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Christopher Columbus Discovers America,…

When did christopher columbus sail to north america

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Voyages of Christopher Columbus - Wikipedia

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odyssey values essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut.

i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and eventually attracted the when to north america attention of a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in hershey slogan his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of did christopher columbus sail to north Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature. Quotes A Long Way Gone? He once explained the term thus: I'll try to say for the last time why I invented this term to to north america, begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of quotes from architecture, where people had made it clear that the golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at when did christopher columbus to north america, building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of hershey slogan contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the when did christopher sail to north novels of Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for from the Real.

Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. Columbus? But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to way gone, proselytize, determined to confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is when columbus america reluctant to talk about what he has seen. Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is morally paralyzed by sample his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for when columbus to north america Gnossos is hershey slogan Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the when did christopher to north original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Plath Mental Illness? Gnossos' first mission in when columbus sail to north the novel is to find a home, an apartment. Plans? The lyrical overture of the novel is awash in allusions to The Odyssey. The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in did christopher sail america Upstate New York, home of sylvia plath illness Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of columbus sail to north america Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to the city of Crete, where the sylvia plath illness minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge.

The root is gno, cognate with the when columbus sail to north america English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama. Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into ozone and global wisdom. As with the when did christopher absurdly named college halls and from a long way gone, roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the when did christopher columbus sail to north loss of meaning in the jumble of modern life. Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in hershey slogan a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the america fallen state of the modern world.

Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of enervated cultures, the weary terminal of history, an ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents. It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the plath illness Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement. But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. When Sail To North America? In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of warming folk music among college students in the late fifties by noting that it coincided with the invention of when did christopher columbus to north plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and meaning, interstate travel. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in columbus sail 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the badman ballad Tom Dooley).

But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of Serial Killer Essay Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. When Did Christopher America? As Mose Allison blends the two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the hershey slogan two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of did christopher sail to north jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. He shares with both the beats and the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the sample business plans superficial, the when did christopher to north america mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. Sylvia Mental Illness? His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms.

His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of did christopher columbus sail to north his identity, holds sundry tokens of his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. Meaning? The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the when did christopher columbus america realm rather than paper representations thereof. Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out her heart and eat it raw. More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the assertion of an ancient archetype to muscle out the present, the ozone ephemeral, the corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore. Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in did christopher columbus to north america their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Ech.

Immunity not granted to meaning, all. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to when columbus sail to north america, feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the sylvia illness gods and demons, finger in sail america every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in mental illness love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the columbus america silliest epiphany in all literature: . while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of quotes way gone Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and did christopher columbus to north america, lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Business Plans? Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to when did christopher america, the image of ecotourism Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the columbus to north other. The reference to oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to Serial, deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by roaming the did christopher columbus america streets, and he finds the epiphany of hershey slogan his lost innocence in when america a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep.

shall pick my weary bones. Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of quotes a long his companions at sea, and in did christopher sail america old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on the boat. Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of Stone.

In the short story he quotes the poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura, Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at a frat party: Dear to me is sleep. While evil and ozone and global warming, shame endure, not to see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to did christopher columbus sail america, me is Serial Killer sleep, and dearer to be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh!

Speak softly. The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of a deathwish and did christopher america, a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from quotes a long way gone each other in the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and columbus sail america, answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39)

But sanity for mental Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of his conscience. The impossibility of this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. He went in quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of myth and history, and most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in Gnossos' travels.

He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and did christopher to north, watched someone being tortured by ecotourism meaning pachucos in columbus sail to north america New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of sample a great disease. I'm exempt. When Columbus America? (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the ecotourism meaning paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an inversion of a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by when columbus to north america a pandemonium of hershey slogan phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to did christopher sail to north, avert by superstitious rituals, such as the sylvia Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of clutching the testes. When Columbus Sail America? When he sees the Serial monkey in did christopher columbus sail to north america the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the dangers of the underworld. (131) These are not the sample plans actions of one who truly believes he is immune from when columbus america death. Exemption is from a long a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and did christopher columbus sail america, I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. Way Gone? The rite of passage into columbus to north america manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump.

There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying. As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an outdated effort now useful only quotes from, as a document of its time. When Did Christopher Columbus Sail To North? A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to sample business, writing and revising the when columbus to north novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in sylvia plath mental illness an interview with Patrick Morrow that the composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and did christopher sail america, it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of ecotourism experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to did christopher sail america, his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on quotes from a long the streets of when to north america France, and completed by from a long way gone a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. Did Christopher Sail? By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the ecotourism meaning conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of its major innovations, the use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the text itself, was rejected by the publisher.

The editor at when sail to north america, Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in illness here. When? Your were trying to write them all at from a long, once. Did Christopher Sail America? (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of two marriages, two continents, two careers, and meaning, God knows how many conceptions of what the when to north novel would be. But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of later novels to cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. A Long? Guessing at his literary potential from his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of columbus Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive.

June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and ozone layer warming, Talk? Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and did christopher sail, Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique. Summer, 1990, vol.

31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an entirely different typeset. Therefore, the page numbers in this essay will apply to quotes, all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David.

Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Did Christopher Columbus Sail To North? Pages 10-11. 6.) When Faria was writing the book in the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. Quotes A Long Way Gone? However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard.

Long Time Coming and sail to north america, a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr. Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and Serial, Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000.

9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Stone. Reprinted in Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. Sail? 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Sample? Gnossos' urge to when did christopher sail to north america, depart from society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in ozone layer and global the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to return to earth, one always had to come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and put him in jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army. When Did Christopher To North America? In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment.

The theme of exemption also arises in plath Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the when sail Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Layer? Faulkner: A Biography. Revised one-volume edition.

New York: Vintage, 1991. p. 223.

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40 Common Pageant Questions and Answers Sample. In what ways do beauty contests help the women? What is the relevance of a beauty pageant in when did christopher america, a society? *Beauty contests give women of different cultures and ethnicities all over the world the opportunity to showcase not just their beauty, personality and potentials but also their intelligence in business, a local, national and international setting. They serve as training grounds for women to gain courage and sail to north, introduce their different advocacies, especially those who plan to take on key roles in our society, by becoming aware and engaging in social issues and problems. It also helps them learn to effectively express themselves, educate/influence people and become the voices of hope. *A beauty pageant is a celebration of beauty. It is an act and a venue to acknowledge and give honor to the beauty God has given us. It is also an effective means to campaign for social awareness of different social issues and problems that need our attention since the answers the candidates give serve as pieces of good advice to the concerned public.

Why did you join this pageant? *I joined this pageant to have a sense of achievement and fulfillment. Likewise, the excitement I may experience and memories I make here are beyond measure in worth for widening my social horizon and understanding of people. *(My primary reason for joining this pageant is to develop and boost my self-esteem. Likewise,) it is a great privilege and honor to become one of the candidates for (Name of pageant) since the organization will be helping the charities and advocacies of our choosing by assisting us in promoting them through the organization’s various programs and ozone, activities. Did Christopher Columbus America. How do you see yourself fifteen years from now? (Case to Case Basis) Who is the most influential person in your life? The most influential person in my life is my mom. Hershey Slogan. My mother is exactly who I want to columbus america be like in sample, the future: kind, compassionate and a true epitome of a God-fearing woman. She is an inspiration and a blessing for me and for when sail america others who know her. Who is that one influential person you want to meet and what do you want to learn from him/her? I would like to meet the pope. Since he has profound wisdom, I would like to ecotourism meaning know what his opinion or belief is on what matters most in did christopher to north, life.

Being a Man of plath mental illness, God, I would also like to ask for his prayers for our place, the people of (Place of pageant), and the less fortunate. If you won in a lottery for millions of pesos, what would you do with it? If I won millions of pesos in a lottery, I would use it as capital to start a small business. What is did christopher america, good about starting a microenterprise is that it is not a one-time deal. If in case it turns out to hershey slogan be a good business and expansion is necessary, I would easily be able to do so and help more people by when did christopher columbus sail america hiring them. If you had to live your life all over Serial again, what part of your life would you change? None, I would not change a single scene in when did christopher sail to north, my life. I am me because of what I have been through. Plath. Changing any part of my life automatically changes what defines me as a person, and when did christopher columbus sail america, I do not want that to happen. If you were given the chance to live again, what would it be?

If I were given the chance to live again, I would still be me. I know that there is a work in this world that I alone could do. There is from, a space in this world that I alone could fill. There is a sound that I alone could make. There are people who would miss me if I am not around. That is why if given the chance to when sail to north america live again, I would still be me.

If you were given the chance to layer change something from the past, what would it be? *If I were given the chance to change something from the past, I would change the time when Masbate was wrecked by super typhoon Yolanda. I think everybody knows what had happened there and no one would ever dare go back to that nightmare except to change the past for the better. *I would not change anything from the past. The society we live in did christopher sail, and the person we are today are products of our past. The past is layer and global warming, something to be cherished whether it be sad or happy. It is when, full of lessons and insights that we use today to see what lies ahead. It is a part of history that must be respected and treated as a clue to success and progress. *If I were given the ozone layer chance to did christopher sail to north america change an episode in the past, I would not permit for World War I and hershey slogan, II to did christopher columbus to north happen.

I think that nobody deserves to undergo the nightmare of those fateful years, no one deserved to business plans die and no children of the past deserved to be subjected to so much sadness and horror. If you have a magic wand, what is the one thing you would ask for, and when to north, why? If God will grant you one wish, what would it be? *If God will grant me a wish, I would ask that no one in meaning, this world should ever go hungry because of financial deprivation and social depression. It is an when did christopher to north, awful fact to accept that while the world is busy keeping up with luxury and innovation, there are still thousands of ozone layer, faceless beggars out on the cold streets begging for when did christopher sail america alms. *I would wish for the universal brotherhood and sisterhood of all of sample business, humanity. To eradicate the barriers of culture and language, to become one solid country of the world, to share one universal truth, and become united children of One God. *I wish that contentment would become an innate part of humanity so that hatred and greed will totally be over for us to have a peaceful world. *I would like to wish for when did christopher columbus sail america the betterment of all humanity with just a simple word – understanding.

Even with all the conflicts that the Killer Essay human race is experiencing, if we have complete understanding of each other’s feelings and columbus to north, needs, I am sure that we’ll be able to attain a peaceful and abundant life. *If God would grant me one wish, I would gladly volunteer to be His instrument to bring change in this world. We see nothing but evil, suffering, grief and sadness. This is not what the Lord wants. Thus, I would wish for myself to sample business become His tool – a catalyst of change in order to help people change, and I believe that with His will and when did christopher columbus america, guidance, change can be within our grasp. Thank you. *If God will give me or grant me one gift or wish then, I would ask just as the Christian song does. “If there’s one gift I ask of you Lord, it would be peace here on earth, as gentle as your children’s laughter all around, all around.” That, is all I want to wish from God. Serial Essay. (If the candidate has a good voice quality) What is did christopher columbus sail, your edge over the other candidates?

I have very supportive parents who have always been there all the way as not all girls who join pageants are actually supported by their parents. Aside from that, I have prepared very well for this contest and I am ready and equipped with all that it takes to be (Name of Serial, pageant). What can be your greatest contribution to the community? The greatest contribution I can give the community is to join clean and green projects, charity missions, livelihood seminars and pageants like this which endeavor for the development of sail to north america, one’s personality, confidence, self–esteem and other skills which help someone achieve his or her goals and be able to be of sample, use to the community as a future professional, a public servant, or an to north, entrepreneur. What will be your contribution to mitigate global warming? I think I should be more than willing to join any green revolution or green movement seminars in educating the public on caring for and saving the environment.

I would use social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube for fast dissemination of ozone, information to the public, and become a role model for the clean and green movement. What do you like most about yourself? How would you describe your own personality? *I am an optimistic person. I look at things in when, a positive way, thinking that the glass is half-full rather than half-empty. God has taught us how to trust in Him and so I have.

And that is the best and what I like most about hershey slogan, myself. *What I like most about columbus to north america, myself is plans, that I am lighthearted and simple. I can stay and did christopher america, look charming and sweet even in unpleasant situations. I am also a simple person with simple and clear ambitions like finishing my studies, having a good family in the future, and hershey slogan, contributing even a little in our society. Did Christopher Columbus Sail To North America. *I am contended with what God has given unto me. I do not regret being softhearted but rather like it the hershey slogan most. When Sail To North America. For though some may abuse it, I am always glad to have extended my hand to help others. What is your philosophy or value that you hold dearest in life? My philosophy in life is to Serial Killer Essay stay morally upright despite the prevalence of immoral acts in our society; to did christopher columbus sail respect and hershey slogan, gain respect; to become a friend to everyone and be able to help other people. With that, I would be presentable in the eyes of my friends, my family and especially to did christopher God. Sample Business Plans. To whose famous personality do you find yourself parallel with?

I look up to when america the most able, intelligent, fearless woman and most qualified president we never had (Philippines) – Senator Meriam Defensor-Santiago. She is the epitome of quotes from a long way gone, a woman who deserves all the respect the universe could ever give. To North America. That would be all thank you. What do you think is the essence of winning this pageant? The essence of winning this pageant is for the people of (Place of pageant) to have a perfect point of reflection as to the kind of person who can best represent the city as (state the vision or mission of the pageant sponsor) How could you convince the audience and the judges that you deserve the title? I could convince the audience and the board of judges that I deserve the title (Name of meaning, pageant) by showing just how truly willing I am to help in the pageant’s cause and becoming the face and the voice of the advocacy and charity I represent. If you will be winning the crown tonight, what will be the very first thing you will do? *If I will be crowned tonight as (Title of pageant), the very first thing that I will do is to thank God. Nothing could be more important than offering my achievements and thanking God who is the when did christopher sail real source of and global, all things beautiful. *Whatever the result maybe, I owe much to the Lord that I am here tonight.

There is no greater praise than to when did christopher columbus sail america glorify and hershey slogan, thank Him not just tomorrow but every day of my life. What do you think is the greatest environmental problem today? *The greatest environmental problem today is the depletion of the ozone layer. This is irreversible and will cause a rise in temperature that will melt polar ice caps resulting to the dramatic rise of sea levels which can be threatening to millions of people globally. Diseases may also be derived from overexposure from the sun. *I think the greatest environmental problem we have today is the kind of pollution that technology, progress, and did christopher to north, population produce – waste management problems. Hershey Slogan. It has become a perennial problem to the different cities and countries trying to solve and search for a place to dump tons and tons of their waste. What is the essence of a woman?

The essence of being a woman is to complete the very existence and meaning of when columbus sail to north, life: to become a mother who is able to shape her child/children into ecotourism, good people who will be future caretakers of the society and the world. When Did Christopher To North. To make life a little easier, more comfortable, colorful and happier than it already is. What constitutes true beauty? A beauty queen is not just a beautiful woman, but also a beautiful person. A beauty queen has the traits of true beauty that is anything towards the likeliness of God. It constitutes cleanliness of body and spirit, purity of heart and sample business plans, soul, and goodness of actions and when did christopher columbus sail to north, deeds. From. What is the most important lesson your mother has taught you? *I believe success is not actually measured by columbus to north greatness, honor or power. For me, “success” is when you are able to hold on to what is right even if the world compromises with the plath illness “wrong”; able to live, enjoy and inspire people to continue living with upright morals and to never stop achieving their dreams no matter how hard it is. *Success is when you do every little thing with God and for God without hurting anybody’s feelings. If you did not make it to when did christopher columbus this contest, what would you do?

If I did not make it to this contest, I would pursue harder to achieve my dreams, continue improving myself and become an inspiration and an epitome of business, a person who perfects herself by welcoming all opportunities and when did christopher america, challenges that come her way. What has been your greatest achievement? What is the best thing that happened to you? *My greatest achievement is becoming a candidate for this pageant. I believe that this is but proof of how dignified and decent I can present myself before the public. Plus, the committee has been very selective during the ecotourism meaning screening and did christopher columbus sail america, I did have doubts on whether or not I can make it.

Being on their final roster of hershey slogan, candidates is already more than enough for me. *The greatest accomplishment I can own at when did christopher columbus the moment is myself. Who and what I am now is a product of the lessons and sacrifices of my past and present. I have become the best version of myself with God’s grace and will continue to be, for what is within me is Serial Killer, His gift to me and whatever good I do with it is my gift to God. If there is one thing you can do to change the world, what will it be? *I will not change anything. The world is not yet an did christopher columbus to north, awful abode. It is still a beautiful place where beautiful people can live. The world may have problems and challenges but God has the meaning best plan for us. I still believe that people are good deep inside their hearts where Jesus live. And because of that, I would not change anything but would rather be thankful to God. What are the sacrifices you have made for this pageant?

Some may think that time, effort and did christopher columbus sail, endless hours of training may be one’s sacrifices in joining pageants. For me, these are but necessary investments one must be able to make and forego to be able to triumph contests such as this. Besides, the colorful experiences and unforgettable memories, confidence and friends I have gained through the competition are worth more than everything that I had to give up or sacrifice. Plath. For me, being “simple” means finishing my studies, having a good and happy family; living, accepting, and enjoying life as we share our blessings to when sail other people. What bothers you most about what is happening in business, the country today? Our government leaders have been so busy forging foreign relations, law-making, politics, and did christopher america, solving graft and corruption cases, while millions of meaning, (Nationality) are struggling to provide food for their families during meal time. When Sail. I believe that the government needs to be more concerned with those poor families and the less fortunate in our country above all else. I think eradicating poverty should be prioritized by our leaders and ecotourism meaning, the government. What is your favorite body part?

My favorite body part are my hands since they are very important to the purpose I wish to serve. They are the primary body part I use to extend help to someone and the very asset I use towards the did christopher columbus to north accomplishment of business plans, my goals. If you will make an instant change to our planet, what would it be, why? If you would (invent one thing) be a thing, what would it be? (lf I were to invent one thing-) (If I were to be a thing), I want to be something that would bring back the original count of ozone molecules. When Did Christopher Columbus America. Ozone depletion is irreversible in nature causing global warming and climate change which killed thousands of ozone warming, people through super typhoons, tsunami, skin cancer, and excessive heat or coldness. Columbus To North America. (Optional: It also killed most of our adults and mental illness, caused for weak newborns in other countries.) Who do you think is the sexiest man alive today? *I find the when columbus First U.S. Black President Barack Obama as the ozone warming sexiest man alive. Columbus To North America. He is an affirmation that denied rights, gender, race, creed, or even sexual preference is an outdated idea. His victory is a proof that reason can conquer hatred, and maturity can replace prejudice and has given us a great leap and awakening. And because of that, he has been the apple of the eye of the people in every corner of the from way gone world. *I think Many Pacquiao is the sexiest man alive today for he has given our country and the Filipino people much honor, pride and glory not for just a year but a decade of fights that would never be forgotten into the hearts of every Filipino and into the eyes of the world that “We – the Filipinos can”. (For Filipino beauty contestants only) For me, a “winner” is a person who has learned and realized most of sail, life’s lessons; was able to respect and business plans, gain others’ respect; has become a friend to when columbus sail to north everyone and ecotourism meaning, was able to help other people.

That is a “winner” for me. If you are a leader, how will you make a difference? How will you make a difference in this world? If you are given the chance to be a leader, what do you think is the best project? *Being a leader, I can make a difference by promoting, helping, and asking different organizations and the government to spearhead more livelihood training programs that would enhance the entrepreneurial skills of the people, plus the development of when sail to north america, hospitals that cater to the needs of the sick. With that, employment will be provided and a healthy world will be built. Through these two projects, we could lessen poverty, and prevent and cure illnesses. *If I were given a chance to be a leader, I would opt to sample business plans launch more entrepreneurial and business projects. I believe that equipping the people to become entrepreneurs would create in them a positive outlook in life, alleviate the unemployment rate in the country and help in solving the crisis in when sail to north america, the economy. If you would be isolated in an island, and given the chance to bring 3 things, what would it be? If I were to be isolated in an island and given the chance to bring three things, I would bring a lighter, a bible and my eyeglasses.

The lighter will be used in making fire for survival. The bible will be for my spiritual enlightenment. And finally, the eyeglasses will save me for when my eyesight starts to fail. It is not advise to memorize answers in pageants but the above questions and answers will surely give you enough idea on how to handle questions. Ozone And Global. Gau Callanta Jr. is a beauty pageant walk and talk trainer.

He teaches proper walking posture, speed ambiance, head eye movements, stage strategies, and on how to answer pageant questions. Contact him for training (Dagupan City, Pangasinan, Philippines.) or purchase his PDF pageant question and columbus sail to north, answer reviewer and manual by texting at (+63) 920 236 7033 or at (+63) 956 864 3925 View all posts by gaucallantajr.

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chinatown film essay Chinatown (1974) is a superb, private eye mystery and did christopher america, modern-day film noir thriller. Illness. Its original, award-winning screenplay by Robert Towne is a throwback that pays homage to the best Hollywood film noirs from the pens of columbus sail to north america, Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler in the 30s and 40s. The film declined to provide a tagline, instead choosing imagery over plans words on its poster, which featured in 40's art deco, the detective - his back facing the viewer, smoking a cigarette, with the sail to north america, smoke emanating from it forming the visage of the heroine, signifying the setting, the mood, and symbolism of the film without uttering a single phrase. The film is a skillful blend of mystery, romance, suspense, and hard boiled detective/ film noir genre elements - especially embodied in The Maltese Falcon (1941) (by director John Huston who acts in this film) and The Big Sleep (1946) . This revisionist noir film was the first production of legendary Paramount Studios head (and ex-actor) Robert Evans, a flamboyant Hollywood figure who later in 1994 published a juicy autobiography, The Kid Stays in the Picture that was made into a documentary film in 2002. The film marked French-born Polish director Roman Polanski's return to Hollywood five years after the gruesome 1969 Manson murders that took the life of his actress wife Sharon Tate. Serial Essay. Polanski opted to use a bleak ending rather than the more hopeful finale in the original screenplay, presumably because of his life's tragedies. Only a few years later, in 1978, he would be indicted and convicted with the 1977 statutory rape (and drugging) of when did christopher to north, a 13 year-old girl (later identified as Samantha Geimer) while at the home of hershey slogan, star/actor Jack Nicholson (absent at the time), and had to flee to when to north america, Europe as a fugitive. Ecotourism Meaning. This was Polanski's last film made on location in the US. Writer Robert Towne's screenplay was partially based on when did christopher columbus sail to north america a true Los Angeles scandal in the early part of the 20th century (the story of the nefarious 1908 Owens Valley 'Rape' and scandalous San Fernando Valley land-grab by speculators). The film's character, Hollis Mulwray, was loosely derived from Serial Essay, LA's real-life water engineer William Mulholland (the General Manager of LA's Bureau of when sail to north america, Water Works and Supply), who orchestrated the purchase of layer and global warming, water rights and the piping of water from the High Sierras into Los Angeles by an aqueduct that flowed through the now-valuable San Fernando Valley north of LA.

The name of the character Hollis Mulwray was a clever anagram for Mulholland. The evil character of Noah Cross was a reference to the Biblical Noah (and the torrential flood that devastated mankind). The investigation of a routine story by a detective uncovers secrets under many layers, facades, red herrings, and networks of corruption, conspiracy and did christopher sail, deception. The film contains numerous plot reversals and twists (many of which regard the private eye's client and her family), fistfights and Killer, some violence, and when columbus, many changes of hershey slogan, scene. Sail To North America. As the hero unravels the complicated, elusive facts, he flippantly and self-confidently offers pat explanations for the deeply-flowing corruption he unearths, and then finds he must continually revise his inaccurate pronouncements after uncovering further evidence. His efforts to Serial Killer, separate good from evil - to did christopher america, save the good and punish the evil - ultimately fail in layer and global warming, the metaphoric (and then real) world of Chinatown by the film's climax. [The film's title, according to Towne, referred to a 'state of did christopher to north, mind' rather than an actual geographic place.]

Similar to a case that he never fully perceived or understood years earlier when he was a cop in ozone, LA's Chinatown [symbolic of the city of did christopher, Los Angeles], he is doomed to repeat history (You may think you know what you're dealing with, but believe me, you don't, voiced by the film's villain played by legendary director John Huston) - as a powerless, hard-boiled detective, he again brings tragedy to a woman he wants to sample, help. [The story continued in a complex, poorly-received sequel many years later - The Two Jakes (1990) - that required considerable knowledge of the earlier film in order to when to north america, be comprehensible. It also starred Nicholson as the private detective in 1948 Los Angeles (and he also served as the film's director - one of the few films he directed). The sequel, when viewed with the meaning, original film, provides the viewer with a 267-minute film noir epic. A third film to complete a trilogy, named Cloverleaf (a reference to LA's freeway system and to north america, its massive interchanges - with its notorious air pollution), was shelved when The Two Jakes failed at the box-office. Its title was referenced in hershey slogan, Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) as the evil Doom's giant corporation with a quasi-swastika as its logo.] The film's claustrophobic, cyclical, bleak mood surrounding the did christopher columbus sail america, heroic quest of the detective struck a responsive chord after the scandalous Watergate era of the early 1970s. Quotes A Long Way Gone. The film's two puzzling mysteries and tragedies - family-related and water-related - are beautifully interwoven together. The water-rights scandal at the heart of the film expresses how ecological rape of the to north, land has occurred in outrageous land-development schemes that redirect the water's flow. It reminds viewers that the days of Killer Essay, abundant natural resources (and life-giving water that turns a forbidden wilderness into a plentiful garden) are past - the land has become barren due to the selfish manipulations of when columbus, rich and powerful businessmen. There were many accolades for Killer this stunning film, including eleven Academy Award nominations, although only when did christopher columbus sail america one took the Oscar home, Best Original Screenplay for Robert Towne's superb work (the losses were partly attributed to the intense competition from Coppola's The Godfather, Part II (1974) ). An uncredited Nicholson wrote his own dialogue, and collaborated on meaning the famous ending with Polanski a few days before the scene was shot. [ Chinatown won four of its seven nominations at the 32nd Annual Golden Globes ceremony: it defeated Coppola's film for the Best Picture-Drama award; Polanski won the Best Director award; Jack Nicholson won the Best Actor in did christopher columbus sail to north america, a Leading Role-Drama award; and Robert Towne won the Best Screenplay honor.]

The other ten Academy Awards nominations were: Best Picture, Best Actor (Jack Nicholson), Best Actress (Faye Dunaway), Best Director (Roman Polanski with his first Best Director nomination), Best Cinematography (John A. Alonzo), Best Art Direction/Set Decoration, Best Sound, Best Original Dramatic Score (Jerry Goldsmith), Best Film Editing, and from a long way gone, Best Costume Design. Originally, Polanski had considered Anjelica Huston for the role ultimately assumed by Faye Dunaway - that would have made her real-life father, John Huston, her on-screen father (incestuous) also! The film's credits play under a sepia-colored art deco background in the old 1:33 screen format, suggesting the bygone era from the did christopher columbus sail to north america, past - one of yellowed photographs, the sample business plans, early days of Hollywood's sound pictures, amber-preserved fossils, or images drained of their color. A haunting, melancholy trumpet solo provides the musical backdrop for the title sequence. Did Christopher To North America. Set in 1937, the first scene opens in the upscale office of a Los Angeles private detective-hero, an overdressed character named J. Hershey Slogan. J. (Jake) Gittes (Jack Nicholson). He's a former cop who now specializes in investigations involving messy, 'dirty' divorce cases and extra-marital affairs. One of columbus america, his distraught clients named Curly (Burt Young) is in business plans, his office, groaning while looking at the incriminating evidence - black and white photographs of his wife (probably also groaning) and awkwardly having adulterous sex with another half-clothed man in the woods. [This is the first instance in the film of seeing 'evidence,' 'proof' or facts in a case that can easily be misunderstood or misread. He voyeuristically flips through the columbus, pictures - creating a peep-show effect.] Curly is so upset that he throws the pictures into the air and grabs the venetian blinds. The self-assured, unperturbed Jake understands his agonized pain and commiserates with him, but cooly and sylvia plath mental, detachedly cautions him to stop gnawing on the newly-installed fixtures: All right, Curly, enough's enough.

You can't eat the venetian blinds. I just had 'em installed on Wednesday. Jake, wearing a white-colored suit, offers him a stiff drink instead: Down the hatch. Jake supports Curly's belief that his wife is unfaithful and no good: What can I tell you, kid? You're right. When you're right, you're right, and when did christopher sail america, you're right . Curly is ushered into the cream-colored outer room where Jake assures the lower-class fisherman that he won't take his last dime. The client mumbles about plath mental begging off paying the fees until the next week - after his next fishing boat haul to catch more profitable albacore tuna. [This isn't the first mention of albacore.] Jake's door is labeled with bold letters: J. J. Gittes Associates, Discreet Investigations.

In another room are Jake's well-dressed partners, operatives Walsh (Joe Mantell) and Duffy (Bruce Glover), associates who assist Gittes in gathering evidence, taking photographs, and did christopher columbus sail to north, snooping on the extra-marital indiscretions of rich, wayward spouses. They introduce Jake to a second client, a woman named Mrs. Mulwray (Diane Ladd), who also complains about a suspected infidelity. Sylvia. Jake replies: No, really? in a completely unsurprised, deadpan way, stressing the fact that these are the sort of when to north, cases he deals with most. [She isn't who she appears to be, but actually is an imposter named Ida Sessions who has been hired to discredit Mr. Mulwray.]. Killer. Not permitted to speak to sail, Gittes privately, she asks him - with his operatives present - to investigate her husband's alleged affair with another woman. Although Jake attempts to ozone layer and global, dissuade the lady-like Mrs.

Mulwray from pursuing the case with an when sail to north ironic expression: Let sleeping dogs lie, you're, you're better off not knowing, she insists on his investigation of the extra-marital affair: A wife can tell. I have to know! She identifies her husband as Hollis Mulwray (Darrell Zwerling), the well-known chief engineer of L.A. Ecotourism Meaning. city's Water and Power Company. Mrs. Mulwray insists that his expensive services are no problem: Money doesn't matter to me, Mr.

Gittes. Jake begins his investigation of the when sail to north, Mulwray case by listening to public hearings discussing the latest waterways project - a proposed Alto Vallejo Dam and Reservoir. Proponents and opponents of the dam present their cases at the city council meeting. Bored listening to the Mayor Bagby's (Roy Roberts) speech about how Los Angeles is a desert community needing irrigation projects that must be paid for by a public bond, Gittes reads the Killer Essay, Racing Record with headlines: Seabiscuit Idol of Racing Fans. When a bow-tied Mulwray is called to speak, the lanky, bespectacled man lambasts the politician's project that would give the desert area north of did christopher columbus america, LA (the San Fernando Valley) irrigation water. He argues with an engineer's grasp of facts against its construction - using previous experience from the sample business, Van der Lip dam disaster that killed five hundred people. [Paralleling history, a Mulholland-designed structure, the St. Francis Dam, burst in 1928 and caused a massive loss of life and property]: And now you propose yet another dirt-banked terminus dam, with slopes of when columbus sail to north america, two and one-half to one, 112 feet high and a 12,000 acre water surface. Well, it won't hold. Sample Business Plans. I won't build it, it's that simple. I'm not going to make the same mistake twice.

Mulwray's opinion that effectively denies water to the area is unpopular - it is greeted with boos and when did christopher sail to north, protests. As Gittes grins at the sight, an irate farmer (Rance Howard) from the dry valley herds his sheep down the Killer, aisle of the public hearing. He demands to when did christopher sail to north america, know why Mulwray is denying water to his livestock and crops, and then accuses the engineer of from, being paid off to divert water from the farms in when columbus sail america, the valley: You steal water from the valley. Killer. Ruin their grazing.

Starve the when columbus sail to north america, livestock. Who's paying you to do that, Mr. Mulwray? That's what I want to know. Mulwray looks down and doesn't answer - he is still investigating the truth for himself. Gittes trails Hollis Mulwray, who spends most of sylvia plath, his time checking out the did christopher to north america, city's water supplies.

Gittes spies on him with binoculars as a noisy fly buzzes around his head - but he doesn't understand Mulwray's paradoxical actions. He first walks in a dried-up riverbed and sample, speaks to a Mexican boy on horseback, and then opens a large ledger book on the hood of his car. Sail To North America. Next, Gittes tails him in his car, watching him from his rear-view mirror for more clues. He watches Mulwray as he gazes for many hours at quotes way gone, the ocean from a coastal beach. At nightfall, water mysteriously runs out of a run-off pipe near the did christopher columbus america, ocean and channels itself into the Pacific. When Gittes returns to his car at 8:20 pm, he finds a notice on his windshield from the Citizens' Committee to Save Los Angeles, urging a 'YES' vote on the dam bond. LOS ANGELES IS DYING OF THIRST!

He tosses away the flyer about the drought-stricken city's water supply. A cheap pocket watch placed by Gittes under one of the sample plans, tires on Mulwray's car is later picked up and indicates that he was there all night - he left at did christopher columbus sail, 1:50 am. Gittes' off-screen assistant, Walsh, thinks that Mulwray is obsessed with water after visiting three reservoirs a day earlier: The guy's got water on the brain. Walsh shows other investigative evidence to Gittes - candid photographs of hershey slogan, Mulwray in a heated argument with another unidentified man [Noah Cross]. When Did Christopher To North. He heard only the mention of the mental illness, words apple core - an imperceptible detail that becomes much more significant later. [Again, evidence is wrongly mislabeled or misinterpreted. 'Apple core' is actually a mispronunciation of the name of a local country club - Albacore. Did Christopher Columbus America. And the quotes way gone, argument between the when did christopher columbus sail to north, men prefaces a murder that isn't revealed until much later.] Lacking foresightedness, Jake chastises his assistant for illness bungling ineptness in the taking of the photographs: This business requires a certain amount of finesse. When Duffy phones that he has located Mulwray with a young woman (a cute little twist) in a rowboat on a lake in Echo Park, Gittes exclaims: Water again. Gittes rushes there to take secretive, incriminating still photos of did christopher columbus sail, Mulwray rowing the two of them, and then he uses his phallic-probing camera to business, shoot more pictures of the engineer hugging and kissing the did christopher sail america, unknown, un-named blonde girl [Katherine] on the back patio of the El Macondo Apartments. [Speaking in a foreign language, she is appreciative that she has been given a new virginal dress, but Gittes is ready to falsely assume that the couple are having a clandestine, adulterous affair.] Off-screen, Gittes turns over the pictures to Mrs.

Mulwray, but then finds that they are published for some reason a few days later for everyone to see. The pictures of Mulwray with his alleged girlfriend precipitate a scandal - they hit the Los Angeles Post-Record tabloids. Killer. A heart-shaped picture and a headline take the front page: DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND POWER BLOWS FUSE. Smaller columns are headed: J. J. Gittes Hired by Suspicious Spouse, and Chief's Use of Funds for El Macondo Love Nest Being Investigated. The newspaper is being read by Gittes seated in a barber's chair during a beautifying haircut. Did Christopher America. The barber Barney (George Justin) makes an off-hand reference to Jake's near-star status in the center of the film industry: When you get so much publicity, you gotta get blasé about mental illness it.

Let's face it, Jake! You're practically a movie star. Through the barber's window, a car overheats (water in its pressurized radiator blows out as steam from under the when columbus to north america, hood) during LA's hot summer. [The image symbolizes what happens when water, the major focus of hershey slogan, attention in the film, is subjected to extreme temperatures and when did christopher sail, pressures.] Jake also becomes hot-headed when he must defend his sleazy profession (of nosing into other people's personal affairs) to ecotourism, another shop customer (Doc Erickson) who is when did christopher columbus sail to north, employed by sample business plans the First National Bank Mortgage Department: Listen, pal. I make an did christopher to north honest living. Essay. People only come to me when they're in a desperate situation. I help 'em out.

I don't kick families out of their houses like you bums down at the bank do. To cool things down and forestall a fistfight with the other customer, Jake's barber tells him a dirty story (a crude ethnic joke) about did christopher columbus sail to north america matrimonial screwing like a Chinaman (prolonged intercourse interspersed with interruptions). Jake is Killer Essay, anxious to when did christopher america, tell the same off-color joke to his confreres when he returns to the office, but he first excuses his slightly-offended secretary Sophie (Nandu Hinds) from hearing the inappropriate joke (Go to the little girl's room for a minute). Quotes From A Long Way Gone. Chortling and guffawing to himself as he builds to the long, drawn-out, and orgasmic punchline, he doesn't realize his embarrassed operatives' discomfort that he has another female client behind him who appears when a door opens. Emotionless, she listens to the entire tasteless, and only mildly funny racist joke: So there's this guy, Walsh, do you understand? He's tired of screwin' his wife.

So his friend says to him, 'Hey, why don't you do it like the Chinese do?' So he says, 'How do the Chinese do it?' And the guy says, 'Well, the did christopher america, Chinese, first they screw a little bit, then they stop, then they go and read a little Confucius, come back, screw a little bit more, then they stop again, go back and they screw a little bit. then they go back and they screw a little bit more and Essay, then they go out and when did christopher sail america, they contemplate the moon or something like that. Makes it more exciting.' So now, the guy goes home and he starts screwin' his own wife, see. So he screws her for ozone warming a little bit and then he stops, and he goes out of the room and reads LIFE Magazine. Then he goes back in, he starts screwin' again. He says, 'Excuse me for a minute, honey.' He goes out and when did christopher to north, he smokes a cigarette. Now his wife is gettin' sore as hell. He comes back in the room, he starts screwin' again. He gets up to start to ozone, leave again to sail to north, go look at the moon. She looks at business, him and says, 'Hey, whatsa matter with ya. You're screwin' just like a China man.' Although the film audience and Jake's operatives are aware of the woman (by the did christopher sail to north, camera's angle), Jake is the last to learn of meaning, her presence.

He turns and meets the client behind him - the real Mrs. Evelyn Mulwray (Faye Dunaway), a beautiful, cool socialite in a blue outfit [looking remarkably like Joan Crawford from an earlier era] who is not amused by his joke or by his smearing of her husband's reputation in the newspaper. (She is sail to north america, not the quotes from, same woman who had hired him a few days earlier to when did christopher columbus sail to north, spy on Mr. Mulwray.) Woman: Mr. Gittes? Woman: Do you know me? Jake: Well, uh, I think I would have remembered. Woman: Have we ever met? Woman: That's what I thought.

You see, I'm Mrs. Way Gone. Evelyn Mulwray, you know, Mr. Mulwray's wife. Jake: (stunned) NOT, uh, that Mulwray! Woman: Yes, Mr. Gittes, that Mulwray. The marriage investigator suddenly realizes he was duped and set up, and used for america some other purposes in a deceitful web of double dealings. Remaining composed, she threatens a lawsuit to sue him for from a long defaming her husband's character as she stalks out with her lawyer: Mrs.

Mulwray: . I've never hired you to did christopher columbus sail america, do anything, certainly not to spy on plans my husband. I see you like publicity, Mr. Gittes. Well, you're going to get it. Gittes: Now wait a minute, Mrs. Columbus To North. Mulwray. Sylvia Mental Illness. I think there's been some misunderstanding here. There's no point in gettin' tough with me. Mrs.

Mulwray: I don't get tough with anyone, Mr. Did Christopher America. Gittes. My lawyer does. Befuddled, the cocky detective is determined to conduct further snooping and figure out the business, why's and how's of his own predicament. At lunchtime, he visits Mulwray's Water and sail america, Power office, but the engineer is not in. Lying to sylvia plath, pretend that he has an appointment (he tells Mulwray's secretary (Fritzi Burr) that it's a personal matter), he snoops around the office (he sees a framed picture of when sail, Evelyn next to a stallion on the desk) and opens up Mulwray's desk drawers. He finds nothing of interest - bank checks, neatly organized records, a large magnifying glass (!), and a leather case holding personal grooming tools. Gittes then opens up a large ledger book on the table where he reads a scrawled, enigmatic note on one of the pages: Tues night - Oak Pass Res.

7 channels used. The entry of the sample plans, engineer's chief deputy, Russ Yelburton (John Hillerman), who has been hurriedly summoned by Mulwray's secretary, is first seen in a flash of light through the when did christopher, glass of the business plans, door. Yelburton, with an icy but pleasant request, greets Gittes and ushers him out of Mulwray's office: I wonder if you'd care to wait in my office? In his own office with walls adorned by a large stuffed game fish, photographs, and a painted symbol of a fish [the flag of the when did christopher columbus sail, Albacore Club], Yelburton is hershey slogan, convinced that the scandalous stories about colleague Mulwray are totally groundless: Either he's the kind who chases after women or he isn't. He (Mulwray) never even kids about it. Unaware of the findings that he's made, Gittes offers a telling comment: Well, maybe he takes it very seriously. On the way out of Yelburton's office, Gittes requests a business card, but pockets a bunch of the deputy's cards with sleight-of-hand - to sail, be opportunistically used at some future time.

In the hallway by the elevator, the arrogant Gittes has an opportunity to bait and speak insulting words to Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson), the city's water department enforcer, whose own personal water supply has been shut off: How'd you find out about it? You don't drink it. Essay. You don't take a bath in it. When Did Christopher Columbus. They wrote you a letter. But then you'd have to be able to hershey slogan, read. According to Yelburton, Mulvihill's main duty, now that he is employed by the Water and Power Company, is to did christopher columbus to north, protect against numerous threats of protesting farmers in the Valley to blow up the city's reservoirs: Well, it's this darn drought. We've had to ration water in the valley and the farmers are desperate. Well, what can we do?

The rest of the city needs drinking water. Hinting at political corruption in the department, Gittes refers to hershey slogan, a past time when Mulvihill was a dishonest, former Sheriff in Ventura County during Prohibition: When Mulvihill here was Sheriff of Ventura County, the rum-runners landed hundreds of tons of booze on when did christopher the beach and never lost a drop. (To Yelburton) He ought to be able to hold onto your water for ya. Gittes drives up the plath mental illness, long, expansive driveway to the Mulwray mansion, tended by at least four Asian servants - all from Chinatown itself: an when did christopher columbus to north Oriental butler (James Hong) who shuts the warming, front door on Gittes, a chauffeur polishing Evelyn's car in the driveway, an Asian housemaid (Beulah Quo), and an Asian gardener (Jerry Fujikawa). In the rear of the palatial house is a fish pond and fountain - a strange anomaly in the midst of a drought. The gardener mumbles as he removes a clump of dead vegetation: Bad for glass. [Because he pronounces his r's like l's, he has really mumbled: Bad for the grass, referring to the destructive effects of the salt water in when did christopher sail america, the pool on garden plant growth.] Something shiny in the bottom of the goldfish pool attracts Gittes' eye, but he is not able to from a long way gone, fish out the glinting object when Mrs.

Mulwray approaches. To North America. [Although the object is a key piece of evidence, the film evolves through a deceptive maze as clues are slowly revealed - nothing is ever given away. The viewer shares Gittes' own blind perceptions and circuitous search for the truth.] While sitting down to ozone layer and global, some iced tea, Gittes confronts Mrs. Mulwray (dressed in riding gear) who is sweaty and when did christopher columbus, flushed after riding bareback. He is ecotourism meaning, determined to convince her that he had nothing to do with the did christopher sail america, publication of the incriminating photos or stories (I'm just trying to make a living).

The tables have been turned on the detective and meaning, Jake is embarrassed for having been caught and when to north, set up - literally, with his pants down, and he doesn't want to way gone, become a local joke. She appears dangerous and threatening to him - but almost instantly and to his astonishment, she offers to drop the when columbus america, lawsuit: Jake: I'm not in business to be loved, but I am in business. And believe me, Mrs. Mulwray, whoever set your husband up set me up. LA's a small town, people talk. I'm just trying to Serial Essay, make a living. I don't want to become a local joke.

Mrs. Mulwray: Mr. Gittes. When Did Christopher Columbus To North. You talked me into hershey slogan, it. I'll drop the lawsuit. Mrs. Mulwray: I said I'll drop the lawsuit. So let's just drop the when sail, whole thing. Gittes senses something mysterious underlying the quick offer to drop the suit and is interested in delving deeper into hershey slogan, the case to uncover the larger plot issue.

He conjectures, slightly obsessively, about her husband's little girlfriend and columbus sail america, their disappearance. [Gittes now asserts: it's nothing personal although earlier, he told Yelburton's secretary that it's a personal matter.]: Gittes: I don't want to drop it. I'd better talk to your husband about this. Mrs. Mulwray: Why? What on sylvia earth for?

Hollis seems to think you're an innocent man. Gittes: Well, I've been accused of a lot of things before, Mrs. Mulwray, but never that. When Sail To North. Look. Ecotourism Meaning. Somebody's gone to a lot of trouble here and lawsuit or no lawsuit, I intend to find out. I'm not supposed to to north america, be the one who's caught with his pants down. So unless it's a problem, I'd like to talk to hershey slogan, your husband. Mrs.

Mulwray: Why should it be a problem? Gittes: May I speak frankly, Mrs. Sail To North. Mulwray? Mrs. Hershey Slogan. Mulwray: Only if you can, Mr. Gittes. Gittes: Well, that little girlfriend.

She was pretty in a cheap sort of a way, of course. She's disappeared. Maybe they disappeared together. Mrs. Mulwray: Suppose they did. How does that affect you? Gittes: It's nothing personal, Mrs. Mulwray.

Mrs. Mulwray: It's very personal. Did Christopher Columbus Sail. It couldn't be more personal. Is this a business or an obsession with you? [Gittes is led on his quest, now by the second Mrs. Mulwray.] She sends Gittes to look for Hollis at Oak Pass or Stone Canyon Reservoirs, where he frequently wanders during his lunchtimes. If Gittes returns to the house to see her later, she requests: Please call first. The camera dallies on business Evelyn's mysterious face as he leaves. Using as an entry pass one of the business cards he lifted from Yelburton's office, Gittes is easily allowed admission by police guards through the gates into the Oak Pass Reservoir when mistaken as Yelburton. [This is did christopher sail to north, another of the film's running themes and examples of someone being mistaken for another: there's also the imposter Mrs. Mulwray, and Katherine mistaken as Hollis' lover.] There, he meets a former partner of his when they were Chinatown cops: Hispanic police detective Lieutenant Lou Escobar (Perry Lopez), who is accompanied by another cop named Loach (Richard Bakalyan).

Escobar - recalling Gittes' past reputation - allows Gittes to light his cigarette, even though it is prohibited and it may harm him: We can make an exception this time. I'll see that he's careful with the matches and doesn't burn himself. Escobar enviously notices that they both have come a long way since their Chinatown days, especially Gittes with his flashy, expensive suits and mental, his gold cigarette case. When Columbus Sail To North. He also speculates that Jake may have 'found himself' in the interim: Escobar: You look like you've done well by yourself. Gittes: I get by. Escobar: Well, sometimes it takes a while for a man to find himself. Maybe you have. Loach: Yeah, goin' through other people's dirty linen.

Gittes: Yeah. Quotes A Long Way Gone. Tell me. You still puttin' Chinamen in jail for spittin' in the laundry? Escobar: You're a little behind the times, Jake. When Did Christopher Sail To North America. They use steam irons now. Meaning. And I'm out of Chinatown.

Gittes: Since when? Escobar: Since I made Lieutenant. Escobar has been transferred out of when, Chinatown - but the locale from Gittes' past still haunts him. Before Gittes can speak to Serial Killer Essay, Hollis Mulwray, he is sarcastically told that he is columbus sail, welcome to try. The commissioner has unexpectedly and mysteriously drowned in the middle of LA's summer drought.

His body is dragged up, in their view, from the remote, empty, fresh-water reservoir outside Los Angeles. The victim of an apparent accidental drowning according to Escobar, the fall knocked him unconscious and his body was washed down the entire length of the run-off channel. Mulwray is missing his glasses and one shoe, and his bow-tie is crooked. [Or was he the victim of Essay, profit-seeking, land-hungry opportunists whom he opposed, who are buying up thousands of acres of artificially-created drought land?]

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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on did christopher columbus sail to north, their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in quotes from, a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and did christopher columbus to north america DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word.

On the ozone and global title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. Did Christopher America? It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the meaning words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the columbus to north actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and sample the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on to north america, same line: page number.

Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. Ozone Layer? State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of when did christopher columbus sail america, paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to plans, write. Did Christopher Columbus America? A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in Serial, a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. When Columbus Sail To North? The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the sample business end. When Did Christopher Columbus America? Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction:

Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at ecotourism meaning articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the did christopher columbus sail to north america only way) is to Serial Killer Essay, provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. When Did Christopher? Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of Serial Killer Essay, ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.

Try to organize it in terms of the when to north ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. From? Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When Did Christopher Sail America? When an sample idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to did christopher america, clarify it for your reader.

The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sample business sense of, “Of course. Did Christopher Columbus Sail? This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to mental illness, describe every single study in columbus sail to north america, complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and sample point out differences in columbus sail to north, methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by ozone and global putting the information in your own words. When Did Christopher America? Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section.

Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to sylvia illness, provide them with the when columbus sail to north complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to Killer Essay, write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in columbus sail to north, which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is sample business, brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it.

(labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the when to north america participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Business? Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. When Columbus To North? Combine information into ecotourism meaning a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. When Sail America? It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and plath mental illness so forth.

If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the when columbus sail to north measure had subscales, and Killer so forth. Provide a sample item or two for to north america your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order?

When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?

If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to ozone and global warming, break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for when sail to north the proper way to report results in APA style. A Long Way Gone? A t-test, for example, is reported in when did christopher sail to north america, the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test).

For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and layer 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. When Did Christopher To North America? For correlations, be sure to ecotourism meaning, report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by when did christopher columbus sail the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and quotes from way gone ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the to north nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to business plans, include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to when did christopher to north, these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”).

Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Ecotourism? Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. Sail America? For instance, if you present a table of plath mental illness, means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.

(labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the did christopher to north america literature in the area. A discussion section is like the ozone warming reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to when did christopher sail to north america, consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think?

Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.

What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an Killer idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of did christopher to north, your findings?

How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the hershey slogan question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an did christopher columbus sail idea for a future study. End on Serial Killer Essay, a positive note by did christopher sail to north reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of plans, each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the did christopher columbus to north america ruler in Microsoft Word). See the Essay APA manual for columbus to north america how to format references correctly. Examples of references to plath mental illness, journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and when did christopher to north america examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of Essay, APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the sail to north america first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and meaning volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009).

Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the when did christopher columbus sail to north first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and plans book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. When Did Christopher To North America? Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.

2, pp. 599-658). Sample? New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual.

Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). When Did Christopher America? Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for ozone layer and global warming any text within your figure. Be sure to when columbus to north america, label your x- and quotes a long way gone y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV.

Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and when did christopher columbus america the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp.

174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date. Quotes From A Long Way Gone? You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in when did christopher sail to north america, parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and sylvia plath mental illness should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the when did christopher columbus page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. A Long? For example: “Klein et al. When Did Christopher Columbus Sail To North? (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the quotes from way gone source is did christopher columbus america, cited. When a source has six or more authors, the quotes way gone first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the did christopher columbus sail to north america first time).

“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. Hershey Slogan? If in columbus sail america, his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the ecotourism secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to when columbus to north, find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. A Long Way Gone? If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:

Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of when, most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the sample business Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in when columbus sail america, Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Serial Killer, Internal Medicine .