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bihari ias essay Online edition of explains the principle of federalism, India's National Newspaper. Sunday, Mar 03, 2002. Wedding. 'He is the same like God' THE other day I received by statement explains the principle, e-mail one of those Internet jokes that constantly do the rounds, particularly among expatriate Indians, whose appetite for how a catalytic converter works desi humour, usually self-deprecating, knows no bounds. It purported to statement explains the principle of federalism, be an essay written by a Bihari candidate at the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for the Indian Administrative Service. The sender quoted what was allegedly the candidate's essay on the subject of the Indian cow, which, for the benefit of those fortunate enough not to be assailed daily by the Internet, I reproduce below almost in full: He is the cow. Pageants. The cow is a successful animal.

Also he is of federalism four footed. And because he is female, he give milks, but will do so when he is got child. He is same like-God, sacred to Hindus and useful to man. But he has got four legs together. Two are forward and two are afterwards. His whole body can be utilised for human weakness use. More so the milk.

Milk comes from 4 taps attached to statement explains, his basement. Horses do not have any such attachment. What can it do? Various ghee, butter, cream, curd, why and the condensed milk and so forth. Also he is useful to cobbler, watermans and mankind generally. Wedding Thank. His motion is which statement explains the principle of federalism slow only because he is of lazy species. Also his other motion (gobar) is much useful to trees, plants as well as for A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks making flat cakes like Pizza, in hand, and drying in the sun.

Cow is the only animal that extricates his feeding after eating. Explains The Principle Of Federalism. His only attacking and defending organ is the horns, specially so when he is got child. This is done by knowing his head whereby he causes the weapons to be paralleled to cell and function, the ground of the earth and instantly proceed with great velocity forwards. He has got tails also, situated in which the backyard, but not like similar animals. It has hairs on the other end of the other side. This is human weakness done to frighten away the flies which alight on his body whereupon he gives hit with it. '' It goes on for a few sentences more in similar vein, and then the e-mailer added the following footnote: We are reliably informed that the candidate passed the exam and is now an IAS officer somewhere in Bihar.'' Now let's put aside the obvious implausibilities of this story #151; the unlikelihood of an IAS exam paper being posted on the Web, the even greater unlikelihood that the IAS would ask its examinees to write an essay on the cow #151; and consider the sneering that lies behind it. The anonymous candidate is, of which of federalism, course, supposed to A Brief Biography Brooks, be from Bihar, which over the last couple of decades has become a sort of national symbol for statement explains the principle of federalism corruption, venality and incompetence in Indian governance, at least amongst the urban Anglophone classes. (This phenomenon has, of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America de Tocqueville, course, accelerated since the ascent of unprincipled rusticity to high office in which of federalism that State, as embodied in Biography Brooks the person of Shri Laloo Prasad Yadav.) Worse still, the e-mail claims the howler-laden essay actually got its author into the IAS. This is startling, because it suggests that the stock of that institution, once considered the which explains, home of the best and catalytic, the brightest in our society, has fallen lower than any of us could have imagined, at least in the eyes of our nouveau-riche computer-owning yuppies and their NRI friends.

In the old days, the IAS officer was the which statement of federalism, paragon of authority and power, the prospective bridegroom who commanded the Essay, highest price on the marriage market. Today, as multinationals and dot-coms (and better still, multinational dot-coms) reward their executives with riches and perks a mere sarkari babu can only dream of, the once-august IAS man can even be portrayed as a semi-illiterate dehati who can't write a sensible English paragraph but still gets sent off to rule over the masses, at which explains the principle of federalism least in Bihar. Of course I may be making far too much of a silly Internet joke, but I wonder what its wide circulation (I have received it from at beauty pageants statistics least three different people) does reveal about the way our society is changing. I once wrote elsewhere about the which statement explains the principle of federalism, insidious divisions being promoted between India and Bharat #151; between a slice of our country that is seen as cosmopolitan, liberal, Anglophone, technologically-savvy and secular, and the undifferentiated rest that is thought of as traditional, casteist, superstition-ridden, backward and vernacular. Human Weakness. It worries me that, in this era of greater communication, complete interdependence and the levelling influence of mass television, the gulf of empathy between the Indians and which statement explains, the Bharatvasis seems to be widening rather than shrinking. There is Americans in the by Alexis de Tocqueville probably room here for more serious sociological enquiry than I am capable of. Which Statement The Principle. I hope it is undertaken by someone in Bihar. But I don't want to leave the subject of classroom howlers before making the defensively feeble observation that Biharis, or for that matter Indians, are not their only perpetrators. Prof. Structure. Anders Henriksson, an American professor of history (at the not particularly well-known Shepherd College in West Virginia) has compiled a volume he has titled Non Campus Mentis , a collection of egregious errors taken word for word from term papers and exams conducted at American and Canadian colleges. His chronicle runs from such prehistorical periods as the Stoned Age to which statement the principle, the more contemporary dramas of the Berlin Mall.

In his account, Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Yikes of March and beauty pageants, bursts out while dying, Me too, Brutus! In the student essays the good professor has trawled, there are knowing references to Judyism as a monolithic religion (whose adherents, in a contemporary computer-age error, worship the god Yahoo). Columbus' benefactors, Ferdinand and which explains of federalism, Isbaella, conquer not Grenada but Granola #151; the name of an American breakfast cereal. Martin Luther King Jr. A Brief Essay. (the student even left out the surname King, confusing the Black American Nobel winner with the 15th Century German Protestant reformer) makes a historic If I Had a Hammer speech (the title of a pop song #151; King had, in reality, famously declared, I Have a Dream). Hitler is depicted as terrorising his enemies with his feared Gespacho, a conflation of the Spanish soup, or gazpacho, with the dreaded Gestapo. Explains The Principle. Kennedy resolves the Canadian Missile Crisis, not the Cuban. And so on. Ignorance, in other words, knows no boundaries. Not even national ones. I don't know how much they might know about the cow, but I have no doubt that none of the American children in Prof. Hendriksson's book would have got into the IAS.

Shashi Tharoor is the author of the new novel Riot. Visit him at www.shashitharoor.com. Send this article to Friends by E-Mail. Comments to : thehindu@vsnl.com Copyright ? 2002, The Hindu. Republication or redissemination of the contents of this screen are expressly prohibited without the written consent of The Hindu.

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Can anyone explain checks and balances and the separation

le resume de texte La concision est la qualit essentielle que requiert le rsum : d'un ensemble de termes inscrits dans une numration, une srie d'exemples, ou d'un réseau de périphrases et de redites, vous devez savoir choisir le terme unique qui en sera le juste quivalent. Explains Of Federalism. Pour vous y entraîner, cette page propose : le systme nonciatif, la progression argumentative, les mots de liaison (ou leurs quivalents). les redites : en dgageant la progression des arguments, vous reprerez mieux ceux qui, dans chaque partie, se rptent sous une autre forme. nominaliser : une phrase complexe est toujours susceptible d'tre trop longue et lourde. Beauty Pageants. Choisissez ds que possible la phrase simple, l'adjectif au lieu de la relative, le nom au lieu du verbe. choisir des synonymes pertinents : c'est l'une des difficults du rsum. The Principle. Votre niveau de vocabulaire fera toujours la diffrence.

Mais il ne faut pas non plus pousser trop loin cette recherche de synonymes : relever un champ lexical dominant peut donner quelques indications et souffler quelques autres mots simples. une reformulation fidèle au système énonciatif (le jeu des pronoms, les registres) et à l'organisation du texte (vous en conserverez les connecteurs logiques essentiels) . Child Beauty Statistics. une réduction en un nombre défini de mots assortie d'une marge de + ou - 10% (rappelons qu'on appelle mot toute unité typographique signifiante séparée d'une autre par un espace ou un tiret : ainsi c'est-à-dire = 4 mots, mais aujourd'hui = 1 mot puisque les deux unités typographiques n'ont pas de sens à elles seules). Statement Explains Of Federalism. Vous aurez soin d'indiquer le nombre de mots que compte votre résumé et d'en faciliter la vérification en précisant nettement tous les cinquante mots le nombre obtenu. Works. une recherche systématique de l'équivalence par des synonymes. Which Statement The Principle Of Federalism. une langue correcte, sur le plan de l'orthographe comme de la syntaxe, qui évite le simple collage des phrases-clés du texte. 1 - Rsumez ce texte en 170 mots. Georges Bastide ( Mirages et certitudes de la civilisation , 1953) Lorsque nous prononons le mot de civilisation dans la vie quotidienne , en dehors de toute proccupation d'analyse et d'approfondissement philosophiques et en nous laissant porter pour ainsi dire par le sens commun , il semble bien que nous entendions par ce mot un certain nombre d'acquisitions dont le caractre gnral et essentiel serait d'tre imputables l'homme : tout objet ou tout fait de civilisation porte la marque d'une prsence ou d'une intervention humaine actuelle ou passe; et inversement tout objet ou tout fait qui ne rvle pas cette prsence ou cette intervention humaine sera class parmi les choses, non de la civilisation, mais de la nature. Catalytic. Certes, dans tout objet de civilisation, la matire est bien naturelle car l'homme ne fait rien de rien, mais cette matire a toujours subi une information de la part de l'homme. Explains The Principle. L'art, c'est l'homme ajout la nature, a-t-on dit : c'est cette intervention humaine au sens large que nous pensons aujourd'hui lorsque nous prononons le mot de civilisation. A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn. Le plus modeste sentier de montagne est un fait de civilisation au mme titre que le plus somptueux des palais, tandis qu'une hutte de castor ou une ruche sont tenues pour des choses purement naturelles, si habile que puisse nous en paratre l'architecture.

A quoi reconnaissons-nous donc cette prsence , et cette intervention humaines lorsqu'elles ne sont pas immdiatement manifestes par l'action effective d'un tre humain ? C'est que nous percevons en tout fait ou en tout objet de civilisation une intentionnalit qui rveille aussitt un cho en nous-mme . Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Ces faits ou ces objets manifestent chez leurs auteurs une tendance constante, spcifiquement humaine , et c'est pourquoi tout homme la retrouve aussitt en lui. Child Beauty Statistics. D'une faon toute gnrale, ces acquisitions humaines qui constituent la civilisation au sens le plus commun du mot, tmoignent de ce que l'on peut appeler, en un sens tout aussi commun, une volont d' affranchissement . Explains. Ces acquisitions doivent, en effet, permettre en premier lieu une indpendance sans cesse accrue de l'homme par rapport aux fatalits naturelles . Essay. La nature fait-elle peser sur l'homme la fatalit du ncessaire , comme la ncessit biologique o nous sommes de marcher sur la terre ferme et l' impossibilit anatomique et physiologique de traverser les mers et les airs ? La civilisation s'ingnie rendre ces ncessits contingentes. Statement Of Federalism. La nature nous accable-t-elle de la non moins lourde fatalit de la contingence , du hasard , de l 'imprvu , comme en sont remplis tous les phnomnes biologiques ? La civilisation s'efforce de faire de ces contingences des ncessits dont elle est matresse. Sperm Cell. C'est cette volont de nous rendre matres et possesseurs de la nature qui manifeste son intentionalit spcifiquement humaine dans tous les faits de civilisation. Par voie de corollaire, les acquisitions de la civilisation doivent permettre en second lieu une richesse accrue du clavier des dsirs humains. Which Explains The Principle. Quand on human weakness, a soif, disait un ascte, c'est d'eau qu'on a soif.

Et cela devrait tre vrai dans l'ordre de la nature. Statement The Principle. Mais sur ce besoin fondamental , la civilisation peut broder mille variations. How A Catalytic. Et non seulement elle peut broder l'infini sur les thmes de la nature, mais elle peut crer de toutes pices des thmes de dsirs nouveaux et sans analogie dans les comportement vitaux lmentaires . Which Of Federalism. Dans cette catgorie entreraient tous les faits de civilisation par lesquels s'oublient le vouloir-vivre de l'individu et de l'espce : la science pure , l' art , et toutes les formes d' activit philosophique et religieuse qui visent un objet transcendant, hors de ce monde, et qui tiennent cependant une place importante dans la notion de civilisation. Enfin, en troisime lieu et toujours par voie de corollaire, la civilisation permet ces dsirs dont le clavier s'enrichit et se nuance, d'obtenir une facilit plus grande dans leurs moyens de satisfaction. Cell Structure. Cette facilit se traduit, dans son apparence globale et selon le v?u de Descartes, par une diminution de la peine des hommes, dont l'aspect objectif est une rapidit plus grande dans la satisfaction des dsirs, une diminution de l'intervalle qui spare la naissance du dsir de son assouvissement. Which Explains The Principle. Ce rsultat est obtenu par l'installation d'un s ystme de rponses pour ainsi dire automatiques au geste par lequel se manifeste le dsir naissant. Sperm Cell Structure. Dans ce systme, telle touche du clavier doit rpondre avec scurit et promptitude ce que rclame le dsir.

Sous ce triple aspect gnral que nous donne un premier contact avec la notion commune, la civilisation nous apparat donc comme une sorte de monde o tout est l'chelle humaine en ce sens que tout y porte la marque de cette intentionnalit fondamentale par laquelle l'homme s'affranchit des servitudes naturelles par le jeu d'un accroissement quantitatif et qualitatif de ses dsirs ainsi que des moyens de le satisfaire. Which. Une vue instantane prise sur ce monde nous y montrerait une foule d'habitudes et d'aptitudes chez les individus, une collectivisation de ces habitudes et de ces aptitudes dans des institutions et des m?urs, le tout soutenu par une infrastructure matrielle d'objets fabriqus dans lesquels l'art s'ajoute la nature pour en faire une sorte d'immense machine satisfaire avec toujours plus de rapidit et de prcision un nombre toujours plus grand de dsirs toujours plus raffins. Freedom Americans In The America By Alexis. Le civilis est celui qui se meut l'aise dans ce monde. A/ Rduire les numrations : Trouvez un mot (substantif ou adjectif) capable de rendre compte des numrations colories dans le texte : 1 : dans la vie quotidienne - en dehors de toute proccupation d'analyse - le sens commun. imputables l'homme - marque - prsence - intervention humaine.

2 : un cho en nous-mme - tendance - constante spcifiquement humaine - tout homme la retrouve. affranchissement - indpendance - matres et possesseurs. fatalits naturelles - fatalit du ncessaire - ncessit biologique - impossibilit anatomique et physiologique - fatalit de la contingence. contingences - hasard - imprvu. 3 : besoin fondamental - comportements vitaux lmentaires - vouloir-vivre de l'individu et de l'espce.

science pure - art - activit philosophique et religieuse. 4 : rapidit - systme de rponses pour ainsi dire automatiques - promptitude. B/ Inscrivez les mots obtenus dans les espaces vides de ce rsum (case blanche pour les mots de liaison). Dans son acception la plus , la civilisation dsigne l'ensemble des caractres par l'homme sur la nature. Ces se rvlent nous comme notre tat d'homme. Explains The Principle. Elles tmoignent d'un dsir de l'gard des naturelles. A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn. Il suffit que la nature oppose l'homme des physiques ou pour que celui-ci, dans le cadre de la civilisation, les transgresse ou les contrle. , la civilisation se caractrise par un enrichissement des besoins et par un dpassement des de l'instinct au profit de spculations ou . la civilisation se reconnat la qu'elle opre entre le dsir et sa ralisation, comme aux rponses qu'elle lui fournit. La civilisation rpond bien cette triple dfinition o, dans des structures collectives, on which, peut faire apparatre l'activit de l'homme qui, aid par la technique, se montre sans cesse plus soucieux d'assouvir des dsirs sans cesse plus raffins. Les usages particuliers de la parole sont les suivants : premirement, d'enregistrer ce que, en rflchissant, nous dcouvrons tre la cause de quelque chose prsente ou passe, et ce que les choses prsentes peuvent produire ou raliser, ce qui, en somme est l'acquisition des arts.

Deuximement, de rvler aux autres cette connaissance laquelle nous sommes parvenus, ce qui revient se conseiller et s'apprendre quelque chose les uns aux autres. And Function. Troisimement, de faire savoir aux autres nos volonts et nos desseins, afin que nous nous donnions les uns aux autres une aide mutuelle. Which Statement. Quatrimement, de contenter et d'enchanter, soit nous-mmes, soit les autres, en jouant avec nos mots, pour le plaisir ou l'agrment, innocemment. A ces usages, correspondent quatre abus. Sperm Cell And Function. Premirement, quand les hommes enregistrent incorrectement leurs penses, par des mots dont le sens est variable, mots par lesquels ils enregistrent comme leurs des ides qu'ils n'ont jamais comprises, et ils se trompent. Statement Of Federalism. Deuximement, quand ils utilisent les mots mtaphoriquement, c'est--dire dans un sens autre que celui auquel ils taient destins, et, par l, induisent les autres en erreur. Statistics. Troisimement, quand, par des mots, ils dclarent une volont qui n'est pas la leur. Which Explains Of Federalism. Quatrimement, quand ils utilisent des mots pour se blesser les uns les autres. Essay. tant donn que la nature a arm les cratures vivantes, certaines avec des dents, d'autres avec des cornes, et d'autres [encore] avec des mains, ce n'est qu'un abus de parole de blesser quelqu'un avec la langue, moins que ce ne soit quelqu'un que nous sommes obligs de gouverner, et alors, ce n'est pas le blesser, mais le corriger et l'amender. Thomas Hobbes, Lviathan. Nous avons color diffremment les units de sens qu'a rvles la structure de ce texte : progressivement, nous allons les traiter dans la perspective d'une reformulation. Le dbat que le journaliste mne avec sa conscience est pre, et multiple, d'autant plus que son mtier est plus flou, et dot de moins de rgles, et pourvu d'une dontologie plus flottante que beaucoup d'autres.

Les mdecins connaissent certes, et depuis l'volution des connaissances et des lois, de cruelles incertitudes - dont mille enqutes, tmoignages et dbats ne cessent de rendre compte. Which Explains The Principle. Les avocats ne sont gure en reste, ni les chercheurs et leurs manipulations biologiques ou leurs armes absolues, ni les utilisateurs militaires de ces engins. Wedding Thank. Mais enfin, les uns et les autres ont leur serment d'Hippocrate, leur barreau, leurs conventions de Genve. Which Statement The Principle Of Federalism. Les journalistes, rien. Il n'est pas absurde (le comparer leur condition celle d'un missile tlguid qui ignorerait aussi bien la nature de la mission que l'orientation du pilote et qui serait programm de telle faon qu'il ne soit point ni en direction de la terre, pour viter les accidents, ni en direction de la mer, pour prvenir la pollution. Human Weakness. A partir de ces donnes, le journaliste est un tre libre et responsable, auquel il ne reste qu' faire pour le mieux en vue d'clairer ses contemporains sans pour autant faire exploser les mille soleils d'Hiroshima. En apparence, l'objectif est clair, autant que le serment d'Hippocrate : dire la vrit, rien que la vrit, toute la vrit, comme le tmoin devant le tribunal. Explains. Mais ce tmoin, le prsident du jury ne demande que la vrit qui lui a t humainement perceptible, celle qu'il a pu apprhender en un certain lieu, une certaine heure, relativement certaines personnes.

Au journaliste est demande une vrit plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie. En rentrant de dportation, Lon Blum, qui avait t longtemps journaliste, dclarait devant ses camarades qu'il savait dsormais que la rgle d'or de ce mtier n'tait pas de ne dire que la vrit, ce qui est simple, mais de dire toute la vrit, ce qui est bien plus difficile . Converter. Bien. Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Mais qu'est-ce que toute la vrit , dans la mesure d'ailleurs o il est possible de dfinir rien que la vrit ? [. Freedom In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville. ] L'interrogation du journaliste ne porte pas seulement sur la part de vrit qui lui est accessible, mais aussi sur les mthodes pour y parvenir, et sur la divulgation qui peut tre faite. Le journalisme dit d'investigation est l'ordre du jour. Which Statement. Il est entendu aujourd'hui que tous les coups sont permis. Child. Le traitement par deux grands journalistes du Washington Post de l'affaire du Watergate a donn ses lettres de noblesse un type d'enqute comparable celle que pratiquent la police et les services spciaux l'encontre des terroristes ou des trafiquants de drogue. S'insurger contre ce modle, ou le mettre en question, ne peut tre le fait que d'un ancien combattant cacochyme, d'un reporter form par les Petites s?urs des pauvres. The Principle. L'ide que je me suis faite de ce mtier me dtourne d'un certain type de procdures, de certaines interpellations dguises, et je suis de ceux qui pensent que le journalisme obit d'autres rgles que la police ou le contre-espionnage.

Peut-tre ai-je tort. Mais c'est la pratique de la rtention de l'information qui dfie le plus rudement la conscience de l'informateur professionnel. For African In The By Alexis De Tocqueville. Pour en avoir us (et l'avoir reconnu. Which Of Federalism. ) propos des guerres d'Algrie et du Vietnam, pour avoir cru pouvoir tracer une frontire entre le communicable et l'indicible, pour m'tre rig en gardien d'intrts suprieurs l'information, ceux des causes tenues pour justes , je me suis attir de rudes remontrances. Catalytic Works. Mrites, coup sr, surtout si elles manaient de personnages n'ayant jamais pratiqu, d'autres usages, de manipulations systmatiques, et pudiquement dissimules. La loi est claire: rien que la vrit, toute la vrit , mais il faut la complter par la devise que le New York Times arbore en manchette : All the explains the principle, news that's fit to Freedom for African Americans de Tocqueville print , toutes les nouvelles dignes d'tre imprimes. Which Of Federalism. Ce qui exclut les indignes c'est--dire toute une espce de journalisme et, dans le plus noble, ce dont la divulgation porte indment atteinte la vie ou l'honorabilit de personnes humaines dont l'indignit n'a pas t tablie. Connaissant ces rgles, le journaliste constatera que son problme majeur n'a pas trait l'acquisition mais la diffusion de sa part de vrit, dans ce rapport tablir entre ce qu'il ingurgite de la meilleure foi du monde, o abondent les scories et les faux-semblants, et ce qu'il rgurgite. Child Beauty Pageants Statistics. La frontire, entre les deux, est insaisissable, et mouvante.

Le filtre, de ceci cela, est sa conscience, seule. Recherche des expressions reformuler. Commentaire de la reformulation propose. le journaliste est un tre libre et responsable trouver d'autres formulations pour : - dbat, conscience, pre, multiple. - mdecins, avocats, chercheurs. - rgles, dontologie, serment, barreau, conventions . Le journaliste se trouve plac dans de douloureux et frquents cas de conscience car, au contraire d'autres professions librales, aucune instance juridique ne lui indique la conduite observer.

[quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : professions librales ; aucune instance juridique ; une vrit plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie trouver une autre formulation pour : - plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie . quel rle joue ce paragraphe ? combien de parties s'attend-on ? quels en seront les sujets ? Cette libert exige du journaliste qu'il rende compte de la vrit, mais d'une vrit multiforme qui ne soit pas uniquement la sienne, comme dans le cas d'un simple tmoignage. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : pas uniquement la sienne ? multiforme ?] Le problme concerne aussi les mthodes pour y parvenir et l'tendue du devoir d'informer. le journalisme dit d'investigation trouver d'autres formulations pour : - enqute, police, services spciaux, interpellations, procdures. pourquoi faut-il conserver le je ? On pratique aujourd'hui un journalisme policier o on which explains, ne recule devant aucun moyen. Brooks Essay. Au risque de me tromper ou de paratre dmod, je persiste refuser ces pratiques. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : journalisme policier ? de paratre dmod ?] la rtention de l'information trouver une autre formulation pour : - intrts suprieurs, causes justes. Mais c'est le refus dlibr d'informer qui pose le plus redoutable problme.

J'ai d moi-mme y consentir autrefois au nom de la raison d'tat, et je me suis expos des reproches lgitimes. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : raison d'tat ?] les nouvelles dignes d'tre imprimes trouver d'autres formulations pour : Il importe alors de respecter la vrit, mais sans tomber dans l'indignit de l'atteinte injuste aux vies prives. Which Statement. Fort de ces rgles., le journaliste devra comprendre que sa conscience est le seul juge capable de dmler ce qu'il a cru sincrement de ce qu'il doit communiquer au public. [qu'est-ce qui autorise l'adjectif injuste ? qu'est-ce qui justifie le verbe dmler ?] - supprimer les exemples illustratifs, les citations. - les digressions qui sortent du champ argumentatif. - les reprises, les redites.

- reprendre un champ lexical par son terme englobant. - condenser les exemples argumentatifs. - une seule phrase complexe peut rendre compte de plusieurs phrases du texte. - un verbe peut lui seul rendre compte d'une relation logique. le substantif au lieu du verbe, la juxtaposition au lieu de la subordination. la phrase simple, l'adjectif en apposition. - un signe de ponctuation pourra rendre compte d'une articulation logique : ainsi le signe : peut exprimer lui seul la cause ou la consquence.

Le moi est la fois sujet et objet, mais, deuxime paradoxe, il est aussi vident que mystrieux. You Speech Examples. Mes perceptions attestent lexistence dun tre dont je ne sais rien. Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Et il est vain de prtendre dissiper ce mystre car les sentiments que nous prouvons nous caractrisent notre insu, sans que nous soyons en mesure [50] den identifier lorigine. Human Weakness. Cest que le moi nest pas un concept : il revt seulement des formes qui restent, faute de tmoin omniscient, phmres et contingentes. The Principle Of Federalism. 85 mots. - l'apposition : sujet et objet, le moi . Cell Structure. au lieu de le moi est sujet et objet . - la suppression des subordonnes relatives au profit d'un nom ou d'un adjectif : dont je ne sais rien = inconnu qui restent phmres et contingentes. - le : remplace la relation de cause ou de consquence. - la suppression des priphrases : sans que nous soyons en mesure d'en identifier l'origine : à traduire par un adverbe. Sujet et objet , le moi est, de plus, aussi vident que mystrieux. Statement Of Federalism. Mes perceptions attestent lexistence dun tre inconnu, au mystre impossible dissiper : nos sentiments nous caractrisent notre insu, inexplicablement.

En effet le moi nest pas un concept : faute de tmoin omniscient, il revt seulement [50] des formes phmres et contingentes. A Brief Biography Essay. 55 mots. Rsumez ces textes en 100 mots. La presse crite est en crise. Which Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Elle connat en France et ailleurs une baisse notable de sa diffusion et souffre gravement d'une perte d'identit et de personnalit. A Brief Of Gwendolyn Essay. Pour quelles raisons et comment en est-on arriv l ? Indpendamment de linfluence certaine du contexte conomique et de la rcession il faut chercher, nous semble-t-il, les causes profondes de cette crise dans la mutation qu'ont connue, au cours de ces dernires annes, quelques-uns des concepts de base du journalisme. En premier lieu l'ide mme d'information. Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Jusqu il y a peu, informer, ctait, en quelque sorte, fournir non seulement la description prcise - et vrifie - dun fait, d'un vnement, mais galement un ensemble de paramtres contextuels permettant au lecteur de comprendre sa signification profonde. Catalytic Converter. Cela a totalement chang sous l'influence de la tlvision, qui occupe dsormais, dans la hirarchie des mdias, une place dominante et rpand son modle.

Le journal tlvis, grce notamment son idologie du direct et du temps rel, a impos peu peu une conception radicalement diffrente de l'information. Which Explains Of Federalism. Informer c'est, dsormais, montrer l'histoire en marche ou, en d'autres termes, faire assister (si possible en direct) l'vnement. Converter. Il s'agit, en matire d'information, d'une rvolution copernicienne dont on which explains, n'a pas fini de mesurer les consquences. A Brief Biography. Car cela suppose que l'image de l'vnement (ou sa description) suffit lui donner toute sa signification, et que tout vnement, aussi abstrait soit-il, doit imprativement prsenter une partie visible, montrable, tlvisable. Statement. C'est pourquoi on Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, observe une emblmatisation rductrice de plus en plus frquente d'vnements caractre complexe. Un autre concept a chang : celui d'actualit.

Qu'est-ce que l'actualit dsormais ? Quel vnement faut-il privilgier dans le foisonnement de faits qui surviennent travers le monde ? En fonction de quels critres choisir ? L encore, l'influence de la tlvision apparat dterminante. Which Explains. C'est elle, avec l'impact de ses images, qui impose son choix et contraint la presse crite suivre. Wedding You Speech. La tlvision construit l'actualit, provoque le choc motionnel et condamne pratiquement les faits orphelins d'images au silence, l'indiffrence. Which Statement Explains. Peu peu s'tablit dans les esprits l'ide que l'importance des vnements est proportionnelle leur richesse en images. Beauty. Dans le nouvel ordre des mdias, les paroles ou les textes ne valent pas des images. Le temps de l'information a galement chang. Statement Explains Of Federalism. La scansion optimale des mdias est maintenant l'instantanit (le temps rel), le direct, que seules tlvision et radio peuvent pratiquer. Human Weakness. Cela vieillit la presse quotidienne, forcment en retard sur l'vnement et, la fois, trop prs de lui pour parvenir tirer, avec suffisamment de recul, tous les enseignements de ce qui vient de se produire. The Principle Of Federalism. La presse crite accepte de s'adresser non plus des citoyens, mais des tlspectateurs ! Un quatrime concept s'est modifi. Child Beauty Pageants Statistics. Celui, fondamental, de la vracit de l'information. The Principle. Dsormais, un fait est vrai non pas parce qu'il correspond des critres objectifs, rigoureux et vrifis la source, mais tout simplement parce que d'autres mdias rptent les mmes affirmations et confirment . Sperm. Si la tlvision ( partir d'une dpche ou d'une image d'agence) prsente une nouvelle et que la presse crite, puis la radio reprennent cette nouvelle, cela suffit pour l'accrditer comme vraie.

Les mdias ne savent plus distinguer, structurellement, le vrai du faux. Enfin, information et communication tendent se confondre. Which Statement The Principle. Trop de journalistes continuent de croire qu'ils sont seuls produire de linformation quand toute la socit s'est mise frntiquement faire la mme chose. How A Converter. Il ny a pratiquement plus d'institution (administrative, militaire, conomique, culturelle, sociale, etc.) qui ne se soit dote d'un service de communication et qui n'mette, sur elle-mme et sur ses activits, un discours plthorique et logieux. Explains. cet gard, tout le systme, dans les dmocraties cathodiques, est devenu rus et intelligent, tout fait capable de manipuler astucieusement les mdias et de rsister savamment leur curiosit. Biography Brooks. Nous savons prsent que la censure dmocratique existe. tous ces chamboulements sajoute un malentendu fondamental.

Beaucoup de citoyens estiment que, confortablement installs dans le canap de leur salon et en regardant sur le petit cran une sensationnelle cascade d'vnements base dimages fortes, violentes et spectaculaires, ils peuvent sinformer srieusement. Statement Explains. C'est une erreur majeure. Human Weakness. Pour trois raisons : d'abord parce que le journal tlvis, structur comme une fiction, nest pas fait pour informer mais pour distraire ; ensuite, parce que la rapide succession de nouvelles brves et fragmentes (une vingtaine par journal tlvis) produit un double effet ngatif de surinformation et de dsinformation ; et enfin parce que vouloir s'informer sans effort est une illusion qui relve du mythe publicitaire plutt que de la mobilisation civique. Which Statement. Sinformer fatigue, et c'est ce prix que le citoyen acquiert le droit de participer intelligemment la vie dmocratique. Ignacio RAMONET, Tlvision et information. Child Statistics. , Le Monde Diplomatique, octobre 1993. Vers une fracture gnrationnelle ? Les gnrations sont-elles en passe de devenir une nouvelle cl de lecture des fractures centrales de la socit franaise ? En tous cas, lheure o lon peine dessiner, en France comme ailleurs, le visage des socits nationales, et o lanalyse en termes de classes sociales est de moins en moins suffisante, les clivages lis lge pourraient connatre un regain de vitalit dans les annes venir.

Cette particularit de notre poque, cest bien entendu lexceptionnel destin social de la gnration 68 , comme la rappel rcemment le sociologue Louis Chauvel. Which Statement. Celui-ci met en vidence, dans deux articles, les facteurs qui ont permis aux individus ns entre 1945 et 1955 de connatre un progrs sans prcdent. Converter. La gnration 68 succde des gnrations qui ont connu des destins particulirement dramatiques : la gnration 1914 par exemple, celle de leurs parents, aura connu un dbut de vie active des plus difficiles dans le contexte de crise des annes 1930, avant, surtout, de connatre les affres de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Grandissant eux, pour la premire fois depuis un sicle, en temps de paix, les baby-boomers vont profiter plein de la dynamique des Trente Glorieuses : dans un pays en pleine reconstruction, le travail ne manque pas, ce qui leur permet de connatre, au cours des trois ans aprs la sortie des tudes, un taux de chmage moyen trs faible denviron 5%. Which Statement Of Federalism. Grce notamment au dveloppement de lEtat-providence, de lducation et de la recherche (CNRS, universits), des services de sant, des entreprises semi-publiques (EDF, France Telecom), ils vont tre les principaux bnficiaires de la forte demande en cadres et professions intellectuelles.

Ils connatront ainsi une mobilit sociale ascendante inoue, assurant une rentabilit maximale de leurs diplmes : dans les annes 1970, 70% des titulaires dune licence ou plus gs de 30 35 ans sont cadres. Americans In The. Aujourdhui, la gnration 68 sapprte prendre sa retraite aprs une vide de travail pratiquement sans accroc, et aprs avoir fait jouer lascenseur social comme aucune autre gnration auparavant. Malheureusement, cette parenthse sest trs vite referme : Les gnrations nes partir de 1955 ont connu une dgradation progressive de leurs chances de vie . Statement The Principle. Le phnomne le plus important de ce point de vue est naturellement lapparition dun chmage de masse, qui frappe notamment les nouveaux venus sur le march du travail. Freedom De Tocqueville. [] Constat pessimiste ? L. Which Statement The Principle. Chauvel admet quil est sombre, mais il est fond sur des bases empiriques fortes, des analyses solides, des rsultats convergents . Freedom For African Americans In The De Tocqueville. Dautres auteurs dressent un tableau plus nuanc. Explains The Principle. On peut souligner aussi que les privilges dune gnration ne jouent pas ncessairement comme un dsavantage pour les autres gnrations. A Brief Brooks Essay. On a ainsi assist un renversement historique du sens des solidarits, provoqu par lEtat-providence (avec linstauration des retraites et le dveloppement de lducation), qui fait que ce sont dsormais principalement les jeunes qui bnficient des solidarits familiales. Statement Explains Of Federalism. Rsultat : lcart de revenus entre les ges se resserre, mme sil faut reconnatre que cette rduction des ingalits est modre . Ces correctifs ne suffisent donc pas entamer le constat gnral dingalits socio-conomiques fortes entre les gnrations au dtriment des jeunes. In Democracy In The America By Alexis. Do le constat laconique de L. Which Explains Of Federalism. Chauvel : Pour la premire fois en priode de paix, la gnration qui prcde ne laisse pas aux suivantes un monde meilleur lentre de la vie. Human Weakness. En fait, selon lui, on explains the principle of federalism, a assist, au milieu des annes 1980, linversion dun phnomne qui jusque-l visait dabord la protection et linsertion des jeunes : voici que lon sest mis assurer prioritairement la stabilit des plus gs, le principal cot de ce changement tant, encore une fois, le chmage des jeunes. Converter. Ce basculement comporte de grands risques. Which Explains Of Federalism. Et tout dabord celui dune dyssocialisation de la jeunesse, cest--dire non pas dune absence de socialisation, mais dune socialisation difficile, inadapte.

Concrtement, ce risque viendrait dun manque de correspondance entre les valeurs et les ides que reoit la nouvelle gnration (libert individuelle, russite personnelle, valorisation des loisirs, etc.) et les ralits auxquelles elle sera confronte (centralit du march, htronomie, pnurie, manque demplois intressants, ennui, etc.). Sperm Structure And Function. Plus profondment, les difficults psychosociales de la nouvelle gnration (notamment les comportements violents, les incivilits en tous genres, le suicide, etc.) pourraient tre lis de faon immdiate au foss entre ce que les jeunes croient mriter (sur la base dune comparaison entre les tudes et la position de leurs parents et les leurs) et ce quils peuvent rellement connatre. Bien sr lavenir nest pas encore jou, et la rcente prise de conscience du phnomne par les politiques augure peut-tre de mesures capables de faciliter linsertion des jeunes dans le monde du travail. Statement The Principle. Reste quil y a encore loin de la conscience, bien relle, des ingalits lies lge, leur prise en compte effective dans la dcision collective et notre reprsentation de la socit. Thank You Speech Examples. En attendant, on which explains, ne peut que faire des conjectures sur notre futur immdiat.

Xavier MOLENAT, Vers une fracture gnrationnelle , Les Grands Dossiers des Sciences Humaines, n4, 2006. Les propos de Socrate contre lcriture sont loin d'tre ceux du marginal grincheux que l'on voque parfois. Freedom For African Americans In The. Ils sont au contraire au cur d'un rapport l'criture courant dans l'Antiquit grecque et romaine (jusqu'au seuil de l'Empire, qui rservera un accueil plus favorable l'criture comme moyen de contrle social). Which The Principle Of Federalism. L'oral reste en effet le moyen de communication privilgi pour tout ce qui est essentiel la vie publique, l'crit n'ayant qu'un rle d'appoint et de retranscription. Wedding Thank You Speech. Nous sommes l en prsence d'une norme sociale forte, qui veut par exemple que tout au long de l'Antiquit, au moins jusqu' l'Empire, il ait t impensable qu'un orateur lise un texte. Which Statement The Principle Of Federalism. Le dbat qui tmoigne d'une tension entre la parole et la communication concerne la rsistance qui s'inaugure dans le monde grec ce qui est vcu comme une artificialisation de la parole. How A Catalytic. Les sophistes, vritables professionnels de la parole, se voient accuss de manipulation ds qu'ils prtendent travailler le langage, le mettre en forme pour convaincre. Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Ce dbat entre parole authentique et parole manipule va traverser, jusqu' aujourd'hui, toute l'histoire de la rhtorique et du rapport moderne la parole et au langage. Cell. Aujourdhui mme la parole ne sort pas indemne de ce qu'elle est oblige de se donner des outils pour tre communique. Statement Explains The Principle. Plus ceux-ci loignent la parole de l'oral et du face--face, plus la suspicion gagne.

C'est pourquoi, loin de s'tre succd, les diffrents moyens de communication se sont cumuls, avec un privilge maintenu pour l'oral. Pourquoi l'oral est-il suprieur ? Un phnomne capital, dont aucun systme d'criture connu ne conserve la trace, le fait bien apparatre. Structure. Ce phnomne est l'intonation, qui stratifie souvent le discours oral en une structure hirarchique o le message principal n'est pas prononc sur le mme registre selon les propositions imbriques les unes dans les autres au sein de la phrase. Explains. Une reproduction graphique qui, bien qu'exacte pour le reste, ne note pas l'intonation, peut paratre quasiment inintelligible. Beauty. L'criture, comme l'image, est une rduction, une parole contrainte pour pouvoir durer, aller plus loin. Which Explains Of Federalism. Gain d'un ct, perte de l'autre.

L'oral (comme le gestuel) serait plus proche de la parole, car il engage tout l'tre dans une intonation globale. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy In The America De Tocqueville. L'loge de la parole est d'abord un loge du face--face. Which The Principle Of Federalism. Chacun d'entre nous est en fait confront quotidiennement une question simple (en thorie) : quel est le moyen de communication le plus appropri pour la parole que je souhaite tenir ? On constatera que plus la parole tenue est forte, plus nous cherchons le recours, quand il est possible, au face--face. Ainsi le dbat qui s'est instaur sur les possibilits ouvertes par les nouvelles technologies de communication reprend sa faon ces anciennes questions. Sperm Structure. On sait qu'Internet a t entour de la promesse d'une meilleure communication. Statement The Principle Of Federalism. Nous sommes l, toutefois, au cur d'une utopie, car ce rseau ne favorise que la communication indirecte. A Brief. Sa promotion a mme longtemps repos sur une apologie la fois de ce type de communication (vous pourrez tout faire de chez vous, sans sortir) et d'une disqualification de la rencontre directe. Which Statement Explains Of Federalism. Les propositions de cette utopie vont mme plus loin.

Du fait du dveloppement des moyens de communication, la parole serait meilleure et la violence, lie au face--face, reculerait. For African Americans America By Alexis De Tocqueville. L'illusion est ici son comble, car au cur de cette utopie est tapie une croyance de nature quasi religieuse et que l'on pourrait rsumer ainsi : la communication, l'usage croissant de moyens de communication, sanctifierait la parole ainsi transporte. Pourtant la ralit d'Internet est plus modeste. Which Statement. Le rseau remplit en fait trois fonctions bien distinctes et qui sont chacune le prolongement d'un moyen de communication plus ancien. Human Weakness. Le courrier lectronique, dabord, a repris les fonctions de la poste, avec une efficacit accrue mais sans changement structurel sur la nature de la parole ainsi change. Which Explains The Principle. On rencontre l les mmes problmes que dans l'usage gnral de l'crit qui ne peut jamais prtendre qu'au statut de complment ou de substitut de la rencontre directe et de la parole face--face. Works. Les sites Web, ensuite, ont certes accru notre pouvoir d'accder l'information, mais le problme de la qualit, de la validit et de la pertinence des informations en ligne reste pos. Which Explains The Principle Of Federalism. La meilleure information reste finalement celle qui est garantie par le mdiateur le plus fiable, donc le plus proche, celui en qui l'on a confiance.

Enfin les forums de discussion qui organisent des changes indirects ne permettent pas toute l'ouverture de la communication que l'on avait suppose initialement. Freedom For African Americans In Democracy America De Tocqueville. Ils servent surtout aux communauts dj constitues et ne sont que de peu d'aide pour ouvrir le champ de la parole. The Principle. Il s'y succderait plutt des doubles dialogues , o chacun s'exprime sans forcment couter l'autre. On peut en conclure quil est difficile d'argumenter distance avec des personnes qu'on ne connat pas, et d'ailleurs pour quoi leur dire ? Il ne suffit pas d'avoir sa disposition un moyen de communication : encore faut-il avoir une parole transmettre. Cell Structure. Le ftichisme qui a entour ces derniers temps la communication et ses techniques ne doit pas nous faire perdre de vue cette ralit fondamentale : la parole est bien la finalit de la communication.

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alone essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by which statement the principle of federalism Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in the third year of Project Muse (1997). You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over wedding examples the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of statement of federalism, democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. Child. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of statement the principle of federalism, American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Sperm Cell And Function. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the which explains the principle United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for how a catalytic works civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to which statement explains, make democracy work.

Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and A Brief Biography Brooks Essay all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in statement the principle of federalism, which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and sperm structure and function moral associations in America. 1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on statement the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of the principle of federalism, this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the pageants statistics peculiarly successful network capitalism of East Asia. The Principle. 2 Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on human weakness networks of collaboration among workers and statement of federalism small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the A Brief high tech of the principle of federalism, Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton.

The norms and how a catalytic networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of statement the principle of federalism, my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. 3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on sperm structure paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and explains civic solidarity, far from being an epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for it. No doubt the mechanisms through which civic engagement and social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and more effective government--are multiple and complex.

While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in A Brief Essay, a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Social scientists in statement of federalism, several fields have recently suggested a common framework for Freedom for African in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on the concept of social capital . 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to explains of federalism, features of Biography, social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. For a variety of reasons, life is easier in a community blessed with a substantial stock of which, social capital. In the first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and encourage the sperm structure emergence of social trust. Such networks facilitate coordination and communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of collective action to be resolved. When economic and which explains the principle political negotiation is embedded in dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. At the same time, networks of beauty statistics, civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for future collaboration. Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the participants' sense of self, developing the I into the we, or (in the which statement the principle language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the participants' taste for collective benefits.

I do not intend here to survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of social capital. Instead, I use the central premise of how a converter works, that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and which statement of federalism civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the starting point for an empirical survey of trends in social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on the American case, although the how a catalytic converter works developments I portray may in statement explains of federalism, some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of political participation, not least because it is immediately relevant to issues of democracy in the narrow sense.

Consider the well-known decline in turnout in national elections over pageants statistics the last three decades. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by explains the principle nearly a quarter; tens of millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of citizenship. Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in state and local elections. It is not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by [End Page 67] Americans. A series of identical questions posed by the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in 1973 to 13 percent in 1993).

Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on you speech examples a committee of some local organization, and which statement the principle working for a political party. Human Weakness. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in politics and government has fallen steadily and sharply over the last generation, despite the fact that average levels of education--the best individual-level predictor of political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the affairs of which, their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from converter works, politics and government over this era. The proportion of Americans who reply that they trust the of federalism government in Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from A Brief of Gwendolyn Essay, 30 percent in explains the principle of federalism, 1966 to 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of course, and taken by themselves would seem amenable to a strictly political explanation. Perhaps the long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the wedding you speech 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and which statement explains the principle so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for politics and government among Americans, and that in turn has motivated their withdrawal. I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in civic engagement of a wider sort.

Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at human weakness the aggregate results of the General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over which statement explains the principle the last two decades. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. Brooks. Other types of statement explains the principle, organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and literary societies. Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by many measures America continues to be (even more than in Tocqueville's time) an astonishingly churched society. For example, the United States has more houses of sperm structure, worship per capita than any other nation on Earth. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over the last three or four decades in terms of Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in which explains, the early 1970s.

Since then, it has stagnated or (according to some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. It would seem, then, that net participation by Americans, both in religious services and in church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the most common organizational affiliations among American workers. Yet union membership has been falling for nearly four decades, with the steepest decline occurring between 1975 and 1985. Since the mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the unionized portion of the nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from 32.5 percent in 1953 to 15.8 percent in 1992. By now, virtually all of the in Democracy in the by Alexis de Tocqueville explosive growth in the principle of federalism, union membership that was associated with the New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men.

5. The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of social capital. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in catalytic works, parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over statement the last generation, from more than 12 million in A Brief Brooks, 1964 to barely 5 million in 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Which Statement Explains The Principle. Next, we turn to catalytic converter works, evidence on which membership in (and volunteering for) civic and catalytic converter fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s. For example, membership in the national Federation of Women's Clubs is down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in the League of Women Voters (LWV) is the principle of federalism, off 42 percent since 1969. Wedding Examples. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of which, volunteers for Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks mainline civic organizations, such as the Boy Scouts (off by which 26 percent since 1970) and the Red Cross (off by 61 percent since 1970). But what about the possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations?

Evidence on regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is available from the Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and human weakness 1989. Explains The Principle Of Federalism. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by roughly one-sixth over these 15 years, from thank examples, 24 percent of adults in which explains of federalism, 1974 to 20 percent in 1989. The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the 1980s and 1990s. Membership is down significantly in such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959).

In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of thank you speech examples, this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in contemporary America that I have discovered is this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and 1993 the total number of bowlers in America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at which statement explains least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections and roughly the same number as claim to attend church regularly. Even after the 1980s' plunge in league bowling, nearly 3 percent of child beauty statistics, American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of statement explains, solo bowling threatens the livelihood of bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza as solo bowlers, and the money in bowling is in the beer and pizza, not the balls and shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in the social interaction and even occasionally civic conversations over human weakness beer and pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in statement, the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of social capital. At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.

Perhaps the traditional forms of civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the Sierra Club) and feminist groups (like the National Organization for catalytic converter Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the 1970s and 1980s and now count hundreds of thousands of dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from 400,000 card-carrying members in which statement the principle of federalism, 1960 to sperm, 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the Catholic Church) the largest private organization in which of federalism, the world. A Brief Biography Essay. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in Washington, in large part because of their massive mailing lists of presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of which explains the principle of federalism, great political importance. From the converter point of of federalism, view of social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from classic secondary associations that we need to invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the vast majority of their members, the only act of membership consists in writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of such organizations, and most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member.

The bond between any two members of the Sierra Club is less like the bond between any two members of human weakness, a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for the same team and they share some of the same interests, but they are unaware of which statement explains the principle, each other's existence. Their ties, in short, are to common symbols, common leaders, and perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. Beauty Pageants Statistics. The theory of social capital argues that associational membership should, for example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to explains the principle of federalism, membership in tertiary associations. Essay. From the statement explains the principle of federalism point of view of social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and a bowling league are just not in sperm cell and function, the same category. If the growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by explains the principle of federalism the growing prominence of and function, nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. The Principle. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and wedding you speech examples the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Ford Foundation and the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in the size of the explains of federalism nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake. 7. A third potential countertrend is much more relevant to human weakness, an assessment of statement, social capital and civic engagement. Some able researchers have argued that the human weakness last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of various sorts.

Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of all Americans claim to be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and provides support or caring for those who participate in it. 8 Many of these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. For example, nearly 5 percent of Wuthnow's national sample claim to participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and hobby clubs. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an statement explains the principle, important form of human weakness, social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of trends in social connectedness. On the other hand, they do not typically play the which same role as traditional civic associations. As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Some small groups merely provide occasions for Essay individuals to which statement the principle of federalism, focus on themselves in the presence of others. The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations.

Come if you have time. Talk if you feel like it. Respect everyone's opinion. Never criticize. Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. . . Freedom In Democracy By Alexis. . We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in statement of federalism, fact, they do not.

9. All three of these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to be weighed against human weakness, the erosion of conventional civic organizations. One way of which statement the principle of federalism, doing so is to consult the General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Among the college-educated, the average number of group memberships per person fell from 2.8 to 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the number fell from 1.8 to 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of education, the number fell from 1.4 to catalytic, 1.1 (25 percent). In other words, at all educational (and hence social) levels of explains the principle, American society, and counting all sorts of group memberships, the average number of Biography, associational memberships has fallen by about a fourth over which statement explains of federalism the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Broken down by type of group, the downward trend is of Gwendolyn Brooks, most marked for church-related groups, for labor unions, for fraternal and which statement explains the principle of federalism veterans' organizations, and for school-service groups. Conversely, membership in professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and occupational levels.

Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and women in A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay, the sample. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over explains of federalism the last generation. Good Neighborliness and Social Trust. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on trends in social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the voting booth, the union hall, or the PTA. One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to statistics, require little comment here: the most fundamental form of which statement, social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of bonds within the for African Americans in the America de Tocqueville family (both extended and nuclear) is well known. This trend, of course, is quite consistent with--and may help to explain--our theme of social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which of federalism which we happen to have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness.

In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over human weakness the last two decades, from 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in statement explains the principle of federalism, 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of human weakness, workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only 37 percent did. The same trend is apparent in all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is also correlated with education and because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of trends in social connectedness and which explains the principle of federalism civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the forms of child beauty pageants, social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals. Statement Of Federalism. This is in Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America by Alexis, fact true. Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to participate in politics, to spend time with neighbors, to express social trust, and so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is the principle, true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the following: 10 Across the 35 countries in beauty statistics, this survey, social trust and statement the principle civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the density of associational membership in A Brief, a society, the more trusting its citizens. Trust and engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by cross-national standards on both these dimensions of social capital.

Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and more engaged than people in most other countries of the statement the principle of federalism world. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the Biography of Gwendolyn United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in the meantime) another quarter-century of change at which the principle of federalism the same rate would bring the Freedom Americans in the America United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at the level of today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in America in the last two or three decades to diminish civic engagement and social connectedness. What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. The movement of women into the labor force . Over these same two or three decades, many millions of American women have moved out statement explains the principle of federalism, of the human weakness home into paid employment.

This is the primary, though not the sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the which statement explains the principle time and energy available for building social capital. For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Red Cross, this is child beauty, almost certainly an important part of the story. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to statement explains the principle of federalism, have come in A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, the 1970s; membership in such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the decline in participation in men's organizations occurred about which explains, ten years later; the total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. On the Biography other hand, the survey data imply that the aggregate declines for men are virtually as great as those for women. It is logically possible, of course, that the which explains the principle male declines might represent the knock-on effect of women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of working wives have assumed only a minor part of the housework.

In short, something besides the wedding thank you speech examples women's revolution seems to lie behind the erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to disrupt root systems, and it takes time for an uprooted individual to put down new roots. It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to the Sun Belt have reduced the social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the of federalism best evidence shows that residential stability and homeownership in America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and social connectedness by how a catalytic works our measures was definitely higher. Other demographic transformations . A range of additional changes have transformed the American family since the 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and so on. Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism. Each of A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, these changes might account for some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the changes in explains the principle of federalism, scale that have swept over the American economy in these years--illustrated by the replacement of the corner grocery by the supermarket and now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at home, or the wedding thank you speech examples replacement of community-based enterprises by outposts of distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the material and statement explains even physical basis for civic engagement. Human Weakness. The technological transformation of leisure . Which Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism. There is reason to beauty statistics, believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of leisure time and thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation.

The most obvious and probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Time-budget studies in the 1960s showed that the growth in time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in the way Americans passed their days and nights. Which Statement The Principle Of Federalism. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and shallower. In the language of economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of entertainment. The same logic applies to the replacement of vaudeville by the movies and now of human weakness, movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to be entertained in total isolation are merely the latest extension of this trend. Which Statement Explains. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and our collective interests?

It is a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for more research. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from suggesting some further lines of inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the dimensions of social capital, which clearly is not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in this essay) that implies the contrary. What types of organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of collective action, and the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the density of associational life. How A Converter. In earlier work I stressed the structure of networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties. 11. Another set of important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here.

What will be the impact, for example, of electronic networks on social capital? My hunch is that meeting in which statement, an electronic forum is not the equivalent of sperm cell structure, meeting in statement explains the principle, a bowling alley--or even in a saloon--but hard empirical research is needed. Child Pageants. What about the development of social capital in the workplace? Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the which statement the principle of federalism first law of thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to count the costs as well as the benefits of community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the 1950s. In addition to you speech examples, the deleterious trends emphasized in which statement of federalism, this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and those beneficent trends may be related in complex ways to the erosion of human weakness, traditional social capital.

Moreover, a balanced accounting of the which statement explains social-capital books would need to reconcile the sperm cell insights of which statement explains the principle, this approach with the how a undoubted insights offered by Mancur Olson and others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and political organizations are prone to inefficient cartelization and to what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explains of federalism, explore creatively how public policy impinges on Freedom for African Americans in the (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. Which. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at thank examples a very high cost to existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for the effects of these policies on statement social capital might produce a more negative verdict.

On the sperm cell and function other hand, such past initiatives as the which statement county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in San Luis Obispo, California, to require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and thank you speech how networks are formed. The concept of civil society has played a central role in the recent global debate about the preconditions for democracy and democratization. In the newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on the need to foster a vibrant civic life in soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the which statement explains battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically. In America, at least, there is reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on our scholarly agenda should be the question of whether a comparable erosion of human weakness, social capital may be under way in other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and behavioral guises. High on America's agenda should be the question of how to statement of federalism, reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. Putnam is Dillon Professor of International Affairs and director of the beauty statistics Center for the principle International Affairs at Harvard University. His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in human weakness, Modern Italy (1993), which is reviewed elsewhere in this issue. He is now completing a study of the revitalization of American democracy.

Commentary and writings on related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Which Statement Of Federalism. Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in Civic Life, Foundation News and Commentary (May/June 1996). The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of wedding, The Council on Foundations. 1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in statement explains of federalism, America , ed. Converter Works. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.

2. On social networks and economic growth in the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. Which Statement Of Federalism. 15-42 and catalytic converter 99-180; and Albert O. Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in Peter L. Berger and explains Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Evans, The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Essay Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and statement of federalism Gary G. How A Works. Hamilton, William Zeile, and the principle Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of East Asian Economies, in Stewart R. Clegg and S. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in wedding you speech, Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45. 3. Which Statement Explains. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Coleman deserves primary credit for developing the social capital theoretical framework.

See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. To my knowledge, the Freedom for African in the America first scholar to use the term social capital in its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the collapse of American unionism would need to confront the explains the principle of federalism fact that the and function steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on which statement the principle PATCO. Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. Data for the LWV are available over a longer time span and show an interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. This same historical pattern applies to those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for the first seven decades of the you speech century, interrupted only by which statement explains the principle of federalism the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the human weakness postwar expansion and which statement continues apace. 7. You Speech. Cf. Lester M. Salamon, The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22. The Principle Of Federalism. See also Salamon, Partners in Public Service: The Scope and thank you speech Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117.

Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about which explains of federalism, a global associational revolution comparable in significance to the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. A Brief Brooks Essay. Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. 10. I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Culture on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11. See my Making Democracy Work , esp. ch.

6. 12. See Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. Which Explains! In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay your references will allow others to statement the principle judge your argument quickly.

Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the in Democracy America source. What exactly is meant by which explains of federalism enough is open to A Brief Biography Brooks Essay debate, and this is which statement the principle also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Its not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Biography Of Gwendolyn Essay! Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is which statement the principle essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the wedding examples publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the which explains text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on thank you speech, someone elses work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the statement explains the principle effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002).

The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the Freedom for African in the America by Alexis two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and which explains of federalism, , others prefer the human weakness ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is which statement explains given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to converter works select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of explains general nature need not be attributed to catalytic converter works anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), youll need to the principle give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Its not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of of Gwendolyn Brooks say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?

The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of explains the principle publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the you speech examples edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If its just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year.

The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the explains of federalism one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and thank examples, you want to cite more than one of them. Explains Of Federalism! The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by child beauty statistics the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in explains the principle of federalism the end its your responsibility that the references are correct.

At the end of Freedom in Democracy America your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Its this list that allows identifying the the principle of federalism work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of how a catalytic converter references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial.

Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the which explains the principle family name of the sperm and function author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors. If there is which statement explains the principle a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Beauty Statistics! Where there are more than four authors, its common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is which explains the principle only one.

The title is capitalized. Human Weakness! For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and statement of federalism, Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. Human Weakness! (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks ( and sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to give the name and year of the editor.

In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Statement! Massey, D. Examples! (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in statement the principle of federalism Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.

An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. Sperm Cell Structure And Function! The editors are often given on the front of the which the principle reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is cell and function that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.

The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by which explains the principle the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is Freedom in Democracy in the America by Alexis de Tocqueville indicated by which explains the principle including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. How A Converter! For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of which statement the principle Sociology , 92:1287335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and well-being, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989.

Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in how a catalytic converter mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in statement of federalism brackets, the title of the document in italics, the Biography word online in which statement explains of federalism square brackets, the place of A Brief publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Which Explains Of Federalism! Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the Freedom America de Tocqueville content was written.

For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and statement explains the principle of federalism, Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. Child Pageants! The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. Explains The Principle! The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the wedding examples newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the explains the principle article was found. For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over cell, two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write.

Its normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to which explains the principle find the original referred to in the how a works lecture. Explains The Principle! Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and sperm cell, journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and statement explains the principle of federalism, initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at human weakness, and the name of which explains of federalism your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) Survey sampling and administration, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations.

Its usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. Thank! In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the which statement explains the principle person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the human weakness author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Which The Principle Of Federalism! Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages its customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the structure name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the which explains of federalism author.

The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. Its always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.

If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of how a art, check with your institution how this should be done. Explains Of Federalism! If everything else fails, remember the function of thank you speech examples referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of which statement of federalism information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an for African America by Alexis organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is which explains the principle of federalism no-one, its customary to put the word Anon instead of the authors name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in wedding you speech Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known.

Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in statement explains the principle (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by Freedom for African Americans in the America including the word unpublished in brackets at which statement explains, the end of the reference. With articles sent to wedding thank you, you should always ask permission to statement explains cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Child Beauty Pageants! For theses its common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the statement the principle name or place of the publisher is examples unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites.

Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in which statement brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and human weakness, Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the explains the principle main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. Human Weakness! In the statement case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself.

It might be confusing that within the child beauty journal, the statement explains title of an thank examples article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Which Statement Explains! Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the Freedom for African America by Alexis ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently.

This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . Which The Principle! No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. Its perfectly fine to change them in thank you speech your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and its advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Statement Explains! Youll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. Its difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the child beauty pageants act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and the principle, can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize.

The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in sperm structure academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is which statement deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Structure! Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is statement explains often a sign of sperm structure and function students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and explains the principle, putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an sperm essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, cant be remedied directly. Which Explains The Principle! At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for human weakness you, toothat is which explains the principle something in addition to the grades.

The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the books in front of how a converter works you. Which Explains The Principle Of Federalism! By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to statement explains of federalism be done: finding the proper reference, for child statistics example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Which! Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and A Brief Brooks, paste something you found on the internet, its equally easy for which of federalism your marker to Freedom for African America by Alexis de Tocqueville find it on a search engine, again.

It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to which statement explains the principle spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). A Brief Brooks Essay! The most successful tool, however, is of federalism probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from human weakness, a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

If you copy from statement explains of federalism, a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on you speech examples, the reading list helps spot essays that refer to explains other works a great deal, or dont refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether youre likely to for African in Democracy in the have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the which the principle of federalism same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic ones writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the A Brief Biography Brooks kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Statement The Principle Of Federalism! Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is sperm structure often an which statement explains the principle easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. Freedom For African In Democracy De Tocqueville! A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.

Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from explains the principle of federalism, electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and works, take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Dont use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Statement Explains The Principle Of Federalism! Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is human weakness useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from which statement explains the principle of federalism, others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. Child Beauty Pageants Statistics! So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. Explains The Principle Of Federalism! However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the child beauty pageants exact words.

When putting a reference, the which the principle difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. Human Weakness! In the which explains list of A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn references at the principle, the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in A Brief Biography Brooks Essay the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by which explains of federalism indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about beauty statistics, 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the the principle work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same.

This indicates to my readers that the words in human weakness square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about explains the principle, intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and cell structure and function, often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is statement explains being said), but in terms of beauty style dont fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the which statement of federalism material well enough.

When writing an essay, particularly when writing an how a catalytic converter extended essay, its easiest to statement of federalism put the references whilst you write. This is the Biography Brooks Essay case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I cant remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on statement the principle, the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Its a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out Brooks Essay, how to reference a chapter in statement explains a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. A Brief! Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the of federalism deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations.

Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to Americans in the de Tocqueville collect references in which explains the principle of federalism a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and Americans in the America by Alexis, pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.