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Title of article. Negative Impacts! Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of sutton article. Name of the web-site. Enso Circle Essay! Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and bandq sutton, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Ecotourism Meaning! Aside from sutton, providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing.
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In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the bandq page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Enso Circle And Zen! To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.
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Following the bandq sutton format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the suskind perfume social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and sutton, guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the rainy use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and bandq sutton, spacing. On Was A Success Or A! Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the sutton level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.
The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Ecotourism Meaning! The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Alan Moore's V for Vendetta Analysis. Through his graphic novel, V for Vendetta , Alan Moore provokes his readers to analyze both fascism and anarchism in order to determine their ideal society. Sutton! Through specific attention to Circle Essay, detail, Moore shares a narrative, which focuses on his main character, V, prompting the reader to question V’s morality. Combined with the sutton social narrative, intricate attention to graphic detail, and symbolic character and plot choices, V for Vendetta serves as a social commentary on England in the late 20 th century. The novel begins on November 5, 1997 in London, England.
The anonymous anarchist V wears a Guy Fawkes mask to suskind perfume, hide his identity. He plans to kill the fascist leaders of Norsefire, the dictatorship that rules England at this time. Moore attempts to illustrate the fascist dictatorship as a corporate body; the five institutions are named accordingly. The surveillance organizations are referred to sutton, as “The Eye,” because they watch over the citizens. The detective branch is suskind perfume, called “The Nose.” This symbolism hints at the fact that detectives sniff-out their suspects like dogs hunting for bones. The state-controlled media is known as “The Mouth,” spreading propaganda through society. Finally, the law enforcement institution is called “The Fingers,” or, when referring to officers, they are called “Fingermen.”. In the beginning of the novel, V saves a girl named Evey from sutton Fingermen who were going to sexually abuse her and negative of technology on education eventually murder her. V takes Evey to the roof, where he detonates a bomb, destroying the Palace of Westminster.
They return to his home, The Shadow Gallery, and bandq sutton Evey tells V the story of ecotourism meaning her father’s arrest as a political protestor. V detonates a bomb in sutton, Old Bailey, the Central Criminal Court in England. He then kills three major leaders of the fascist party. He kills Lewis Prothero, the “Voice of Fate” and part of “The Mouth,” by causing him to go insane after V burns his doll collection. V kills Bishop Lilliman, a pedophile, by forcing him to structure, drink poisoned communion wine. Finally, V kills Dr. Surridge through lethal injection. Through investigating the diary of the bandq late Dr. Suskind Perfume! Surridge, Detective Finch (“The Nose”) discovers that V was an inmate in room 5 at the Larkhill Camp.
He was unwillingly injected with Batch 5; of the patients who were injected, V was the only survivor. Finch realizes that V has ripped out pages in the journal to bandq, hide his real identity; furthermore, he has murdered all those who worked at the camp and had knowledge of his identity. Circle! The journal also revealed that V escaped the camp by attacking the guards with chemicals he used on his garden. Did you like the film or the graphic novel more? On February 23, 1998, V broadcasts on the radio, urging citizens to take control of their lives and stop electing and supporting leaders who do not work for your benefit: “You are no longer an bandq sutton asset to their company…you will be granted two years to show me some improvement in your work. If at the end of that time you are still unwilling to make a go of it…you’re fired” (172-173). His anarchist commentary sparks a moral shock in the community and their leadership. V and Evey’s relationship with each other begins to develop; at one point, she is convinced that V is her father, but she is mistaken. After getting into a fight about V’s morals, Evey gets abandoned in the street alone. She meets Gordon Dietrich, who she falls in day window, love with. Dietrich is murdered by a criminal named Harper.
When Evey tries to get revenge and sutton murder Harper, she is rainy, accused of another murder and is kidnapped. Evey is put in a dark cell, where her hair is shaved off and she is tortured and interrogated. Bandq! She finds a letter from Valerie, the woman who was in room four at Larkhill that died, but Evey thinks is still alive. Evey is inspired to stand to her ground because of Valerie’s passionate letter. Evey is set free when she realizes that her imprisonment was a test set up by V; by suskind perfume, placing her in the same situation he and Valerie were in. This experience caused Evey to accept her identity as an anarchist. On November 5, 1998, V detonates bombs at the The Jordan Tower (“The Mouth”) and bandq the Post Office Tower (“The Eye”), which kills Etheridge, the head of the audio surveillance branch (“The Ear”). He realizes that society may never find peace and that anarchy causes chaos. Detective Finch, “The Nose,” shoots V in negative, the Shadow Gallery and he dies in Evey’s arms. Sutton! Evey decides not to unmask V, leaving him as an ambiguous character.
Instead, she puts on on Was, one of V’s extra costumes and completes his ultimate mission. Bandq Sutton! After dressing like V and announcing to the town that they must make their own decisions on how to rainy, live, Evey sends explosives down an undergound train to 10 Downing Street. With V’s body inside the train, Evey gives V the “Viking Funeral” he always wanted. Evey continues to do V’s work, gaining her own apprentice. Finch gives up trying to sutton, restore order and Circle and Zen Essay ends the novel walking alone. This graphic symbolism helps the reader see the effects of anarchy; the rest of the novel has similar imagery, which allows us to analyze the major concepts within the novel. The graphic style of this narrative is similar to the work of Frank Miller; it could be classified as part of the superhero genre. Most of the bandq sutton narration is communicated through six panels per page (in three rows with varied columns). The colors of on education this novel are generally dark and bandq sutton bland, but vary during crucial scenes (such as the bombing of Old Bailey). The novel’s use of minimal coloring contributes to the darker tone of the novel. Some scenes deviate from this pattern and become more significant.
The beginning of the fourth issue of V for Essay Failure, Vendetta is somewhat of a “prelude” to the rest of the chapter. V sits down at his piano and bandq sutton starts to play. Negative Impacts Of Technology! These panels are full-page illustrations in black and dark red. When he begins playing, events take place below V’s sheet music. This “Vicious Cabaret” breaks from the graphic narrative and shows V’s influence and bandq control over individuals in order to shape society. There are also scenes where there are full-page spreads of the cityscape. Similar to Miller’s The Dark Knight , the city is an important setting for the narrative. These full-page cityscapes draw attention to the importance of England and its landmarks. Through these landmarks, the of technology government is able to control the bandq sutton public, and in order to stop that, V must destroy these institutions. The conflict between fascism and anarchism is examined in this graphic novel. Negative Impacts On Education! The juxtaposing stories of V, Finch, and Evey are crucial to examining action and morality in societal culture.
V attempts to bring freedom to the world through destruction and force—the way he was taught to obey at Larkhill. Finch’s quest to unearth V’s identity allowed the reader to analyze the bandq sutton morality of V’s actions and understand the government as a functional institution. Evey’s story of hope, desperation and evolution allows the of technology reader to relate most to bandq, this character: the and function scared, confused, and malleable individual. Through these three viewpoints, the reader is bandq, able to confront their stance on anarchy, rebellion and V’s ideologies. The reader is never shown V’s true identity to accent his ambiguity; Moore wants his reader to decide whether this character is right or wrong—sane or mad. Moore allows the reader to understand what V has experienced at Larkhill, but not much else. Although V is the main character of this story, he is ecotourism, not to be analyzed as an individual (Evey’s father or any other). He is a representation of anarchy, which is why his name is simply a symbol. The letter “V” and number five are very significant within Moore’s novel; V’s name is a reference to his history in room five as a scientific subject. References to this number and the letter V are prominent throughout the novel.
V plays Beethoven’s Fifth in bandq, the beginning of issue four; similarly, he quotes from Thomas Pynchon’s novel, V. Every chapter title begins with the letter “V”. Ecotourism! The significant dates of the bandq bombings occur on the fifth of November and the 23 rd of February (the two and three in 23 equating to five). This symbol marks many pages of the novel. Similar to the notion that V (the character) is meant to symbolize anarchy, the letter V surrounded by a circle is simply the symbol for anarchy turned upside-down. This image can be found on page 304 within the ninth issue; V sets dominoes in this shape on the floor. Evey’s name is just as trivial as V’s. Evey could be read as “IV”, or the Roman numeral for the number four. Interestingly, the woman from suskind perfume room four at Larkhill, Valerie, was an sutton actress who was imprisoned for being a lesbian. Evey finds a letter that Valerie wrote to V while Evey is in captivity; this inspires her to never give up while she experienced similar imprisonment. Although this is suskind perfume, through V’s manipulation, Evey finds hope in her connection to Valerie and this provokes her to join a life of bandq sutton anarchy and independence.
V for Vendetta is written for mature audiences (mainly adults). Because the novel deals with adult subject matter (i.e. rape, murder, fascism, anarchy, prostitution, etc.), it could be deemed unsuitable for children. Children may enjoy the meaning graphic style, but they may not fully comprehend the symbolic, political narrative. There is nudity, violence and sutton other larger, philosophical ideas, which also may be too advanced for younger readers. Scholarly references like Pynchon, Beethoven, and others make this novel academic. Through this graphic novel, Alan Moore provokes his readers to question power and authority in our society. He compares fascism and anarchy, using symbolic names for the different institutions, which rule our society.
It makes the suskind perfume reader question the type of world they want to live in: The Land of Do-As-You-Please (freedom) or The Land of bandq sutton Take-What-You-Want (Chaos). Through scholarly references, Moore describes a world in rainy day window, which one, ambiguous individual takes control and bandq sutton acts out against the government. This powerful piece of graphic literature delivers a narrative that inspires people to stand up for their rights, while considering the consequences of action. Enso Circle! V shows the reader that in order to gain freedom and independence, first comes destruction and eventually chaos. We are left to bandq, decide at the end of the novel whether he made the right choices. Through determining our own opinions of V, we can discover our own ideologies that influence our status in of technology, society. Differences Between the Graphic Novel and Film, Persepolis, by Satrapi Analysis. by Brittany Kennedy 5. Sexuality and sutton the Male Perspective in cell and function, Willa Cather's My Antonia. by sutton, Brittany Kennedy 5. by Marisa Wright 29. Get Published: How to Write Romance. by Marisa Wright 36. Getting into Comics: A Beginner's Guide. by Cheeky Kid 1. by Cheeky Kid 12. Okay cool anaysis.
Great analysis. The wording is great and the analysis is Essay The Reconstruction Or A, ubderstandable.I haven't read the book yet but I have watched the movie and it is very inspiring. Michelle Widmann 4 years ago. Great analysis! I've only ever watched the film, but I think you just inspired me to finally pick up the bandq graphic novel. Will English. 4 years ago from The Reconstruction A Success Marietta, Georgia. One of my favorite books of all time. Great hub. *voted up*. Diogo Alexandre Sousa Pereira 5 years ago from Acores. amazing and bandq inspiring.
I loved this hub. V was a brilliant book by brilliant writer. Yasser Abdullah 5 years ago. I would like to translate your post into Arabic, if you don't mind please send me email@example.com. Mohan Kumar 5 years ago from UK. This is breathtaking. What a splendid dissection of the Alan Moore classic. I started looking at your business ideas hub, felt drawn to the film ones and now colmpketely bowled over by the graphic novel one. These are all my favourites too! I am like hansel following the trail of breadcrumbs!
Awesome. Brittany Kennedy 5 years ago from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Thank you, skye2day! That's really nice of you to say. skye2day 5 years ago from Rocky Mountains. Brittany I can see why your hub was voted hub of the day. You truly are a gifted writer. Keep on girl!! Brittany Kennedy 5 years ago from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Thank you so much, Zac. I love this novel too.
Such a powerful narrative. Zac828 5 years ago from England. What a brilliant hub. Very well researched with an excellent understanding of the source material, add to that the wonderful and intelligent interview with Alan Moore. I read this when it first came out and cherish my copy of the complete novel, you have captured not only the Enso Circle and Zen Essay spirit but the bandq sutton mood of the work and you deserve all the positive comments you are getting.
Very well done. Joseph De Cross 5 years ago. I know. Essay The Reconstruction A Success Or A! You see, things we do for the world. Bandq Sutton! comes back tenfold and that's great. Suskind Perfume! Have a blessed night. Brittany Kennedy 5 years ago from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Thank you, lord.
I am still so shocked that mine was chosen for Hub of the Day. What an honor! Joseph De Cross 5 years ago. Congrats! dear friend. Bandq! Your analisys was powerful enough to be chosen, and it paid to Enso and Zen, take your time and dedication! Brittany Kennedy 5 years ago from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Thank you so much, everyone! I can't believe my hub was chosen as Hub of the Day! Thank you to all of my followers. Mahalo.
Victor Mavedzenge 5 years ago from Oakland, California. A wonderfully done book review.I think I will pick up the comic and sutton go through it.Had only watched the movie which I found rich in language and imagery.Great story. This is a pretty well-written review. Suskind Perfume! I read this book several years ago and then I watched the movie. what I liked about the movie was they changed the girl from being a hooker to an average girl in that society. tobey100 5 years ago from Whites Creek, Tennessee. Exceptional hub! Excellent! Brittany: Congratulations on the Hub of the bandq sutton Day award! Nurfninja 5 years ago from Earth. I've only seen the on Was The Reconstruction A Success movie and heard that the graphic novel was not as good as the book. Beth Perry 5 years ago from Tennesee.
I enjoyed reading your review of the graphic novel, and your interpretations are, I feel, much more accurate than any I've heard or read before. I came away from this novel feeling much the same. ciaron davies 5 years ago. Excellent stuff. A brilliant graphic novel and a great review! Wow - three weeks in you've got 100 followers and a hub of the day. Congrats! You're giving me motivation to do more. This is a really well-done hub. David Hunt 5 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
A simply stunning review. Sutton! princesswithapen 5 years ago. I have not seen many such well written book reviews. Your 'book report' is like a narrative of the novel itself. Extremely insightful and makes the reader want to negative impacts of technology on education, go and read the book right away. Just the job good review is supposed to do. BrittanyTodd: This is bandq, a powerful analysis which is day window, a line-turner from beginning to end. It is impressive the way in bandq, which you identify the influences on meaning, and courses of the main characters' life and then sum it all up in sutton, terms of the author, the story and negative impacts of technology us. Thank you, voted up and all else also, Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on bandq sutton, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Comparison of Course Completion and Student Performance through Online and Traditional Courses. Wayne Atchley 1 , Gary Wingenbach 2 , and Cindy Akers 3. 1 Tarleton State University, USA, 2 Texas AM University, USA, 3 Texas Tech University, USA. Enrollment in online courses has outpaced overall university enrollment for the past several years. The growth of online courses does not appear to be slowing. The purpose of this study was to compare course completion and student academic performance between online and traditional courses. Archival data from the host university student records system was collected using the bandq sutton, Structured Query Language.
Descriptive statistics were used to analyze student characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if statistically significant differences existed between students enrolled in online and traditional courses when comparing course completion and rainy academic performance. Analysis found statistically significant differences existed in both course completion and academic performance for students enrolled in bandq, online versus traditional courses. Additional analysis indicated statistically significant differences existed in course completion by course discipline. Keywords : Online education; student performance; student retention. In the fall of 2007, more than 17.9 million students were enrolled in degree-granting, postsecondary institutions. Of those students, more than 3.9 million were enrolled in one or more online courses. Cell Structure And Function? Online enrollments represented 21.9% of total enrollments. Bandq? From fall 2002 to fall 2007, online enrollments grew at a compound annual growth rate of 19.7% from 1.6 million to more than 3.9 million (Allen Seaman, 2008). Enso Circle Essay? With the growth of bandq, online course enrollments, questions have been asked about course completion and student performance in The Reconstruction Or A Failure, online courses compared to traditional, face-to-face courses.
Russel (2001) compiled an annotated bibliography of 355 research reports that examined differences in student outcomes between online and traditional courses. Bandq? The majority of research revealed no statistically significant difference in student outcomes based on delivery mode. However, recent research on course completion and performance has been inconsistent. Brady (2001), Carr (2000), and Simpson (2003) found that course completion was generally lower in online courses when compared to traditional courses. Roach (2002) found that some institutions reported equal or higher course completion rates in online courses when compared to traditional courses. The problem this research will address is suskind perfume, that further evidence is needed regarding student success measures in online instruction as opposed to classroom delivery. Growth in bandq sutton, online course enrollments is clear and many researchers agree that the future of higher education is tied to some form of online course delivery (Berger Lyon, 2005; Harasim, 2000; Palloff Pratt, 2003). Are course completion rates significantly different between online and traditional courses? Is a student’s academic performance independent of the course delivery method? These questions are important to administrators tasked with maintaining the competitive and suskind perfume economic future of their respective universities and are the focus of this research. Texas public universities receive flexible, discretionary state funds based primarily on the formula funding calculation under the direction of the bandq sutton, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB).
Of all the on Was The Reconstruction Failure, funds appropriated directly to Texas public universities, more than 62% comes from formula funding. The primary source of formula funding is bandq sutton, generated by the instruction and ecotourism operations formula. This formula is based on semester credit hours applied to a cost matrix identifying weights based on level of sutton, instruction (lower division, upper division, master, doctoral, or professional) and discipline (liberal arts, science, fine arts, etc.). The other formulas, Teaching Experience, Small Institution Supplement, and The Reconstruction A Success Failure Infrastructure, also include semester credit hours, but total less than 25% of formula funding for most universities (THECB, 2008). Current formula funding is based on the 12th day of class enrollments and does not take into account students who drop courses during the semester. In the state of bandq sutton, Texas, course completion rates have become important with regards to funding. The THECB recommended a shift in formula funding for the 2010-2011 biennium. The proposal would change the funding formula from using attempted to meaning completed semester credit hours (THECB, 2008). With the bandq sutton, continued growth of online education and the proposed shift in funding, course completion rates in online courses became increasingly important to administrators at Texas public universities. Another State of Texas rule for public university funding related to the number of times a student can repeat a course, commonly referred to as the “Three-Peat” rule (Texas Administrative Code [TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). This rule has an impact on negative impacts of technology on education the student and university.
The three-peat rule states that “Institutions shall not submit for formula funding any hours for a course that is the same or substantially similar to a course that the student previously attempted for sutton two or more times at the same institution” ([TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). In order for the university to compensate for Essay the loss of bandq sutton, funding, the student can be charged full out-of-state tuition cost for day window any course impacted by the three-peat rule. The three-peat rule increased the importance of bandq, student academic performance to avoid potential loss of state funding for the course and possible increased financial burden on the student. Research on A Success Or A course completion rates between online and traditional course delivery has been mixed (Carr, 2000). Several studies showed differences existed in course completion rates between online courses and traditional, face-to-face courses (McLaren, 2004; Paden, 2006; Roach, 2002). Waschull (2001) found that online course completion rates were not significantly different from traditional course completion rates. Nelson (2006) compared course completion rates between online and traditional courses at Delaware Technical and Community College, Terry Campus. Her research found statistically significant differences in bandq, the course completion rates between online and traditional courses. Enso? Additional analysis showed that more students (23%) withdrew from the online courses compared to the withdrawal rate in traditional courses (18.4%). Carr (2000) noted that some universities reported drop-out rates as high as 80% in online courses, but argued that course completion rates should not be compared across universities since universities report course completion rates differently.
Some universities included students who dropped during the add/drop period while other universities did not report those instances. Without having a standard rule, a comparison across universities might not produce accurate results. Sutton? Regardless of the ability to compare across universities, research into course completion rates is suskind perfume, useful to university administrators tasked with determining class size and number of sutton, sections as well as those administrators responsible for assessing student learning outcomes for internal and external agencies (McLaren, 2004). Russell (2001) explored 355 research reports comparing student outcomes between different course delivery modes. Sperm Cell Structure? The majority of the research indicated no statistically significant differences existed in student outcomes based on sutton delivery mode. Clark (1994) stated that it was the teaching methods and not the structure and function, delivery medium used that influenced learning. In all cases, Clark argued that the selection of course delivery mode should be an economic decision (1994). Much research exists supporting Russell’s (2001) work (Clark, 1994; Gagne Shepherd, 2001; McLaren, 2004).
However, several studies have found statistically significant differences in student outcomes based on bandq delivery type (Faux Black-Hughes, 2000; Paden, 2006; Shoenfeld-Tacher, McConnel, Graham, 2001). Paden found a statistically significant difference in student performance between online and traditional courses. Faux and Black-Hughes conducted research into student performance between different delivery modes of a social work course and found that a statistically significant difference existed between post-test scores by delivery mode. Additional analysis indicated that students in the online section did not perform as well as students in the traditional section. Several researchers found that certain disciplines were not suited for negative on education an online setting (Carnevale, 2003; Nelson, 2006; Noble, 2004; Paden, 2006; Smith, Heindel, Torres-Ayala, 2008). Lab science, health care (Carnevale, 2003), and mathematics (Smith et al., 2008) courses have all been identified as course disciplines that are not well-suited for online course delivery. Sutton? Terry (2001) suggested that courses such as accounting, economics, computer information systems, marketing, and management were potentially more conducive to online course delivery. Smith et al. (2008) compared attrition rates between mathematics-related courses and non mathematics-related courses and suskind perfume found higher attrition rates in the mathematics-related courses.
Attrition in traditional mathematics-related courses was the same as the drop-out rates in sutton, non mathematics-related courses. The researchers suggested that “for online students, mathematics is not working as well as other disciplines online, and Circle Essay further, students’ difficulties with mathematics relative to other disciplines are not as great as in the face-to-face modality” (p. Sutton? 152). Online course delivery has been a growing area in suskind perfume, higher education (Allen Seaman, 2008). As universities continue to transition courses to sutton online delivery, it is important to meaning understand the sutton, impact on student performance and retention. Essay The Reconstruction Or A Failure? Is student performance in online courses comparable to performance in bandq sutton, traditional courses? Are there differences in course completion in online courses when compared to traditional courses?
Are some disciplines more appropriate for online delivery? The purpose of the study was to compare course completion rates and impacts of technology student performance between online and sutton traditional courses. The following research objectives were used to guide the study: Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the performance of students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in rainy, traditional courses. Bandq? Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses.
Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of Enso and Zen Essay, students enrolled in online courses by course discipline. This study had a causal-comparative research design, using archival data for students enrolled at sutton a small, regional, public, comprehensive university located in suskind perfume, the southwest United States. Bandq Sutton? Archival data was used to compare both course completion and negative impacts of technology on education student academic performance (measured by sutton final course grade) between groups of suskind perfume, students in bandq sutton, online and Enso Circle and Zen traditional courses. This same approach was used to compare course completion of students enrolled in online courses by course discipline. Causal-comparative designs do not allow for explicit finding of causation (Fraenkel Wallen, 2006), but do strongly suggest whether mode of sutton, instruction had a direct impact on student retention. Additionally, since causal-comparative design takes place after data were collected and without any manipulation or intervention, it allowed for rainy the exploration of naturally occurring relationships between groups. The population ( N = 319,153) for this research was student course experiences for students enrolled in all 16-week courses taught between fall 2004 and spring 2009. Summer semesters were excluded as they are not comparable in bandq sutton, structure or design to a fall or spring course (Nelson, 2006). Online courses as defined by Allen and Seaman (2008) were those courses “in which at suskind perfume least 80 percent of the bandq sutton, course content is delivered online” (p. 4).
For the purpose of this research, online courses were defined as those courses designated in the target university’s student records system with an online building designation. Suskind Perfume? Traditional courses were defined by Allen and Seaman (2008) as courses “with no online technology used – content is delivered in writing or orally” (p. 4). For the sutton, purpose of this research, traditional courses were defined as those courses designated in the student records system with a building code other than online and with an instruction code of “lecture.” For objective one, a purposive sample was selected that consisted of all student course experiences for students who were enrolled in and completed courses taught in meaning, both an sutton online and traditional lecture format by negative impacts of technology on education the same professor during the same semester and year ( n = 5,477). The total number of distinct students enrolled in bandq sutton, the courses from the sample was 4,120. For objective two, a purposive sample was selected that consisted of all student course experiences for students enrolled in courses taught in both an on Was The Reconstruction A Success Or A Failure online and traditional lecture format by the same professor during the same semester and year ( n = 5,778).
The total number of distinct students enrolled in the courses from the sample was 4,307. For objective three, the sample included all student course experiences for students enrolled in online courses taught consistently during each of the bandq, 16-week semesters between fall 2004 and spring 2009 ( n = 8,445). Of the meaning, 41 subject areas with courses delivered between fall 2004 and spring 2009, only 14 subject areas were delivered during each of the semesters between fall 2004 and spring 2009. Bandq? The total number of distinct students enrolled in courses from the sample was 3,932. Data for the research objectives were extracted from the student records system using the Oracle Structured Query Language (SQL). For objectives one and two, all courses taught during full 16-week semesters were identified and extracted into a temporary table.
Using the temporary table as the research sample, a SQL statement was written to find all courses with both online and traditional sections taught by the same professor during the same semester and year. With the sample courses identified, course delivery mode, registration status, and final grade were extracted for Essay on Was The Reconstruction Or A all students enrolled in sutton, the sample courses. No student identifying information was included in the data extraction. For objective one, a comparison of student academic performance, all students with a registration status code other than dropped or withdrawn were included in the sample. This objective was intended to measure academic performance, only students who completed the Circle, course were included. Student academic performance was measured by the final course grade. For objective two, a comparison of course completion, all students enrolled in the sample courses were used. Bandq? Students with a grade code of A, B, C, D, or F and registration status other than dropped or withdrawn were flagged as retained and all others were flagged as not retained. For objective three, a comparison of online course completion by course discipline, data extracted included registration status, final grade, and negative course subject for all students enrolled in all online courses identified in bandq, the initial base course table. Course discipline was defined as the subject area a course was associated with for a particular college and department. Subject areas were designated by a four character abbreviation and assigned to all courses listed in the host institution’s course catalog.
Pearson’s chi-square test was used to determine if statistically significant differences existed in retention or performance by mode of instruction. Of Technology? “Chi-square is the inferential technique used to determine statistical significance of a relationship” (Wallen Fraenkel, 2001, p. 530). Bandq Sutton? An alpha level of .05 was set a priori to cell structure and function determine if an bandq sutton association existed between the independent variable – delivery mode – and the dependent variables retention and negative impacts on education performance. Bandq Sutton? For objective three, a chi-square test was calculated on all students enrolled in online courses to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in suskind perfume, the expected and bandq sutton observed retention by The Reconstruction A Success course discipline. Objective one was to determine if a statistically significant difference existed in academic performance of bandq sutton, students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses. A chi-square analysis was performed in SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in student performance between students enrolled in online courses and students enrolled in traditional courses. Students enrolled in online courses had the structure, highest percentage of As at sutton 34.6% compared to students enrolled in traditional courses at 31.3%. Table 1 displays the grade distribution by day window course delivery modality.
The difference in bandq, performance was statistically significant, X 2 (4, N = 5,477) = 27.383, p . 05 (see Table 1). Objective two was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of Enso and Zen Essay, students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses. A chi-square analysis was performed in SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in course completion between students enrolled in online courses and students enrolled in traditional courses. Students enrolled in online courses had the lowest course completion rates at 93.3% compared to bandq students enrolled in traditional courses at 95.6%. Essay? Table 2 displays the course completion distribution by sutton course delivery modality. The difference in retention was statistically significant, X 2 (1, N = 5,778) = 14.132, p .05 (see Table 2). Objective three was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of students enrolled in online courses by sperm structure and function course discipline.
A chi-square analysis was performed in SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in students’ course completion by course discipline. The 14 different disciplines included in the chi-square analysis were accounting, agricultural education, computer information systems, English, finance, general business, health, human resource management, management, marketing, physical education, psychology, reading, and special education. Finance had the lowest course completion rate at 82.2% compared to reading with the highest retention rate at 98.2%. The difference in retention by course discipline was statistically significant, X 2 (13, N = 8,445) = 96.974, p .05 (see Table 3). The growth rate of sutton, student enrollments in meaning, online courses is outpacing the growth rate of the bandq, total higher education student population (Allen Seaman, 2008). Research on the course completion rates in online education is mixed. Some research has found course completion in online courses was as good as or better than in traditional courses (Roach, 2002). Essay On Was A Success Or A? Other researchers have found that traditional courses have higher course completion rates when compared to sutton online equivalents (Brady, 2001; Carr, 2000; Simpson, 2003). Course completion and student performance has financial impacts on students as well as the university. Impacts Of Technology? The THECB (2008) proposed a shift in formula funding from attempted to completed semester credit hours. Sutton? If retention and suskind perfume completion in online courses is lower than the traditional classroom setting, the host university could potentially lose a portion of state funding.
Understanding where retention in online courses is bandq sutton, a problem will allow the host university to suskind perfume take corrective action in order to bandq sutton increase retention and student success in online courses. Additionally, the Texas Administrative Code dictates that a university “shall not submit for formula funding any hours for a course that is the same or substantially similar to Enso Circle Essay a course that the sutton, student previously attempted for two or more times at the same institution” ([TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). To compensate for the loss of state funding, the university could charge tuition up to Enso and Zen the out-of-state tuition rates for the course. Objective one sought to determine if statistically significant differences existed in student performance between online and traditional courses. Bandq Sutton? A chi-square analysis on the dataset indicated that a statistically significant difference did exist in the student performance between online and rainy traditional courses. This finding supports previous research on student performance in online courses (Faux Black-Hughes, 2000; Paden, 2006; Shoenfeld-Tacher, McConnel, Graham, 2001). Additional observation of the grade frequencies found a higher percentage of sutton, As, Ds, and impacts of technology on education Fs in sutton, online courses, while traditional courses had a higher percentage of Bs and Cs. Shoenfeld-Tacher et al. found student academic performance as measured by a post-test in an online science course was significantly different and superior to student performance in the traditional course section. Paden found that student academic performance in an introductory math course was significantly different between online and traditional delivery.
Contrary to what Shoenfeld-Tacher et al. found, Paden noted academic performance of students enrolled in the traditional section of the introductory math course was superior to students enrolled in the online section. With regard to objective two, statistically significant differences did exist in course completion rates between online and traditional course delivery. This finding supports research conducted by McLaren (2004), Paden (2006), and Roach (2002) who found differences in course completion rates between online and traditional courses. Additional analysis indicated that students enrolled in online courses had a lower course completion rate (93.3%) than students enrolled in traditional courses (95.6%). This supports research by Paden who found that traditional course delivery had a higher retention rate compared to online delivery for students enrolled in an introductory math course. Nelson (2006) found statistically significant differences in student retention rates between online and traditional course delivery.
With regard to objective three, statistically significant differences existed in course completion rates by course discipline. Additional observations supported previous research that suggested some disciplines may not be well-suited to online delivery (Carnevale, 2003; Nelson, 2006; Noble, 2004; Paden, 2006; Smith, Heindel, Torres-Ayala, 2008). Day Window? Course completion varied by discipline with reading having the highest rate at 98.2% and finance with the lowest at sutton 82.2%. Nelson examined course completion rates for nine disciplines and found that no statistically significant differences existed for seven of the disciplines. Rainy Day Window? However, statistically significant differences did exist in criminal justice and psychology and Nelson suggested that these course disciplines might not be conducive to online delivery. Sutton? Smith et al. (2008) compared online and rainy day window traditional course completion rates in mathematics courses and found lower retention rates in online mathematics courses. The researchers suggested that mathematics might not be appropriate for online delivery. The research was conducted using archival data from the host institution’s student record system. No data was available on student perceptions of the courses or student aptitude with the technology used for course delivery.
Additional student characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, classification, major, and sutton experience with online course delivery were not evaluated as part of this research. What type of student is likely to succeed in online courses? Does experience with the technology lead to greater course completion and improved student performance in online courses? More research into student characteristics could help identify possible variables to predict student success in online courses. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J. (2008).
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The virtual lab experiment: Some colleges use computer simulations to expand science offerings online. Bandq? The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49 (21), A30. Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the sperm cell, challenge is keeping the students. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (23), A39-A41. Clark, R. (1994).
Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42 (2), 21-29. Faux, T. L., Black-Hughes, C. Bandq Sutton? (2000, July). A comparison of using the Circle Essay, internet versus lectures to teach social work history. Research on bandq Social Work, 10 (4), 454-466. Fraenkel, J. R, Wallen, N. E. Suskind Perfume? (2006). How to design and bandq sutton evaluate research in day window, education (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Harasim, L. (2000). Sutton? Shift happens: Online education as a new paradigm in learning. Internet and Higher Education, 3 , 41-61.
McLaren, C. H. (2004, Spring). A comparison of student persistence and performance in online and classroom business statistics experiences. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 2 (1), 1-10. Nelson, P. F. (2006). Student retention in online education at Essay The Reconstruction A Success the community college . Retrieved from ProQuest. (UMI 3222374) Noble, J. V. (2004). For science and math, skip the online course. Communications of the Association for bandq Computing Machinery, 47 (10), 12-13. Paden, R. R. (2006).
A comparison of student achievement and retention in an introductory math courses delivered in online, face-to-face, and blended modalities. Retrieved from Essay on Was The Reconstruction Or A Failure ProQuest. (UMI 3237076) Palloff, R., Pratt, K. (2003). The virtual student . Bandq? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Roach, R. (2002).
Staying connected: Getting retention right is high priority for online degree programs. Black Issues in of technology, Higher Education, 19 (18), 22-25. Russell, T. L. Bandq? (2001). The no significant difference phenomenon: A comparative research annotated bibliography on technology for distance education . Raleigh, NC: IDECC. Shoenfeld-Tacher, R., McConnel, S., Graham, M. (2001). Do no harm-A comparison of the effects of on-line vs. traditional delivery media on a science course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10 (3), 257-265. Simpson, O. (2003). Student retention in online, open, and distance learning . London, UK: Kogan Page. Smith, G. G., Heindel, A. J., Torres-Ayala, A. T. (2008).
E-learning commodity or community: Disciplinary differences between online courses. Internet and Higher Education, 11 , 152-159. Terry, N. Meaning? (2001). Assessing enrollment and attrition rates for the online MBA. Bandq? T.H.E. Journal, 28 (7), 64-68. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2008). Formula funding recommendations for the 2010-2011 biennium . Rainy Day Window? Austin, TX: Office of External Relations.
Texas Secretary of State. (2005). Sutton? Texas administrative code. Retrieved from suskind perfume http://info.sos.state.tx.us/pls/pub/tacctx$.startup. Waschull, S. B. (2001). The online delivery of psychology courses: Attrition, performance, and evaluation.
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