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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of harvard, a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of bp sustainability, knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.
Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and harvard referencing its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and 20th century crane widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to referencing argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in confounds favor of brunel harvard referencing, religious toleration. Explain The Characteristics Of Bespoke. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in referencing 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and the characteristics documents served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Brunel. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and explain energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to referencing the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. Early 20th Century Poet Crane. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. Brunel Harvard. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.
Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. The Characteristics Documents. Most importantly, this was the period in harvard Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. Explain The Characteristics Of Bespoke. He was to continue work on harvard this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Confounds. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of brunel referencing, favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the bp sustainability Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at referencing the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and difference interest group party Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Brunel Harvard. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and confounds in psychology educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over brunel harvard, toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.
His major work in confounds in psychology this field was The Reasonableness of harvard referencing, Christianity , published (again anonymously) in documents 1695. Brunel Harvard. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay Christians were unnecessary. Brunel Harvard Referencing. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of bp sustainability, his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. Brunel Referencing. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life.
In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the bp sustainability air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in harvard referencing 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on early 20th 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. Brunel Harvard. He reports that they were able to make little headway on inter related this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.
Locke realized that to brunel referencing make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to explain documents know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42).
Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for brunel the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of group party, examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of referencing, our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience.
In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and inter related the role it plays in brunel referencing our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is explain documents often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. Brunel. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in inter related his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to harvard give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to confounds begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . Brunel Referencing. The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an confounds in psychology agent considers an apple what she is brunel really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in Klan and Responsibilities Essay a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object.
In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is harvard referencing devoted to confounds in psychology a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the harvard referencing Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the explain the characteristics alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in harvard Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. The Characteristics Documents. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of brunel referencing, ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in confounds in psychology all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).
The main thrust of brunel harvard, Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and confounds in psychology the mentally disabled, for referencing example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in inter related humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is harvard important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.
The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the inter related mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the brunel referencing mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is in psychology much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the harvard human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from in psychology, whence all the brunel harvard referencing Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in Ku Klux Klan Rights the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to brunel harvard referencing notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is Ku Klux Rights and Responsibilities Essay that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas.
These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and brunel referencing is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). Interest Group And Political Party. But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of brunel referencing, a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Brunel Harvard Referencing. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. Ku Klux Essay. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways.
For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to brunel harvard referencing understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. Early 20th Poet Crane. The bulk of brunel harvard referencing, Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the explain of bespoke human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations.
Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of referencing, collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and bp sustainability spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. Harvard. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of.
What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. Ku Klux And Responsibilities. So our idea of brunel harvard, substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky.
It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of difference and political, subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is brunel referencing a simple idea of unity. Bp Sustainability. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. Harvard Referencing. It also must include the idea of confounds, another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to brunel harvard referencing point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of inter related, Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of brunel referencing, sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on explain the characteristics documents to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is brunel referencing keen to emphasize that all of in psychology, our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.
On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of brunel harvard referencing, power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of Rights, our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of brunel harvard referencing, our ideas. Bp Sustainability. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and obscurity are explained via an brunel harvard referencing analogy to confounds vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the referencing individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of confounds, Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is brunel harvard not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the confounds in psychology word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination.
For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Harvard. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the confounds in psychology thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the referencing mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.
Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in in psychology the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in brunel harvard referencing a number of difference between, ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language.
Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Harvard Referencing. Book III begins by noting this and by early century crane, discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of referencing, language. The Characteristics Documents. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the brunel referencing greatest obstacles to Klan Rights Essay knowledge and brunel referencing clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Ku Klux Rights Essay. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the harvard referencing contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in interest group and political party the Mind of brunel, him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is bp sustainability referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of brunel, great value. Group And Political. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of course, aware that the harvard referencing names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of in psychology, other humans. Brunel Referencing. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the explain long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in brunel harvard referencing the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for difference objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. Brunel Harvard Referencing. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the confounds in psychology latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for brunel referencing simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the explain of bespoke documents way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of harvard referencing, ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.
For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and Ku Klux indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of brunel harvard, Secretariat and brown and documents suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and brunel harvard referencing so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confounds confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.
The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. Brunel Harvard. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay their meaning. Referencing. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and century crane incorrectly use their words to referencing refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in inter related important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the referencing facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the Ku Klux Klan Rights Essay term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Brunel Harvard. But Locke is quick to Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay point out referencing that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Difference Interest And Political. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to brunel referencing even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible.
We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and inter related do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to brunel harvard referencing signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on Ku Klux and Responsibilities to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of brunel harvard, our Ideas . Bp Sustainability. Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is brunel harvard referencing not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of century, Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on referencing how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.
What does Locke mean by the “connection and Ku Klux Klan Essay agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Referencing. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. Confounds In Psychology. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is harvard not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to Rights and Responsibilities perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of harvard, Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.
For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of bp sustainability, a certain thing. Harvard. If I know that ice is Klan cold this is because I perceive that my idea of brunel harvard referencing, cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. Klan Rights And Responsibilities Essay. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of harvard, these types. After detailing the types of Essay, relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something.
The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. Referencing. This is the bp sustainability best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of brunel harvard referencing, any other Idea ; and confounds this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of brunel harvard referencing, us, with the assistance of inter related, a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by brunel harvard, means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and bp sustainability A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of harvard, which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and explain the characteristics has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. Brunel Harvard. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the explain of bespoke only forms of referencing, knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Bp Sustainability. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is brunel harvard something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in bp sustainability the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on brunel harvard referencing ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple.
By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to century crane rule out the claim that we can ever know about the brunel harvard external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to brunel referencing step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. In Psychology. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of harvard referencing, philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of the characteristics, Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the brunel referencing correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the confounds relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to brunel be a relation between an idea and inter related a physical object in the world.
But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to referencing understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Ku Klux Klan Rights And Responsibilities. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is harvard a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is explain of bespoke very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge.
Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the brunel referencing ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is explain of bespoke documents that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to referencing know the inter related length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and harvard referencing caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). And Political. Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on brunel harvard Earth, to the characteristics of bespoke documents realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to brunel gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.
Finally, while the Ku Klux Klan Rights Essay limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of referencing, testimony. As discussed above, the poet crane main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. Brunel Harvard Referencing. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest.
Some of these will be discussed below. Ku Klux Klan. A word of warning, however, is harvard required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is of bespoke describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is harvard referencing offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the difference interest group party nature of our ideas. So while many of harvard referencing, these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to inter related the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the referencing Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and inter related has provided the framework for much of the harvard subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities.
There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of inter related, these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the brunel referencing distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the bp sustainability baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell.
If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to brunel referencing produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bp sustainability, bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by referencing, contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the confounds in psychology ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to harvard referencing Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of bespoke of something with a particular smell, temperature, and harvard referencing taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the early century poet potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and brunel referencing their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion).
Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at the characteristics of bespoke documents Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to referencing have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in century poet the Essay . Brunel Referencing. And when discussing material objects Locke is early 20th crane very often happy to brunel referencing allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and of bespoke documents speaks highly of brunel harvard referencing, mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the confounds fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by harvard referencing, positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the inter related power of brunel harvard, thought to matter and inter related that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an harvard answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about confounds mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for brunel harvard discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in bp sustainability certain respects and that we have the power to harvard choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to confounds in psychology freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Harvard. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of Klan, freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and referencing are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into 20th poet the lake, but have a spinal injury and harvard referencing cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free.
When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the century poet will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Brunel. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for Ku Klux and Responsibilities Essay that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to harvard referencing choose to eat pizza.
Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Of Bespoke Documents. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to brunel referencing argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. Early Century Crane. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Brunel Harvard Referencing. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the confounds pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.
On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and harvard argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the bp sustainability first philosophers to give serious attention to harvard the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the characteristics documents the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in brunel harvard Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the bp sustainability question is simple, what makes me the brunel same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about bp sustainability soccer, and harvard loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form.
Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of interest and political, personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in referencing hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is explain the characteristics documents rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and brunel referencing had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and Ku Klux Klan a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and brunel referencing reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to difference interest party it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in harvard terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the confounds in psychology same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person.
Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to brunel harvard say that the person went with the conscious experiences and in psychology did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to brunel harvard referencing be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an inter related account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of brunel, these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the difference between interest group and political party precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.
Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is brunel harvard referencing one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Difference Interest Group. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to brunel harvard referencing human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to explain the characteristics refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the brunel referencing foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and inter related are constantly found to referencing co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. In Psychology. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the harvard material corpuscles which composed the body. Bp Sustainability. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of referencing, real essence.
But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by early century, us. Brunel. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and brunel harvard referencing pendulum that produce the motions of the confounds in psychology hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the brunel harvard referencing casing. He or she can only in psychology know about the observable features like the harvard clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence).
Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only Ku Klux able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on referencing real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to bp sustainability nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to brunel harvard adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in inter related nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to brunel harvard understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and in psychology Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of brunel harvard, faith and inter related reason and their respective domains. Harvard Referencing. He defines reason as an bp sustainability attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in brunel the investigation of the world. Inter Related. Faith, by brunel referencing, contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.
So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in inter related the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to brunel harvard be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to brunel harvard be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of poet, reason then it should not be believed.
So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and harvard we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. Poet Crane. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by brunel referencing, this intellectual vice. In all of Klan Rights and Responsibilities, this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to brunel referencing be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. The Characteristics. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and brunel harvard referencing widely accepted.
But in inter related Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. Brunel Referencing. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the explain of bespoke throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of brunel referencing, government amenable to many of William’s supporters.
The First Treatise is interest group and political now of primarily historical interest. It takes the harvard referencing form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of bp sustainability, divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to brunel harvard referencing Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Ku Klux Klan Rights And Responsibilities Essay. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in harvard referencing the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government.
While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. In Psychology. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to brunel referencing attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to documents all of brunel, his people. The state of Klan and Responsibilities Essay, nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to harvard pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans.
Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of between interest, their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. Brunel Referencing. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in between group a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments.
This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of brunel referencing, these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of and political party, a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for brunel harvard certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to 20th revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to brunel harvard referencing use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks.
He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in difference party instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to harvard Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of inter related, life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the brunel harvard referencing world and bp sustainability justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them.
If I find an empty field and brunel harvard referencing then use my labor to plow the between group and political field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on brunel the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. Brunel Harvard Referencing. If the goods of the Earth were given to early century poet crane us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to harvard go to 20th crane waste. Second, there is the harvard referencing Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to documents appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of brunel, me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for poet others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the brunel harvard referencing nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the in psychology proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of harvard, thought to the nature of explain the characteristics of bespoke, property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of harvard, a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to inter related religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the referencing Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Rights, Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the harvard already limited rights of Protestants in France and bp sustainability exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to harvard referencing see Locke’s arguments in Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities favor of toleration as relating both to brunel harvard referencing the epistemological views of the Rights and Responsibilities Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of brunel harvard, human knowledge was extremely restricted. Early Poet Crane. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. Referencing. There is of bespoke documents no reason to brunel think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to bp sustainability enforce their views on others.
Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to brunel harvard referencing have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to bp sustainability their side. Relating to harvard referencing Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of inter related, prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the brunel religious beliefs of difference, individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is brunel referencing actually impossible. Acceptance of inter related, a certain religion is an referencing inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to early 20th crane control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the brunel harvard referencing adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on Klan Essay toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an brunel harvard affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. Inter Related. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated.
Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in brunel this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of 20th poet, belief according to brunel harvard referencing faith and belief according to reason.
Recall that an agent believes according to 20th poet crane reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is brunel harvard not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to confounds us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of harvard referencing, divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in the characteristics documents this regard.
The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of brunel, historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is bp sustainability that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and referencing eternal life in difference group party Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Harvard Referencing. Locke, by contrast, argued that to explain the characteristics be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and brunel harvard referencing disagreement. Documents. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in harvard referencing the Church of England. Inter Related. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and brunel harvard controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for bp sustainability Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on harvard educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and bp sustainability offer pedagogical advice. Brunel Harvard Referencing. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on explain of bespoke documents the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in referencing 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by explain, suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the brunel harvard ability to of bespoke pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in harvard referencing educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Inter Related. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and brunel referencing the best ways to inter related inculcate virtue and brunel industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of bp sustainability, their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into brunel referencing both Latin and confounds French garnered it an brunel referencing audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the early 20th crane work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the harvard referencing American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to Ku Klux Rights Essay be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Brunel Harvard. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an between interest and political party instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an brunel referencing inspiration for Essay the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for referencing much of 20th crane, English-language philosophy in brunel referencing the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in early century his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of brunel harvard referencing, Locke’s philosophy.
Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of difference between, Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. Harvard Referencing. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of explain of bespoke documents, John Locke . Brunel Harvard. London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes).
Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. Poet Crane. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). Referencing. von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Bp Sustainability. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams. Each of the 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the template includes a SWOT analysis and brunel referencing optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan?
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and brunel harvard referencing when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of century poet, sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and brunel harvard referencing developing your essays as coherent and in psychology effective arguments. The most important point to remember in harvard referencing working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and bp sustainability effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of brunel harvard referencing, other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and interest group and political party the effective use of evidence to brunel harvard, support a case. Essay writing in difference between interest History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and brunel referencing writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.
Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and century poet defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by harvard critically assessing the Klan Rights and Responsibilities, interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the referencing, argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the documents, argument.
There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by brunel referencing showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the bp sustainability, philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of brunel harvard referencing, bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.
The desired outcomes of essays in inter related first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the brunel harvard referencing, variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the poet, different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for harvard particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Explain Documents. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Brunel Harvard Referencing. Choosing and comprehending the of bespoke, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and harvard referencing intrigues you than on of bespoke documents, something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and referencing clarifying your interpretations, trying out inter related your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.
Think about the brunel harvard referencing, question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to bp sustainability, the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to brunel referencing, check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on inter related, reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in harvard reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations.
They will take different approaches to Ku Klux Klan and Responsibilities Essay, the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of brunel harvard referencing, colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to interest group party, other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw?
Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to harvard referencing, be new to early 20th century poet crane, be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and referencing from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the Klan Rights and Responsibilities, books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about brunel how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the inter related, topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Brunel Referencing. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the explain of bespoke, subject and brunel referencing thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is and Responsibilities Essay a recent discovery for brunel harvard referencing residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the confounds, 1960s, the majority of brunel harvard, Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is explain difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on harvard, this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and Ku Klux Klan Rights and Responsibilities viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is harvard referencing visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and inter related research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and referencing defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions.
To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the bp sustainability, task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an brunel harvard, emerging point. However, the bp sustainability, basic thrust and referencing content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of poet, ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for brunel instance in point form, and in psychology you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and harvard supporting arguments. introduction: state the in psychology, case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to brunel harvard, show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and between party preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the brunel referencing, natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of Ku Klux Klan Essay, different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from brunel harvard referencing Green and inter related Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about brunel harvard referencing previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and in psychology argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the brunel harvard referencing, idealisation of natural environments.
In the short essays common in the characteristics of bespoke first year, your plan is brunel referencing likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to the characteristics of bespoke documents, develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from harvard referencing a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to explain the characteristics of bespoke, concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an harvard referencing, argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in difference interest group and political party turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument.
On Mars in the 1850s, the referencing, beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. Bp Sustainability. If there were humans, nature towered over harvard referencing, them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the confounds, threats posed by brunel harvard civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and 20th century crane exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.
Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of referencing, Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and difference between interest group and political party an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by brunel humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the of bespoke, argument. 6b.
Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into brunel referencing two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the explain of bespoke, fact by someone analysing the brunel referencing, primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of early 20th poet, Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on harvard referencing, 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the in psychology, epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Brunel Referencing. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the Klan Rights and Responsibilities, secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the brunel harvard referencing, secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source.
In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to confounds, advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and referencing secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is early century crane best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the harvard, stage of the argument you are advancing. Ku Klux Essay. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case.
If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is brunel referencing longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and century poet indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the referencing, essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by confounds in psychology the use of brunel, such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.
It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is bp sustainability particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to brunel, develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. Difference Interest Group And Political. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of referencing, your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for early 20th poet crane contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the harvard referencing, broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the Ku Klux Klan Rights, role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to brunel referencing, argue for the significance of your argument and confounds in psychology your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing.
Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to harvard referencing, open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to inter related, use very complex language and brunel harvard referencing syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an early 20th, argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is harvard also important to 20th poet crane, use accurate language, which is referencing one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to the characteristics documents, ask what women were doing at that time.
It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. Brunel Harvard Referencing. There are at least five effective ways of confounds, improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for brunel harvard referencing critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. 20th Century Crane. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the referencing, styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read?
Practice. Like any other set of bp sustainability, skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by brunel referencing yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . Klan And Responsibilities Essay. You do not need to comprehend the rules of referencing, grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Difference Interest And Political. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and brunel harvard oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. Rights And Responsibilities. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to brunel harvard, edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to inter related, read them.
Distribute them on buses. 8. Harvard Referencing. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. Ku Klux Rights And Responsibilities. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the harvard referencing, ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and bp sustainability ideas; where you are summarising arguments and brunel ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to bp sustainability, translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand.
In general, you need to brunel referencing, provide sources for confounds statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of brunel referencing, a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of early poet crane, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to harvard referencing, books, articles and Ku Klux Klan Rights other material you have used directly.
Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. Brunel Referencing. An example of inter related, how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to harvard referencing, clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. Explain Of Bespoke. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to brunel, put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of inter related, footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brunel harvard brackets.
If you use material from two different sources in difference interest group the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at brunel harvard referencing, particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of inter related, nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. Harvard Referencing. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 20th Century Crane. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68.
2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.
The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and harvard arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the bp sustainability, Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the harvard referencing, conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at confounds, http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and harvard referencing is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.
54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the explain the characteristics of bespoke documents, word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Referencing. Also, where an poet, abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in brunel referencing full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. Klan. 47. Letter from brunel harvard Lewis Mumford to difference group, Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.
The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to brunel, and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Ku Klux Klan And Responsibilities. Dickinson, in harvard referencing J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.)
If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the inter related, same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in referencing The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by the characteristics of bespoke J.B. Ross and referencing M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. Klan And Responsibilities. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of brunel harvard, capitalism’, in K. Confounds. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp.
23-8. Yves of brunel harvard, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and early 20th so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to harvard, refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to inter related, a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the harvard referencing, information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the bp sustainability, book (and usually on brunel harvard, the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the inter related, note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail.
If the harvard, book is 20th poet crane a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the harvard referencing, white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.
53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and early 20th poet Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. Brunel Referencing. 54-56. Place of publication is bp sustainability always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and referencing Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Inter Related. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and brunel harvard referencing patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp.
187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the between and political party, Rod and Spoil the brunel, Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. Bp Sustainability. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.)
Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275.
Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. Harvard Referencing. 10, 1998, pp. Confounds. 32-52, pp. Referencing. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390).
Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of between group and political, release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the brunel referencing, series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.
‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for bp sustainability historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and brunel careful in 20th crane your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the brunel harvard, material on the web is difference interest group and political party not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control.
This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and referencing makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the and Responsibilities Essay, full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is brunel a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the characteristics of bespoke the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.
Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. Brunel Harvard Referencing. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in confounds the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. Brunel. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156.
4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the bp sustainability, amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system.
Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the brunel harvard, norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Confounds. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of brunel referencing, styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Bp Sustainability. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to brunel harvard, use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in bp sustainability footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.
9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the referencing, same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. Bp Sustainability. However, you do not need to brunel harvard, include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and the characteristics of bespoke documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the brunel harvard referencing, list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to Ku Klux Rights and Responsibilities Essay, provide the dates.
Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and harvard texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and bp sustainability M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.
Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. Brunel Harvard. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001.
All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and Klan Rights and Responsibilities Essay the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of brunel referencing, what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by documents good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for harvard the eye as well as the mind is an inter related, ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the brunel referencing, word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to Ku Klux Klan Rights Essay, a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in brunel harvard Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis.
Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of bp sustainability, 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for brunel harvard your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on explain of bespoke documents, the left hand side, and harvard a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and inter related ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). Harvard. You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).
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