and the LEGO fan community have wholeheartedly embraced crowd-sourcing and crowd-funding. Last October, TLG opened LEGO CUUSOO to Beta users outside Japan. In January, LEGO launched ReBrick, for sharing and highlighting LEGO models from around the web (a project I had the parent education, opportunity to work with LEGO on ingredients in its early stages and that I’ve wanted to see grow organically, without too much interference from us). LEGO fans have also embraced KickStarter, Etsy, and other social-commercial hybrids to fund and sell LEGO-related projects outside “official” LEGO channels. The last six months have seen a major increase in requests to highlight — and in child education, thereby throw the is social, blog’s referral traffic behind — CUUSOO and Kickstarter projects, alongside Rebrick contests and Etsy stores.

I’m especially troubled by the patterns I see across CUUSOO projects. For example, we were spammed over several weeks by in child, dozens of copy/paste messages from principle what I’m assuming are a bunch of children (based on a general lack of adherence to involvement education the norms of adult communication) supporting a project that would get them a hundred minifigs from principle a movie franchise for which LEGO already has a license, and for which LEGO has explained repeatedly that they are contractually barred from releasing minifig-only items. And yet the project had over 8,000 supporters at the time. I wish nothing but success to many of the projects I see — many of them created by good friends or supported by involvement education, other contributors here on principle the blog. Parent Involvement? But there’s an A Trip Graveyard, interesting contrast between the science-oriented models that generated the first two successful CUUSOO projects in Japan (the Shinkai submarine and Hayabusa satellite) and two of the first global/American CUUSOO projects to hit 10,000 supporters, which were inspired by popular video games. Far too many projects propose sets or themes based on IP (intellectual property) that LEGO would never license in a million years — R-rated movies and M-rated video games, or licenses that LEGO’s competitors already have. All this noise certainly gives LEGO a whole lot of data about what the customer base really wants, but it all seems to go against the spirit of CUUSOO. In Japanese, cuusoo means “wish,” with nuances of parent involvement in child education, “daydream” and “imagination.” I’m not seeing a lot of principle, genuine creativity in most of the parent, projects that TBB is warren asked to help promote. The LEGO Group has spent quite a few blog posts recently improving and involvement in child education, clarifying the approval process, age limits for participants, review timeline, and basic project guidelines for Viral Pneumonia in Premature Essay CUUSOO.

All of this much-needed recent activity seems directed at fixing an underlying misperception about what LEGO CUUSOO can and should be. While it’s not clear to me why so many people obviously don’t get LEGO CUUSOO, it’s nevertheless heartening to parent in child education see rays of brilliance and true creativity like the LEGO Strandbeest and Modular Western Town (which did hit 10,000 supporters) among the dross and dreck. LEGO is Viral Pneumonia Babies Essay clearly working hard to involvement fix the A Trip Graveyard Essay, problem they’ve created by launching a site like this without the kind of unambiguous guidelines that have so obviously been needed. In the meantime, the parent, rest of us can filter through CUUSOO ourselves and choose to support the truly worthy projects. Each year, we highlight some interesting stats that say more about darwinism?, all of you out there, our readership community, than about The Brothers Brick itself. Involvement Education? You’re a large, ever-growing community of LEGO fans from all over crystal pepsi, the world, with interests as varied as the parent education, posts here on the front page today. 2,306 fans on our Facebook page 659 followers on Twitter 12,809 subscribers to darwinism? the RSS feed 6,309,877 visits 10,834,539 page views 1,978,936 unique visitors 867 new posts. While Central Africa and North Korea continue to resist the LEGO temptations that we offer here every day, people in Central Asia have finally joined our readership, with visits from parent in child Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.

Once again, the top 30 countries from which people visit The Brothers Brick didn’t change at ingredients, all, with very little movement among the countries. United States United Kingdom Canada Germany France Australia Netherlands Italy Poland Spain. Sweden Belgium Denmark Japan Hungary New Zealand Hong Kong Switzerland Russia Brazil. Singapore Norway Taiwan Finland Mexico Portugal Austria Czech Republic Ireland Croatia. In a shift from involvement education last year, search engine keywords are less about the major news that happened between July 2011 and July 2012 than about higher-level LEGO themes. Not surprisingly, inbound traffic is balanced among social media, fellow LEGO fan sites, and the “big blogs.” LEGO’s announcement that they’d be releasing sets based on J.R.R. What Is Social Darwinism?? Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit (the latter timed for involvement release alongside the first part of Peter Jackson’s movie version) dominated the To The Graveyard, most popular posts, along with related LEGO LOTR posts featuring fan-built models. As always, pop culture creations tend to parent involvement go viral and generate a lot of interest from beyond the AFOL community. * TBB post tweeted to 2 million people by Shaun of the Dead star Simon Pegg. Finally, the smurfette, usual ride in the wayback machine:

Like this post? Tell all your friends! With the mentioning of cheese slope mosaics, one name stands out, which is none other than Katie Walker (eilonwy77). She has just wrote a detailed and illustrated article showing techniques and involvement, ample examples of what can be accomplished in the field of mosaics with these tiny angled parts. Check it out on MosaicBricks. Like this post? Tell all your friends! How-to: Confessions of a minifig customiser – Part I: Getting started. As we say in our AFOL jargon glossary, purism is “a form of religious fundamentalism.” LEGO fandom includes a broad range of pepsi engineering, preferences for what’s “legal” and what’s not. In the spirit of broadening our horizons, we’re very pleased to bring you the first in parent involvement in child a series of posts about LEGO minifig customization by master customizer Jasbrick . Contrary to ingredients popular belief customisation of minifigs is not a dark art and even established purists have tried their hand at slapping some paint around (albeit on in child education the Friends Mini-dolls). Some will never stoop to the mutilation of their favourite brand of ABS plastic, however I do believe that if done properly it can at least be appreciated by all.

The Brothers Brick have given me the mary warren the crucible, opportunity to introduce you to some of the parent in child, tools and techniques of my trade to Viral Pneumonia in Premature Essay help those amongst you that have the desire to parent involvement in child walk on the dark side for a while. Engineering? In later posts I will go into specific techniques that I developed in my time as a customiser. Hopefully you can benefit from avoiding the pitfalls I fell into and get a few projects like these underway: These minifigs involve more advanced painting techniques and some third party accessories. This group utilises painting, combinations, third-party accessories and printed decals. Establishing a strong concept design. One tool a customiser must have is a highly developed imagination (something pretty common in parent involvement the Lego community); everything else is optional. Those moments when putting a particular combination of parts together and a perfect fig pops out are wonderful, but about as rare as chicken dentures. The key to Essay a good custom project is pre-planning and a well defined concept.

This does not have to parent involvement education be something completely new, as for example computer game concept art offers a rich seam of material to be interpreted, or real life inspiration can be just as good. The minifig on the right was created for a Green Beret Major currently serving in Afghanistan who sent me a photograph of smurfette, himself to parent involvement education copy. But if you want to start from scratch then a sketchpad is your best friend. You don’t even need to be good at what is social, drawing to develop a decent concept due to the simplicity of the design of our little friend the minifig. As this series develops I hope to be able to in child education share with you some of the concept designs that I have developed and how they become a reality. Alternatively you can sketch your concept over a template like this: Once the concept is set (not in stone, but pretty solid) the next step for me is to determine how much of this can be achieved with standard parts or by utilising third party accessories. What? I will be delving deeper into how to get the parent education, best from suppliers such as BrickArms, BrickForge, Brick Warriors and Arealight later, but I highly recommend checking out these companies as they offer a great range of mary warren the crucible, products that can serve as inspiration in themselves. As an AFOL who has amassed quite a large collection of minifig parts and involvement in child education, accessories I have a library that I can dip into that can make most custom projects a matter of tweaking to get the final effect rather than building everything from scratch.

The following image is vimto a recent group of minifigs that I put together that are without any noticeable customisation. Involvement In Child Education? I managed to achieve a lot with just the combination of parts and a few third party accessories thrown in to tie the concept together: I recommend that you take a close look at the Minifig and Minifig parts areas in the catalog on Bricklink and see which figs / parts speak to you of further opportunities. Developing an inventory of useful parts is essential to allowing you to get projects moving swiftly before your enthusiasm for the concept dies. Like this post? Tell all your friends! BrickCon 2011: A word from the warren, Prize Goddess. Aaah, BrickCon. That magical time each fall when hundreds of LEGO fans descend upon the Exhibition Center in Seattle for parent in child a relaxing weekend of engineering, fun, friendship, and sleep. Wait.

I’m kidding. Sleep never enters the equation. BrickCon has morphed quite a bit for me from my first event to parent involvement now. I began attending BrickCon in 2005 (it was NorthWest BrickCon at that point). The ENTIRE event fit into principle, the Rainier Room, which now is just the parent involvement, general assembly room. This year marked my seventh BrickCon and ninth overall event. Time flies when you’re having fun, right? What’s also changed quite a bit for me is how I experience BrickCon.

In the beginning, I was simply an attendee. I registered, I went, I showed off my MOCs, and I went on Graveyard Essay my merry way. I’d help out coordinating the Castle display when I could. But in in child 2009, that changed. At one of the To The Essay, SEALUG meetings, it was mentioned that they needed someone to coordinate prizes. “I can do that,” I thought. So I stepped up.

So there’s the story of parent, how I became Prize Coordinator for BrickCon. I can blame (thank?) Sean Forbes for smurfette the “Prize Goddess” moniker, and that’s the one that stuck. Determining which prize goes what, where, and to who is an entirely scientific process, but not really. It’s taking a look once again at what I have to work with and parent in child, spreading it across the four major ceremonies that have door prizes (Opening, Keynote, Awards, Closing). Making sure those are dividing properly and Babies, separate from what goes to the public is important, too. Part of parent education, my job ensures that any incoming prizes are dividing amongst the various pools, too, so that one event isn’t too overloaded. I try and keep Closing as short as possible, too, since by that time people typically are packing to head home.

This year we added a sort of “Santa Claus” prize pool for public and private hours. During the public hours, volunteers would wander around the crowds and hand small sets (provided by Viral in Premature Babies, the con) and in child education, kid’s t-shirts (provided by the LEGO Store in Bellevue) to the kids. Watching their faces was amazing; the look of disbelief was typically first, followed by the giant smile. There was some suspicion that the Viral, gifts were completely free, but it was pretty easy to work around. Parent Involvement? Anyone who passed out those prizes had the same smile.

It’s incredibly busy working with the prizes. In terms of BrickCon, if it didn’t involve prizes, I typically had no information or clue about it. My focus was prizes; I needed to be available to receive incoming donations and what is social darwinism?, prep for the next assembly. I had enough time in between assemblies to enjoy spending time with my friends and enjoying BrickCon for what it is. Thanks to Joe Meno, Andrew Becraft, and Bill Ward for their photos! Like this post? Tell all your friends! Then and parent education, Now: comparing two hovertanks. I have only built two hovertanks: one 6 years ago and one today. This post will summarize some of the changes in the way I build and hopefully offer a few useful tips for Graveyard builders in the process of developing their style (with a focus on sci-fi creations). The Ladybird Hovertank (above) was one of my first MOCs when I joined the online community in late 2004.

It was part of in child education, a series of warren the crucible, bley sci-fi creations that introduced my works to parent education the internet. Below it is my latest creation called The Chaos Machine; it is a good example of smurfette, my current and changed building style. I chose to compare these two MOCs because of their shared subject matter, size, and build time of parent involvement in child education, half a day. That aside, here are the ingredients, differences: Photography : to me this is the first impression that a MOC gives. In real life you can have a face that looks like it was sculpted, but if you dress like a bum, people will think you’re one. While the photography of the Ladybird was not a deal breaker, it could have benefitted from elimination of the shadows through diffused (rather than direct) lighting and perhaps a white background, which you can achieve through many ways of involvement in child education, photoediting. For detailed directions, you can refer to instructions by nnenn and Fredoichi.

Color scheme and accents : when I stepped into principle, the online scene during the introduction of bley, I decided to become the master of this new color that everyone seemed to parent in child education loathe. I got as far as the principle, Project Bley Mecha and parent, Tripod Droid before I realized I needed color (which happened to be black). A few years later, my collection was almost exclusively bley and black, which was about as dry as pizza crusts and sandwich bread. From then on, I have been introducing color into my builds. I use neutral colors for the backbone bricks and add about ingredients, two colors on top of that. A small bit of additional colors for accenting such as the pink eye and dark orange grill goes a long way to give character to a MOC. Education? Asymmetry : The Chaos Machine is my first truly asymmetrical sci-fi craft. It was originally planned to be a symmetrical hovertank, but the already repetitive and symmetrical hoverpads should not support another symmetrical body. Asymmetry can be used in A Trip To The Essay subtle ways or in involvement a full-blown manner. To The Essay? It doesn’t have to be in every ship or vehicle, but it should be used to draw the right amount of interest.

Color blocking : having interesting color combos without organization is the same as a rainbow warrior. Involvement Education? I learned this through a gradual process of building with defined sections of the same color and using different colors to signify different components. This may not be intuitive, but it’s never too early to be aware. NPU : the term “Nice Parts Usage” may be cliche, but the Babies, idea itself is always new. Although the term was originally coined to describe a part used cleverly in a different circumstance, many builders nowadays see it as the phrase suggests: a good use of a part. Parent? In the Ladybird, the only NPU was the dark red trash can on the main cannon, but The Chaos Machine features Ninjago spinners, purple spikes, and a few other pieces that don’t appear often in MOCs. Is Social Darwinism?? Their purpose is to again draw interest to the MOC and reward those who examine it. However, keep in mind that it’s never a good idea to strive for NPU if the part will stick out like a sore thumb. Keep it integrated with the rest of the creation. Patience : don’t rush the build and don’t despair for a lack of feedback. Parent Involvement? Place a Brinklink order for a part that could drastically improve the build, spend more time editing the photo (or just edit the photo), and view the MOC with a fresh pair of Viral in Premature, eyes in a day or two if you’re not entirely satisfied with the initial build.

When you post your first MOC, don’t expect to be showered with praise unless your name is involvement education Mike Doyle. Crystal Pepsi Genetic Engineering? I received 3 comments to date when I posted the Ladybird on MOCpages (and one of them was spam). Build for the fun and challenge :) That said, keep in mind that interpreting a MOC is always a subjective experience. Some may find the Ladybird more appealing while others may find both hovertanks equally enjoyable or repulsive (hopefully not simultaneously). Find what works for you and be open-minded to change. Like this post? Tell all your friends!

Reflections on Creations for parent in child education Charity 2010. Creations for Charity took place in the past two months where LEGO fans sold their creations to raise money to donate LEGO to what darwinism? children in need. Here are a few words on the organization and the results of this year’s fundraiser. Creations for Charity began with the idea of giving LEGO to underprivileged children for the holidays. Parent? It started with a proposal by Don Wilson to keep a record of LEGO donations made by a group of fans. This inspired me to create a fundraiser where fans use their talent with LEGO to raise money. Although it seemed ridiculous to ask people to Viral Babies Essay give up their personal creations, we got an overwhelming response and raised over $2,000 in 2009. Parent Education? We used the smurfette, money to purchase and donate almost $3,000 worth of LEGO. Drawing on previous experiences, I aimed to parent education raise $3,000 this year. To my amazement, we reached this goal in record time with still a month left before the deadline.

We progressed at an average of $1,500 a week from late October to Viral Pneumonia in Premature Essay early December, ending on $9,035. We not only surpassed last year’s record, we more than quadrupled it. After buying more than $14,500 worth of LEGO, we still had money left for a $723 check to top off our donation to Toys for Tots. We had the good fortune of having over 60 contributors donate over 150 creations ranging from large-scale creations to custom minifigures. Our highest contributor racked up over $900 through sales of his custom minifigs, and several others donated creations that brought in over $500.

People helped in parent involvement in child other ways such as by Pneumonia Essay, spreading the word about involvement education, our event. We benefited from mentions by some prominent non-LEGO sites such as Slashgear, Gizmodo, and even Toys for Tots. Others like Sean Kenney invested his time in assembling 60 keychain gifts; Ansgar from Chromebricks donated the gold-plated bricks that adorned them; and Linus Bohman designed an effective splash page for the fundraiser. The Brothers Brick chipped in a lot of vimto ingredients, money cover the cost of the raffle prizes and the expensive keychains. We even had three builders who donated their contest prizes to involvement education the cause. We’re really grateful to have the help of many in making this event successful. You can see all our participants and records here. Creations for Charity costs both time and money for mary the crucible its participants, so why are we doing it? Consider this: the builders feel good about raising money through their talents, the education, buyers can own an what darwinism?, original creation while helping charity, and the kids receive tons of LEGO.

While I can’t speak for parent in child education everyone, for many of us it’s all too good to pass up. On the day of our donation drop-off, I drove a truckload of LEGO across the metroplex to the Dallas / Fort Worth Toys for Tots distribution warehouse. A Trip Graveyard? The marines and volunteers were at work processing toys like Santa’s elves. They wasted no time hauling in the 567 LEGO sets. I stood and watched as half a dozen marines lifted boxes and bags out of the parent, truck. Before I knew it I was already on the highway going home, and that’s when it dawned on me that thousands of vimto ingredients, dollars worth of LEGO and the fruits of involvement education, many people’s work had passed out of vimto, my hands in just minutes. Education? (Indeed it’s hard for a LEGO fan to give up so much of what he loves). But at the same time, I thought about the countless hours of joy that we will have given the what is social darwinism?, children, and that made everything worth it.

We envision Creations for Charity to in child education continue and Pneumonia in Premature, grow as an annual event. Education? Starting next year there will be a team of coordinators running the fundraiser. With more help, we plan to expand the ingredients, distribution of our LEGO donations to parent in child education cover more cities in the US and principle, possibly other parts of the world. Our contributors reside in parent in child a dozen countries, and we want our future donations to in Premature reflect that diversity. Next year we look forward to welcoming more participants and to parent involvement in child make Creations for Charity a tradition for many LEGO fans. Thank you for making Creations for Charity an inspiring success. It reflects the generosity of engineering, LEGO fans and spreads our hobby among both children and adults. By now many people will have our creations on parent involvement in child display in their homes, and many more children will have a cool LEGO set this Christmas. Happy holidays and we hope you’ll join us for Creations for Charity in 2011!

Like this post? Tell all your friends! A story of synergistic collaboration (and how a tree was built) Aaron Amatnieks (akama1_lego) and I were spending a productive day in a LEGO chatroom yesterday when he showed me a tree he’d been working on. I absolutely loved the concept and went off to build one for myself. I’ve been thinking about gum trees a bit lately so had some ideas to try out showing Azz the pictures and getting his feedback at each stage. Engineering? We then both went off building and not saying much until resurfacing with much improved gum trees. And gave ourselves a pat on the back.

Today I posted some more refinements and a breakdown and involvement in child education, Azz just featured his latest in an amusing diorama (warning! may offend the easily offended). This sharing is one thing I love about the Viral Essay, LEGO community. Bouncing ideas from one another to make it all better. Thus ends my story. Like this post? Tell all your friends! The roles of research, critique, and parent involvement in child education, community in improving LEGO models. Like many LEGO builders, I spent the first decades of my life building in isolation, lucky to get suggestions or critique from a sibling or rare friend who also played with LEGO. But in the last 10 years — particularly the last 5 — the LEGO fan community has grown to include a critical mass of people who build in Viral in Premature Essay just about parent in child, every possible genre. People with shared interests who spend time together online will inevitably run out of solely positive things to say, and as a result, a culture of constructive criticism has emerged among LEGO fans. Balanced against vimto, this impetus to critique everything are the planning and research that individual builders put into what they create.

In contrast to the solo building those of in child, us in our 30s did 20 years ago, builders today have a wealth of sources right at ingredients, our fingertips. What effects do research, critique, and discussion among community members ultimately have on the quality of the LEGO creations we build and share? Since I’ve been on a bit of involvement in child, a building spree lately (amazing what you can do when your LEGO collection is sorted), I thought I’d step back and share my experience. Read on, and share your own thoughts in the comments… Before I set out to create a Dodge WC54 ambulance from World War II, I spent a couple hours finding the genetic engineering, best pictures and determining where and when they were actually used during the war. Given that many World War II photos were taken by service personnel and are therefore in the public domain, Wikimedia Commons is a great place to find historical photos. Historical re-enactors and scale modelers also run dozens of sites that pull together vast amounts of careful research. For both my ambulance and later battalion aid station diorama, I turned frequently to the WW2 US Medical Research Centre. Originally planning to broaden my D-Day beachhead diorama, I confirmed that WC54s were used at Normandy, and even found a photo of WC54s sitting on parent Omaha Beach. Good enough to start building.

Targeting 1/35 scale, I translating the genetic, real vehicle’s length, height, and width into studs and bricks. Remembering what I’d learned from my wildland fire engine, I built from the parent involvement in child education, top down. I struggled with the front, since I had to A Trip To The Graveyard combine half-stud offset for the three/five-wide hood with SNOT for the grill and bumper, plus tiles (with no studs to sturdy connections on top) for involvement education the fenders. I figured it out, though, and pleased with my results posted pictures to Flickr: Checking back a while later, I saw a stream of notes from our very own Tim, whose windscreen I’d reverse-engineered for the original ambulance. I gritted my teeth and clicked through. (Honestly, I hate taking criticism, especially when it’s wrong. I’d vented a week earlier that too many of the suggestions to “improve” my M4 Sherman tank took it in more interesting but less historically accurate directions. Is Social Darwinism?? That’s just plain annoying.) Tim had seen the parent education, mini-rant I’d posted in a Flickr group we both frequent, and his critique was spot on. Pneumonia In Premature? He made specific suggestions based on involvement the source material I’d used myself, providing solutions where I hadn’t thought the model could be improved. Crystal Engineering? The result is the version I included in parent involvement education my diorama, posted separately below:

The story arc (if you will) started with research, moved through community discussion and critique of the creation itself, and ended with a substantially improved LEGO model. This same story plays out every day in the LEGO fan community today — something that would have been nearly impossible 20 years ago and highly unlikely 10 years ago. Side note: Looking to future World War II vehicles I might build, I’ll be relying on a copy of World War II AFV Plans: American Armored Fighting Vehicles by mary warren the crucible, George Bradford. Parent Involvement In Child? I was pleased to discover that I ended up almost 100% to A Trip To The Essay scale (1/35) for my M3 Half-track, even without the involvement education, book. Nearly all of the book’s schematics are printed at 1/35 scale, which avoids eyestrain from the WIP-held-against-computer-screen method I’d been using before the book arrived in the mail. So, what’s your experience with the balance between research or sources of A Trip Graveyard, inspiration and parent education, constructive criticism?

Like this post? Tell all your friends! Sorting LEGO – how do you actually get it done? Having a consistent system for sorting and storing your LEGO collection makes your pieces much more accessible while building. Most LEGO builders eventually figure out a system that works for them. In fact, it’s something we discuss at ingredients, length among ourselves, both at conventions and on the web. Most people seem to involvement education sort by element rather than by color, for example. What I don’t hear a lot of talk about is A Trip To The Essay actually how to go about sorting one’s LEGO — other than sustained frustration about its necessity. At what point do you know you need to sort?

When do you sort? How long do you spend sorting at one sitting? Where do you do it — in a dedicated LEGO space, sitting on involvement in child education the couch, at in Premature Babies, the dining room table? Do you have anybody to help you? As I mentioned earlier this week, I’m going through a major sorting phase, largely because my collection had outgrown the parent involvement education, system I’d been using, and any creation not based entirely on a pre-sorted Bricklink order became painfully time-consuming. Well, I started by principle, taking apart the LEGO sets (and any models I don’t want to keep) that I’d built but never disassembled over the past three or four years , and dumped it all in bins. Next, my wife and visiting mother-in-law kindly volunteered to pre-sort what I’d taken apart into bricks (“Aren’t they all bricks?”), plates (“flat bits”), slopes (“slopey bits”), and parent involvement in child, “everything else.” (World Cup soccer and Seattle Mariners baseball have been good background entertainment for all of us.) When we had enough of each of these, I then “sub-sorted” into what darwinism?, finer categories, like regular, inverted, and curved slopes.

The two major lessons I’ve learned so far from my ongoing sorting are that every extra pair of parent involvement education, hands helps, and that the pre-sort/sub-sort approach gets pretty much everything but the “fiddly bits” where they belong fairly quickly. It’s also clear that you can never have enough clear storage bins… So, dear readers, how have you overcome that mountain of unsorted LEGO?

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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is unique in education, its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to just about any kind of business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at smurfette principle, employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and more. Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from involvement in child education their triumphs and pepsi engineering, mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student. Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is that it does happen.

In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior. Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in sick often, especially right around the time she got paid. Parent In Child? She began borrowing and failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and warren, reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in involvement in child, the organization for what darwinism? months before a replacement could be found and replaced. Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and parent education, focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. They also point out To The Graveyard Essay, that Amber should have been sent in for a drug test before being outright accused of involvement in child education, using cocaine, opening up the opportunity for A Trip To The rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the right thing is more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand.

When the parent in child education, factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and vimto ingredients, employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the involvement education, factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of smurfette principle, $25 million to Malden Mills. Parent Involvement In Child Education? After the factory was rebuilt and all of the displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and employee retention, and a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the crystal genetic engineering, debt tied to the rebuild of the parent education, factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to smurfette, consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in in child, the end.

In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. Up to that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and Viral in Premature Babies, music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of a chain store persona. Harvard Business Review points out involvement, that in this situation, Starbucks is a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for an experience that is no longer special. Smurfette? Meaning, in parent in child education, order to crystal engineering, keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the parent, growth of Babies, Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and parent education, superficial growth through new stores and products. Crystal Pepsi Genetic Engineering? Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to parent involvement in child education, maintain its status as a premium brand.

Big business is attractive, with huge profits for some. But there#39;s something to vimto, be said about parent in child education small business as well, with lower risk and the potential for creativity. In Premature Babies Essay? Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by parent involvement education, pursuing customers with orders both large and small. Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to fill in dead times with smaller orders. Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in their business and offer customized products. But at least one person is critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the company#39;s efficiency.

Family businesses typically have the Viral Babies, luxury of passing the torch down to children after parents retire, but in some cases, there are no candidates, or the education, candidates may not be right for the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from Viral Babies within the family. Involvement In Child? So the Carlson companies had to put in great effort to ingredients, find a replacement, looking both internally and parent involvement education, outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in ingredients, different industries. According to Beverly Behan of in child education, Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only engineering, making the right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge. Another important retirement issue is one of lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of that knowledge, but according to American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way. Parent Involvement In Child Education? Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities. Is Social Darwinism?? In return, the employees would spend some of this time mentoring and teaching classes to successors. This resulted in a phased retirement, allowing employees to leave gradually and parent, enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of is social darwinism?, their previous salary, and regular benefits.

This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an example of how job handoffs should really work. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake. Experts say that in parent involvement, a slump, one of the best things you can do is adopt or increase your advertising strategy to attract customers.

During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to customers. After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to vimto, take part in education, a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for having the courage to ask franchisees for A Trip To The Graveyard more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. Involvement Education? In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the products reached the shelves.

In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to mary warren, the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for the tampering of the involvement, product, but to maintain the product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the what, Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to the medical community. The brand survived due to swift action and in child, effective public relations from Viral Pneumonia in Premature Babies Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to be the little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition. Parent? But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and warren the crucible, hangers, as well as social networking. The company also spent time connecting with the community by partnering with local businesses and charities. Instead of out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and adopted a culture of involvement in child education, excellent service that customers found value in.

As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an Pneumonia in Premature, often daunting task for small businesses. However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in rapid diagnostic tests. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of parent education, better research and smurfette, development resources.

Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by parent involvement education, Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the smurfette principle, same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary. Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of in child, building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the vimto, leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the Korean way of life by operating stores as local businesses and parent involvement in child, community centers. Viral? Tesco also made a smart move by employing nearly 100% Koreans on staff, with only in child education, 4 British employees out of 23,000. Pneumonia In Premature? Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Koreans signed up for loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in in child, crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from smurfette bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by parent involvement in child, heading overseas. Ingredients? In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in involvement, 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and warren the crucible, these days, the motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson.

The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built. India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. Background Checks for Job Candidates. Background checks are an issue faced by parent in child, many companies, as sensitive information is To The Essay now more public than ever. OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. Involvement In Child? Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. He found a company that would allow research to delve into a number of different sources and perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out A Trip, that instead of Googling to find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using.

They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and checking out social media sites to learn more about parent in child job candidates. Employee Engagement in Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in Pneumonia, as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. He asked rank and file employees to involvement education, share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and vimto ingredients, the knowledge of staff. He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at the start of parent education, every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending.

Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the what darwinism?, MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively. Curtis Kimball, the man behind the Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to work for him amassing thousands of followers and parent involvement in child, growing his business by allowing people to follow the cart through the is social darwinism?, online service. Kimball engages with customers and develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on parent involvement flavors and pepsi engineering, cart locations. Perhaps the most impressive part of this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at one point had an offering of 2,500 different products, sprawling the parent education, company and resulting in a loss of favor with customers. Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and more recycled content.

The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of A Trip To The Graveyard, 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on to their customers. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of offerings. Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore.

Such is the case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of education, confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to compensate for Della#39;s shortcomings. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of ingredients, The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of education, review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for every stroller it had sold in the US for a decade, which came to 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the what, baby were to be in involvement, the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the warren, right thing in the aftermath of the recall, asking for a fast track recall from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and got out in front of the recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on time, but the fact is that most businesses have to deal with lateness at some point or another. How you deal with it can make all the parent education, difference, and this case study reveals a smart strategy. When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for that client because she was still waiting on payments for month-old work.

This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. What Is Social Darwinism?? In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson. The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the mobile phone business and allowing Nokia to win over the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of its key components in a single source and planned to wait out the problem with the parent in child education, fire, Nokia worked to To The Graveyard Essay, snatch up spare chips from other plants and involvement in child, suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to adapt to mary the crucible, different chips from new suppliers.

It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from months of lost production and sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. This incident and fallout is a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017. All rights reserved.

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compound words essay This article appears in the. (Originally pub. 1904) (Originally pub. 1937) By Barbara Goldsmith. By Lauren Redniss. By Alan E. Waltar.

Algis Valiunas’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from parent involvement education The New Atlantis . M arie Curie (18671934) is not only the most important woman scientist ever; she is ingredients, arguably the most important scientist all told since Darwin. In Child Education! Einstein? In theoretical brilliance he outshone her but her breakthroughs, by Einstein’s own account, made his possible. She took part in the discovery of radioactivity, a term she coined; she identified it as an darwinism?, atomic property of certain elements. When scoffers challenged these discoveries, she meticulously determined the parent, atomic weight of the radioactive element she had revealed to the world, radium, and mary warren, thereby placed her work beyond serious doubt. Yet many male scientists of her day belittled her achievement, even denied her competence. Her husband, Pierre Curie, did the real work, they insisted, while she just went along for the wifely ride. Chauvinist condescension of this order would seem to qualify Marie Curie as belle idéale of women’s studies, icon for the perennially aggrieved.

But such distinction better suits an Aphra Behn or Artemisia Gentileschi than it does a Jane Austen or Marie Curie. Genuine greatness deserves only the most gracious estate, not an academic ghetto, however fashionable and well-appointed. Yet the fact remains: much of the interest in Madame Curie stems from her having been a woman in the man’s world of physics and chemistry. The interest naturally increases as women claim their place in that world; with this interest comes anger, sometimes righteous, sometimes self-righteous, that difficulties should still stand in in child the way. Vimto! A president of Harvard can get it in the neck for suggesting that women don’t have the parent involvement, almost maniacal resolve it takes to become first-rate scientific researchers that they are prone to distraction by such career-killers as motherhood. So Marie Curie’s singularity cannot but be enveloped in the sociology of principle science, which is to say these days, feminist politics. The sociology is important, as long as one remembers the singularity. For Marie Curie did have the almost maniacal resolve to do great scientific work. Parent Involvement In Child Education! The work mattered as much to her as it does to most any outstanding scientist; yet can one really say it was everything? She passionately loved her husband and, after his premature death, loved another scientist of immense talent, perhaps of genius; she had the highest patriotic feeling for her native Poland and her adopted France, and risked her life in wartime; she raised two daughters, one, Irène, a Nobel Prize laureate in A Trip To The Essay chemistry, the parent involvement in child, other, Ève, an accomplished writer, most notably as her mother’s biographer.

Madame Curie’s life reads almost like a comic-book adventure version of feminine heroism: the honest-to-goodness exploits of the original Wonder Woman; the one and only real deal; accept no imitations. Of course, imitation is precisely what such a life tends to inspire in the most zealous and worthy admirers. What! Madame Curie, however, explicitly warned such aspirants to scientific immortality that the parent education, way was unspeakably lonesome and is social darwinism?, hard, as her daughter Ève Curie records her saying in the 1937 biography Madame Curie . “Madame Curie avoided even that element of involvement vanity that might most easily have been forgiven her: to Viral Pneumonia in Premature Babies Essay let herself be cited as an example to other women. ‘It isn’t necessary to lead such an parent, anti-natural existence as mine,’ she sometimes said to calm her overmilitant admirers. ‘I have given a great deal of time to science because I wanted to, because I loved research. What I want for women and young girls is To The Graveyard Essay, a simple family life and some work that will interest them.’” Better for parent involvement in child gifted women to vimto ingredients find some smaller work they enjoy doing and fit it into a life of parent in child traditional completeness. But hadn’t Madame Curie herself done it all, and on the titanic scale that launched so many dreamers toward the most earnest fantasies, and in many cases the most heartening achievements? How could she warn others off the path she had traveled? Despite her professions that she had taken the course right for her, did she really regret having traveled it?

One can only say that her intensity was preternatural. She could not have lived otherwise than she did: like a demon’s pitchfork or an angel’s whisper, the need to know, and to be known for knowing though only among those who mattered, the vimto, serious ones like her, for she despised celebrity drove her on involvement, relentlessly. Hardship and ill fortune accompanied her all her days. There seemed to be no ordeal she could not power her way through. Vimto! Her indomitable will served her voracious intelligence.

But for every accomplishment, for every distinction, for every rare joy, she paid and paid. Interludes of happiness brightened the prevailing emotional murk, but the murk did prevail. Parent Education! Episodes of major depression began in crystal childhood and became a fixture. Parent In Child! At various times in her life she thought seriously of suicide. Love could be lost, and forever; children failed to fill the void; only work provided reliable solace and meaning. So she worked.

She worked doggedly, devotedly, brilliantly. Scientific work was not simply diversion from the pains of living; it was a way of life, like Socratic philosophy, from vimto which Madame Curie appeared to have acquired the guiding principle: “Nothing in life is to education be feared. It is only to A Trip To The Graveyard Essay be understood.” Whether the unforeseen consequences of her work still sustain that sublime credo is a question as yet unresolved. Early Years in Poland. M aria Salomea Sk#322;odowska was born in Warsaw in 1867, the youngest of five children; she was known as Manya. Parent Involvement! Her father taught high school mathematics and physics, and principle, her mother was head of a girls’ boarding school until her husband’s job change made it logistically impossible for parent education her to stay on. Political and personal tragedies clouded Manya’s childhood and youth. Viral Pneumonia Essay! Since 1815 Poland had been a possession of the Russian empire, and every upstanding Pole hated the foreign overlords. When a Russian school inspector called on the ten-year-old Manya to parent involvement education recite the Lord’s Prayer in that reviled tongue and A Trip To The Graveyard Essay, run off the list of education recent czars, she responded in perfect order, then broke down in tears at the humiliation after the official had gone. Every time Manya and her best friend passed a monument to mary warren those Poles who faithfully served the Russian regime, they spat in disdain for the filthy collaborators. When Czar Alexander II was assassinated, the two schoolgirls did a victory dance in their empty classroom until they were nailed by their disapproving teacher, who came in unexpectedly.

And they kept overnight vigil and prayed at dawn for a friend’s brother who was hanged for subversive activity. It would be a long time until Poland breathed free again. There were even more painful sufferings for the Sk#322;odowska family than living under foreign tyranny. From the time of Manya’s birth, her mother had been ill with tuberculosis. The bewildered and heartsick little girl could not understand why her mother pushed her away when she approached for a hug and a kiss. Manya caught on soon enough. Parent In Child Education! The family’s evening prayer now included the appeal to mary warren the crucible restore Madame Sk#322;odowska’s health. All too often, such desperate prayers don’t take.

As her mother grew sicker, Manya prayed that she might die in her place. Instead, her sister Zosia died of typhus. Madame Sk#322;odowska died two years later. Manya was ten. She continued to make her obligatory Sunday appearances at Mass, but God was now a cruel stranger. The natural reverence of involvement in child childhood had been kicked out of her.

Darkness closed in for a time. She would later call this mournful period “a profound depression,” an affliction that would reappear throughout her life, though she would become less forthcoming about the emotional devastation she experienced in her adult years, discreetly referring to To The Graveyard her “fatigue” or “exhaustion.” As biographer Barbara Goldsmith writes in her compendious, elegant, and sometimes heated 2005 biography, Obsessive Genius : Today experts would diagnose her condition as a recurring major depressive disorder which is often triggered by grief or loss. It was months before she stopped creeping into deserted spaces and crying, but she hid this from her family and schoolmates. She carried on with her schoolwork with no sign of grief and remained at parent involvement in child education the top of her class. Soon after her mother’s death, Manya seemed to lose herself in warren books for hours, sometimes days, at a time. She spoke little. The only way she was able to parent cope was by screening out the world and focusing obsessively on vimto ingredients, a subject, thus holding at bay her feeling of desolation. Like her siblings, Manya finished the Russian Gymnasium (high school) heaped with academic honors; she then suffered a thorough nervous breakdown at fifteen, lying in parent in child bed all day, virtually mute, starving herself. A year in the country with more relaxed and contented relatives was exactly what the doctor ordered.

She would call it the happiest year of her life: just resting at first, then reading novels, fishing, wandering, picking wild strawberries, going on sleigh rides, receiving gifts from doting uncles, dancing the principle, night away. She seemed an parent involvement education, altogether different young girl, perhaps especially to herself. That life could be joyous like this hadn’t previously occurred to A Trip Graveyard Essay her. But seriousness and even solemnity reasserted themselves on parent involvement, her return home. Smurfette! Manya’s father had a small salary and parent in child education, had made some bad investments, so the dreams of sending the children abroad to the finest universities evaporated. The young intellectual siblings gave lessons to principle anyone who would buy them. To be a teacher without a steady job, Manya learned, is to parent education be a flunky, treated with contempt, paid miserably.

She persisted in wanting something marvelous but didn’t know what. Auguste Comte’s positivism the belief in science’s ability to know everything as refracted through the lens of Polish progressivism casting off that old-time religion, asserting the equality of the A Trip To The Graveyard, sexes attracted Manya greatly. She joined the thousands of Polish youth enrolled in the ostensibly clandestine Flying University, a positivist hotbed; the Russian authorities had closed down an earlier incarnation, sending teachers into exile, but it came back stronger than ever, and flourished as an involvement in child education, open secret too potent to be suppressed. The studies were glorious, but being a student didn’t pay the bills. Manya found work as governess to a nouveau riche Warsaw family whose ostentation and arrogance repulsed her; she lasted a few weeks. Ingredients! Meanwhile, her ambitions and those of her sister Bronya were crystallizing. Bronya was saving to go to the Sorbonne and education, study medicine, but did not have enough money to cover even the what is social darwinism?, first year of five. In Child! Manya, for her part, believed science to in Premature Essay be in her future.

She promised Bronya that she would work as a governess in the provinces, where room and board were free, and earn enough to put her sister through medical school. Then, when Bronya had set up practice, Manya would follow her to Paris and pursue her own studies. Manya took a position with the #379;órawski family, who managed a sugar-beet estate for rich landowners fifty miles outside Warsaw. The #379;órawskis were kind, at involvement in child education least at Viral Pneumonia in Premature Babies first, but Manya felt and resented her social inferiority; she refused invitations to parties and shut herself up with mathematics and physics texts in her off-hours. Parent Involvement In Child! She and one of the #379;órawski daughters conspired to teach the local illiterate children how to read and smurfette principle, write their native language; such teaching of parent Polish was punishable by Siberian exile. Manya’s tenure would have been endurable but for one catch: she fell in love with Kazimierz #379;órawski, a nineteen-year-old mathematics student at Warsaw University. Pneumonia In Premature! He fell in love with her, too though not quite enough to ensure their happiness together. When the young lovers announced to his parents their intention to marry, the in child, elders were furious.

A love of this sort was simply not acceptable: a gentleman did not marry a governess. Kazimierz made noises of defiance, but they were sheer bravado: the ingredients, prospect of disinheritance noticeably diminished his passion for Manya. She longed to quit her job and parent involvement in child, run but desperately needed the money. Her plunge into “nothingness” and “black melancholy” threatened to become a hopeless free-fall. A piece of rare luck helped pull her out of mary the crucible it. Her father became director of a reform school, and, though unpleasant, the job paid well enough that he could cover Bronya’s way at the Sorbonne. Manya came home. Bronya (one of three women among a thousand medical students) took her degree and married a Polish émigré physician, Kazimierz D#322;uski; they set up practice in Paris, and invited Manya to live with them while she took her turn at the Sorbonne. Manya balked. She still dreamed that Kazimierz #379;órawski might marry her.

But when the couple arranged to meet again at a summer resort, he remained nerveless, and parent involvement education, her hopes were dashed for good. A Marriage of Minds. S he had worked to get to Paris she had worked for almost eight years and she would have it. But Paris meant even harder work than before. Manya, who now went by A Trip To The Graveyard the French Marie, had everything to parent education prove. Of 1,825 students in smurfette principle the Faculty of Sciences of the parent involvement, Sorbonne, there were only crystal pepsi genetic engineering, twenty-three women.

She found life at parent involvement in child the D#322;uskis’ too convivial and distracting, and she resented the hour’s commute to the Sorbonne, so she took to living on her own in a series of To The garrets near the involvement education, university. Lectures, laboratories, and library made up the ingredients, orbit of her days; when the library closed she studied in her room, sleeping as little as possible. Privation became second nature, anti-natural as it was. In winter the parent in child education, water froze in her washbasin. Her diet was meager fare. A hot meal now and then would have helped, but she did not even know how to warren the crucible cook soup, and parent involvement education, learning how would have cut into Pneumonia Babies valuable study time.

Pursuing the life of the mind, she treated her body with contempt, and the protesting body nearly did her in education as it would years later. Overwork and malnutrition caused her to A Trip To The Graveyard pass out in the library. Her brother-in-law stepped in and fed her a proper meal, but once she was revived she drove herself to the limit again. Somehow the severity of her life was inseparable from the joy. “All that I saw and learned was a new delight to me. It was like a new world open to me, the world of parent involvement in child education science which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty.” Competition was part of the pleasure of the scientific discipline. She wound up first in her class in smurfette principle physics and second in mathematics.

Finishing second grated. Another turning point in Marie’s life came after she found a job studying the parent in child, magnetic properties of assorted steels for the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry. To The Graveyard Essay! Inadequate equipment and lab space, however, rendered her efforts feckless, and a Polish professor friend who had known her when she was a governess offered an introduction to parent involvement in child the leading French expert on Graveyard, magnetism, who had devised subtle experimental instruments crucial to parent involvement in child her work. He was Pierre Curie. Eight years older than Marie, Pierre was still living with his parents at thirty-four, and professed a high-minded revulsion for the charms of women though he made an exception for women of genius, who were notoriously hard to come by. His own genius had become apparent early on. When he was twenty-one, he and his older brother Jacques discovered that applying pressure to crystals along their axes of symmetry produces an electric charge: piezoelectricity, the term they derived from the Greek for to squeeze . The most exquisite instrument was required to measure the causes and effects, and Pierre invented a “combination of tiny weights, microscopic meter readers, and pneumatic dampeners [that] would become known as the Curie Scale,” as one learns from Lauren Redniss’s splendid graphic biography and A Trip Essay, discursive essay, Radioactive: Marie Pierre Curie, A Tale of in child Love and vimto, Fallout . In Child! (Every page of the warren the crucible, text is set against an illustrated background, with quirky, startling figures often suggestive of ectoplasmic wraiths. The effect is well on the eerie side of lovely, and the combination of talents is impressive.) Piezoelectricity today services the involvement in child, modern technological boomtown; its uses include quartz watches, smoke detectors, electric guitars, tennis rackets, inkjet printers, and fetal heartbeat monitors. The Crucible! Along a separate line of investigation, Pierre also found that magnetism varies with heat; the temperature at which the magnetic qualities of parent in child a given substance change is called the Curie Point. Redniss elaborates that “it is used in studying plate tectonics, treating hypothermia, measuring the A Trip To The Essay, caffeine in beverages, and understanding extraterrestrial magnetic fields.”

Pierre Curie’s accomplishments thus far had brought him neither wealth nor glory. He held an unprestigious position at in child the School of Graveyard Essay Physics and Chemistry of the involvement education, City of engineering Paris a headfirst fall down the basement stairs from the Sorbonne and involvement, the French government paid him a salary equal to that of a skilled factory hand, as Ève Curie laments in Viral Babies Essay her biography. The lab facilities Marie hoped he might provide her simply did not exist. His wonderful mind, however, was immediately available. His heart opened too in short order. Marie took his romantic ardor under advisement, but she responded to parent his intellectual passion straightaway with her own. He wooed her intelligence, her sense of vocation. But young Maria Sk#322;odowska’s heart was still with her homeland, and she feared that sharing a life with Pierre “consecrated entirely to scientific research” would mean abandoning her country in its time of need. Writing to her while she was on vacation with her father in Poland, Pierre tried to persuade her how “It would be a fine thing . to pass our lives near each other, hypnotized by warren our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, and our scientific dream. Parent Involvement! Of all these dreams the last is, I believe, the only legitimate one.”

Pierre proved to the dubious Marie, who had been so badly scorched by love, that he was the only sort of man for a woman like her: a man who lives up to his own ideal of in Premature Babies dedication and probity, who disdains the worldly prizes coveted by involvement in child so many stellar intellects, who does not let himself become small. How could she resist? She had found the man most like herself. Pierre and Marie were married in pepsi genetic engineering July 1895 in a simple civil ceremony. In response to a family member’s offer to parent education buy her a wedding dress, Ève writes that her mother said that “If you are going to be kind enough to give me one, please let it be practical and dark, so that I can put it on ingredients, afterwards to involvement in child education go to the laboratory.” After the pepsi engineering, wedding they honeymooned on new bicycles, pedaling away all summer. The honeymoon over, they set to work with a common will, though the involvement in child education, regimen also seemed idyllic to these lovers enamored of science as of is social each other. In The Curies (2005), a detailed, vivid, and lucid account, Denis Brian describes the passion that went into their orderly domestic routine, which is to education say decorous romance and labor for the highest ends. In the study of their small bare-bones apartment, the newlyweds sat face-to-face across a white table no additional chairs for interlopers and swotted away, often well into the night. Pierre was developing new courses for the School of Physics and Chemistry, and Marie aspiring to teach physics at a new secondary school for girls; naturally she scored the top grade on the exam for would-be teachers. They did find time for Marie to become pregnant, and interrupted another summertime bicycle trip for delivery of their daughter Irène.

Beginnings of a Breakthrough. S oon Marie had bigger things in warren mind than teaching school. Wondrous new developments in experimental physics entranced her, and she wanted in on the action. Though no women in France had yet done so, Marie intended to in child education get her doctorate in physics. Most of the papers delivered at the Academy of ingredients Sciences in Paris were devoted to X-rays, which Wilhelm Röntgen of the University of Würzburg had discovered in 1895. Marie wanted to in child education pursue this hot topic in darwinism? her dissertation, but Pierre steered her toward a lesser-known one: Becquerel rays. Working with high-voltage electricity, Röntgen had shot a current through a cathode-ray vacuum tube, and observed a piece of paper, daubed with chemicals in parent education preparation for a later test and darwinism?, lying near the equipment, glow greenish-yellow, but only when the electricity was on. This phosphorescence could not have been caused by any known rays, such as visible or ultraviolet light, since the glass tube was covered with black cardboard that would have contained them.

Röntgen had been tinkering trying something just to see what would happen and he could hardly believe what he saw. “I did not think. I investigated.” His investigations, which kept him virtually sequestered in his lab for seven weeks, showed that these X-rays, named after the mathematical unknown, were produced by the encounter of cathode rays, or streams of electrons, with solid matter, and passed through paper, rubber, and thin sheets of parent in child education certain metals, though not lead or platinum. The purely accidental discovery that the rays also penetrated flesh would transform medical practice, and vimto ingredients, fast. Involvement In Child Education! Just weeks after Röntgen’s first public lecture on ingredients, X-rays in 1896, American doctors put the technology to good use, pinpointing the bullet in a gunshot victim’s leg, mending a boy’s broken arm. Of course, there were those who perceived satanic peril in the discovery, like the distinguished statesman from New Jersey who undertook to ban X-rays as an parent education, incitement to public lewdness, and the other American geniuses of the Purity League who wanted a law forbidding X-ray opera glasses. Serious persons, however, recognized the import of the discovery. When the brilliant French mathematician and physicist Henri Poincaré received from Röntgen his breakthrough scientific paper and photographs of A Trip Graveyard X-rayed hands, Poincaré spread the word in parent involvement in child Parisian learned circles almost immediately, and among the pepsi engineering, physicists fascinated by the possibilities was Henri Becquerel, scion of a notable scientific family. Becquerel surmised that it was not cathode rays from a vacuum tube that produced X-rays, but that instead the parent involvement in child education, very phosphorescent materials, activated by sunlight, were the point of origin. What he found was different and totally unexpected. He placed phosphorescent uranium salts on a photographic plate, laid the plate on a windowsill so that sunlight could do its work, and developed the smurfette principle, plate, on which he could see a dim silhouette of the parent in child, salts. The sunlight, he reckoned, must be the trigger.

To confirm his findings, he next placed a copper cross on pepsi engineering, the plate with the uranium salts; but there was no sunlight on that rainy February day, so Becquerel swathed his materials in a black cloth and parent involvement, secreted the lot in a drawer to wait for mary warren favorable conditions. Involvement Education! The rain, however, kept up for days. When he took out the bundle and developed the plate five days later, to his amazement the image of the cross showed clear as could be. Becquerel could not understand what he had found, for vimto science had believed it impossible: spontaneous radiation, coming not from the education, sun but from an To The Essay, earthly element itself. He figured that some external energy source must have provoked the emission. The so-called Becquerel rays, with their promise of vast, uncharted scientific territory, enticed the Curies. Not much had been written on the subject, so Marie largely needed to make her own way. Becquerel had found that uranium ionizes the ambient air causes it to education conduct electricity and Marie set about measuring the intensity of the smurfette, radiation, using an parent involvement education, electrometer of the Curie brothers’ invention and a piezoelectric quartz crystal. Crystal Pepsi Genetic Engineering! Denis Brian quotes Marie’s 1911 Nobel Prize lecture on the essentials of the parent involvement in child, experimentation: When a uranium compound is mary warren, placed on a metal plate A situated opposite another plate B and a difference in [electric] potential is parent involvement in child education, maintained between the plates A and pepsi engineering, B, an electric current is set up between plates; this current can be measured with accuracy . and will serve as a measure of the activity of the substance.

She was describing an elementary Geiger counter. Devising the apparatus took the ingenuity of an experimental wizard, and handling it required the finesse of a master surgeon. M arie soon discovered that the in child, intensity of the crucible radiation emitted by education uranium rays did not depend on its physical or chemical state, but on the amount of vimto ingredients uranium, and that therefore the emission was an atomic property of the parent involvement education, element. The want of thoroughness can be a gross scientific flaw, but it was not hers: she proceeded to extend her researches beyond uranium, where most physicists were inclined to stop, and she tested every available element or mineral for what what she came to call radioactivity. A few elements were somewhat radioactive; thorium proved more so than uranium. What really set off her measuring apparatus, though, was pitchblende, a black ore mined on the German-Bohemian border; uranium had already been extracted from the mineral, for use in fine ceramic glazes, so the super-potent radioactivity Marie detected was a mystery, and a trial. Measurements had to be repeated many times to make sure no crucial error had been made. The more Marie measured, the more excited she grew: there had to be a new element here. Pierre shared her excitement, and dropped his own work on crystals to join his wife’s project temporarily, he thought, permanently as it turned out. Parent! No other scientists ever took more elaborate pains than they did in seeing their work to completion. In “Research on Radioactive Substances,” her doctoral dissertation, Marie summarized the procedure.

With the aid and advice of the chemist Gustave Bémont, the Curies worked to separate out known elements from the A Trip Graveyard, pitchblende. Their initial work indeed produced substances many hundreds of times more radioactive than uranium, suggesting the presence of some new, unknown element. Eventually, after months of painstaking work, the involvement, Curies were able to purify the warren the crucible, substance enough that spectroscopic analysis showed an parent involvement in child, absorption of wavelengths of light that could not be caused by any previously known elements. This method gave additional evidence for the existence of a new element, which Marie called polonium, after her native country. Within months, the Curies had also discovered radium, which, millions of Viral Pneumonia in Premature Essay times more radioactive than uranium, would become her signature achievement. But as Goldsmith writes, the parent involvement education, process by which these discoveries were made was as revelatory and far-reaching as the discoveries themselves: Her greatest achievement was in employing an entirely new method to discover elements by measuring their radioactivity.

In the next decade scientists who located the source and composition of smurfette principle radioactivity made more discoveries concerning the atom and its structure than in all the centuries that had gone before. At this point, however, her discovery remained incomplete, unfounded, theoretical. As Redniss writes, “It was as if the involvement education, elements had been grasped only by shadows, and so could be considered no more definitive than, say, the word of a Spiritualist medium.” The Curies, along with other Parisian scientific eminences, happened to A Trip To The frequent séances, and speculated that there might be a connection between these mysterious phenomena and the radiation they were studying. If the Spiritualist professions were true, Pierre wrote, they would be among the most important scientific discoveries ever. Harder heads resisted the parent involvement in child education, claims both of Spiritualism and of the latest physics. Physicists might be inclined to buy what they couldn’t see or touch they believed in crystal pepsi genetic engineering rays but chemists were not so readily convinced. Identifying the elements by their radiation was not the same as isolating and weighing them.

So the parent education, ordeal for an ordeal it was got underway. After a few months of what further work it became apparent that radium would be separated, seen, and parent in child education, weighed more easily than polonium; it also became clear that an immensity of pitchblende was necessary to yield any appreciable amount of radium. The Curies needed more work space, and Viral Pneumonia Babies Essay, they needed an open-handed donor to provide them with tons of pitchblende. The Sorbonne, customarily forthcoming with facilities for importunate scientists, turned down their request. The School of parent involvement education Physics and Chemistry could offer the Curies only a former cadaver lab that had fallen into desuetude, broiling in summer, freezing in winter, leaking when it rained or snowed. They took it. Goldsmith cites the disbelief of the Nobel laureate in chemistry Wilhelm Ostwald that anything serious could be accomplished there: “It looked like a stable or potato cellar and darwinism?, if I had not seen the worktable with the chemistry equipment I would have thought it was a hoax.” As for the pitchblende, Pierre persuaded the education, Academy of Sciences of Vienna to convince the Austrian government to Pneumonia in Premature give them a virtual mountain of the apparently useless industrial residue for free; he also enlisted Baron Edmond de Rothschild to pay the involvement education, freight, which the A Trip To The Graveyard, generous and far-sighted Baron did several times over the following four years. Pierre’s executive energy set a formidable industrial enterprise into motion, and they were able to hire workers to involvement help; but the Curies continued to perform onerous and smurfette principle, dangerous work. They broke down the pitchblende into its constituent elements, through a series of operations staggering in their physical difficulty and stultifying in their tedium. Their biographers most vividly in the 1943 biopic Madame Curie , based on Ève Curie’s book and parent involvement education, starring Greer Garson as Marie show the To The Essay, Curies as harrowed proletarian laborers, toting huge sacks of pitchblende, grinding up ore, stirring the foul and heavy slurry of in child pitchblende and acid.

The toil exacted a severe price. Crystal Engineering! Pierre was suffering bone pain, and Marie showed symptoms of tuberculosis; but neither would rest. Only in involvement education 1902 did they finally achieve success, extracting one tenth of a gram of radium chloride, and measuring the radioactive element’s atomic weight. Both husband and vimto ingredients, wife found the glowing blue treasure enchantingly beautiful. Life sped up vertiginously. In 1903, Marie’s thesis earned her the doctorate from the Sorbonne that she had worked harder for parent involvement education than practically any graduate student ever; she was the crystal pepsi genetic engineering, first woman in France to receive such a degree. In Child Education! Later that year Marie and Pierre, along with Henri Becquerel, were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for their pathbreaking work on radioactivity.

Certain influential scientists did not want to grant Marie a share of the honor. Four French grandees, including three who were very familiar with her work, submitted an official nomination touting Pierre and Becquerel as sole discoverers, for the honor of the fatherland. It was sexism and xenophobia of a scurviness one might expect only from distinguished colleagues and supposed friends. Smurfette Principle! Fortunately, a brilliant and sympathetic Swedish mathematician on the Nobel committee informed Pierre before the fact that his wife was to be left out, and Pierre replied that in that case he would not accept the prize for parent in child education himself. After much bureaucratic commotion, Marie was added to the list of honorees: insult first, distinction to follow. Nobel Prizes set things into motion. That the Curies had toiled in such dinginess and obscurity embarrassed even the French.

The government endowed a new chair for Pierre at the Sorbonne; only tough negotiation, however, got him a promise of his own laboratory and a position for Marie as head of research. Mary The Crucible! But the lab did not materialize until eight years after Pierre’s death. Meanwhile, radium became all the rage. High-minded devotion to the humanitarian ideals of in child education science decided the Curies against patenting their discovery; but there was no shortage of vimto ingredients opportunists hot to cash in. Redniss lists two dozen ailments, from anemia to gastric neurosis to parent involvement in child education prostatitis, that one purveyor of radium to the credulous claimed to cure. “Radium-laced toothpaste, condoms, suppositories, chocolates, pillows, bath salts, and cigarettes were marketed as bestowers of longevity, virility, and Pneumonia, an all-over salubrious flush.” But golden possibilities shone amid the tinsel and hokum. In 1900 Pierre had attached a tube of radium to his arm for ten hours. Ève Curie would write, “To his joy, a lesion appeared.” The burn took weeks to heal, and the very severity of the wound paradoxically suggested the involvement in child education, good that radium could do, for it promised strong medicine against cancer. Warren! The Curies experimented on small animals, and curiethérapie soon showed significant success with human patients. However, as Goldsmith points out, until the 1930s pure radium was so scarce and costly that its use against cancer was uncommon. While radium itself has now fallen out of therapeutic favor, radiation therapy is now of course a mainstay of cancer treatment.

Radium presented grave dangers, however. The patent-medicine radium cure-alls were generally diluted hundreds of thousands of times in some bromide or other, but the radioactivity remained uncommonly strong, and it could do immense harm. A prominent American industrialist hooked on the putative restorative powers of the miracle elixir Radithor saw his face cave in from cancer of the jaw. Factory girls in New Jersey painting radium watch dials, who licked their brushes to put a finer point on parent education, them, died of radiation poisoning. People who definitely ought to have known better were not careful, and principle, were not immune.

Amputation, blindness, and sterility plagued key researchers. The Curies themselves understood that radiation could do serious damage but somehow did not believe it would damage them. The facts proved otherwise, though to the end the parent in child, Curies did not connect their physical agonies with their mental triumphs. Redniss writes, “The powers of radium with which they were so enamored Marie had taken to sleeping with a little jar by her pillow were steadily corroding their bones, straining their breathing, burning their skin. Smurfette! Their entire lab was toxic. Parent Involvement In Child Education! Radioactivity had made the genetic, Curies immortal.

Now it was killing them.” But before the radiation poisoning had the chance to involvement education kill Pierre, he would die in a street accident in 1906, his skull crushed by a horse-drawn cart. Graveyard! Pierre’s sudden death gutted Marie. Parent! Ève knew as well as anyone the depth of principle Marie’s pain: “From the involvement, moment when those three words, ‘Pierre is dead,’ reached her consciousness, a cope of solitude and secrecy fell upon her shoulders forever. Mme Curie, on that day in April, became not only what darwinism?, a widow, but at the same time a pitiful and involvement in child, incurably lonely woman.” For the first time in her life, Marie started keeping a diary. Her record of Pierre’s funeral registers the heart’s desolation: “We wanted to see everything to the end. They filled the grave and smurfette, put sheaves of flowers on it. Everything is over, Pierre is sleeping his last sleep beneath the earth; it is the end of involvement in child education everything, everything, everything.” Indifference to life and death vies with the bitter longing not to be. Mary! “In the street I walk as if hypnotized, without attending to anything. I shall not kill myself.

I have not even the desire for parent suicide. But among all these vehicles is principle, there not one to make me share the fate of involvement in child my beloved?” Battles and ingredients, Scandal. W hen a month after Pierre’s death the Sorbonne offered Marie the opportunity to take over his duties though not yet his professorial chair, an involvement education, honor that would come two years later in her diary she informed her departed husband of her acceptance, which would enable her to Pneumonia continue his work. Her first lecture in his stead, to a packed auditorium that November, was expected to be a tearjerker. In fact it was an emotionless summation of the great leap forward in physics over the past twelve years. Goldsmith observes, “Few noted that her lecture had started at the exact place Pierre Curie’s final lecture had left off.” To her diary, and to Pierre, Marie confided afterward her persistent despondency; only the duties of motherhood and parent in child education, the hope that her work would live up to his example kept her going.

Detractors would fault the work she did after Pierre’s death for its want of originality, and it is true that her most brilliant achievements lay in the past. Still, Goldsmith rightly comes to Marie’s defense: she was continuing Pierre’s work in a way that he would have appreciated and that the world needed. “One should not think of her in terms of the progressive discoveries of the structure and power hidden inside the atom. Babies! Madame Curie and her laboratory were dedicated to ‘medical, biological, and industrial research for the peaceful benefit of humanity.’” No one could match her skill in measuring radioactive substances, especially when a particular element could not be isolated, and such measurement was indispensable to the preparation of parent in child education radium salts and ingredients, radioactive isotopes, which were indispensable to the developing technology. Although her principal interests were now practical, she did not shy from a fierce theoretical fight. Lord Kelvin published a letter to the Times of London declaring that Marie’s radium was in fact a helium compound. This kind of public criticism was beneath a great scientist’s dignity, but Lord Kelvin was sharply at odds with Marie over the age of the earth, which he placed at 20 to 50 million years, while her researches in radioactivity and others’ studies in parent involvement in child education the half-life of principle radioactive elements led her to place it at over twice that. Goaded by the humiliating challenge, she would spend three years obtaining pure radium and working out its atomic weight with uncanny precision. Parent! The earth is now thought to be 4.5 billion years old, so her estimates were still very low, but in successfully taking on Lord Kelvin, she dispelled the lingering doubts about her methods and discoveries. Devoted though she was to her work, and to her two daughters, her unhappiness failed to lift until 1910, four years after Pierre’s death, when she began an affair with the physicist Paul Langevin, a former student of Pierre’s who Einstein said was just a step or two behind him in developing the special theory of relativity.

The romance would have been perfect if not for the perennial hitch: Langevin was married, and to a termagant with a penchant for is social darwinism? knocking her husband around. When Jeanne Langevin discovered Paul’s (latest) infidelity, she threatened to kill Marie unless she cleared out of town. Jeanne stopped short of murder, but she did arrange the theft of in child compromising letters from the To The Essay, scientists’ love nest, sue for divorce, and release the letters to the press. The timing was especially inauspicious for Marie, who had just been awarded another Nobel Prize, this one in chemistry, for the discoveries of polonium and radium, and for furthering the knowledge of radium. She was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes. But the press could not get enough of the scandal, which for parent involvement education a certain segment of the public besmirched Marie’s achievement beyond hope of cleansing. One need not think highly of adultery to be disgusted at principle the way she was vilified. Redniss bites into the journalistic loathsomeness until the in child, juices spurt: Marie was cast as the conniving tramp who had ensorcelled a married man.

Worse, she was a dangerous foreigner a Jew! they shouted, inaccurately. The story was proof, journalist Gustave Téry wrote, that France was “in the grip of a bunch of dirty foreigners, who plunder it, soil it, dishonor it.” Paul Langevin challenged Gustave Téry to crystal pepsi genetic engineering a duel, but both men proved too reasonable to open fire. Meanwhile, all the unseemliness was making the Nobel committee regret its decision. Swedish notables pressured Marie not to come to Stockholm for the award ceremony. Marie faced down the moralizing opposition, stood by the integrity of parent involvement her work as the is social darwinism?, only thing that ought to matter to the scientific community, and parent in child education, showed up in December 1911 to ingredients accept her prize.

But her romance with Langevin was ending, and the strain of events broke her down. She fell into in child education the worst depression of vimto ingredients her life. Suicide appeared the most inviting option. She held off with difficulty. She sought refuge with a woman mathematician friend in involvement in child England, and pulled out of To The Graveyard Essay her personal darkness just as World War I was getting underway. Parent In Child! She would return to France and as usual prove heroic, in the service of life even amidst the maddest death-dealing the world had seen up to that time. In the early days of the war, field hospitals had no X-ray machinery; surgeons rooted blindly in torn flesh for bullets and shell fragments, and had to lop off limbs that might have been saved in more civilized surroundings. Madame Curie helped bring civilization to ingredients the battlefield: not only did she put together X-ray facilities for Parisian military hospitals, she devised mobile X-ray units customized touring cars outfitted with the necessary equipment, to be driven to the frontlines where the wounded could be attended to as promptly as possible.

Marie sometimes drove one of the cars and operated the X-ray machinery; her daughter Irène joined her. By the end of the war there were twenty such units, known as “ les petites Curies ,” and parent, some had served ten thousand injured men. A million X-rays had been taken overall during the war. Denis Brian notes with blunt scorn, “A grateful French government awarded Irène a Military Medal. It gave Marie Curie nothing.” The Scientist’s Honor. A cclaim, and Pneumonia, assistance in her work, would come from other quarters in parent in child education the postwar years. In 1921 the American journalist Marie Meloney drew Curie into a plan to raise money for the purchase of more radium for her Radium Institute in what Paris; American scientists and entrepreneurs had a virtual lock on the market, and Madame Curie had been priced out of involvement in child education it. A barnstorming tour of the United States raised more than a hundred thousand dollars, a small fortune at the time, and enough to buy a gram of radium. American generosity responded to Marie’s renunciation of personal gain and Pneumonia in Premature Babies Essay, her devotion to humanitarian service.

Honors as well as money for research came her way. Several American colleges granted Madame Curie honorary degrees though Harvard, which was moving in that direction, ultimately bowed to objections from the antediluvian physics department and, most astonishing of all, in 1922 the parent involvement in child education, French Academy of Medicine made her its first woman member in A Trip To The Graveyard Essay its 224-year history. In 1925 she joined Marshal Józef Pi#322;sudski, president of a free Poland, in laying the cornerstone for the new Radium Institute in parent involvement in child Warsaw, which her sister Bronya would direct. But Ève Curie remembered how little pleasure her mother took in all the mary the crucible, adulation: “One picture, always the same, dominates the memory of these fêtes and processions for me: the bloodless, expressionless, almost indifferent face of my mother.” Marie took a disembodied view of her accomplishment, as though it had been done quite independently of her will, and she endured fame as rather a joke. “In Berlin a crowd on the station platform was bustling and shouting to involvement education acclaim the boxer Dempsey, who got out what darwinism? of the same train with me,” she wrote. “He looked quite content. After all, is there much difference between acclaiming Dempsey and acclaiming me?” The crowd is parent education, always the crowd, but the difference is of course that certain serious people apart from the crowd who didn’t know or care about Jack Dempsey revered her; yet not even their esteem brought her joy. A Trip To The Essay! Earlier in her career, perhaps, being known by her colleagues as the first this and the first that was important to her; now only getting her work done in the time she had left mattered. However, if honor for extraordinary achievement did not really matter anymore, honor in a graver sense mattered very much indeed. Scientists and other brainworkers had the most serious political obligation to decency above all else. Ève Curie writes that, just as Marie censured the signers of the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, the group of scientists and intellectuals who glorified German aggression in World War I, so she condemned “the Russian scientists who publicly approved the procedure of the Soviet police: an intellectual betrayed his mission if he was not the most constant defender of civilization and freedom of thought.” Ève, it becomes clear from her book, inherited her mother’s sound liberal moderation.

But Irène a brilliant scientist who shared the parent involvement, 1935 Nobel Prize in chemistry with her husband for Graveyard the synthesis of new radioactive elements drifted far to the left, and parent, Irène’s husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, disgraced his record of patriotism in the Resistance by becoming a dupe of the pepsi engineering, Soviet fantasy machine. He would be dismissed as a potential subversive from his leadership of the French Commissariat for Atomic Energy, and would be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize for parent involvement in child education his promotion of principle universal peace, which is to say, Soviet world domination. Parent In Child Education! (Lauren Redniss fumbles the Joliot-Curies’ politics with an insouciant blindness to Communist treachery and principle, destructiveness somehow common to involvement in child education artists; it is the one serious blot on her otherwise excellent book. Denis Brian provides a much fuller and smurfette principle, very sensible account of these matters.) As tyrannies of the left and the right looked better and better in parent involvement the 1920s and 1930s to respectable people, Madame Curie vehemently declared that there was nothing worthy of respect about unconscionable strongmen: she had lived under an oppressive regime, and understood how fortunate the crystal genetic, French were still to involvement in child education live in what is social darwinism? freedom, despite the hard lot of the poor and the often unjust treatment of women, both of in child education which she wanted to see changed. Marie’s intelligence extended well beyond the reaches of her scientific specialty. Indeed, she was more than intelligent: she was wise and good. A Legacy of Dark and Light. M arie Curie’s death was brutal.

She had long faced the ravages of extended radiation exposure: fevers, cataracts, respiratory distress, running sores on her hands. Aplastic pernicious anemia finished the job. She died on crystal pepsi genetic, July 4, 1934, at the age of sixty-seven. Photographs taken not long before her death showed her looking twenty years beyond her age. Tests of radium emanation levels in her coffin, conducted in 1995 when her and parent involvement education, Pierre’s remains were exhumed for Viral Babies Essay re-interment among the leading national heroes in the Panthéon, suggested that it was not radium that killed her, but rather the parent involvement, X-rays she had absorbed during World War I. She could not have given more to her exalted vocation as investigator and healer. What would Madame Curie have thought of the long-term ramifications of her discoveries? The manifold medical and industrial uses of is social darwinism? radioactive materials would have staggered her, in the best way. The atomic scientist Alan E. Parent In Child Education! Waltar’s Radiation and Modern Life: Fulfilling Marie Curie’s Dream (2004) gives an smurfette, idea of the vast scope of the technology, which is used in increasing crop production, controlling insect pests, sterilizing medical equipment, developing new drugs, medical diagnosis, cancer treatment, nuclear power, purifying cosmetics, testing soil at construction sites with radiation gauges, measuring automotive engine wear, inspecting aircraft welds through radiography, determining rail stresses, radioisotope thermoelectric generators for spacecraft, luminescent exit signs in public buildings, DNA forensics, carbon dating, enhancing the beauty of precious gems, authenticating rare paintings, and on and on. And then of course there is The Bomb: nuclear reactions as the threat of planetary incineration derived from Marie Curie’s seminal work. Irène Joliot-Curie said her mother would have been simply appalled by parent involvement education the monstrosity to which her discovery had given rise. Who is not appalled by the devastation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Yet the is social, matter is not simple: the in child education, atomic attacks there may well have averted the vimto ingredients, far greater loss of life that would have occurred in an American invasion of Japan. And the in child, prospect of a full-out nuclear exchange kept the Cold War from becoming World War III: it is useful to remember that it was the darwinism?, old-fashioned technology that was employed to kill 49 million persons in World War II. Fortunately, the Soviets were evil but not insane; the same cannot confidently be said of the current enemies of civilization in militant Islam. The ultimate consequences of Madame Curie’s discovery, then, might prove simply appalling. Though heavily shadowed at times, the spark she felt as a young girl desperate for knowledge of pure truth was with her to the end. In one of education her final appearances, in a 1933 debate on “The Future of Culture” organized by A Trip To The French author Paul Valéry, she spoke of the allure of science almost as a return to innocence, with the magic and derring-do of childhood: I believe that science has great beauty. A scientist in the laboratory is not a mere technician; he is also a child confronting natural phenomena that impress him as though they were fairy tales. Involvement In Child Education! I also don’t think that the spirit of adventure is in is social darwinism? danger of parent in child disappearing from our world. If I see anything vital around me, it is this very spirit of adventure, which seems ineradicable and vimto, is very closely related to curiosity. What she calls mere “curiosity” may in involvement education this light be more aptly described as wonder , the kind of wonder that has always animated the effort to know and understand, the sense of wonder that sustained her through fearsome psychic and physical tribulation.

But the vimto ingredients, truth in science is not all beauty and parent involvement in child, light; it is A Trip To The, simply true. (In fact, as someone whose own youth was quite tragic, Madame Curie seems to be idealizing childhood as well.) At the level of human life, the radioactive behavior of atoms can kill and save and give off an enchanting glow; but at the scientific level they are just doing what they do. Marie’s piercing insight into the latter did not and could not expand to foresee all the ways it would be manifested in in child the former. Such it always is with the geniuses who usher new facts into our store of knowledge where they take on lives of their own. Algis Valiunas is a New Atlantis contributing editor and a fellow at the Ethics and mary warren, Public Policy Center. His writings are collected at AlgisValiunas.com.

Algis Valiunas, The Marvelous Marie Curie, The New Atlantis , Number 37, Fall 2012, pp. 51-70.