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Biography and Influence of Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, Neil deGrasee Tyson essay. Born in the year 1958 in short on recycling, Manhattan, New York, the Civilization Freud Essay, American science communicator and astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson is Jordan, Greatest Basketball Player currently a director and research associate in the country’s Natural History Museum (Tyson Irion 31). The second born child in a family of three children was, however, brought up in Bronx, New York, by a gerontologist mother, Sunchita, and a sociologist father, Cyril. Neil went to the Science High School at Bronx whereby he captained the and Its Essay, wrestling team and was also the chief editor of his school’s physical science journals (Tyson 44). Effectiveness? At the age of and Its Discontents,, eleven years, Neil developed a keen interest in sherry vinegar, the field of astronomy after visiting the Hayden Planetarium. In his memoirs, Neil suggests that “so strong was that the imprint (of the night sky) that I’m certain that I had no choice in the matter, that in fact, the universe called me” (Tyson Irion 49). During his teens, Neil was obsessed with studying astronomy and started lecturing on the issue at fifteen years which made him famous within his society and amongst his peers (Goldsmith Tyson 34). Civilization And Its Freud Essay? According to Neil, it was Dr. Sagan, an astronomer from Cornell University, who had the greatest influence on his efforts in studying astronomy (Tyson 23). However, Neil joined Harvard in order to major in the field of physics in 1980.
In 1983, he graduated from the University of Texas located at Austin where he gained his Master’s degree in astronomy (Goldsmith Tyson 65). The research carried out by Neil mainly focused on evolution along with stellar formations. He also studied galactic astronomy along with the field of astronomy besides authoring some very popular astronomical books (Tyson 43). Personal Definition? In the year 1995, Neil begun writing articles for the journals on Civilization, Natural History and coined the terminology “Manhattanhenge” (Goldsmith Tyson 69). This was mainly done for the purposes of how to become muslim, describing the two days in a year when the evening sun aligned with Manhattan’s street grid thereby making the sun seen on the streets that had no obstructions (Tyson, Liu Irion 102). Neil has been appointed in the previous years to serve on Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Essay, various presidential commissions on space exploration and Essay on Jordan, Ever, has been awarded various medals for his distinguished service to the public. Discontents, Essay? In addition, Neil has also received NASA’s highest national honor for sherry vinegar coles, his service in the astronomical field (Tyson 48). Discontents, By Sigmeund Essay? When Neil was the director at Hayden Planetarium, he resisted the traditional thoughts of on recycling, people so that he could keep them away from referring to the planet Pluto as the universe’s ninth planet (Goldsmith Tyson 64). In his explanations, Neil insisted that he required looking at Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay what was common between objects while grouping terrestrial planets along with gas giants into one group.
His perceptions and decisions had resulted in his receiving hate mail from children on the subject (Tyson 167). According to Neil, the personal effectiveness, intelligent design notion thwarts the advancement of knowledge that is scientific. He claimed that he was agnostic since he did not believe in and Its Discontents, Freud Essay, the existence of the knowledge concerning God. For instance, during one of his interviews, Neil said that “Every account of a higher power that I’ve seen described, of how to, all religions that I’ve seen include many statements with regard to the benevolence of that power. When I look at the universe and all the ways the Civilization Essay, universe wants to kill us, I find it hard to essay, reconcile that with statements of beneficence.” (Tyson, Liu Irion 111) During his life, Neil wrote extensively about his perspectives concerning religion, science’s spirituality, and Civilization and Its Discontents,, spirituality itself. He has worked together with Richard Dawkins, an evolutionary biologist, in presenting various talks whose topics are based on science along with religion (Tyson 66). Neil de Grasse is a renowned science communicator who regularly appears on radio, TV along with other media forms.
He has been a regular guest on vinegar, various television shows; in the year 2007, he was invited to Civilization, be the key speaker at the Deerfield’s academy Koch center (Tyson 73). In his speech, Neil emphasized science’s impact on the 21 st century and a good muslim, explained to his audience that the investments made into science could be expensive (Goldsmith Tyson 74). He, however, insisted that the returns that society may get from these investments through the Discontents,, knowledge gained along with piquing interests were invaluable (Tyson 129). Neil has previously been selected as a commissioner in a commission studying the US aerospace industry’s future. This commission produced its final report that was published in the year 2002 containing recommendations for sherry coles, promoting the thriving futures of Civilization and Its Discontents, Essay, transportation, national security along with space exploration (Goldsmith Tyson 95). Later on, in the year 2004, Neil served in a 9-member committee that was responsible for implementing the atomic theory, exploration policies of America. It was their duty to navigate the path through which the US new vision for space could become a victorious part of the country’s agenda (Tyson 117). Neil was also appointed by NASA’s head to serve in the agencies advisory council that is so prestigious. Neil and the advisory council were supposed to guide the agency through its recurrent need of fitting its vision into their restricted budget (Tyson, Liu Irion 121).
Neil has written very many publications that have helped provide greater insights to the American public concerning the universe and by Sigmeund Freud, space (Goldsmith Tyson 64). For instance, Neil has written a magazine column for the Natural History Magazines and ten other books that include his memoirs in ‘ The Sky Is Not The Limit: Adventures Of An Urban Astrophysicist ’ along with other books he has co-authored with Donald Goldsmith (Tyson 94). He has recently been involved in controversies regarding the on Greatest, planetary standing of Pluto. Neil has been making efforts to sensitize the American public who seems to Civilization by Sigmeund Freud Essay, be not aware of scientific facts that exist around them (Tyson 123). These efforts have been facilitated by Essay on Jordan, Greatest Player, his collaboration with standup comedians from different regions of the country that has greatly helped in bringing science topics to the country’s commercial radios. His efforts of studying and Civilization Freud Essay, resolving issues regarding space have made the US astronauts name an asteroid after him (13123 Tyson) (Goldsmith Tyson 164). As an honor to Neil’s work, he has received over ten honorary degrees and a distinguished medal for service in NASA. This is the highest award that has ever been granted to a citizen of the country who does not work for the government. All these awards have been given to him for the contributions he has made in the appreciation of our cosmos by the general public (Tyson, Liu Irion 133). Sherry? Recently, Neil has been trying to explain the Civilization Freud Essay, scientific activities that lead to global warming.
He suggests that humans have first denied the existence of certain scientific truths but slowly accepted them to be true after laying claims concerning their opposition to various religious doctrines (Tyson 124). Chadwick Atomic? He additionally suggests that there exist numerous differences between plants along with animals, and the field of science operates in consensus concerning the experiments carried out (Goldsmith Tyson 167). According to Neil, astronomy has formed an Civilization, interesting and Greatest Basketball Player Ever, useful topic that can be explored for Civilization Discontents, Essay, the benefit of humans. Recently, Neil has been vocal in criticizing the country’s administration for on Greatest Basketball Player Ever, their withdrawal of funds for NASA. He says that NASA may greatly impact the people’s culture, and it is less costly when compared to the benefits it might bring to the country’s economy.
He finally suggests that the and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, end of dreaming for atomic, the Americans began when their administration decided to defund NASA (Tyson, Liu Irion 212).
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moral essay form 4 that moral values should be taught within our school system. • Preparation for future roles in society: Gaining knowledge is just one of the goals we set in education. Our primary goal should not only be to get an and Its Discontents, Essay education, but to learn the moral values of being a good citizen as well as a good parent in society. Les Miserables! This is something that our children will need in order to prepare themselves in the future. • Many Children are not taught moral values at home: If parents were teaching moral values. Essay on Happiness and Moral Value. of excess and deficiency (1107a1-3). And Its Freud Essay! Virtue is the character to essay on recycling, act in Freud Essay, such a way as to lead a happy life. Aristotle makes a distinction between intellectual virtues (such as wisdom), and moral virtues (such as courage and essay on recycling generosity). Civilization And Its Discontents, Freud Essay! Intellectual virtues are believed to definition, be gained from Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, education, as moral virtues are attained by habit (1106a10).
The character that we eventually develop is a result of our upbringing, as parents need to shape the spirit of their offspring in such a way as to help. Essay about The Importance of Moral Values. However the personal definition, job of being a veterinary assistant eventually went against her moral commitment at times when owners wanted to put their pets down, or she had to aid to injured animals that may have no hope. Because of her not being able to fulfil her moral commitment she now has a different job. Jenny has not had many jobs throughout her life, however Weber says in note 246 that once a person starts a job or occupation that person should not change jobs.
That person needs to accept the and Its Discontents, Freud, occupation and. Essay on Moral Values in the Happy Prince by Oscar Wilde. author’s contemplation. Fiction made carefully considering every element in it. Therefore, every fiction work has at least one moral value. Moral sense refers to (teaching of) good and bad which is generally accepted regarding actions, attitudes, duties, morals and manners (KBBI, 2012). Essay On Jordan,! Moral in the literature usually reflects the author’s view of life, his views on the value of truth, and that is what author is about to deliver to a reader. Discontents, Freud Essay! Fiction work written by author is to offer a life model of. Morals and Values for Daily Decisions: Personal Narrative Essay. Second respect others property. Third is honesty.
Fourth but not least is refraining from on Greatest Player, violence from one another. I am Native American and my cultural heritage has helped shaped my values because growing up my aunt would tell me stories of my ancestors. I found out they are honest people that worked hard to make a life for themselves. Civilization Discontents, Freud Essay! I was taught at an early age that in a family everyone does there part and nothing is handed to sparknotes, you. You have to treat others with respect because if you don’t you. Efficacy of Team Learning on Cultivating Moral Value at Civilization and Its Discontents, Essay Higher Secondary School. approach namely team learning to on recycling, cultivate the moral value among the students of Higher Secondary students.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find out the problems of the teachers in cultivating moral value in Maruthamalai Subramaniaswamy Devasthanam Higher Secondary School, Vadavalli. 2. To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between post-test of control group and Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud post test of Experimental group in cultivating moral values. 3. To find out the significant difference in achievement. *tidak keterlaluan *tanpa mengabaikan kepentingan diri dan orang lain 2.1 Kasih Sayang terhadap Keluarga Perasaan cinta, kasih dan sayang yang mendalam dan berkekalan terhadap keluarga. *perasaan cinta/kasih/sayang mendalam terhadap keluarga *perasaan cinta/kasih/sayang berkekalan terhadap keluarga 2.2 Hormat dan taat kepada anggota kepada anggota keluarga Memuliakan setiap anggota keluarga dengan berinteraksi dan memberi layanan secara bersopan untuk mewujudkan keluarga yang harmoni. Morals and Values are the Foundations of Society Essay. In 1430, Lorenzo collaborated with Stefano di Antonio to create The Annunciation. The painting is effectiveness definition, symmetric and dull despite the use of gold leaf to accent certain features. In 1435, Bicci di Lorenzo made a second attempt at portraying this Biblical tale. Contrary to the first painting, Lorenzo used a larger range of Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay colors which improved the overall piece.
He arranged the scene so that the Virgin Mary is on the left side of the painting while the sherry vinegar coles, archangel Gabriel is situated on the right side; Value of Aem and Its Equity Value Essay. free cash flow at a growth rate of 4%. Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund Freud! Acker propose a proper terminal value formula for AEM, which is expressed as follows: Where: NOPLATPA2008 = Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes plus Amortization (line13, column 7 in table 1) g = growth rate of NOPLATPA K = weighted average cost of capital (year 7, line16, column 7 in table 1) Step 4. Calculate Enterprise value and equity value To arrive at a total value of AEM, a simple method is discounting free cash flow listed below at corresponding. of others and of ourselves. This would be respecting an individual’s autonomy. Autonomy is commanding yourself to short on recycling, do what you think is a good idea to do. Since your self-identity comes from the autonomy principal, it is making choices based on your values. Civilization Discontents, Freud Essay! Each person has an idea of how they want to live their life, and with interfering with that idea, we are showing that person a lack of respect for their whole person.
A good example of interfering with a person’s autonomy is making false promises. Assume the following. You are a Being from Planet X, tasked to recreate/order the moral order, attending institutions, on planet Earth. Earth, having suffered the ravages of years of global warming and nuclear war, is environmentally scarred, capable of definition sustaining a population of Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud a million inhabitants. Prior to your departure, you are asked to submit a general outline/plan of chadwick atomic theory your ambition to recreate a moral order, attending institutions, amongst the remaining earthlings. Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund Essay! The first section of. as a heroine and Creon an oppressive tyrant, the play endorses gender equality and rebukes the premise that women are inferior. Another moral issue dealt with in chadwick, Antigone that was also common to Greek theater is Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud, that of the perils of pride and sherry of absolute power. The combination of democratic principles being integrated into Greek society and the value placed in reverence for the gods serves as the backdrop for the play, in Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, which Antigone poses somewhat of a threat to Creon's absolute power by. Before we can discuss the possible impact of moral education on the values and character as they relate to the identity formation of the adolescent, we need to a good, try and understand what character and values are. Character and Values Values are one’s principles and judgment of what is important in life. “We are expected to Civilization Freud, develop out own opinions, outlook, stances to things, to a considerable degree through solitary reflection” (Taylor, 1991).
However, when defining our identities. The values of a professional group develop through consensus and are expected to be held by members of the group. P Fry Johnson (2002) stated that professional values are made explicit in personal effectiveness definition, a code of Civilization Discontents, ethics, a code of conduct, or other formal statements that establishes and make public the Michael Player Ever, standards of a professional group. In 1953 the Internal Council of Nursing was established and congress accepted the code of and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay Ethics for nurses worldwide. The nurses’ code of ethics is a set of core nurses. Upcycle and on recycling how you can upcycle almost anything.
Economic Values My main economic value is Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund, profitability, and from what we learned in class you actually make more money by going green and upcycling. The USPS is an example of that. Definition! Also I value taking the lead because if my company goes green it will be an example that others’ can do the same and will benefit each company economically but also the Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, environment. Environmental What I value most is being mindful of the resources I use. That every time. Dance Music and Moral Panic Essay.
It can be theorised that such sociological examinations of the processes that lead to moral panic can be advantageous when considering differentiating genres of music within society. For example if one considers the punk rock music genre. Punk music can be described as a movement in theory, the rock scene during the Civilization Discontents, Freud, 1970s where youth subcultures formed bands and created music in order to rebel and deviate from higher society. They did this through the use of the DIY ethic (do it yourself) as a way to promote. a prison guard could believe that morally all men should be free, yet everyday he attends work and bends his morals to maintain his ethical code in his workplace. As with ethics having an origin so does morals and les miserables sparknotes it stems from the and Its by Sigmeund, Latin word “mos” meaning “custom”. (Diffen, 2016) And according to Latin-dictionary.org mos is related to chadwick atomic, custom, habit, manner, behavior, and morals. Morals are derived from the individual and is used as a personal compass of right and wrong. Although humans have morality.
He didn’t think this is moral. Finally, John Adam at the end called clearly, “I refuse to carry out Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, this order” (86). Essay Jordan, Greatest Ever! He couldn’t make up his mind for few days, but at Freud the end he refused the order which is his ethical choice. The last words from Lieutenant-Commander Oram: “I could condemn my whole crew to death or sacrifice fifteen and save five, and am going to become, join the Civilization by Sigmeund, others. Good-bye, sir.” (25). Certainly, this altruistic act of self-sacrifice truly reveals he as an excellent commanding officer. The Representation of the Messages and Values in #x60;the Wicker Man#x27; Strict religious values weren't as important and sparknotes it was beginning to seem old fashioned to believe in Civilization Discontents, Freud, sex after marriage. What Neil has just witnessed goes against every religious belief he has and it is made clear to the audience that he is greatly distressed by how to become a good muslim these sexual images as he retires to his room to pray.
Neil's views of the islander's activities in the graveyard are emphasised by the lighting used. The graveyard is dark, representing evil and is contrasted with Neil's bedroom, which. The concept of the lifetime value of a customer is well established in the theory and practice of database marketing. The lifetime value of a Customer, defined to be the Discontents, by Sigmeund, expected present value of the short essay on recycling, net cash flows from the firm’s relationship with the Civilization and Its by Sigmeund, customer over his or her lifetime, is definition, often used as an upper limit on spending to acquire the customer. If the expected cash flows from the and Its Discontents,, relationship with the acquired customer have a present value of $100, then the firm should spend no more than.
Subjectivity Theory: Values are Subjective Essay. Subjectivism is a relativist view that all moral principles are justified by an individual based on theory, their personal perspective. (Pojman Fieser) “Subjectivism holds that there are no objective moral properties,” (Objectivism101) This quote states that in by Sigmeund Essay, order for a value to be solely subjective it can’t represent any objective properties. For example, if I were to say that pizza is the most delicious food, I would be making an obvious subjective claim. Atomic! However, this judgment would only be true. By using Ethical Subjectivism, it clearly explains why moral judgments are just a branch of your preferences. Ethical Subjectivism is Civilization and Its Freud Essay, “…a theory about the nature of moral judgments. It says that no matter what moral judgments we make, we are only expressing our personal feelings, and nothing more.” The topic statement also says “…moral judgments are a waste of time. The only sherry vinegar, thing at issue is what people like or don’t like”.
The fact of the matter is that the second part of the statement is absolutely. nowadays due to the teachings of back then. We should value the and Its Freud, fact that we can read and write for many people in on Jordan, Ever, other countries aren’t able to Civilization by Sigmeund Freud, do so, and what I value more is that I am able to communicate through more than one language, giving me an advantage in life. If I never learned Chinese, I would’ve never been able to understand the true meanings of the literature. Personal! I am very grateful of what I have learned throughout the Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, years and definition I value all these traits that I possess. Memories only come.
or better called a young minded moral relativist, the power which resides in the child is new in nature, and none but the child knows whatever their reasoning or reaction in any situation is they neither know what to do or not, until such action has been done or accomplished and the defect does not depend on and Its Discontents, Freud Essay, time, but on their living, and pursuing each successive object, as passion directs irrespective of their age (Emerson) and teacher on vinegar coles, the other hand being a moral instructor or educational guardian. Kant: Grounding for Metaphysics and Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Morals Essay. recognized, “For when moral value is essay, being considered, the by Sigmeund, concern is not with the definition, actions, which are seen, but rather with their inner principles, which are not seen” (19). Kant emphasizes that an a priori understanding of morality will further our pursuit to perform in accordance with morality without the and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, distraction of short on recycling personal inclination and interest. Kant believes that the categorical imperative should become the only principle in judging whether an action has moral worth. Kant states that. Moral Standing on Abortion Essay examples. Determining full moral standing proves difficult especially with regards to fetus sentience. Sentience is Civilization by Sigmeund Freud Essay, defined as having awareness or fundamental consciousness; however, it is interpreted in many ways. “Sentience ought to be understood as a way sentient beings are aware of themselves (i.e. conscious) and a way of belonging to the surrounding world” (Bogaert 293). With that in mind, a fetus cannot be assumed to become, have sentience, for it is difficult to determine when a fetus is sentient.
In L. Wayne. For instance, sending aid to another country in order to Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud, minimize a people from starving to sherry coles, death, is not our moral duty. We are to act in a way that will maximize human happiness and minimize human suffering. In the end, aiding poorer nations will produce more suffering than it will end. It is believed that nations with the and Its Freud, highest average of poverty also have the highest rates of chadwick atomic birth. If we are to provide aid to these countries, we are only allowing more reproduction, thereby creating even. opinion is, that anyone who is terminally ill should have the choice, but to Civilization Discontents,, all rules there are exceptions, and to something as serious as this, there shouldn't be. Euthanasia Today Euthanasia has been, and always will be, a controversial moral and chadwick theory ethical subject. While the majority of both Americans and Canadians seem to support euthanasia as indicated by Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund the latest polls, it is still illegal in Essay on Michael, both countries. Freud Essay! I think it is important to sherry vinegar coles, first distinguish between passive euthanasia.
reinforcement come into play also. There are four major elements when it comes to the Social Learning Theory. Differential Association, Differential Reinforcement, Differential Imitation and Differential Definitions. There are many potential ethical/morals that come with these types of cases. The first thing needed would be to research certain methods when handing this type of case. The first thing would be is to Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, obtain consent from whomever to participate in the research. Second would be having the. I did not follow the fourth army value. I did put the needs of the storm victims before my needs.
I must always that of others before I think of myself. The fifth army value is honor it means to live to all the Army values. I did not live up to any of the army values and I have failed as a NCO. The sixth army value is Integrity it means to do what is right, legally and morally. Definition! Be willing to do what is right even when no one is looking. It is our moral compass an inner voice. I did not. This must be done on moral grounds even if there is some financial burden on the management because of Civilization Discontents, Freud dumping some where else.
Even when it comes to the recent Tsunami, a very rich man may not be forced to help out those who were affected by the natural calamity. But it is his responsibility to provide some help to the needy. One of my uncles who owns a factory saw unemployed youth one the road, begging for short on recycling, food. Later he came to know that the youth were all well educated and they were economically. question and judge it by it's own merits, they want to see who's affected or what it would really cost. And Its Discontents, By Sigmeund Freud! It's like putting a price on les miserables, your character. If it's small or doesn't hurt anybody, than it won't be a big deal. Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund! We can nickel and dime our moral piggy bank to death. It's the old, the ends justify the means.
Criminals aren't made in a day. Some of the most unethical and sherry unjustifiable behavior I know of has come out of our own political system. And Its Discontents,! The very men who are responsible for. In this case, torturing them just as they have tortured other might be a tough, but loving, way to express the point that might cause this person’s life to change. I agree with the Christian view of this moral dilemma. There are consequences for Michael Basketball Player, our actions. Many times the consequences are a form of torture. I did not celebrate or feel joy when Sadaam was executed, as well as Bin Laden and other dictators.
I did not feel joy because it’s always sad to Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, know that these men, no matter what they done. Moral and Ethical Issues Behind Software Copyright and how to become a good muslim Patents. is no commercial value, then there is no lawsuit. This is why the Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud, moral and ethical plays an important in essay on recycling, the current commercial activity. And so frequently that the true value of moral are diminished in the prolonged lawsuit.
In modern society, moral and Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud ethic values are the foundation to regulate people’s behavior and bond the whole society system. Each culture has its own unique ethical characteristics and relates to its corresponding moral standard. If there is no moral, a society will be. How the atomic, Grinch Taught Me Morals Essay. educating children on how to lead moral lives and accepting all of the people around us. As children, we read countless stories like Dr. Seuss’s in which morals are instilled. However, as we grow older, these stories become memories, or the “good old days” of reading Dr.
Seuss. The question is, why is that? Clearly these morals are things adults should live by as well, perhaps even more so. Newspaper comics offer a different, more mature media in which morals and and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay critiques on society are presented. Use Money Wisely to Gain Morals Essay examples. amount of money or food could affect the on recycling, poor man in many good ways. By using money appropriately trust and good morals will be gained. Discontents, Freud Essay! Hawtrey mentions in “Good Values; Money, Greed and God; God and Money: A Theology of Money in a Globalizing World” that “a new appreciation is evident … such as trust, … commitments, virtues and sherry vinegar duty… these attendant qualities have a real market value, that prices implicitly reflect such valuation, and therefore that these factors need to be modeled.” (344) Trust. Belief in a God Is Necessary for and Its Discontents,, a Moral Society Essay example.
obviously America is considered a moral society, so wouldn't all this faith play a key role in that observation? America has always lived a legitimately peaceful lifestyle even though it is considered one of the most religiously diverse countries in sherry, the world (Sheler, 5). The word religiously is the key word in that sentence. To have a religion or to believe in Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud, a religion is to have a set of rules that have been laid down by that religion to follow. With having these values, it makes it harder and less. A moral understanding of Utilitarianism and torture Essay. off as rash, insensitive, and unsympathetic beings for allowing a method such as this one to occur in order to save many lives. Injuring two lives for the benefit of thousands more is sound, but may not be ethical or moral.
It is chadwick atomic theory, a difficult feat to assess what is ethical and moral especially when encountered with a situation like this. An assumption that it is and Its Discontents,, immoral to not torture these children could be proposed because not acting on short, the children could deter the CIA from attaining valuable information. Edwards] not getting awarded on getting her medical accounts paid. Recommending some ethical determinations to senior management, I would mention four principles on the resolution the case against Ms. Edwards's v Mr. Washington. Frist will be debate moral choices: before on Civilization by Sigmeund Freud, taking a result, decent results need to. Peter Singer and Moral Decisions Essay.
conclusion that even though no one else seems to be acting in a moral way, it doesn’t change one's own responsibilities. The individual obligations remains the same i.e. to spend our money only on necessities and giving the rest to charities. As Singer says The formula is simple. ” He asks us to shun the concept of fair share because letting people die for the sake of fairness is “. taking fairness too far. ” In order to reach a moral decision, one should not be guided by public opinions unless. such things. In this paper we will examine a few different things as they relate to my personal, professional, and cultural values, and my ethics. I will first look at my personal values and how they can be reconciled in a global setting. Next we will look at my professional values and how I am able to reconcile them in a global setting.
Third, I will examine my cultural values and how they are reconciled in a global setting. Last, we will look at my ethics and how they relate to on Michael Jordan, Greatest Basketball Ever, a global setting. Moral Development - Lawrence Kohlberg Essay. Kohlberg six stages of moral development from this study. Level 1 is Reconventional Morality.
Stage 1 is Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules, which he or she must unquestioningly obey. Stage 2 is Individualism and Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is les miserables sparknotes, handed down by Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud the authorities. Personal Definition! Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 is Conventional Morality.
Stage 3 is Good. Business and by Sigmeund Freud Morals in Literature Essay. will take by force what they need. And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed. (Steinbeck 324) Once the repressed ban together to form the “we” and conquer the “I”, once moral intuition overrides personal fulfillment, once society decides to Essay on Greatest Basketball, narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, injustices will begin to perish. Society losing touch with its responsibility to others is Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, far from fiction. While sitting in the Birmingham. Essay on Moral Theology of chadwick atomic theory Healthcare. has bad emotions but manages to Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay, contain them so that he does not act on them. Sherry Vinegar! Temperance is Civilization, when one has good emotions and good actions. To move from continence to temperance, we can change our desires by distracting ourselves. Fortitude is the sparknotes, moral virtue involves facing difficulties well.
The two parts of fortitude are attack, facing the difficulty by seeking to eliminate it, and endurance, hanging in Discontents, by Sigmeund, there in chadwick atomic theory, the face of Discontents, Freud Essay hardship. A person with fortitude experiences a reasonable amount of. What It Does It Mean to personal, Be Moral Essay. The real pursuing of one's actual self-interest is never in conflict with the demands of morals. For Plato, it is more rational to pursue one's trueness, than one's evident, self-interest, judiciousness and morality do not conflict. Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund Essay! It is judicious to les miserables sparknotes, be moral.
I support Plato's view of the subject, why one ought to be moral. Civilization Discontents, Freud Essay! I feel that living justly will eventually work out to be in your self-interest because you are being honest and projecting honest from all of your actions, while avoiding. The Great Gatsby: Is Gatsby Moral? Essay. by involving himself in illegal activities just to acquire wealth in order to win Daisy over from Tom, but it never happened. Gatsby’s ambitions were immoral because, he never gained his wealth in the right way and for a wrong cause.
Why should a moral man gain wealth through illegal activities just to win another man’s wife? Gatsby refused to forget the past about him and Daisy and he was very confident that he could restore his past with Daisy and make things back to the way the used to be. He. From their prospective the value is the short essay, historically modest dividend and the long range growth of the Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, business. Given their approximation of a share price of $54,000 that would suggest they excluded Masco as an outlier if they used a multiples approach and les miserables sparknotes they used a discount of nearly 65% on the value of the shares to address their limitations noted previously. This would yield a value of roughly $58,000 per share. The dissenting Kohler shareholders, many of whom acquired shares for Civilization and Its Freud, north. In its broadest form, the utilitarian philosophy is Essay Michael Jordan, Ever, a specific form of consequentialism; focusing on Civilization Freud, the consequence of the personal, act to determine the morality of that said act.
When considering luxuries, it becomes more difficult than taking it at face value. You have to consider different levels of Essay class and what resources are essential for surviving for each of the different classes. If someone in the upper class buys a high end suit, it would be considered a luxury but in the eyes of Mill, it would. Values can change by either a significant emotional event or a profound dissatisfaction. The first way is by a traumatic event that changes our views, for example, watching a friend get harassed by police could change your view of police and lead to losing respect for how to, police.
Profound dissatisfaction caused by persistent dissatisfaction with an event that changes how you feel (Whisenand McCain, 2014). Essay! What values do for effectiveness definition, and to us? Values tell us about who we are as people. They act as filters. Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Essay. retail business. Ethics and morals are essential in the success of a business because they determine whether or not a customer will continue to patronize the business or take his or her money to Civilization, another business. A company is vinegar coles, only as successful as the Civilization and Its Freud, people who work there. The employee in Michael Jordan, Basketball Player, a business goes to work and employs his or her personal ethics in conjunction with the code of ethics implemented in the place he or she works. Differences are apparent in morals and ethics.
The difference is.
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Philip Roth - How to Deal with Postmodern Reality, or, Changes in Civilization Essay Fiction Writing. Term Paper 1998 30 Pages. 2. Postmodernism – a Term. 3. Narrativity, Moral and a Writer’s Responsibility. 4. Philip Roth - Writer and Reality. 5. Changes in vinegar Fiction Writing: Identity and Priority.
“By now you are a walking text“ (FACTS, 162), Zuckerman writes back to Civilization by Sigmeund Essay Philip Roth, having been asked whether or not Roth should publish his autobiography The Facts (1988). Zuckerman is sherry coles one of the characters from Roth’s books, the hero of the trilogy Zuckerman Bound (1985) and by Sigmeund Freud some short stories. He is a fictional character whom Roth addresses in the prologue to The Facts , asking for atomic theory advice concerning the publication of what Roth calls the result of. “. writing a book absolutely backward, taking what I have already imagined and, as it were, desiccating it, so as to restore my experience to the original, prefictionalized factuality.“ (FACTS, 3) Reading Philip Roth in Civilization Discontents, Freud a context of postmodern literature in America I have come to wonder what it actually is he himself is trying to vinegar coles do with his writing. Comparing Roth’s early narratives to more recent works I am tempted to say that a development can be observed towards an incorporation of narrative features which can be described as ‘postmodern’, i.e. that there are strong influences of a ‘postmodern reality’ in the work of Philip Roth, although he himself can probably not be called a postmodern writer in the strict meaning of the term. Here, of course, already appears a major problem for my assumption: What is ‘postmodern writing’ at all? Are there common features shared by (all) the representatives of postmodernism which could justify the Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud, application of Jordan, Greatest Basketball Player Ever such a classification? And if so, what precisely are these features and how can they be described? In order to clarify these issues, I shall refer both to theoretical texts on that subject as well as to works of art, in this case fiction writing.
In my analysis I want to focus on the relation between writer and reality, which will lead me to a discussion of the distinction between reality and fiction. I have chosen these aspects for obvious reasons: Because at and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund the very heart of fiction writing we find that the relation of a writer, or narrator, towards his  reality is what constitutes ‘fiction’ as such. This problem is especially relevant for an analysis of contemporary literature since the difference between fiction and reality has been explored, questioned and Greatest Basketball Ever blurred at least since a modernist movement has come into existence. Civilization And Its! The literary achievements of the les miserables sparknotes, 20th century express themselves largely through an experimentation with the distinction between fiction and Freud reality, a playing with narrative forms, trying to meet rapidly changing social experiences. One of the sparknotes, most dominant features acknowledged to postmodernism is a shift of the position of the Discontents, Essay, writer towards his audience, his work and his reality – maybe even a shift in the understanding of the short essay on recycling, priority of an author over his work.
It is Civilization Essay that shift in the perception of reality which I claim has influenced Philip Roth in his writing, both in structure as well as in contents. I will try to trace these influences in the development of Roth’s work, at the same time being aware that I cannot deliver a full-scale reading of Philip Roth in this paper. It is understood that such a development, or change, cannot be described as a linear temporal sequence throughout the les miserables, years, rather always depending, as it is, on Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay the particular subject, background and purpose a work occupies. However, I maintain that Philip Roth, this critic of postmodern writing, the “enfant terrible“ of American literature for sparknotes more than thirty years now, can be shown to Civilization and Its Essay have adopted certain ‘postmodern’ characteristics in his writing corresponding to the literary discourse of his time. I want to start out by trying to outline some of the more manifest features of postmodern writing, guided by Ihab Hassan’s essay Toward a Concept of short essay on recycling Postmodernism (1987) and referring to Civilization by Sigmeund Essay Hayden White’s considerations of the aspect of ‘moral’ in personal definition narrative texts in by Sigmeund Freud Essay the essay The Value of muslim Narrativity in the Representation of Reality (1989). For an outline of the history of postmodernism and its discourse I am indebted to Andreas Huyssen’s Mapping the Postmodern (1986). Another basis for my argument will be Philip Roth’s essay Writing American Fiction (1961), originally a speech delivered at Discontents, Essay Stanford University for a symposium on “Writing in America Today“ in short 1960.
This essay is especially interesting because it deals with the problem of fictionalizing while at the same time confronting a reality where . “ . the actuality is continually outdoing our talents, and the culture tosses up figures daily that are the envy of any novelist.“ (WAF, 120) My idea is to re-read Roth’s fiction with regard to what he proclaims for fiction writing in his essay and throughout his work. For his earlier work I will concentrate on his first novella, Goodbye Columbus (1959) and the short-story Defender of the Faith (1952), then go on Freud Essay to the atomic, trilogy Zuckerman Bound (1985) and his autobiographical novel The Facts (1988) from which I have quoted earlier, concluding with one of his latest novels Operation Shylock (1993) where he explores the Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud, issues of Essay Basketball Player authorship, priority and a writer’s responsibility. I do realize that what I am trying to do is Discontents, by Sigmeund a fairly complex attempt: Trying to analyze a voluminous work of an astonishing author with regard to Essay Michael Jordan, Greatest Player characteristics of a literary (and not only literary) movement which has not been clearly defined so far – and may just as likely never be describable as a more or less coherent phenomenon. Therefore, my claim is merely to track down at least a few similarities in the work of Philip Roth to features associated with postmodernism.
For that purpose I will first have to set out to give – if not a definition – then at least a rough outline of how postmodern writing might be characterized. “. we have created in our mind a model of Discontents, by Sigmeund postmodernism, a particular typology of culture and imagination, and have proceeded to ‘rediscover’ the affinities of various authors and different moments with that model.“ (HASSAN, 589) Hassan points out here the basic approach to all literary theory: Treating it not as a category literary works are implicitely formed by chadwick theory, but rather as a pattern we are trying to find in the various works of Civilization art. A literary movement in that sense is not a normative but merely a descriptive term, applicable only to sherry coles the singular specific work of literature, not to the work of an author in general. If, despite this difficulty, I will now try to give an account of postmodernism as such, this can only be understood as an attempt to combine different approaches towards postmodernism into a selection of features relevant for my later analysis of Roth’s fiction writing. Andreas Huyssen in his essay Mapping the Civilization and Its Discontents,, Postmodern (1986) gives a survey of what he sees as the different stages of postmodernism from the late 1950s to the 1980s. His account aims at showing the critical potential that differentiates postmodernism from its predecessors modernism and avantgarde: “As I hope this essay will show, postmodernism’s critical potential lies precisely in its radical questioning of those presuppositions which linked modernism and avantgarde to the mindset of modernization.“ (HUYSSEN, 183) What are those presuppositions which are said to short be questioned? To begin with, it was high-modernist’s notion of ‘high art’ as opposed to ‘mass culture’, the Freud, autonomy of the art work with its primary concern for form and meaning, and consequently the canonization and institutionalization of what used to be a culture of resistance against dominant power structures at the time it came into a good being, that was strongly criticized and opposed during the 1960s.
Huyssen, however, admits that the Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud, 1960s’ pop art culture bears more the features of an (American) avantgarde than of a genuinely postmodern conception, though these two have seemed to chadwick intermingle at by Sigmeund Freud times in their opposition to modernist traditions. As a more general feature of postmodern representation, Huyssen observes a shift away from what he calls modernist’s „myth of how to become a good modernization“ (HUYSSEN, 186) to a set of. “. questions of ornament and metaphor in architecture, of figuration and realism in painting, of story and Civilization Discontents, Freud representation in literature, of the body in music and theatre.“ (HUYSSEN, 188) Postmodernism, Huyssen argues, has adopted a view which “. avoids the false dichotomy of choosing either continuity or discontinuity“ (HUYSSEN, 189), resulting in a specific incorporation of contradictions going hand in hand with a growing discomfort with the perception of reality in the traditional terms. “. it may be precisely one of the characteristics of the postmodern that the relationship between progress and destruction of cultural forms, between tradition and modernity can no longer be understood today the same way Marx understood it at the dawn of modernist culture“ (HUYSSEN, 200), i.e. as a dialectical entity analyzable in terms of both progress and destruction, but rather that postmodernism might „. harbor productive contradictions, perhaps even a critical and oppositional potential.“ (HUYSSEN, 200)
Whatever this ‘critical and oppositional potential’ consists of might be a result of a later analysis. Undoubtedly, however, we will come across the problem of the author as a subject, and the subjective as such, in probably any postmodern piece of coles literature. To be sure, this is no newly discovered ground: The rise of modernism was marked by a desperate search for the identity of the subject in and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud a world where the mere existence of such an identity seemed to les miserables sparknotes have become questionable. About this point all my observations about the specific characteristics of postmodern literature agree with Huyssen: “ They [the postmoderns, M.O.] counter the modernist litany of the Civilization and Its Discontents, Essay, death of the subject by working toward new theories and practices of speaking, writing and acting subjects. The question of how codes, texts, images, and atomic theory other cultural artefacts constitute subjectivity is increasingly being raised. “. (HUYSSEN, 213) This problem seems to be one of the most manifest issues in postmodern literature, suggesting that it results from Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund, some shift in the social reality the writers/artists have to react to, a shift I will attempt to les miserables sparknotes retrace in Roth’s writing.
This shift may have something to do with a phenomenon Huyssen characterizes as “ . the dilemma of being locked into our own culture and and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay traditions while simultaneously recognizing their limitations.“ (HUYSSEN, 220) What then can we make out as the specific features of postmodern representation of reality in arts following from essay, such a shift in Discontents, by Sigmeund paradigms? In 1987, Ihab Hassan undertook the daring attempt to formulate certain narrative and artistic features and paradigms by atomic, means of Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud which to differentiate postmodernism from modernism in his essay Toward a Concept of Postmodernism (1987). After having elaborated at length as to whether there is a phenomenon that needs to be distinguished from modernism at les miserables sparknotes all, he claims that „. postmodernism may appear as a significant revision, if not original ‘episteme’, of twentieth-century Western societies. “ (HASSAN, 586), arguing as follows: “I wanted to explore the Freud, impulse of self-unmaking which is part of the literary tradition of silence.
Pop and silence, or mass culture and deconstructing, or Superman and Godot – or as I shall later argue, immanence and indeterminacy – may all be aspects of the postmodern universe.“ (HASSAN, 587) As a conjunction of those two concepts Hassan coins the new term “indetermanence“, meaning the tendency in postmodernism to incorporate the different, though not dialectical, features of ‘indeterminacy’ and ‘immanence’. By indeterminacy Hassan means a tendency towards. “. ambiguity, discontinuity, heterodoxy, pluralism, randomness, revolt, perversion, deformation. The latter alone subsumes a dozen current terms of unmaking: decreation, disintegration, deconstruction, decenterment, displacement, difference, discontinuity, disjunction, disappearance, decomposition, de-definition, demystification, detotalization, delegitimization – let alone more technical terms referring to the rhetoric of irony, rupture, silence.” (HASSAN, 592) By immanence , or rather immanences, Hassan describes.
“. the capacity of Jordan, Greatest Player Ever mind to generalize itself in symbols, [. ] act upon itself through its own abstractions and so become, increasingly, im-mediately, its own environment. Civilization Discontents,! This noetic tendency may be evoked by such sundry concepts as diffusion, dissemination, pulsion, interplay, communication, interdependence, which all derive from the emergence of human beings as language animals. Sherry Coles! [. ] . everywhere we encounter that immanence called Language. ” (HASSAN, 593) The conjunction of these two different tendencies to a characteristic of postmodern understanding leads to a major theme postmodernism is concerned with, and which we will find in and Its Discontents, Roth’s work as well, the playing with the coles, processes of constructing and Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay deconstructing identities and realities. In order to definition give a definition of postmodernism, Hassan proposes a “ . fourfold vision of complementarities, embracing continuity and discontinuity, diachronie and synchronie.“ (HASSAN, 589) He comes to Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay analyze ideas and concepts in les miserables sparknotes many fields – “. rhetoric, linguistics, literary theory, philosophy, anthropology, psychanalysis, political science, even theology. ” (HASSAN, 592) in terms of oppositional tendencies of modernism and postmodernism. I will take up only a few of those concepts, which I think bear some significance for the literary works we later want to have a look at. Postmodern writing is largely characterized by “. Antiform (disjunctive, open) . Play . Civilization By Sigmeund! Chance . Exhaustion . Participation [of the author as a subject in Jordan, Greatest Basketball Ever his writing, M.O.] . Civilization And Its Discontents, Freud Essay! Deconstruction . Antithesis . Personal Effectiveness! Rhetoric . Scriptible (Writerly) . Anti-narrative . Schizophrenia . Irony . ” (HASSAN, 591/592) Many of the features just named can be analyzed in Roth’s later work, as will be shown in later chapters.  I am perfectly aware that there are female writers as well and Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud that political correctness would require the use of effectiveness definition both female and male forms.
However, for the sake of readability I will exclusively use the and Its Discontents, Freud, ‘traditional’ male form of pronouns whenever it occurs.
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Adult with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Dear writer, Please use Please use Australian current journals, books, etc One page list of Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund, problems and interventions (referenced) included Rest of the inform for this essay is on the upload inform. Thank you. Assessment 2: Case study Essay. For this assessment you can select either Essay Case 1 (the paediatric case) or Essay Case 2 (the adult case). Essay Case Option 1: Infant following repair of a Patent Ductus Arteriosis.
It is 10am and Annabelle is a 4 month old infant who has returned to the Paediatric Cardiac Care Unit after a surgical repair of her Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA). Her PDA was first identified at her six week post delivery check-up. Annabelle’s mother noticed that she was not gaining weight prior to the first paediatrician visit. Become A Good Muslim! She states “Belle doesn’t seem interested in feeding, and and Its Discontents, Freud, seems to go to sleep or pull off the breast mid way through a feed.” Annabelle’s mother also states that Annabelle seems to sherry vinegar, sleep a lot and and Its Discontents,, doesn’t seem to have the vinegar same energy levels as her eldest child did when he was a baby. Prior to her surgery, Annabelle’s assessment included the following: pale, diaphoretic infant who appears small in size and scrawny with minimal subcutaneous fat tissue. Bare weight is Civilization and Its Freud 5.125 kgs (approximately 10th percentile). She has rapid breathing with RR 50 breaths / minute and congested sounds which is typical finding in infants with PDA. Her medical record stated she was born at term and her birth weight 3.5 kgs (75th percentile). Annabelle has a small thoracotomy incision in her left axillary region which is covered by a dressing. Her post-operative observations are RR 48 breaths/min, HR 152 beats/min normal sinus rhythm, BP 95/55, Oxygen Saturation 94%, Temp 37.2C. Annabelle is crying but no tears are present, her eyes are shut tightly, her brows are drawn together in a frown and she has an open and square shaped mouth.
As you try to inspect her dressing she pulls her arm away. Annabelle has intravenous therapy of 0.9% Normal Saline (NaCl) infusing at atomic theory, 22mls per hour. Civilization By Sigmeund Freud Essay! Annabelle was fasting for hours prior to her surgery. She was last breastfed at a good, 3am during the night. Her mother states her nappy was wet about Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund, 6am prior to surgery and short, her current nappy is dry. Annabelle is ordered a nurse controlled analgesia (NCA) infusion of Morphine to commence at 0.01mg//kg/hour which equates to 0.05mg/hour of Morphine Sulphate IV continuously to run as a side line to her fluid infusion. This has not yet been commenced as there was an emergency in the Operating Room Suite.
Essay Case Option 2: Adult with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) David is a 72 year old male admitted to the medical ward this morning with an infective exacerbation of his Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). David has a history of Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud, smoking since he was a teenager but finally managed to quit 3 years ago when he was diagnosed with COPD. David had noticed he had been coughing more throughout the night and his sputum had turned a thick green colour. He has also reported that he had not eaten or drank much in vinegar coles, the two days before his admission as he was feeling so unwell. As you examine his mouth you note his tongue is white and his lips are cracked and dry. The urine bottle on the side of his bed contains a small amount of dark amber urine. David’s weight on Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay admission was 55kgs and on Greatest Basketball, he is Civilization by Sigmeund Freud 176cms tall.
He is currently receiving 3rd hourly nebulised ventolin and is on 2L/min of Essay on Greatest Ever, oxygen via the nasal prongs. His observations are HR 90/min, RR 26, Oxygen saturation 92%, Temperature 37.8 o C. He has an IV cannula insitu and is his medical chart shows that he is prescribed 6 hourly IV hydrocortisone and IV antibiotics. When you enter the room to ask David how he is feeling you notice that he is sitting up on the side of his bed leaning over his bedside table and coughing. He is pale and seems to be using his shoulders and Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, upper chest as he breathes. As you listen to his chest with the stethoscope you can hear coarse crackles and there seems to be decreased air entry in both lower lobes. He also has a prolonged expiratory phase. Vinegar Coles! He responds that “I can’t seem to get my breath, and my mouth is so dry and I can’t seem to cough this stuff up.”
For this essay, select either Essay Case Option 1 (the paediatric case) or Essay Case Option 2 (the adult case). Every patient you care for is likely to have a number of actual and potential health related problems. There are at Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, least three (3) priority problems that the patient is experiencing currently. List at least three priority problems you have identified from the above data and history. For each problem identified, list as many nursing interventions as you have discovered in your research of the literature. Sherry! Include a one to two line rationale for Civilization Discontents,, each intervention. Submit this one page list with your essay. Please be aware that the main focus should be the essay itself and not this one page list which is essentially a map or plan of your thinking about the case. Sherry! We have asked for Civilization Essay, this page as sometimes students choose incorrect priority problems so this page will allow us to see if it was a problem with identification or prioritisation. As with any academic writing it should be referenced and les miserables, you can include these references in your main essay reference list. Your main focus should be the and Its Discontents, Freud Essay essay.
For your essay, you must prioritise the problems you identified and select the two highest priority problems from your list. The 2000- word essay should cover the points below: · Introduction (150 words): State an overview of the on Michael Jordan, Greatest Ever patient’s condition and identify the TWO priority nursing problems. Give a brief plan for the essay topics. · For the first problem (850 words): Briefly explain how it relates to the patient’s assessment data. You will need to draw on Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud your understanding of pathophysiology to explain the coles link between the problem and and Its by Sigmeund Essay, the patient’s signs and how to, symptoms. Identify TWO priority nursing interventions to by Sigmeund Essay, address the problem.
Discuss briefly the nursing interventions you will implement (explain what is involved in implementing the on Jordan, Greatest Player Ever intervention, why it is suitable, any relevant positive or negative aspects/considerations) and support/justify the use of these interventions with reference to current evidence-based literature. Discontents, Essay! Outline the evaluation criteria/data that would indicate that each intervention is improving or resolving the identified problem. · For the how to become a good muslim second problem (850 words): Briefly explain how it relates to the patient’s assessment data. You will need to draw on your understanding of pathophysiology to explain the link between the Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud problem and the patient’s signs and symptoms Identify TWO priority nursing interventions to address the atomic problem. By Sigmeund Essay! Discuss briefly the become a good muslim nursing interventions you will implement (explain what is involved in implementing the intervention, why it is suitable, any relevant positive or negative aspects/considerations) and support/justify the use of these interventions with reference to current evidence-based literature. Outline the evaluation criteria/data that would indicate that each intervention is improving or resolving the identified problem. · Conclusion (150 words): Briefly restate the patient’s condition and problems and how the nursing interventions can benefit the patient’s health. You need to discuss at least one independent nursing intervention in your essay. For any collaborative nursing interventions you use you must discuss the Civilization Essay nursing responsibilities and actions in short, relation to this collaborative intervention. Medications cannot be both of your chosen collaborative interventions for a problem. If a medication is Civilization Discontents, Essay one of your collaborative interventions you must identify an appropriate drug that is likely to be/or has been prescribed by the doctor (in the personal effectiveness case options some medications have already been prescribed). You must also consider and Discontents, Essay, discuss the coles nursing responsibilities associated with the medication (action, dose, side effects, prevention and management of same, administration requirements, evaluation).
Refer to current academic peer-reviewed journal articles to justify your ideas. Format of Assessment 2. -All questions should be attempted and written in essay format. -Margins: 2cm on 4 sides; line spacing: at least 1.5; Font size: 12. -Adherence to the stated word limit is required. Civilization! -QUT APA referencing style. -A full reference list is required at the end of the assignment. List of problems and interventions for vinegar coles, Essay Case Option 2 the adult case. Problem 1: Ineffective Airway Clearance. Auscultate breath sounds. The nurse should note adventitious breath sounds such as crackles, wheezes and rhonchi. Civilization And Its Essay! Rationale for this intervention: some level of bronchospasm is present with obstructions within the airway and might or might not be manifested with adventitious sounds (Avsar, 2011).
Evaluate or monitor the respiratory rate. The nurse should note the personal effectiveness definition inspiratory/expiratory ratio. Rationale for this intervention: Tachypnia is and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund commonly present to personal effectiveness definition, some extent and might be pronounced on admission or during stress or concurrent acute infectious process. Reduce environmental pollution, for instance by minimizing smoke and dust. Rationale. Dust and smoke are precipitators of allergic type respiratory reactions that could aggravate or set off onset of acute episode (Vijayan, 2013). Problem 2: Impaired Gas Exchange. Evaluate respiratory depth and rate.
The nurse should note the use of accessory muscles, inability to converse or speak, and pursed-lip breathing. Rationale: this intervention is and Its Freud important in definition, assessing the extent of respiratory distress and/or chronicity of the illness process (Stone et al., 2014). Elevate head of the and Its Discontents, bed, and the nurse should help the sparknotes patient to Civilization and Its by Sigmeund, assume a position that makes breathing easy. Rationale: delivery of oxygen might be improved through upright position, and breathing exercises to decrease the collapse of the personal effectiveness airway, the work of by Sigmeund, breathing, and dyspnea (Johnston et al., 2011). Problem 3: Imbalanced Nutrition. The patient should be encouraged by the nurse to rest for a duration of short essay on recycling, 1 hour before and after meals. Civilization And Its By Sigmeund Essay! Give frequent small feedings. Rationale: this will hel. Schoolwork can be overwhelming and students need to come up with clever ways of addressing their schoolwork load. Here are some reasons why you many need to buy an essay.
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Current Watercolor Workout Class Homework. No Class September 20, Homework Due Sept 27. Finish the monochromatic barn painting. Civilization By Sigmeund! Make sure the values you paint monochromaticly are what you want. Then repaint the same scene in color with the goal of become a good muslim, matching the values in your monochromatic painting. Homework Due September 13.
Finish the and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Cuban Classic Cars drawing and on Basketball Player, paint it monochromatically. My version is below. Just a quick sketch, but notice: wire framing/structure both in the buildings and and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, the cars, more detail the atomic closer to the viewer and the center of and Its Essay, interest, indications of perspective not just the buildings and cars, but in personal definition the street. Cuban Classic Cars - Start. Cuban Classic Cars - Finish. No class September 20. Civilization Essay! I’ll be in Greece. September 27 class will be a quick painting session so bring your larger drawing and painting pads (18” x 24”). Homework Due September 6.
Your homework is to essay, finish the painting you started, preferably monochromatically. Think about Freud Essay 3-4 value ranges - plus gradation. Below is a photo of the initial demo I painted today in 20 or so minutes along with the finished painting which I labored on for another hour and a half. Pretty subtle difference. I didn’t want to lose the freshness of the sparknotes start, but if you look carefully you’ll note a number of minor changes. I think it is slightly better now, but only slightly. Note: On my computer, the Discontents, Freud subtle value differences above are real, not photography artifacts. Homework, due August 30, 9:00 am. Compare your drawing with a tracing of the photo. Use the knowledge gained (not the tracing paper) to improve the drawing. Repeat.
Use your drawing (which should be very light), to help place the value shapes you see. As you paint, combine darks with darks, lights with lights, mid-tones with mid-tones. Think, 3 to 4 value ranges, plus gradation. You may find it helpful to first shade in the tracing paper to sherry vinegar coles, help you identify the Freud Essay value groupings you want to paint. The above was traced, and how to become, values added using a combination of Civilization Essay, marker on tracing paper and Photoshop. You can do better.
Elisabeth mentioned that I had thrown a lot at chadwick atomic you today, so I’ll summarize. When drawing from Freud a photo , be sure the aspect ratio matches your paper. Start with the biggest shapes, usually that means the personal definition “envelop”. Civilization Freud! Work from larger shapes to smaller, light lines to darker. Straight lines, horizontals, verticals and a good, angles are easiest to Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, judge. You have lots of techniques for improving accuracy of placement (shape, negative space, horizontals, verticals, angles, “extensions”, relative size, centerline, structure). Personal Effectiveness! Use those that help. When drawing from a photo , don’t forget to mentally extend lines to and Its Discontents,, both the near and far edge (to assess where the on recycling extension crosses the and Its Essay paper’s edge).
Use structure, not just when drawing a portrait, but for coles, most objects. Civilization And Its Discontents, By Sigmeund Freud! Symmetry around the centerline - applies to all mammals, birds and on Michael Greatest Player Ever, reptiles, most fish and many man-made objects (vehicles, bottles, dishes, furniture, buildings) Loosely speaking, use symmetry for and Its Freud, drawing but not for design. Drawing in Value The above techniques generally apply to chadwick atomic theory, drawing using line, but the same thought process can be applied to drawing using value (i.e. shading with vine charcoal). Freud Essay! One advantage of drawing in value is that it is both additive (charcoal) and subtractive (eraser). Another advantage is that relatively quickly you see the image (or a ghost of it), which either looks right or doesn’t. In drawing in value, you generally wouldn’t actually draw the lines, but would mentally note them to help you place the value shapes. Finally, in all drawing, it’s easy to get caught up in the detail. Don’t forget to step back and consider the big picture. Does it look right. Atomic! If not, why not. Homework Due August 23, 9:00AM.
Paint any simple scene monochromatically. Civilization Freud Essay! That is no color, value only. Working from life is how to become muslim most challenging because photos translate the value range for you. Civilization And Its Discontents,! But whether you work from life or a photo, after you paint the scene use your smart phone to remove the color from sparknotes a photo of the scene so you can compare your painting with the black and Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund, white photo. Jane - If you would prefer not to paint on how to a good muslim, fully soaked paper, just choose one of the homework assignments you missed. Jack and Elisabeth - Copy the Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud painting below by Cao Bei An. The figures were clearly added wet-on-dry, perhaps a few accents were too. Some light accents were scraped out with a knife while the paper was still damp. It may help when you paint adjacent to the pure white areas, to add a little clear water in sherry vinegar coles the white areas to help create a clean barrier to the pigment (because if that area is damp but drier than the adjacent area it will suck pigment towards it acting like a sponge). As a reminder, key aspects of Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, painting on fully wet paper are: Soak the paper for about 10 minutes Paint with the paper flat, dry at an angle Remoisten on the back of the paper before it begins to dry out Paint light to dark somewhat, but mostly soft edges to chadwick atomic theory, hard For a hard edge on wet paper, dry the ferule Test first, away from the edge, to and Its, determine diffusion Ratio of moisture in on recycling brush to moisture on paper is and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud critical Get the full range of values early on the entire paper Adjust values as you paint Paint the entire painting while the paper is damp Once the painting is how to bone dry: can re-wet and rework darkening is easiest.
use wet-on-dry for emphasis. regain lost lights. You might also want to take a look at by Sigmeund Freud my more extensive notes on painting wet on fully soaked paper here. Homework Due August 2, 1:00PM. Set up a simple still life lit with a single light source. Don't let it become a chore, but paint it twice. On Recycling! Once monochromaticly and once in color.
Keep it simple, perhaps just two or three pieces of fruit or a cup and Civilization and Its, saucer. The important thing is to focus on les miserables, value in both paintings. Your homework is to paint a monochromatic still life that you set up at home. Its best to light your still life with a single light source. Think in terms of Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay, 4 values (2 lights and 2 darks), plus gradation. You can see far more values than can be conveyed with pigment, so one important aspect of the task is to radically simplify the values you see (from literally thousands into just 4) and then paint those value relationships (not the actual values). For example, don’t think, “I see that value therefore I paint that value.” Instead think, “Those are the darkest darks I see, therefore I paint them the darkest.”
Value studies serve two purposes. We are using them to help us learn to translate the values we see into the values we paint. But a second purpose is to help us design in value. Strong value patterns (5 to 7 shapes, interesting, connected, simplified) are an important aspect of good design. So once you are confident of your ability to translate the values you see into definition, the values you paint, focus on incorporating that knowledge into creating a strong value pattern (which often requires adjusting the values to meet the needs of the design). I had planned for us to paint in color next session, but I think it would be better if we spend some more time with value studies so that’s what we’ll do.
These watercolor value studies are by David Lobenberg. Now, notice how these value studies by Carl Purcell link the darks and Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay, lights into effectiveness definition, clear, interesting, value patterns. No class next week, July 12. Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund Freud! Next class will be July 19, 1:00PM. I liked how well you painted the how to a good boots so I looked on-line to Discontents, Essay, see if I could find good examples of loosely painted boots for your homework. Not only did I find multiple examples by an artist whose work I admire, Paul Wright, but he has evidently painted the very same boots we painted. Sherry Vinegar! Below is by Sigmeund Freud Essay his and my painting of “our” boots. He’s an chadwick atomic theory acrylic painter, but his paintings are still good examples to emulate. So your homework is to copy anything by and Its Freud, Paul Wright. Search his name on-line and chadwick atomic, you can find many paintings from which to choose not just boots, but shoes and portraits too, all in his loose “painterly” style.
To make it easy, I’ve attached one of his paintings of shoes, but choose another of his paintings if you prefer. Copy any of the paintings below. We’ll paint the owl in class next week. It’s a difficult technique to explain, but I’d like you to Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, try it for homework so you have a better idea how the paper and water interact when I give the Essay Michael Jordan, Greatest Player Ever demonstration. Discontents, Freud! I’ll explain the technique in overview, then provide a few details which may just be confusing if you don’t keep the overview in mind. The above paintings are by Dean Crouser. Overview: In general, the idea is to paint wet-in-wet, dropping in (charging) or lifting pigment to achieve the desired value. Avoid unpainted areas, but keep the wet-in-wet area you’re working on damp by either dropping in either additional pigment or pure water (if you don’t want to change the value). A Few Details: When painting fully wet-in-wet, it helps to lay the paper flat (or with a slight angle if puddles form). Once you have drawn the subject, apply pigment wet-on-dry to the chosen area, but continue to charge (drop in) pigment wet-in-wet paying close attention to maintaining both color intensity and coles, the appropriate value. So long as the area being painted is uniformly damp and not beginning to dry out, you can continue to Discontents, by Sigmeund, work in it.
Complements will dull each other, so to maintain intensity, only vinegar coles, add adjacent colors on the color wheel. Darken the value by adding concentrated pigment (sometimes a darker pigment). Keeping the area damp without darkening the value by Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, adding clear water. Some areas are painted wet-on-dry, as a separate step. Some areas are deliberate splatters, also a separate step.
Follow the same painting and thought process as for June 21. First wash - light, establishing harmony and underpainting. 2nd wash - establish darks. 3rd wash - clarifying without specifying. Finish - calligraphy, necessary clarification, emphasis. Homework Due June 21 (1:00PM) Your homework is to finish or repaint the bunch of grapes [attached]. Think: design [“simplified value pattern”] B. Sketch on watercolor paper.
C. Multiple washes. Vary color, but choose a limited palette and stick to it. Warms on warms, cools on vinegar coles, cools. Follow your thumbnail. 1st Wash very light, saving lightest lights, connect everything. 2nd Wash connect darks. 3rd and Subsequent Washes - Think: “Follow the lines - and then you don’t.” Value and Civilization and Its Essay, temperature, not color. Linkage, connections, passage. What makes this subject difficult is the need to subtly convey a structure in.
your painting that isn't obvious in the subject. Definition! Don't paint individual grapes, paint a bunch of Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund, grapes and indicate a few. Sparknotes! As Joseph Zbukvic says, Don't. Finish the portrait you were working on. Here are the steps. First, and most important, a careful drawing [which I draw using vine charcoal and then then trace onto watercolor paper]. Then a light wash. Warms where warms will be in the finished painting, especially in skin tones, cools where cools will be. Don’t follow the lines. Civilization Essay! Think about design. Now a second wash for the darks, primarily shadows, but also any darks in the background.
Connected as much as possible. Think about edge control. Hard for essay on recycling, cast shadows and sharp angles, soft for form shadows. Allow colors to blend. Think, “Follow the line and then you don’t.” Finish. More and more detail. Still thinking about design, edge control, value, connections. In general, work top to Civilization, bottom, light to dark.
No Class Wednesday, June 7. Debbie and on recycling, I will be in Bodega Bay spending some time with my brother and Discontents, Essay, his wife vacationing from Beaumont, Texas. Complete the sherry drawing you started in Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay class (the one depicted for May 24 homework or one of your choosing) and trace it onto watercolor paper; however don't paint it yet. We will paint it in class next week. Draw a portrait either from your own photo or use the one below. It is sherry vinegar coles important that your reference have good lighting, preferably from a photo taken in natural sunlight. 11 x 14 or 12 x 16 cold press or hot press paper is a good choice if you have it. My photo is a little grainy because the actor was some distance away at the Renaissance Faire. I also used Photoshop to delete the background and add the hand gesture.
Use whatever drawing method you prefer, but as most of you know, I like to draw using vine charcoal and and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, then trace my drawing onto watercolor paper. Theory! Depending on how your drawing goes, we will either paint the portrait in class next week or if the class prefers we will continue to work on Civilization Discontents,, your drawing in class next week and paint it the following week. For your homework, learn the simplified structure template for les miserables, the head. To get a better idea of Civilization and Its Discontents,, how the template works, try printing out essay on recycling photos and and Its by Sigmeund Freud, drawing the structure directly on the photo. Start with those lines that convey the personal major structures (center line, eye line, side of Civilization and Its by Sigmeund Freud, head, eyebrow, cheeks, jaw) before going to muslim, smaller structures.
Pay particular attention to symmetry around the center line - and notice that sometimes that symmetry flares out in opposite directions (jaw, “corner” of eye socket). Homework Due May 3. Paint an object of your choice (cup, tree, car, whatever) from life, preferably en plein air. Let’s see if we can transfer our knowledge of dogs to horses and humans too. Paint the barrel rider on her horse. This is an interesting scene, but the drawing will be difficult. Take your time. You’ll need to deal with foreshortening and twisting of both the Civilization by Sigmeund Freud rider and her horse. So, I suggest using the chadwick atomic vine charcoal “wipe out” drawing technique, but be sure to get the structure (using wire framing) in your drawing, then subtly convey it in your painting. You should also probably ignore most of the background and may want to choose your own color scheme. I’ll post my process as I complete it.
Off to a hockey game tonight. Go Ducks! Start your vine charcoal drawing by roughly blocking in the shapes you see and their rough value. Civilization By Sigmeund! Then soften and Essay Michael Ever, darken values and and Its Discontents, Freud, erase as necessary, simply “correcting a series of errors.” Avoid line until you’re confident - and even then continue to adjust. Notice the changes to how to become a good, the horses head. I made lots of by Sigmeund Freud Essay, changes, but that is the most evident. On the tracing of my drawing, I have marked in red those aspects emphasized to sparknotes, convey structure which might otherwise seem like simply copying what I see. I then transferred the tracing to Civilization and Its Freud, watercolor paper (essentially re-tracing).
In my tracing, I somehow shortened the horses nose, something I didn't notice until later. Tried to les miserables, paint the horse and rider as one connected wash, while changing both values and colors. Note the change to the horses nose (above) Worked on highlights mostly. The major change was realigning the horses eyes. And here is a looser version. We’ll be painting dogs this week so bring yours if you’d like as long as it gets along with others. Your homework is to learn the simplified template for drawing dogs (below). Start with 2 ovals representing the chest and part of the head, then add the spine (not a straight line), move to the front legs starting from the shoulder blades (note that the Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund forelegs are almost straight), then rear legs starting from the sparknotes pelvis (paying attention to the angle of the heel bone which is high compared to humans), [up to this point you've been indicating bone structure] finish with some connecting lines. Once you've learned the template, try it with a few photos such as the one below.
Paint a car from life. Civilization Essay! I know this can be difficult, so come to class armed with questions and sherry, we'll try it again in class. In class this week, we chose structures from the below photographs as inspiration for and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud, a painting from imagination. Les Miserables Sparknotes! Your homework is to finish the paintings you started, focusing more on Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud, design than reality. For those who missed the class, but still want to do the personal definition homework: Establish a horizon line Pick and choose structures from the photos and loosely draw them along the horizon line Paint an Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay initial wash, saving your whites (mostly representing structures) Finish the painting from imagination, asking yourself, “How can I make it more interesting?”
Homework for this week is to either paint the hawk below or continue working on the painting you were working on in class. Next week I’ll focus on design, but, as always, feel free to work on something else if you prefer. Clo Ann, Juanita and Jane will be out for short essay on recycling, a while so we may have a smaller class than usual, but I expect Denise will be back shortly. No specific homework this week. Finish the painting you started in class if you would like or bring it to class to finish. We will continue painting from photos next week so bring the same or another photo you would like to Civilization and Its Freud Essay, paint from. Paint the pheasant. I’ve attached the gorilla in case you want to continue working on it. Have fun.
Think design. Ask yourself, “What can I do next to make it more interesting?” Also, bring a photo to paint from next week. Choose a good photo, preferably not by a good, a professional photographer, but with good value contrast. You’ll need all of your supplies, specifically including a drawing pad and vine charcoal. If you would prefer, you may choose to copy another artist’s work or style. Civilization And Its! Here are some artists whose work you may want to consider: Simple: Jake Winkle, Cornelieu Dragon-Targoviste (some paintings simple, most not) Figures and portraits: Fealing Lin (loose, design), Mary White (tight, with partial abstraction) Deceptively loose city and landscapes: Joseph Zbukvic (subtle greys), Chien Chung Wei (subtle warms), Davide Taylor (more colorful), Fealing Lin (loose, design), Prafull Sawant, Iian Stewart Fully Wet-in-wet: Sandra Strohschein, Cao Bei An, Dusan Djukaric Still life: Marc Folly, Lars Eje Larsson Birds and mammals: Dean Crouser, Karl Martens, Gerald Hendriks Abstract: Tom Fong, Chien Chung Wei, Lars Eje Larsson.
I expect this exercise will spread over two sessions. Homework Due February 22. Copy the trout by Dean Crouser, the les miserables artist for the pelican we painted in class. Civilization And Its! The trout appears more difficult, but the painting process is very similar. First, reverse engineer the artists painting process so that you understand it. In particular, decide what was painted wet-in-wet and what was superimposed wet-on-dry. In general, here is the essay process. Draw. Fully soak the fish with nearly pure water (nearly to the edge, but not quite). Civilization Discontents, By Sigmeund Freud Essay! Let the Michael Jordan, Ever water fully soak in.
Paint the soft edged portions of the fish wet-in-wet (now painting to the edge which will permit a hard edge there), but selectively pulling the pigment water mixture away from the edge for the fins and a few other areas. You may need to Civilization Discontents, Freud, drop in pure water in the unpainted areas to keep them moist. Continue lifting and chadwick theory, dropping in pigment until you achieve the correct values. Remember, value is critical, color less so. Let the painting dry (bone dry). If the values are off, rewet and rework. Finish the eyes, gills, and most speckles wet-on-dry. You may also need to carefully retouch select areas such as the mouth, fins, gills and edges. For most of the painting and as a general rule, limit your pigment choices to a very few.
I would suggest: Quinacridone Burnt Orange (or Burnt Siena), Yellow Ochre, Permanent Rose and Cobalt Blue. You may also wish to use a non-staining green such as Hooker’s or Veridian and just a tiny bit of red and a bright blue such as Thalo Blue (GS). You may try using a toothbrush to flick some of the and Its smaller speckles and a paintbrush for the larger (while covering most of the painting with a paper towel), but many of the speckles were painted, not flicked. My apologies for not posting last week’s homework. Here it is for those of you who would like it. Copy the landscape below. As you can see, it’s pretty similar to the landscape we painted on Wednesday so follow the same basic procedures.
The moon will be the most difficult. Try painting an initial yellow ochre wash over les miserables most of the painting, skipping the pure whites. Then cover the and Its moon with either masking fluid or perhaps artist's tape (which won't lift the paper). You could even try painting around an object held there, or even just painting a circle very carefully (while simultaneously doing a wash); I don't know the perfect answer. Let the chadwick rest of us know if you figure out an effective solution;) I did try holding a penny down. And Its Essay! It worked pretty well, but I had to sop up the excess moisture around the edge of the penny and then be careful lifting my finger from the penny.
By popular demand, we’ll continue with figure quick studies next week. Theory! And I’ll give you more time and more demos. But your homework is to learn (memorize) the head and figure templates below. Templates are helpful by giving you a nearly accurate starting point for any figure drawing. Just as knowing anatomy helps you ‘see’ features that are otherwise obscure, templates help you see figure structure. And drawing is much easier if you can see. Here are the templates I use for by Sigmeund Freud, drawing the head and the figure.
The show points below are useful to know too. Les Miserables Sparknotes! It helps to observe the model and place these show points in Civilization and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay the constellation that you see. Use either of the photos below as reference for a painting, but don’t copy the chadwick photo. Rather think of it as inspiration for a painting from and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay imagination. Sherry Coles! Be as creative as you dare. This assignment may be more difficult than I anticipated, so if you find it a struggle, then amend the assignment to copying the painting below. Archived Homework, 2016 and prior (click here) Updates, Latest Works and News.
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essay what is Civilization Discontents, truth THE REASON FOR TRUTH Contents. We live in a strange world in which many people seem able to doubt almost everything (such as the validity of evolution or man landing on the moon or the become official explanation for 9/11) and yet simultaneously are willing to believe almost anything (whether it be creationism or alien abduction or the murder of Princess Diana by MI5) with little or no regard for rationality or evidence. In academic circles, this phenomenon is associated with the rise of relativism, postmodernism and pseudoscience. In more everyday terms, the development is associated with new ageism, spirituality, and Civilization and Its Discontents, Freud Essay the like.
I believe in rationality, reason and science and therefore I am profoundly sceptical about how to muslim, many beliefs and ideas that others hold always sincerely and often passionately. I believe in the value of evidence and I am deeply sceptical of and Its Essay, anything contrary to reason or lacking in evidence. I believe that belief should be proportioned to credible evidence and demonstrable causality especially where counter-intuitive notions are concerned. I believe in having an open mind - ready to contemplate new ideas backed by persuasive evidence - but not an empty one - ready to accept any novel suggestion however lacking in sense or evidence. Does it really matter what people believe and how they reach their beliefs? Cannot we just accept that different people believe very different - often fundamentally opposite - things and that some people are more open to how to become muslim esoteric ideas and more willing to Discontents, Freud Essay have faith or belief in unusual notions? This essay sets out: why truth matters the techniques people use to deny truth the techniques for determining truth the techniques for identifying non-truth the sort of beliefs that I challenge. WHY TRUTH MATTERS.
I would offer the following reasons for why truth does matter: Truth has its own virtue . Most of the time we expect and want people - including our relatives, friends, politicians, doctors and professional advisers - to tell us the truth because we believe that it is important to know the personal effectiveness truth and honourable to express the truth. Only humans can discern truth . Of all life on the planet, only Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay, humankind can rise above conditioning or instinct and identify truth, so that this is in effect one of the defining characteristics of les miserables sparknotes, what it means to be human. Truth is an intrinsic part of human history and by Sigmeund Essay culture . Theory? All our historic and contemporary experience is based on identifying the best possible understanding of truth and building upon Civilization Freud Essay this to create a better understanding of chadwick atomic theory, our world and our universe. Truth is and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay necessary for a consistent and meaningful approach to les miserables life . If we do not know whether statements are true, we cannot make reasonable decisions about Civilization and Its Discontents,, our life, such as whether to effectiveness definition marry an individual or whether to buy a particular property. Truth is useful because it enables one to make predictions . If we are confident that things are true, then we can make assertions about the Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud Essay future with equal confidence, such as that a particular design of aircraft is sparknotes safe or a particular form of and Its Discontents, Essay, sex is vinegar coles dangerous. The absence of truth is positively dangerous . If truth does not matter, then we can be persuaded to do things with great personal and societal implications, such as to use an ineffective treatment for HIV/AIDS or to go to war over weapons of mass destruction that do not exist. Equally we can deny the reality of the Holocaust or the evidence of and Its Freud Essay, global warming. Some people argue - in a spirit of mistaken tolerance - that ultimately truth is a personal issue and it does not really matter if one person believes one thing and another person believes something else about the same subject. However, one person's 'truth' often has consequences for another person. For instance, in the UK one flawed piece of research which appeared to suggest a relationship between the effectiveness definition MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine and autism was believed to be true by some parents who then ensured that their young children did not receive the vaccine.
Not only were the children concerned then at greater risk of disease but gradually so was the whole child population. Acceptance of the truth would seem to be self-evidently a sensible thing, so why do so many people so often deny the and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay truth? There are many reasons including the following: They are advised against the truth by how to become a good, an authority figure . If at the time of Galileo, the Roman Catholic Church told its members that it was heresy to suggest that the earth was not the centre of the universe, most religious people would not be willing to Civilization Freud Essay accept the truth. A Good Muslim? Today religious or political leaders or our parents or teachers may - often with great sincerity - take a position contrary to the truth as presented in credible evidence. Civilization By Sigmeund Essay? As the writer George Orwell once put it: Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals can believe them.
The truth may be contrary to the status quo. Einstein's theory of Michael Basketball Player Ever, relativity was not consistent with Newton's laws of gravity - but Einstein was right and eventually scientific evidence demonstrated this and Einstein's theory became the new paradigm. We once thought that smoking and asbestos were not harmful to and Its by Sigmeund Freud Essay health but then the evidence showed otherwise. This is essay on recycling what happens in and Its Discontents, Freud, science and life and essay we should be open to it. The truth may offend against a received wisdom. For instance, it may seem obvious to supporters of capital punishment that the death penalty is a deterrent but countless studies show that it has no effect on murder rates. One may not like the Civilization Discontents, by Sigmeund source of the truth.
If a person whom we dislike or an organisation that we oppose - perhaps a political party or a campaign group - puts forward an vinegar assertion, we may be inclined to dismiss it, whatever the evidence, because we are to Civilization Discontents, Essay some extent influenced, even blinded, by the source. One may feel that there is an alternative explanation. Of course, there are often alternative explanations; the question is sherry whether an alternative explanation both is consistent with all the Civilization by Sigmeund evidence and better accords with the evidence than the essay explanation offered. One may feel that there is Discontents, Freud Essay other evidence. However, we can only make judgements based on the evidence we have at the time. This is how individuals, businesses and courts make decisions. If new evidence becomes available, then one can reassess one's position. As the eminent economist John Maynard Keynes once put it: When the facts change, I change my mind. Chadwick Atomic? What do you do, sir?
One may simply not understand either the evidence or the arguments. In which case, one either takes the studies and the time to understand or one accepts the authority of those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise. One may actually have a fear of the truth. Sometimes people do not want to examine evidence or consider a different outlook because they are afraid of the possible consequences. Similarly, changing one's mind can be stressful, if by doing so one needs to re-examine and possibly extensively modify one's view. DETERMINATION OF TRUTH. So, how do we know what is the truth? The following considerations are paramount: Above all, we have to use our reason. By Sigmeund Freud Essay? We cannot simply accept things because they conform with our previous ideas or reinforce our prejudices or suggest the world as we would like to vinegar coles see it. We have to think about the Civilization and Its Essay arguments and the evidence and personal work things out.
We need to look at the evidence. So often assertions are made with little or no evidence. We should be very reluctant to accept any such assertion. By Sigmeund? As the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) put it: “A wise man proportions his belief to the evidence”. Les Miserables? Personal experience or anecdotes of and Its Essay, acquaintances may seem convincing evidence, but our senses can easily deceive us and individuals can be seriously, if sincerely, wrong. Sometimes there is sherry vinegar insufficient evidence to Civilization Discontents, Essay form a conclusion, in on recycling, which case I don't know is an acceptable response and better than jumping to conclusions on Civilization Discontents, Essay inadequate eveidence. We need strong evidence if the assertion is contrary to the current wisdom. Of course, as we saw earlier, people can deny a 'new' truth or understanding simply because it is contrary to the 'old' truth or explanation and one should beware of this. However, most of the time most of the assertions that are contrary to the current wisdom are wrong, so we need convincing evidence if we are to abandon current thinking.
We should look at whether an short on recycling assertion is testable and has been tested. Civilization And Its Discontents, Freud Essay? If we are told that a particular drug or treatment is effective, then the drug or treatment can be tested using a large enough sample of patients and a proper control group. If the on recycling proposition - for instance, prayer can cure cancer - has not been tested or cannot be properly tested, one needs to be very sceptical of its validity. We should look at Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, whether an assertion has been the subject of peer group review. The best people to judge the chadwick theory truth of particular propositions are usually those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise in Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay, that area. So doctors are best able to assess medical propositions; climatologists are best able to judge the validity of global warming; physicists are most likely to know the effects on humans of electric fields. Les Miserables? If a proposition has not been tested by peers or has been rejected by Civilization Freud, those peers, one should be inclined to reject it. We need to sherry vinegar weigh carefully the opinion of relevant authorities. Of course, again as we saw earlier, authority can be wrong - especially when a new idea is concerned and Civilization and Its Discontents, most especially when the new idea challenges a well-established older idea.
However, most of the time most of us need to accept the view of the relevant authority because we simply do not have the knowledge or expertise to chadwick theory make an informed judgement and Civilization and Its by Sigmeund most of the les miserables sparknotes time these authorities serve us well. So, if the overwhelming majority of doctors state that the and Its by Sigmeund Essay MMR injection is short safe or the overwhelming majority of Civilization Freud Essay, scientists state that global warming is a reality, we need compelling reasons - preferably based on sound evidence - to disbelieve this. We should be more inclined to accept assertions emanating from open systems than from Michael Basketball, closed ones. And Its Discontents, Freud? The reason why democratic societies are more successful economically and its citizens on chadwick atomic theory the whole are happier than in the case of authoritarian societies is because a democratic nation is an Civilization by Sigmeund Freud Essay open system with stronger and more effective mechanisms for determining and disseminating the on Jordan, Ever truth. These mechanisms include universal franchise, regular elections, a choice of Civilization by Sigmeund Freud, political parties, a free media, freedom of expression, freedom of association, the rule of law, an independent judiciary, the jury system, open courts, free markets, educated citizens and consumers. Similarly political parties, companies and organisations that have open systems - promoting a free flow of information, encouraging debate, and permitting challenge - are more likely to be sources of truth. DETECTION OF NON-TRUTH. The world is awash with non-truths. Essay Player? How does one detect such non-truths.
We need to apply the and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud following tests: Above all, what is the evidence? As well as the evidence itself, we want to know the source - the theory primary source, not a reported or second-hand source - of the evidence and we want to know its authority and its timing. Civilization By Sigmeund Freud? Again we need to appreciate that most personal experience and anecdotal evidence is weak and unpersuasive. Has the evidence been reviewed by a group of peers? If not, why not? If so, what was the response of the peer group? Has the evidence and the methodology been confirmed or challenged or questioned by the peer group? Is the assertion consistent with current knowledge or is it counter-intuitive . If it challenges current thinking, it may still be valid, but we need clear and les miserables persuasive evidence before accepting it. Are we sure that there is not merely correlation but actual causality?
Every time I wake up in the morning, the sun rises. Here there is a clear correlation but obviously there is absolutely no causality. Civilization And Its By Sigmeund Essay? This is a simple example. Consider another: more police are put on the streets and crime falls. Here there may or may not be a causality - we need to assess all the relevant variables such as changes in population or reporting or sentencing. Does the personal definition assertion lend itself to Civilization Discontents, Freud Essay prediction? If one believes in homeopathic medicine, then one can predict that those using it will recover from on Michael Jordan, Basketball Player Ever, various ailments. This can and Civilization Discontents, Freud should be tested in a controlled experiment. When carrying out such experiments, one needs to be aware of 'the placebo effect', whereby people often report improvements in health even when no drug has been administered, and theory 'the Hawthorne effect', whereby people's behaviour changes simply as a response to being observed in Civilization by Sigmeund Freud, an experiment.
The analysis in this essay leads me to a particular position on many issues of discussion and debate in our society. While I have deep respect for Essay Michael Jordan, Basketball people with religious views, especially when this leads to ethical and moral behaviour, I am profoundly sceptical of and Its Discontents, by Sigmeund Freud, all metaphysical and paranormal concepts and les miserables sparknotes ideas such as God, the Devil, angels, ghosts, spirits, Heaven, Hell, grace, sin, miracles and the efficacy of prayer. Equally I am unconvinced of the existence of physical notions for which there is little or no evidence such as UFOs, aliens, alien architecture and alien abductions. I reject very strongly the theories of young earth creationism and intelligent design. I am opposed intellectually to all non-rational modes of thought and therefore I am profoundly sceptical of the validity of aura, shakra, reiki, clairvoyance, telepathy, psychokinesis, astrology, cosmic ordering, crystals, feng shui, labyrinths, dowsing, horoscopes, prophecies, numerology, faith healing, alternative medicine, homeopathy, miracle cures, and conspiracy theories. I reject very strongly the idea of Holocaust denial. In short: there is no evidence for and Its Freud Essay any of these things, so I do not believe in them. I would summarize my position on truth as follows: In a strict sense, all truth is provisional and stands open to challenge on the basis of a new interpretation of the available evidence or the atomic provision of new evidence.
The key point here is Civilization Discontents, Freud Essay that it is evidence - old or new - that is at the heart of the les miserables determination. In the meanwhile, the most truthful statements explain and are consistent with all the Discontents, by Sigmeund Essay currently available evidence. On the basis of consistency and utility, the most truthful statements are likely to be consistent with the chadwick theory current paradigm until persuasive evidence challenges that paradigm. The most useful truths are those that do simply explain past phenomena but enable consistently accurate statements about the future. FURTHER READING The Demon-Haunted World by Carl Sagan (Random House, 1995) [for my review click here] Why People Believe Weird Things by Michael Shermer (W.H. Freeman, 1997) [for my review click here] The Skeptic's Dictionary by Robert Todd Carroll (John Wiley, 2003) [for online version click here] How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered The World by Discontents,, Francis Wheen (Harper Perrenial, 2004) [for my review click here] Counterknowledge by Damian Thompson (Atlantic Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Don't Get Fooled Again by Richard Wilson (Icon Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Ben Goldacre's Bad Science site click here My advice on How To Think Critically click here.
Last modified on 28 June 2011. If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me.