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We Media Democracy and Convergence Jeremy Orlebar | Wednesday May 12, 2010. The catch word for the digital world of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat new media is convergence. Convergence is the coming together of everything digital. Who Identify With One Another?? Any digital media can be transmitted by any suitable digital medium, such as a wifi broadband connection or mobile phone, so that all communications, text, audio, graphics, video, and broadcasting can be accessed instantly. The iPhone, Blackberry or computer becomes a two-way communications module with access to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat the internet, email, social. Richard Gent | Monday June 01, 2009. Do Sociologists Call Two Or People Who Identify And Interact? We Study Media by Rob McMinn. The Student Room Media Studies. Setting up a Radio Station on Mediaed.org.uk. Modern Mechanix: examples of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat vintage advertising.

Technorati on Ideology. Ideology for Kids: Decoding the Mothers Essay Kremlin#8217;s Website. Vs. Proletariat? The End of Cyberspace. Do Sociologists Who Identify And Interact One Another?? Kinoeye on Media Studies. Bluegrass Film Society. Kids Gobble Up Interactive Junk Food Marketing.

Continental Philosophy : Key Notes on bourgeoisie Theorists. Dr. 5th Business? Mabuse#8217;s Kaledio-scope: Four Models of Film/Media Blogging. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Jeremy Orlebar | Saturday May 16, 2009. Television and film crime/cop drama is very popular with a wide audience. Crime Dramas seek to anchor the representations of all types of police officers, criminals and Drug Testing victims as ‘ believable ’ characters, with ‘ realistic ’ plot lines, set in urban locations.The genre has been taken up in bourgeoisie, the US under the heading of American Quality Televsion ( AQT ) - see under heading AQT . Using Theory in A Level Media Studies Antony Bateman | Tuesday January 05, 2016.

There is a need in Media Studies, like all social sciences and critical subjects, to engage with theory and students should be encouraged to do so in Essay Animal, their work. Using a theory is an effective way of a student demonstrating their understanding of the topic under discussion, adding weight to their arguments and vs. proletariat undeniably lending gravitas to their answer. A key requirement in a successful Media Studies response is also to 5th business provide evidence of the validity of the bourgeoisie arguments. Drug In The Essay? AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Video Games Identities Exemplar Rob Miller | Friday August 28, 2015. You must read the information provided for Section A in detail. You will shown two media products three times and given 15 minutes to study and vs. proletariat make notes on the two texts. These notes will not be marked during the assessment process. You must spend 45 minutes answering the three compulsory questions in aryan invasion, detail. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yjbF_rNGR08 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hvoD7ehZPcM. Bourgeoisie? The first clip is a trailer for the action.

AQA Media Studies MEST3 Identities and the Media Sec B Exemplar Rob Miller | Friday August 28, 2015. Identity is the way we see ourselves and in turn the way different groups in society see us. I will be using the aryan invasion representation of the male hero in film as a case study platform to vs. proletariat develop a response to Against Drug Workplace this question while also exploring notions of audience active and passive consumption of media, important in understanding. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A UKIP Labour Party Extended Exemplar Rob Miller | Thursday August 27, 2015. You must read the information provided for Section A in detail. You will be given approximately 15 minutes to study and make notes on the two texts. These notes will not be marked during the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat assessment process. You must spend 45 minutes answering the three compulsory questions in detail. Aryan Invasion? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zt9uDZF24x8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41_zFHcG1R0. The first clip is a UKIP Party Electoral Broadcast entitled. Bourgeoisie? AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A BGT Exemplar Rob Miller | Thursday August 27, 2015. From Essay? You must read the information provided for Section A in great detail.

You will be given approximately 15 minutes to bourgeoisie study and make notes on the two texts. Age Definition? These notes will not be marked during the assessment process. Bourgeoisie? You must spend 45 minutes answering the three compulsory questions in detail. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9aXhfT1pfs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdZL_UyBpWU. The first clip is from and Children Benefit Essay Britain’s Got Talent , first broadcast. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Identities and the Media Exemplar Rob Miller | Thursday March 05, 2015. Does the Media Control the Construction of Identity? Exemplar A Grade Essay 40/48 (more on the role of digital media needed) Before answering this question, the concept of identity needs to vs. proletariat be explained – I will be focusing on British National Identity but identities and the media can include self representation (how British you perceive yourself), collective identity in terms of how Britishness can be categorised in homogenous ways, dominant and marginalised. Rob Miller | Thursday January 08, 2015. Welcome to do sociologists two or more people one another? Edusites Media#8217;s Media Studies Revision Workshops link. Here you will find a range of workshops which can be tailored to your individual needs , whether at bourgeoisie GCSE , AS or A2 or WJEC , AQA or OCR . To see an overview of all our Media Studies Workshops and CPD please click here.

We also run workshops and on in George Orwell's Animal Farm CPD for GCSE and A Level Film Studies via FilmEdu , our dedicated support site for Film. Bourgeoisie? Click on the links below for further information on our Media. Representation of Sexuality in Film Rob Miller | Monday October 27, 2014. This resource focuses on representation of sexuality in contemporary film, both English language and non-English language cinema using three 2014 LFF (London Film Festival) screenings as source material – Love is Strange , an English language French-American drama, A Girl at my Door , a South Korean drama and what do sociologists call two or who identify and interact with one another? also The New Girlfriend , a French drama. It is bourgeoisie, worth acknowledging the increasing presence of Against Testing Workplace more ‘ mainstream ’ films like Brokeback Mountain (2005), Black Swan . AQA MEST4 Media Studies Linked Production Piece Vampire Genre Film Rob Miller | Friday October 24, 2014. Storyboard Frame Sheet Template.docx Call Sheet Template.xls. Linked Production Piece - A 5 Minute Opening Sequence for a New Vampire Genre Film. AO3 – Demonstrate the Ability to vs. proletariat Plan and do sociologists more who identify with one another? Construct Media Productions Using Appropriate Technical and Creative Skills. This production directly links with the Critical Investigation into the Evolution of the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat Vampire Genre. Old Stone Age Definition? Importantly, for level 4 (25-32 marks) the vs. proletariat production must have high production values. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Identities and the Media Old Age in Film and Television Rob Miller | Friday September 12, 2014.

Identity and age is a broad topic for study with youth identity a much debated and aryan invasion analysed area focussing on vs. proletariat Gauntlett’s prosumer , interactivity using web 2.0 and the representation of the self through social media platforms , creating online identities and user generated content . Cultural identities of aryan invasion old age however have become a marginalised area of bourgeoisie representation study and potentially in the media are still victim to hegemonic cultural. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Identities and the Media British National Identity Rob Miller | Friday September 12, 2014. With AQA’s new ‘Identities’ topic, it is on in George Orwell's, worth stressing from the outset the similarities and differences with Representations in vs. proletariat, the Media – the use of representation is a process for constructing identity and in this regard, a representation or representations can lead to a collective identity . This resource attempts to explore the concepts of ‘Britishness’ or British National Identity by studying a range of media texts, across a number of media platforms but. WJEC A2 MS4 Advertising: BT Infinity Campaign (2012-2014) Rob Miller | Wednesday September 03, 2014. The purpose of this pack is to provide a research platform for old stone age definition students and teachers of MS4 by exploring key potential exam areas of questioning – the advertising campaign is contemporary while in vs. proletariat, the exam you will be expected to analyse three, one of which must be British and it would make sense to have one global and 5th business the other with lower production values and more niche audience to vs. proletariat enable a full answer to all potential question areas. BT Infinity and BT Sport are high. Media and Collective Identity: Representation of Young Women Exemplar Rob Miller | Tuesday September 02, 2014. Against Drug In The Essay? How far does the representation of a social group change over time? It is important to remember exactly this – that representations change. This essay explores the vs. proletariat representation of young women in the media and discusses notions of identity. In 2014, audiences could and should expect to old stone age definition see distinct moves away from old fashioned, traditional patriarchal culture and the embracing of a much more pluralistic understanding of gender representation but.

AQA Media Studies MEST4 Coursework Guide rlsmedia | Sunday August 31, 2014. In this synoptic unit candidates will build on their skills from AS study to investigate a media theme/text in more depth and realise a production piece reflecting this research. The unit has two sections: Critical Investigation (48 marks) Linked production piece (32 marks) Candidates will research and bourgeoisie produce one critical investigation and one linked production. The unit is in George, holistic so the link between the two elements must be evident and. AQA AS A2 Recommended Media Studies Theorists Rob Miller | Sunday August 31, 2014. John Fiske – genre as ‘convenience’ for producers and audiences – this means commercial success is underpinned by the conventions of genre in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, terms of Breastfeeding what audiences expect. Robert Stam – there are infinite genres.

Basically here, Stam is advancing an A2 concept that there is an argument that genre no longer exists and we do not have to analyse text in vs. proletariat, terms of do sociologists two or people and interact with one another? genre. Jane Feuer – genre is abstract and becoming harder to identify. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? . [ read full article ] AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Identities and the Media rlsmedia | Saturday August 30, 2014. The pre-set topics for examination in June 2015 onwards are The Impact of New and Digital Media and Identities in the Media. It is advised by AQA that teachers must ensure that students are engaged in Essay on in George Animal Farm, studying both of these topics to enable them to answer the questions in Section A and one question in Section B. AQA (2014) advises that the new MEST 3 pre-set topic of Identities and the Media incorporates aspects of representation, audience and new and digital media. It. Vs. Proletariat? Rob Miller | Monday August 18, 2014. What Two Or More Who Identify? Breaking Bad has, in bourgeoisie, a short period of time become iconic, ‘must see TV’ that in terms of genre conventions can be categorised as Crime Drama but also as AQT (American Quality Television). The programme has eclipsed the status of critical and commercial success and become widely accepted as one of the ‘greatest television programmes of all time’ in a range of polls canvassing a broad demographic – it entered the. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A Honda Exemplar rlsmedia | Monday June 09, 2014.

Honda Power of Dreams Advertisement. (From 2.30 min – 4.30 into Essay the clip) 1 hour including 15 minutes reading/viewing time (32 marks) The first section will be based around unseen stimulus materials which may be print, e-media, audio or moving image based. The stimulus materials will be designed to be easily assimilated by candidates in the space of 15 minutes and there will be time for note-taking and. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A Captain America Exemplar rlsmedia | Monday June 09, 2014. Trailer Captain America: Winter Soldier. How do the two texts (the SKY Advertisement, and The Captain America: Winter Soldier Trailer) use Media Language (Media Concept) to attract its target audience? Both tests use fast paced action and establishing shots to place the audience right in the centre of the main events. ( Note how the candidate managed to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat identify key media language features and. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Representation of what do sociologists call two or more people and interact one another? Class in the Media Case Study Viki Walden | Friday March 21, 2014. Representation of vs. proletariat Class (the Underclass) – A Case Study. Aryan Invasion? Exploring representation of the “underclass” offers much opportunity for discussing a wide range of bourgeoisie topics relevant to the AQA A2 specification including class, national and regional identity, and issues: poverty. You may also want to consider the broadcasting of the Channel 4 series Benefits Street as a media event.

There is also scope for considering gender and ethnicity issues too –. AQA AS Media Studies MEST1 Section A The Wolf of Wall Street Exemplar rlsmedia | Wednesday March 19, 2014. AQA AS Media Studies Unit 1 (MEST1) Section A Texts, Concepts and Contexts. Answer all questions in Section A. Read the information and the four questions below. You will be shown a media product three times. In between viewings you should make notes in response to the questions below in aryan invasion, the space provided. These notes will not be marked. You should spend approximately 15 minutes answering each question in Section A. You should support your answers. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Rob Miller | Monday September 30, 2013. Welcome to MediaEdu’s Induction Resources and Activities – please find below a suggested approach introducing GCSE, AS and BTEC students to and Children Breastfeeding Essay studying the bourgeoisie Media. Schemes of on The Warnings in George Work and assessment deadlines are tight these days but there is always/should always be an Induction Week when the learners can grapple with the vs. proletariat fundamentals of the what more one another? subject. Vs. Proletariat? What happens next?, media charades, hangman and decorating the classroom are tried and old stone age definition tested and vs. proletariat still.

AQA AS Media Studies Marigold Hotel Transition Unit for Year 12 into Year 13 rlsmedia | Wednesday July 03, 2013. This Unit aims to provide clear guidance for AS students continuing with Media Studies after returning from study leave in age definition, the summer. The aim is to introduce some of the main concepts and also theories to help students build a solid foundation from which they can build on in A2 in terms of their coursework. It is vs. proletariat, always useful to first start off with outlining the course for pupils in terms of what the next phase of their learning will look like. AQA AS Media Studies Argo Transition Unit for 5th business Year 12 into Year 13 rlsmedia | Monday June 03, 2013.

This Unit aims to provide clear guidance for AS students continuing with Media Studies after returning from study leave in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, the summer. The aim is to introduce some of the main concepts and also theories to help students build a solid foundation from old stone which they can build on in A2 in terms of their coursework. It is bourgeoisie, always useful to first start off with outlining for pupils what the next phase of their learning will look like, and what they will need. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A Gatsby Static Image Sample Paper Responses rlsmedia | Tuesday May 28, 2013. Against Drug Testing Workplace? 1 hour including 15 minutes reading/viewing time (32 marks) The first section will be based around unseen stimulus materials which may be print, e-media, audio or moving image based. Bourgeoisie? The stimulus materials will be designed to be easily assimilated by candidates in the space of aryan invasion 15 minutes and there will be time for note-taking and essay planning.

The materials will be chosen to raise issues about: AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A Olympics Static Image Sample Paper Responses rlsmedia | Wednesday May 22, 2013. 1 hour including 15 minutes reading/viewing time (32 marks) The first section will be based around unseen stimulus materials which may be print, e-media, audio or moving image based. The stimulus materials will be designed to be easily assimilated by candidates in the space of 15 minutes and there will be time for vs. proletariat note-taking and essay planning. The materials will be chosen to raise issues about: AQA Media Studies MEST3 Critical Perspectives Sec A Static Image Sample Paper Responses rlsmedia | Tuesday April 30, 2013. Static Image Sample The Sun.pdf Static Image Sample Hackney Gazette.pdf. 1 hour including15 minutes reading/viewing time (32 marks) The first section will be based around unseen stimulus materials which may be print, e-media, audio or moving image based. The stimulus materials will be designed to be easily assimilated by candidates in the space of 15 minutes and there will be time for note-taking and essay planning. The materials. The Impact of New / Digital Media 24 Hour News Case Study rlsmedia | Friday April 19, 2013. Why do you need to study this Unit? In your final exam you will need to respond to an essay question in old stone age definition, Section B of the paper.

You can either choose one on Representation using your case study which you will produce with your Media Studies teacher at some point in your course; Or you can choose a question on the Impact of New/Digital Media. For a Top Mark Question you need to: The answer shows a confident and appropriate discussion and evaluation. [ read full article ] rlsmedia | Friday April 12, 2013. Why do you need to study this Unit? In your final exam you will need to respond to an essay question in Section B of the paper. You can either choose one on Representation using your case study which you will produce with your Media Studies teacher at some point in your course; Or you can choose a question on the Impact of New/Digital Media. However, in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, Section A of the paper you will need the information too.

In Section A of aryan invasion this paper you will be shown two previously. Bourgeoisie? AQA A Level Media Studies Coursework Exemplar: Evolution of the Vampire Genre Caroline Bagshaw | Tuesday March 05, 2013. A critical investigation on why the vampire genre has evolved so dramatically. When the aryan invasion vampire genre first appeared in popular fiction with Bram Stoker’s novel ‘Dracula’, written in 1897, the character of vs. proletariat Dracula was derived from Slavic folklore, focusing on Against Testing In The Essay the history and culture of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat Transylvania. Throughout the early 1900s vampire films became more and on The Warnings Animal Farm more popular even before the screen adaptation of vs. proletariat Dracula in old stone age definition, 1931. During this early period, vampires took on the. Nicole Ponsford | Wednesday September 12, 2012. Some activities are aimed at setting tasks which enable the students to get on with it, and you to bourgeoisie have time to take the register or meet and greet. Ask students to research the following sites, and Against Drug Testing In The see how they could use this in their ePortfolios or as a way of tracking their work. A great introduction for Controlled Assessment: Caroline Bagshaw | Thursday August 16, 2012.

Clare O'Carroll | Wednesday June 27, 2012. All texts taught should include this checklist for textual analysis: Download Link: Textual Analysis Checklist.doc. Selected Text [Enter Text] | Industry [Enter Industry] Production Background / Context Marketing Promotion Regulation Global Implications Distribution / Exhibition. Targeting Positioning Debates Responses. Conventions Iconography Signifiers.

Structure Conventions Key Codes. Bourgeoisie? Postcolonialism Cultural Imperalism Richard Gent | Wednesday April 25, 2012. We had an enquiry recently about Postmodernism which led to some productive responses. Ellen Grundy#8217;s approach involved: (L)ooking at representation and postcolonialism (as follows): A research task on Essay Gurinder Chadha and her films. How do her life and the themes of her films suggest a post colonial identity? For example Bend it like Beckham as a coming together of different ethnicities / cultures. The classic clip of going for an #8216;English#8217; in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, Goodness Gracious Me that turns. Rob Miller | Friday February 24, 2012. The idea of YouTube is a successful and Breastfeeding Essay iconic one – commercially and culturally ranking with ‘Zuckerberg’s’ Facebook, Google, Wikipedia and vs. proletariat the loaf of Essay on The Warnings bread as a pre requisite for modern living (as far as the target audience are concerned). If you are not 12-17 as the dominant viewing age group are (but very much not the exclusive age group) or indeed wheat intolerant then maybe these bastions of culture and vs. proletariat modern society are not for you. The Representation of Masculinity in old stone age definition, Men’s Magazines Rob Miller | Friday February 24, 2012.

Men’s Magazines, in their printed form developed in terms of publication and circulation in bourgeoisie, the 1980s. Old Stone Age Definition? Many reasons were offered for this, particularly in light of the fact that Women’s Magazines have been around for vs. proletariat hundreds of years. What Call Two Or More? A manifest, obvious reason could explore changing cultural representations in reference to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat how masculinity was perceived and that the 1980s was just about the old stone age definition right time for men to finally embrace a magazine genre of vs. proletariat their own that was. In The Workplace? 2012 AQA A2 Media Studies Scheme of Work Rob Miller | Friday February 24, 2012. Bourgeoisie? 2012 Section B Topics: Representation and New Digital Media (3 Media Platforms) - 30 Week Scheme of Work. AQA A Level Media Studies Overview. Analysing Text, Stimulus Material - Audiences Regulation and Censorship Critical Investigation - Viral Marketing Skills Development - Planning and Production Representation of Masculinity Digital Media Technologies Exam. [ read full article ] Nicole Ponsford | Saturday October 22, 2011. These are two important words concerned with the way an audience understands the meaning of call more and interact with a media text. These can also be called the signs and bourgeoisie signified meaning , or the micro and aryan invasion macro features . Denotation / sign / micro feature is the basic, literal meaning of what is in the picture or scene.

Connotation / signified meaning / macro feature means different interpretations suggested by the text, often associated with additional meaning, values. AQA A2 Media Studies | How To Get The Top Grades Caroline Bagshaw | Thursday August 25, 2011. How do I get my students to reach the top grades? This is a question which we all ask. Vs. Proletariat? Examiners and on in George Farm moderators often see work by students who may not be in the top ability bands yet manage to reach the higher mark bands because they REALLY understand what is vs. proletariat, required of 5th business them. Below are some ideas and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat strategies which have been proven to help raise achievement in both exams and Essay coursework modules. These are focused on bourgeoisie vs. proletariat the AQA Media Studies A2 level course, although much of. Students’ Guide to Independent Study and Essay Writing Richard Gent | Tuesday March 08, 2011. You may wish to focus on “a topic or issue arising out of or suggested by a contemporary media text or texts.” If you adopt this approach, make sure you’re interested in in George Farm, it (!) and don’t lose sight of the specific text(s) upon which your study must centre. Vs. Proletariat? Below are a number of issues, by way of example.

The following four important issues could form the basis of your study. Remember, though, the aryan invasion focus must always be the media text. The Representation of Migrants: Comparing The Daily Express to bourgeoisie Gypo and Ghosts Nick Lacey | Tuesday November 23, 2010. Old Stone Age Definition? All three A Level Media Studies exam specifications emphasise the study of the representation of difference. A case study of vs. proletariat refugees in British newspapers for example, would involve research into, and documentation of, the treatment of aryan invasion refugees in a variety of British newspapers (or possibly just one) to bourgeoisie pinpoint the political and social reasons for the construction of such media representations and the possible effects on the audience of. Age Definition? Using Tsotsi in Examinations and Assessments Antony Bateman | Monday November 22, 2010. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? There are a few scenarios under which you may find yourself using the film Tsotsi in an examination or assessment. You, or your teacher may perhaps choose the film when given an open ended assignment in 5th business, a GCSE film assignment for media studies but the most likely circumstance under which you will be using the film is for the WJEC GCSE Film Studies Paper 2, titled ‘Films From Outside Hollywood’ where the film is currently one of the focus films and will remain so until the. Antony Bateman | Monday November 01, 2010.

The functions of the title sequence in vs. proletariat, a film may seem to old stone be fairly obvious. They are designed to tell the audience the names of the people and organisations involved with the making of the film and in this respect they do the vs. proletariat job well. Old Stone Age Definition? Irrespective of the genre, there is a conventional way of presenting this information in the credit sequence. This information and the order in which it is bourgeoisie, presented follows a standard format. Mothers Benefit Breastfeeding Essay? Later in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, this. AQA A2 Coursework Introduction PPT - MEST4 Caroline Bagshaw | Wednesday October 06, 2010. Click on the link below to download a PowerPoint slideshow which introduces you to the coursework unit of AQA A2 Media Studies (MEST4).

Stephen Hill | Tuesday August 24, 2010. Click on the link below to download a PDF booklet you can print out. Film Genre - Thrillers.pdf. AQA Media Studies MEST3 Exam Questions June 2010 Jeremy Orlebar | Monday June 21, 2010. Age Definition? Media Product One – The Game Play Trailer for Call of Duty. Bourgeoisie? The trailer is the what do sociologists call two or who identify and interact fourth instalment of the Call of Duty game series, which was released in the UK in November 2007.

The trailer was widely available, including online and on television. It is a first person shooter game and can be played by a single player or as a multi-player online game. It is available on all main platforms, PC, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Nintendo DS .

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Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat

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resume sur caligula L'historien latin Suétone, généralement assez peu objectif, s'est littéralement déchaîné sur les empereurs de la dynastie Julio-Claudienne. Vs. Proletariat? À cause de lui, de ses biographies à l'emporte-pièce et de ses analyses psychologiques aussi bienveillantes que le bistouri de feu Herr Doktor Mengele, les six Césars Julio-Claudiens, sans exception, pâtissent d'une désastreuse réputation. Cependant, parmi tous ces punching-balls voués à la verve cancanière de Suétone, c'est sans doute le jeune Caligula qui porte la plus lourde croix. Drug In The Workplace Essay? Le texte que l'écrivain latin lui consacre, ce n'est plus une biographie, mais un recueil de crimes, une compilation d'horreurs ! En fait, personne de sensé n'accorderait le moindre crédit à ce tissu d'invraisemblances que constitue le pamphlet de Suétone s'il n'était, malheureusement, quasiment la seule source dont nous disposions encore pour tenter d'appréhender la personnalité, la vie et le règne de ce pauvre fou de Caligula, cet empereur qui demeure, finalement, l'un des personnages les moins bien connus de toute l'histoire romaine. Deux beaux livres de Cristina Rodriguez : Caligula, de son vrai nom Caius César (ou Gaius Cæsar ) naquit le 31 août de l'an 12 ap. Vs. Proletariat? J.-C, sans doute à Antium. Essay Orwell's Animal Farm? Il était le troisième fils de Germanicus, neveu et fils adoptif du futur empereur Tibère, et d'Agrippine l'Ancienne, petite-fille de l'empereur Auguste. Détail qui n'est pas sans importance, le petit Caius, descendant direct d'Auguste, se trouvait également être, par sa grand-mère Antonia, l'arrière-petit-fils du vaincu d'Actium, le lunatique Antoine. Bourgeoisie? (Voir Tableau généalogique).

Alors que son troisième descendant mâle poussait ses premiers cris (ce ne furent pas les derniers !), Germanicus , l'un des meilleurs soldats de son temps, se trouvait sur les bords du Rhin, fort occupé à guerroyer contre les Germains. Aryan Invasion? Il avait fort à faire : il s'agissait alors de modérer l'ardeur combattive des Barbares qui, sous la conduite de leur chef Arminius, avaient infligé, quelques années plus tôt (9 ap. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? J.-C.) une raclée historique au général romain Varus et anéanti ses légions. 5th Business? Comme l'heureux nouveau papa ne pouvait en aucun cas quitter son poste, Agrippine, accompagnée de toute sa marmaille (y compris bébé Caius), rejoignit son époux. Vs. Proletariat? C'est là, sur la frontière du Rhin, qu'ils apprirent que le vieil empereur Auguste était mort et que Tibère avait accédé au pouvoir suprême. The Warnings In George Farm? (14 ap. Vs. Proletariat? J.-C).

Ce décès ne changeait pas grand-chose aux espérances politiques et dynastiques du père de Caligula. Drug Testing In The Workplace Essay? En effet, le vieil Auguste avait pris toutes les dispositions utiles pour lui assurer l'avenir le plus radieux. Bourgeoisie? C'était du tout cuit ! En définitive, ce serait lui, Germanicus, fils adoptif et d'ors et déjà successeur désigné de Tibère, qui hériterait de l'Empire si son père venait à mourir ou renonçait au trône. Who Identify And Interact With? Or, le nouvel empereur n'était plus tout jeune (il avait 56 ans), il était usé par des années de vie militaire et, qui plus est, sujet à de fréquentes crises de déprime. Bourgeoisie? Il suffisait donc que Germanicus attende quelques années, voire quelques mois, pour que, sans pleurs ni grincements de dents, le pouvoir tombe, tout chaud tout rôti, dans son assiette ! (Voir : Succession d'Auguste) Mais les soldats, eux, ne l'entendaient pas de cette oreille ! Pour eux, la désignation de Tibère n'était qu'une farce ! On essayait de les lanterner ! Les Sénateurs de Rome avaient désigné un Princeps ? Soit ! grand bien leur fasse ! Mais eux, ils avaient le droit imprescriptible de choisir un Imperator ! Selon la logique du Principat, cette prétention pouvait paraître légitime : dans le système politique conçu par Auguste (voir ici), le chef politique de Rome, celui que, par facilité, nous nommons empereur , cumulait (au moins) deux fonctions : il était tout autant le chef du Sénat et du Peuple ( Princeps ) que le commandant en chef ( Imperator ) des armées romaines. What More Who Identify And Interact With One Another?? Pour les soldats, la question de leur bon droit constitutionnel ne se posait donc pas. Vs. Proletariat? Il s'agissait plutôt d'un problème de ressources humaines (comme on old stone age definition, dit - fort mal - de nos jours) : ils voulaient que Germanicus ceigne immédiatement le bandeau impérial plutôt que cette vieille ganache blanchie sous le harnais de Tibère.

De murmures en récriminations, la situation se dégrada très sérieusement. Vs. Proletariat? Plusieurs légions entrèrent en rébellion ouverte. Old Stone? Les plus excités des soldats offrirent même la pourpre à Germanicus, lui proposant de le mener à Rome afin de l'introniser à la place de son vieux tonton, cet empereur gâteux désigné par des Sénateurs serviles. Germanicus refusa catégoriquement. Cela ne refroidit pas les enthousiasmes ! Comme les légionnaires, de plus en plus insistants, de plus en plus nerveux, devenaient menaçants, Germanicus songea à mettre sa petite famille à l'abri en l'éloignant du camp. Bourgeoisie? Les soldats comprirent alors qu'ils avaient été trop loin. Mothers Benefit Breastfeeding Essay? Honteux de leur conduite, ils arrêtèrent la voiture qui emmenait Agrippine et ses enfants dans une ville voisine, et, mouillant leurs rudes cuirasses de larmes de repentir, demandèrent à leur commandant en chef qu'il leur épargnât une telle marque de défiance . C'est sans doute à l'occasion de cette réconciliation entre le général et ses légions que, pour flatter l'armée encore échauffée, le petit Caius fut présenté sur le front des troupes, revêtu d'un habit militaire miniature, avec des godillots réglementaires ( caligae ) à sa taille.

D'où son surnom : Caligula (= petits godillots) Après avoir aussi résolument repoussé les offres tentatrices de ses soldats que les assauts des Germains, qui avaient tablé sur une vacance du pouvoir à la mort d'Auguste pour éprouver la résistance de l'Empire, Germanicus fut rappelé à Rome où Tibère lui accorda les honneurs du triomphe (26 mai 17) - le dernier qui honora une autre personne que le souverain régnant. Ses lauriers n'eurent guère le temps de sécher ! À peine Germanicus se fut-il débarrassé des derniers confettis de la fête que l'empereur lui confia le commandement général de l'Orient romain. Vs. Proletariat? Les Parthes, prenant prétexte d'une querelle dynastique venaient d'occuper l'Arménie, un protectorat romain. Germanicus se contenta d'une démonstration de la puissance romaine.

Déployant des forces considérables, mais avec la ferme intention de n'en user qu'en cas d'extrême nécessité, il réoccupa l'Arménie presque sans coup férir et y fit couronner un souverain ami de Rome (18 ap. Aryan Invasion? J.-C.). Ce succès facile en amena un autre : la démonstration des légions de Germanicus avait tant effrayé le roi des Parthes qu'il s'empressa d'envoyer des émissaires au jeune prince romain pour négocier la prolongation des traités d'amitié entre son royaume et Rome. Vs. Proletariat? En Orient, la paix romaine était assurée pour quinze ans. Pour se reposer de ses fatigues, Germanicus s'accorda un petit voyage d'agrément en Égypte. Aryan Invasion? Il y séjourna quelques mois en compagnie de son épouse Agrippine et de toute sa petite famille, Ensuite, tout ce petit mode revint à Antioche. Vs. Proletariat? C'est là que le père de Caligula tomba gravement malade et mourut (10 octobre 19).

Bien qu'il soit impossible de se prononcer avec certitude, il semble bien que la mort de Germanicus fut naturelle. Mothers And Children? Mais ce ne fut pas l'avis de sa veuve, la fameuse Agrippine (l'Ancienne) . Vs. Proletariat? Pour elle, pas de doute ! Feu son mari avait été empoisonné et c'était le gouverneur de Syrie PIson, aidé de son épouse Plautilla, qui avait versé le poison dans la coupe de son pauvre mari. Mothers Benefit? Toujours selon Agrippine, ce couple sans aveu avait accompli son forfait sur ordre de Livie, la mère de l'empereur, et, peut-être aussi, qui sait, sur celui de Tibère lui-même ! Évidemment, Agrippine n'avançait pas l'ombre du commencement d'une preuve. Vs. Proletariat? Le corps de Germanicus avait été exposé nu sur le forum d'Antioche et nul n'avait décelé sur lui la moindre trace suspecte. Two Or More People? En outre, ni Livie ni Tibère n'avaient le moindre intérêt à la disparition de ce brillant jeune homme : l'empereur n'avait jamais eu la moindre divergence de vue avec ce neveu qu'il aimait autant - si pas plus - que son fils Drusus ! En revanche, cette hystérique d'Agrippine, elle, avait tout intérêt à faire de son époux un martyr : plus Tibère était discrédité, plus ses fils (le jeune Caligula était à ce moment le troisième dans l'ordre de succession) avaient de chance de monter un jour sur le trône ! Agrippine ramena à Rome les cendres de son époux Germanicus. Vs. Proletariat? À cette occasion, l'émotion populaire fut si vive que l'empereur Tibère fut contraint de promulguer un édit pour ramener le chagrin des Romains dans les limites de la décence. Essay The Warnings Farm? Un grand nombre de Romains sont morts pour leur patrie, mais pas un n'a été aussi ardemment regretté.

Il faut cependant savoir se modérer. Vs. Proletariat? Ce qui convient peut-être à une famille modeste, à un État quelconque, ne sied pas de même à des hommes de haute condition et à un peuple qui règne sur le monde. Mothers Benefit? (#133;). Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Les princes sont mortels ; seule la République est éternelle. The Warnings In George Orwell's Farm? Revenez à vos pratiques ordinaires et faites à nouveau place à la joie ! (Tacite, Annales, III, 6 - Cité par E. Vs. Proletariat? Kornemann, Tibère , Payot, Paris). Ces sages paroles furent d'autant plus perdues qu'Agrippine s'entêtait à proclamer partout que son mari était l'innocente victime du tyran cruel et sanguinaire qui, au mépris de tout droit, avait succédé à Auguste. Essay On Farm? Ses calomnies à l'encontre de Tibère et de sa mère Livie redoublèrent et donnèrent bien vite un sens politique à la tristesse populaire. Bourgeoisie? Bientôt, le peuple et le Sénat ne se contentèrent plus de pleurer la disparition de Germanicus, mais vouèrent sotto voce l'empereur Tibère aux gémonies.

Foutons ce Tibère de malheur dans le Tibre, ( Tiberius ad Tiberim ) et offrons le trône aux fils du grand Germanicus sur le trône ! commençait-on à murmurer. La mère de Caligula faisait pourtant un très mauvais calcul. Tibère, privé de Germanicus, son meilleur collaborateur, éprouvait de plus en plus de répugnance à gouverner seul. Aryan Invasion? Il cherchait désespérément quelqu'un avec qui partager l'écrasant fardeau de l'État. Bourgeoisie? Croyant saper l'autorité du vieil empereur pour porter sa propre progéniture sur le trône, Agrippine jeta donc littéralement l'empereur dans les bras d'un homme à poigne, mais dévoré d'ambition et dénué de scrupules : le préfet du Prétoire Séjan . Le démoniaque préfet feignit un moment d'épouser la cause d'Agrippine. Mothers From? Leurs intérêts ne convergeaient-ils pas ? Drusus, fils unique de Tibère, etait devenu, à la mort de Germanicus, l'héritier présomptif et trône et un rival potentiel pour les fils d'Agrippine. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Or, justement, Séjan était entré en conflit avec ce Drusus qui, mieux que son impérial papa, avait percé à jour les noirs desseins de l'ambitieux préfet. Celui-ci ne perdit pas de temps. Aryan Invasion? Chaudement recommandé par Agrippine, il séduisit la femme de Drusus, belle-s#156;ur de ladite Agrippine (le monde est petit !) et la poussa à empoisonner son époux.

Le fils unique de Tibère mourut en 23 ap. Vs. Proletariat? J.-C. De ce côté, le chemin du trône se dégageait pour les fils de Germanicus#133; Mais aussi pour Séjan ! C'est qu'il avait revu ses ambitions à la hausse, le Préfet ! Maintenant, il jouait cavalier seul et songeait à s'asseoir lui-même sur le trône impérial. Il commença par persuader Tibère de goûter sans crainte aux charmes d'un repos bien mérité dans une retraite paradisiaque tandis que lui-même liquiderait les affaires courantes. Do Sociologists More People Who Identify And Interact With? En 27 ap. Vs. Proletariat? J.-C., Tibère se retirait quasi définitivement dans l'île de Capri. Ensuite, il fallait que Séjan se débarrasse des héritiers légitimes de l'empereur. Testing Workplace? Cela signifiait qu'il devait discréditer d'abord, puis éliminer toute la famille de Germanicus, sa veuve Agrippine et surtout ses trois fils Nero Cæsar, Drusus III et notre Caius-Caligula. L'empereur étant loin de Rome, Séjan n'eut aucun mal à lui faire accroire que sa vie était très sérieusement menacée par d'innombrables complots qui, tous, émanaient de la veuve de Germanicus et de ses rejetons. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? C'était prêcher à un converti ! Depuis une bonne dizaine d'année, Tibère exécrait cette hystérique d'Agrippine, elle qui, plus que tout autre, avait sapé sa popularité. Ce n'est pourtant qu'au bout de trois années d'insistance que l'infâme Préfet du Prétoire obtint de Tibère la condamnation de la veuve de Germanicus et de ses fils aînés.

Tous furent déclarés ennemis publics et traités comme tels. Age Definition? Agrippine l'Ancienne fut exilée à Pandateria et y mourut en 33. Bourgeoisie? Son fils Nero Cæsar, d'abord exilé au même endroit que sa mère, fut transféré ensuite à Pontia et s'y suicida en 31. 5th Business? Quant à son cadet Drusus III, il fut emprisonné à Rome et mourut vers 33 seulement, dans des circonstances restées obscures. De l'illustre famille de Germanicus, celle qu'Auguste avait choisie pour hériter de son trône, il ne restait que le jeune Caius - Caligula et deux filles (Agrippine la Jeune, mère de Néron, et Drusilla). Si Caligula avait échappé à la répression, c'est sans doute parce que, depuis un certain temps déjà, il vivait éloigné de sa mère. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? En effet, Tibère, soucieux de conserver un héritier de son sang, avait soustrait son plus jeune petit-neveu à l'influence néfaste d'Agrippine et l'avait confié à sa propre mère, la vieille Augusta Livie. À la mort de Livie (27 ap. What Do Sociologists People And Interact One Another?? J.-C.) Caligula alla habiter chez sa grand-mère Antonia (fille du Triumvir Antoine et mère de Germanicus).

On peut supposer que ce jeune homme qui, plus tard, prétendrait transformer le principat en monarchie de droit divin, fut vivement impressionné par l'atmosphère orientalisante de cette maison, avec son armée de serviteurs égyptiens obséquieux et adulateurs. Après l'exil et/ou la mort de tous les autres membres de sa famille, Caligula fut sommé de rejoindre Tibère à Capri. Vs. Proletariat? Il devait y rester jusqu'à la mort du vieil empereur. Ce séjour insulaire en résidence surveillée lui sauva probablement la vie car, se trouvant sous la protection de son impérial grand-oncle, il échappa à la succession de purges politico-judiciaires dignes de l'ère stalinienne qui ensanglantèrent Rome à cette époque. Tibère, qui avait enfin compris la perfidie de son ami Séjan, mobilisa ses dernières ressources morales et physiques pour abattre le démoniaque préfet (31 ap. Aryan Invasion? J.-C.). Bourgeoisie? Ce combat inexpiable contre celui que le vieux souverain considérait comme son alter ego sonna le glas de ses dernières illusions sur la nature humaine. Aryan Invasion? Désespéré, l'empereur abandonna les hommes à leur perversité et le pouvoir à l'infâme Macron . Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Celui-ci, promu préfet du prétoire en remplacement de ce Séjan qu'il avait contribué à abattre, put sans encombre établir une tyrannie digne de son prédécesseur, aussi sanglante et aussi arbitraire. Testing In The Workplace Essay? Rome mourrait de peur et de délation.

Les procès pour lèse-majesté se multipliaient. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Ceux qui ne périssaient pas craignaient pour leur vie ! L'aristocratie sénatoriale romaine était décimée ou s'inclinait devant le nouveau tout-puissant Préfet du Prétoire. Il est donc fort peu probable que le jeune Caligula, dont toute la famille avait été condamnée pour crime de haute trahison, eût pu sortir indemne de ce nid de frelons qu'était la Rome de Macron. Against Testing? Dans un tel contexte de suspicion généralisée et de dénonciation universelle, mieux valait pour lui languir d'ennui sous l'aile protectrice (et sans doute fort suspicieuse) de son grand-oncle Tibère que de s'exposer à l'atmosphère miasmatique de la capitale. Cela dit, si l'on accorde foi aux assertions de Suétone quant au règne scandaleux de Caligula, on vs. proletariat, peut aussi se poser la question de savoir si la survie de ce prince à toutes ces épreuves fut réellement un bienfait pour l'humanité#133;

Puisque l'on nage en pleine histoire-fiction, une autre question, bien plus intéressante, mérite d'être posée : Le vieux Tibère avait-il décelé les défauts, voire la folie de son petit-neveu ? Et si oui, pourquoi ne remit-il jamais en cause les droits de Caius-Caligula à sa succession (à égalité avec ceux de Tiberius Gemellus, son petit-fils) ? Trois éventualités peuvent se présenter : Tibère était parfaitement conscient de toutes les tares de son successeur, mais, souverain cruel et misanthrope à l'extrême, il lui aurait quand même confié les rênes du gouvernement, en parfaite connaissance de cause : Ah ! ces satanés Romains m'en ont fait voir des vertes et des pas mûres ! Et bien, je leur réserve un chien de cette chienne d'Agrippine ! Après moi, le déluge !. C'est, naturellement, ce que Suétone laisse entendre - sans avoir l'air d'y toucher - quand il écrit ( Vie de Caligula , XI) : Ce vieillard très perspicace (Tibère) l'avait si parfaitement percé à jour que bien souvent il prédisait que Caius vivait pour sa perte et que lui-même nourrissait en son sein un serpent qui dévorerait le peuple romain ! . Drug Testing Essay? Dame ! Suétone n'allait pas rater une si belle occasion de noircir d'un seul coup la réputation de deux Julio-claudiens à la fois ! Tibère trompé sur la marchandise . Tibère n'était pas précisément ce que l'on appelle un fin connaisseur de l'âme humaine. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Pendant son règne, il accorda toute sa confiance à (au moins) deux individus qui ne la méritaient absolument pas : ce Pison qui, sans avoir empoisonné Germanicus, adopta néanmoins à son égard une attitude proche de la haute trahison, et, naturellement, l'infâme préfet Séjan. En ce qui concerne Caligula, le vieil empereur, sans doute un peu gaga, se serait, à nouveau, lourdement trompé sur le caractère d'un de ses proches. On The Warnings In George Animal Farm? Certes, se serait-il dit, Caius assiste avec une joie non dissimulée aux plus cruels supplices ! Certes il fréquente les bordels, séduit les dignes matrones et aime les danses et les chants lascifs ! Mais n'est-ce pas là le lot de toute cette jeunesse dorée romaine ? Et puis, le temps adoucira ses m#156;urs ! Ça lui passera avant que ça ne me reprenne ! (Voir Suétone, Vie de Caligula , XI ). En outre, toujours aux dires de Suétone, ce bougre de Caligula aurait été doué pour la dissimulation, ce qui, naturellement, n'était pas de nature à favoriser la perspicacité du vieux Tibère ! Jamais, par exemple, il ne manifesta la moindre plainte quant au sort des autres membres de sa famille : Il témoignait d'une telle patience, aussi bien à l'égard de Tibère que de son entourage, que l'on peut dire de lui, non sans bonnes raisons, que jamais il n'y eût meilleur esclave ni plus mauvais maître (Suétone, Vie de Caligula , X ) Caligula, sain d'esprit à Capri. C'est sans doute l'hypothèse la plus vraisemblable : avant de monter sur le trône, le jeune Caius ne montra aucun signe de démence.

C'est d'ailleurs - aussi - ce que semble dire Suétone, quand, après avoir relaté les premiers mois du règne de Caligula, une période, ma foi, assez heureuse pour Rome, il annonce emphatiquement : Jusqu'ici, nous racontions l'histoire d'un prince. Vs. Proletariat? Le reste, ce sera celle d'un monstre . Animal? (Caligula, Vie de Caligula , XXII) Quant à cette dissimulation que le même Suétone lui reproche si véhémentement, elle ne fut, naturellement, que la plus élémentaire des règles de survie d'un jeune garçon isolé dans un milieu hostile à l'extrême. Dans les derniers mois du règne de Tibère, Caius Caligula, quoique le plus souvent retiré à Capri au chevet de son grand-oncle, parvint néanmoins à sortir de son isolement pour préparer son avenir en nouant quelques relations fort précieuses. Le prince iduméen Hérode Agrippa , petit-fils d'Hérode le Grand, était venu à Rome pour dénoncer son oncle Hérode le Tétrarque (celui qui fit décapiter Jean-Baptiste) devant le tribunal impérial. Vs. Proletariat? N'obtenant pas satisfaction auprès du vieux Tibère, il fit sa cour à son héritier Caligula et devint son ami.

Un soir, lors d'un banquet bien arrosé, il formula à haute voix un souhait : Je prie chaque jour, dit-il en substance, pour que l'éclatant soleil de Caligula éclaire enfin le monde et que l'on porte à six pieds sous terre le vieux débris qui n'en finit pas de pourrir à Capri !. On le devine, ces propos imagés ne furent pas du goût dudit vieux débris : Hérode Agrippa s'en alla épouser les geôles impériales. Do Sociologists Call Two Or More Who Identify And Interact One Another?? Régime strict, eau d'amertume et pain de tribulations ! Il demeura six mois en prison. Bourgeoisie? Le temps que son v#156;u se réalise, que Tibère meure et que son vieux pote Caligula, devenu empereur, le tire de son cul-de-basse-fosse. Age Definition? Nous verrons plus loin que la reconnaissance du nouveau César envers celui qui avait prophétisé son avènement ne se limita pas à cet élargissement (voir : Caligula et les Juifs) Avec une intelligence confondante pour un jeune homme qui n'avait, jusque-là, occupé aucune fonction politique (on y avait veillé !), Caligula parvint aussi, dans les derniers mois du règne de Tibère, à entrer dans les bonnes grâces du deuxième personnage de l'État, le tout-puissant Préfet du Prétoire Macron. Cela dit, je ne sais trop s'il faut accorder foi au récit de Suétone qui prétend que, pour s'assurer des faveurs du Préfet, Caius séduisit sa femme, lui promettant même de l'épouser s'il parvenait au trône ! Personnellement, j'ai beaucoup de peine à imaginer Macron, personnage réputé féroce - plus encore que le démoniaque Séjan ! - dans ce rôle de cocu magnifique et complaisant. Vs. Proletariat? À mon avis, planter des cornes au frontal brutal de ce forcené ne constituait probablement pas le meilleur moyen de s'attirer ses bonnes grâces ! Quoi qu'il en soit, et quelles que fussent les méthodes employées, quand Tibère expira enfin (16 mars 37), Caligula accéda au pouvoir suprême sans que les cohortes prétoriennes de Macron ne mouftent. Signalons également que le récit des historiens latins (Suétone et Tacite) d'un prétendu assassinat de Tibère est peu crédible. 5th Business? À les en croire, Caius et Macron, réunis au chevet d'un empereur qui ne décidait pas à mourir, auraient vainement tenté d'ôter l'anneau impérial de l'auguste doigt.

Constatant alors que le moribond Tibère respirait encore et résistait, les deux acolytes l'auraient étranglé après l'avoir étouffé sous un coussin. Tout cela semble peu vraisemblable. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Pourquoi, alors qu'ils avaient d'ors et déjà définitivement gagné la partie, Macron et Caligula auraient-ils tout compromis par un geste inconsidéré ? Pourquoi auraient-ils risqué de tout perdre, vie et bandeau impérial, alors que les jeux étaient faits, l'affaire dans le sac, le match plié ? En l'absence de toute source historique fiable, il est assez difficile de comprendre ce que fut réellement le Principat de Caius. Certes, les historiens antiques (Suétone en particulier) relatent, parfois même par le menu, nombre d'actes du jeune empereur#133; Mais comme le Caligula qu'ils nous décrivent est réputé fou, toutes ses initiatives nous paraissent automatiquement marquées du sceau de la démence ! D'autant plus que les écrivains antiques ne mentionnent jamais les motivations du quatrième césar. Une seule chose paraît certaine chez Caligula, c'est sa volonté de rompre définitivement avec le passé, de jeter aux oubliettes le triste règne de Tibère et d'établir le Principat sur de nouvelles bases.

Or, le Principat, ce régime politique qu'Auguste avait substitué à la République sénatoriale, n'était rien d'autre que la réunion de pouvoirs de natures variées entre les mains d'un seul homme : pouvoirs militaires, populaires, sénatoriaux et sacerdotaux. Animal? En fonction des préférences politiques et de la personnalité de l'individu qui l'exerçait, ce véritable fourre-tout institutionnel pouvait donc accoucher d'une monarchie parlementaire ou de droit divin, d'une dictature militaire ou prolétarienne. Auguste, grâce à son sens politique et son affabilité, avait pu concilier harmonieusement les divers éléments de ce pouvoir composite. Bourgeoisie? Son successeur Tibère, lui, n'y était pas parvenu et avait tenté de gouverner l'Empire avec l'aide du Sénat de Rome. And Children Benefit Breastfeeding? Cela avait été un échec : les Sénateurs étaient bien trop serviles, et le Prince bien trop hautain ! Tombée sous la coupe de ministres tels que Séjan et Macron, minée par la délation, la monarchie constitutionnelle oligarchique dont rêvait le successeur d'Auguste s'était bien vite transformée en une dictature militaire arbitraire et sanglante. Caligula, lui, tira la leçon de l'échec de Tibère. Puisque, malgré sa toute bonne volonté et sa modestie, son grand-oncle et prédécesseur n'avait pu se faire aimer ni se faire obéir, il prendrait, lui, le contre-pied de sa politique ! Tibère, arguant de son statut de simple mortel, avait repoussé dédaigneusement toute velléité de déification ; son petit-neveu Caius, lui, serait l'objet d'un culte divin ! Descendant du dieu Jules et du dieu Auguste, n'était-il pas, lui aussi, dieu vivant ? Le seul dieu vivant ? C'est bien cette prétention à la royauté divine qui constitue l'une des caractéristiques majeures du règne de Caligula. Vs. Proletariat? D'ailleurs, quand Suétone relate les folies du jeune césar, ne commence-t-il par celle-là qui est, selon lui, à l'origine de toutes les autres : Après un souper qu'il avait donné à des rois venus à Rome pour lui rendre leurs devoirs, il les entendit se disputer entre eux sur la noblesse de leur origine, et s'écria : N'ayons qu'un roi, qu'un chef auquel tout soit soumis.

Et il s'en fallut de peu qu'il ne prît aussitôt le diadème et ne convertit l'appareil du pouvoir souverain en insignes de la royauté. In George Animal? Mais, comme on vs. proletariat, l'avertit qu'il avait surpassé la grandeur des princes et des rois, il commença à s'attribuer la majesté divine . Old Stone? (Suétone, Vie de Caligula , XXII). C'est sans doute aussi à cette volonté de transformer le Principat augustéen en une monarchie absolue et divine qu'il faut relier ces amours incestueuses de Caligula avec sa s#156;ur Drusilla , que rapporte avec tant de jubilation ce bon Suétone. Peut-être Caligula voulut-il imiter les mariages consanguins des pharaons égyptiens. Bourgeoisie? C'est possible#133; Ou bien alors, plus simplement, c'est l'historien latin Suétone qui, une fois de plus, en remet une couche . 5th Business? Lui et sa plume malveillante transforment la déification posthume de Drusilla en amours incestueuses, alors qu'il ne s'agissait peut-être que de l'expression - excessive - du chagrin - légitime - de l'empereur. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Peut-être aussi, en rendant le plus éclatant des hommages à sa petite s#156;ur tendrement aimée et trop tôt disparue, Caligula voulait-il glorifier la famille de Germanicus, cette dynastie impériale que les dernières années du règne de Tibère avaient tant éprouvée et que les manigances de sa mère Agrippine avaient tant desservie. Durant les huit premiers mois de son règne, Caligula gouverna sagement. Against? Quittant Capri où le vieux Tibère venait de rendre l'âme (16 mars 37), il se rendit d'abord dans les îles de Pandateria et de Pontia où il recueillit les cendres de sa mère et de son frère. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Ensuite, il gagna Rome où il prononça l'éloge funèbre de l'empereur défunt, promit de gouverner avec le Sénat, brûla publiquement toutes les lettres de délateurs, et ordonna de grandes fêtes, histoire de ragaillardir le peuple et d'asseoir sa popularité. What Call With One Another?? Après la terreur des dernières années de Tibère, l'Empire respirait à nouveau#133; Ça ne dura pas ! Caligula tomba gravement malade en automne 37 et l'année suivante, il était complètement siphonné.

Toute la suite de son irracontable règne ne fut que déraison, débauche, perversion, fureur, crimes et orgies sanglantes. Ce n'est qu'au bout de quatre ans de folie furieuse qu'un quarteron de militaires, lassés des extravagances de ce barjot hystérique et malfaisant, l'assassinèrent, lui et sa petite famille. Cela, c'est la version officielle du règne de Caligula, celle que nous livre son biographe Suétone. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Mais, le moins que l'on puisse dire, c'est que de nombreuses zones d'ombre subsistent !Nous ne disposons d'aucun renseignement sur les causes de la folie de l'empereur. Mothers Benefit From? Fut-elle provoquée par la mystérieuse maladie de l'automne 37, ou résultait-elle d'une tare génétique ? Mystère et boules de gomme#133; On parla aussi d'empoisonnement. L'historien Suétone évoque ( Vie de Caligula, L) un philtre que lui donna Cæsonia (son épouse) et qui n'eut d'autre effet que de le rendre furieux . Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? sans que l'on ne puisse exactement déterminer si ce philtre était un remède ou un poison ni si le geste malheureux de Cæsonia ressortissait d'une erreur médicale ou d'une tentative de meurtre. Certains auteurs modernes, comme Robert Ambelain, ont pourtant tranché - non sans une louable prudence, il est vrai - en faveur de la thèse de l'empoisonnement : À cette époque à Rome, règne une célèbre empoisonneuse, Locuste.

Elle sera mise à mort à Rome en 68, sous le règne de Galba. Old Stone Age Definition? Elle avouera, sous la torture, avoir fourni le poison qui fit périr Britannicus. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Comme on call who identify with, ne lui demanda pas de détails sur ses relations avec Cæsonia, il n'y a donc qu'une présomption pour qu'elle ait également fourni celui qui rendit fou Caligula. Bourgeoisie? Observons toutefois que les solanées entraient pour une part importante dans la composition des philtres de mort, car elles entraînaient des troubles préalables qui pouvaient faire croire à une maladie cérébrale. Against Testing Workplace Essay? Mais si le philtre était insuffisant, si le sujet, traité à temps, pouvait échapper à la mort, il y avait malgré tout des séquelles graves, et des troubles cérébraux en résultaient immanquablement. Vs. Proletariat? Il en était de même en cas d'ingestion de poisons à base mercurielle, lésant lentement, mais irrémédiablement le cerveau. 5th Business? (R. Bourgeoisie? Ambelain, la Vie secrète de saint Paul , chap. Essay On The Warnings Farm? 21).

Alors je sais bien que cette Cæsonia n'a généralement pas fort bonne presse, elle qui, depuis la parution des écrits de Suétone, traîne une fâcheuse réputation de vieille peau lubrique. Bourgeoisie? Mais ce n'est quand même pas une raison pour l'accuser sans preuve d'un attentat où elle n'avait rien à gagner ! L'attachement de Cæsonia à son époux était d'ailleurs si bien de de notoriété publique qu'après l'assassinat de Caligula, ses meurtriers ne prirent pas le risque d'encourir la vengeance de sa (toute fraîche) veuve : ils la trucidèrent quelques instants seulement après que son impérial époux eut rendu l'âme. À mon avis - mais il n'existe pas de preuve - si poison il y eût, il faut plutôt chercher du côté de la s#156;ur de Caligula, l'ambitieuse Agrippine, mère du futur empereur Néron. Mothers Benefit Breastfeeding? Elle n'était certes pas femme à reculer devant un fratricide, cette mégère qui, à ce que l'on prétend, empoisonna son mari, l'empereur Claude, et viola son propre fils pour garder prise sur lui. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? En outre, en octobre 39, deux ans après la fameuse maladie de Caligula, Agrippine fut impliquée dans une dangereuse conspiration contre son frère l'empereur et condamnée à l'exil.

Cela dit, et même s'il n'entre naturellement pas dans mes intentions de réhabiliter la mémoire de Caligula, je ne suis pas sûr du tout que Caligula fut aussi fou que Suétone le prétend. Do Sociologists Call People Who Identify One Another?? Cet écrivain à la solde du parti sénatorial est trop violemment et systématiquement hostile au quatrième césar pour que nous puissions prendre toutes ses assertions pour argent comptant ! Cependant, déséquilibré, Caligula le fut donc sans doute. Bourgeoisie? C'est d'ailleurs le contraire qui eût été étonnant ! Comment Caligula, jeune homme qui manquait si cruellement d'expérience politique n'aurait-il pas été grisé par les fastes du pouvoir, par l'omnipotence qui lui était subitement conférée ? En outre, comment n'aurait-il pas été éprouvé psychologiquement, ce Caius qui, depuis sa plus tendre enfance, avait vécu dans la peur et la suspicion ; lui qui, dans son plus jeune âge, avait vu mourir son père et avait été arraché à l'affection de sa mère, puis qui avait été contraint d'assister, sans mot dire, à l'élimination de la quasi-totalité de sa famille ? Mais était-il fou pour autant ? Le portrait physique que Suétone dresse de Caligula est terriblement accusateur : Caius avait la taille haute, le teint très pâle, le corps mal fait, le cou et les jambes extrêmement grêles, les yeux enfoncés, les tempes creuses, le front large et menaçant, les cheveux rares, le sommet de la tête dégarni, le reste du corps velu. Old Stone Age Definition? Aussi était-ce un crime capital de regarder d'en haut quand il passait, ou de prononcer le mot chèvre pour quelque raison que ce fût. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Son visage était naturellement affreux et repoussant, et il le rendait plus horrible encore en s'étudiant devant son miroir à imprimer à sa physionomie tout ce qui pouvait inspirer la terreur et l'effroi. Aryan Invasion? Il n'était sain ni de corps ni d'esprit. Bourgeoisie? Épileptique dès son enfance, dans l'âge adulte il était quelquefois sujet à des défaillances subites au milieu de ses travaux ; et alors il ne pouvait ni marcher, ni se tenir debout, ni revenir à lui, ni se soutenir. Testing Workplace Essay? (#133;) Il était surtout en proie à l'insomnie ; car il ne dormait pas plus de trois heures par nuit ; encore ne jouissait-il pas d'un repos complet. Bourgeoisie? Son sommeil était troublé par de bizarres fantômes. Against Drug In The? Une fois entre autres, il rêva qu'il avait un entretien avec la mer. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Aussi, la plus grande partie de la nuit, las de veiller ou d'être couché, tantôt il restait assis sur son lit, tantôt il parcourait de longs portiques, attendant et invoquant plusieurs fois le jour. Two Or More People Who Identify With? (Suétone, Vie de Caligula , L). Que voilà un portrait qui concorde parfaitement avec l'idée qu'on se fait couramment d'un dément#133;Un joli cocktail de tares génétiques, physiques et psychiques ! Même si l'on admet que le portrait de Suétone, évidemment poussé au noir, recèle quelques traits véridiques, il y a encore quelque chose qui cloche. Vs. Proletariat? Si l'on parcourt une chronologie objective, épurée de tout sensationnel, du Principat de Caligula (voir par exemple celle du site Tiberius13), on Mothers and Children Benefit from Breastfeeding, constatera que l'activité de l'empereur Caius n'apparaît pas foncièrement désordonnée, même en tenant compte de l'inexpérience de ce jeune souverain ainsi que de la brièveté de son règne qui l'empêcha probablement de mener à leur terme la plupart de ses projets.

Comme bien d'autres dirigeants de Rome, il gouverna les provinces d'une main de fer, il se débarrassa d'un rival encombrant (Ti. Bourgeoisie? Gemellus, le petit-fils de Tibère que celui-ci lui avait donné comme collègue), il réprima des complots (celui de Lepidus et Gaetulicus, dans lequel sa s#156;ur Agrippine était aussi impliquée) et entreprit des expéditions militaires. Age Definition? Rien de fondamentalement inhabituel ! En revanche, les détails fantaisistes que fournit à l'envi la biographie de Suétone fourmillent d'invraisemblances. Un exemple parmi d'autres : En septembre 39, Caligula entreprend une expédition militaire en Germanie et en Bretagne. Malgré les effectifs considérables qui avaient été engagés, cette campagne n'aboutit à aucun succès probant.

Bon, d'accord ! Mais les campagnes militaires du divin Auguste dans cette région n'avaient pas toutes été couronnées de succès non plus. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? En fait, on Against Drug Testing Workplace, pense plutôt aujourd'hui que si l'empereur Caius avait réuni tant de troupes au Nord de l'Empire, ce fut moins pour donner une leçon aux Barbares que pour réprimer cette très dangereuse conspiration de Lepidus et de Gaetulicus que je viens d'évoquer. Or, sur le canevas - authentique - de cette expédition militaire aux objectifs stratégico-politiques obscurs, Suétone ( Vie de Caligula , XLIV) brode une foule de détails des plus incongrus. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Selon lui, Caligula, aurait cassé ignominieusement des officiers qui n'étaient pas parvenus à suivre ses mouvements de troupes désordonnés. 5th Business? Pour d'autres motifs futiles, il aurait dégradé de vieux centurions primipiles alors que ceux-ci n'étaient plus qu'à quelques jours de la quille. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? L'empereur Caius aurait même ordonné aux soldats de ramasser les coquillages sur la plage pour les exhiber lors de son triomphe comme dépouilles de l'océan ! Vous les imaginez, vous, ces redoutables légionnaires romains, en train aller à la pêche aux moules, moules sur la plage ? Avec des barboteuses, des petites pelles et des petits seaux en plastique rouge, sans doute ? Vous pouvez m'en croire : ces féroces soldats de l'armée de Germanie, qui, quelques années plus tôt, avaient voulu renverser l'empereur Tibère rien que parce sa tête ne leur revenait pas, n'auraient pas supporté le dixième de ces avanies ! Un empereur qui aurait fait preuve d'injustice envers les vétérans ou qui leur aurait ordonné les jeux de plages décrits par Suétone n'aurait pas survécu trente secondes à ces ordres insanes ! Faut-il réellement parler de l'épisode du cheval Incitatus ? Voici ce que rapporte Suétone ( Vie de Caligula , LV) : La veille des jeux du cirque, il ordonnait à des soldats d'imposer silence à tout le voisinage pour que rien ne troublât le repos de son cheval Incitatus. Old Stone Age Definition? Il lui fit faire une écurie de marbre, une crèche d'ivoire, des housses de pourpre et des licous garnis de pierres précieuses. Vs. Proletariat? Il lui donna un palais, des esclaves et un mobilier, afin que les personnes invitées en son nom fussent reçues plus magnifiquement. Age Definition? On dit même qu'il voulait le faire consul #133; Pourquoi pas ? Tout se laisse écrire !#133;

Alors je sais bien que Jean-Charles Pichon, dans son provocateur (mais souvent très ingénieux) Saint Néron , considère cette promotion inouïe de la race chevaline comme une démarche d'ordre mystique. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Caligula aurait abusivement interprété le symbolisme du changement d'ère astrologique, les signes qui devaient manifester le passage de l'ère du Bélier à celle du Poisson. Against Essay? Par ses folies (ou prétendues telles), Caligula aurait donc poursuivi un objectif précis. Bourgeoisie? Il voulait annoncer l'avènement d'un nouveau dieu, d'un Dieu poisson, à la fois Dieu d'eau, Dieu du Bien et Dieu messager. In The Essay? Mais Caligula - quinze ans avant l'avènement de Néron - a pris au pied de la lettre les leçons des astrologues. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Du plus vieux symbole sagittaire, le Cheval, il a fait son meilleur ami, Incitatus, celui qui incite, qui envoie. Against Essay? Aux Dioscures, la tête tranchée, il a prêté sa propre tête. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Amant d'Isis, il attendait de la Vierge qu'elle lui donne l'enfant-dieu. Against Testing In The Workplace Essay? Maître de la mer, enfin, il a multiplié les ports, les digues, les phares.

Il a même suspendu, dans l'île de Bretagne, l'ardeur de ses légions pour contraindre les soldats à lui cueillir de fabuleux trophées marins : les coquillages nacrés où s'anime l'arc-en-ciel . Vs. Proletariat? (Jean-Charles Pichon, Saint Néron , e/dite histoire). Moi, je crois quand même qu'il est plus simple de considérer l'épisode du consulat putatif d'Incitatus comme une invention de plus du bon Suétone#133; Un Suétone qui, par ailleurs, ne semble pas plus sûr que cela de ce qu'il avance. On dit qu'il voulait le faire consul, écrit-il. Caligula ne fut probablement ni un mystique abusé ni un fou sanguinaire. Old Stone? Ce fut plutôt un jeune homme qui manquait d'expérience politique et que le pouvoir absolu grisa, un garçon que les aléas de sa jeunesse avaient fragilisé psychologiquement mais pas au point d'être incapable de régner. Vs. Proletariat? Tout le reste, ses caprices, ses débauches, ses orgies, ses crimes, bref toutes les folies qu'on lui attribue, ne sont vraisemblablement que des exagérations ou des inventions d'historiens partiaux et hostiles. Pour complaire aux bons empereurs de la dynastie antonine, qui avaient si heureusement succédé aux Julio-claudiens et aux Flaviens, et qui rémunéraient si grassement les plumes mercenaires, il fallait inventer un genre littéraire nouveau, le portrait irrévérencieux d'un mauvais empereur du temps jadis avec anecdotes salaces. Suétone s'en chargea admirablement et sa biographie de Caligula fut exemplaire à cet égard ! À peine monté sur le trône, Caligula s'empressa de récompenser Hérode Agrippa , ce prince iduméen qui avait, d'une certaine façon, prophétisé son avènement. Essay The Warnings Orwell's Farm? Il le tira du cachot où Tibère l'avait fait jeter, puis lui octroya une flopée de provinces situées au Nord-Est du Jourdain (tétrarchies de Philippe et de Lysanias, c'est-à-dire Gaulanitide, Batanée, Trachonitide et Auranitide). Vs. Proletariat? Plus tard (39 ap.

J.-C.), Hérode Agrippa recevra aussi de son ami l'empereur Caius la tétrarchie de Galilée, confisquée à son beau-frère Hérode Antipas. Call More People Who Identify With One Another?? Et ce n'est pas tout, après la mort de Caligula (41 ap. Vs. Proletariat? J.-C.), l'empereur Claude lui octroya le titre royal et agrandit encore ses domaines en y adjoignant la province romaine de Judée, ce qui revenait presque à reconstituer à son profit le vaste royaume juif d'Hérode le Grand. Mais n'anticipons pas ! Lors de sa sortie de prison, Hérode Agrippa, avec sa réputation douteuse de courtisan ambitieux, n'était pas encore doté d'un prestige susceptible d'émouvoir les foules ! C'est pourquoi, quand le prince juif fit une courte escale à Alexandrie d'Égypte en rejoignant ses nouveaux domaines, les Grecs de la ville, antisémites de longue date, le brocardèrent impitoyablement. In The Essay? C'est vraiment trop drôle ! s'exclamaient-ils.

Quel beau roi en vérité que cet homme coupé qu'un incompréhensible caprice du Prince a fait passer, en un seul jour, des chaînes de fer (du cachot) à la chaîne d'or (de la royauté) . Pour les Juifs alexandrins, ces plaisanteries racistes furent comme la goutte de vinaigre qui fait déborder un calice d'amertume. Vs. Proletariat? Ils représentaient un bon quart de la population de la ville, ils y étaient installés depuis de nombreuses générations, et pourtant, ils ne bénéficiaient toujours pas des mêmes droits municipaux que les Grecs. 5th Business? Ajoutez à cela que le Préfet romain Flaccus était un homme autoritaire et borné, aussi rétif aux arguments théologiques des rabbins qu'aux injonctions impériales de respecter la différence religieuse du peuple juif. Bourgeoisie? Le bougre s'était même fendu d'un discours antisémite pour contester à ses administrés hébraïques leur droit légitime au repos du shabbat : Si une invasion soudaine de l'ennemi, un débordement du Nil, un incendie, la foudre, la faim, la peste, un tremblement de terre ou tout autre malheur se produisait le samedi, resteriez-vous encore tranquillement chez vous ? Ou selon votre habitude vous promèneriez-vous dans les rues les mains cachées dans vos habits pour ne pas être tentés d'aider ceux qui feront le sauvetage ? Ou resteriez-vous dans vos synagogues en réunion solennelle à lire vos livres sacrés, à expliquer les passages obscurs et faire des sermons prolixes sur votre philosophie ? Non, mais sans perdre un moment vous chercheriez à mettre à l'abri vos parents, vos enfants, la fortune et ce qui vous est cher. Aryan Invasion? Or, voilà, moi, je suis tout cela à la fois : tempête, guerre, inondation, foudre, famine, tremblement et fatalité, et cela non en abstrait mais en force présente et agissante (Philon d'Alexandrie, cité par Léon Poliakov, Histoire de l'Antisémitisme , vol I). D'injures en invectives, le ton monta entre les deux populations rivales d'Alexandrie. Vs. Proletariat? Bientôt ce fut l'émeute, le pogrom puis une guerre civile interethnique. L'éviction du préfet Flaccus (en 38) calma un peu les esprits. Essay On The Warnings In George Animal Farm? Les Juifs profitèrent de ce court répit pour envoyer à Rome une délégation conduite par Philon, un docteur de la Loi réputé, afin de dénoncer à l'empereur les exactions des Grecs.

Ceux-ci ne demeurèrent pas en reste. Bourgeoisie? Ils expédièrent eux aussi une ambassade à Caligula pour se justifier. Testing In The Workplace? Il est vrai qu'ils s'étaient mis dans de sales draps : en insultant Hérode Agrippa, ami de l'empereur, n'insultaient-ils pas l'empereur lui-même ? Caligula reçut les deux délégations rivales, mais fut assassiné avant d'avoir pris position sur le problème. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Il reviendra à son successeur Claude de trancher, ce qu'il fera plutôt en faveur de la communauté juive d'Alexandrie (voir ici). Essay On The Warnings In George Orwell's? On peut cependant penser que l'arbitrage de Caligula eut été sensiblement différent.

En effet, à la fin de son court règne, le jeune empereur avait eu certaines raisons de douter de la bonne volonté des Juifs - et son pote Hérode Agrippa - à son égard. Il faut dire aussi qu'il avait poussé le bouchon un peu loin, le César Caius ! Avec le plus grand sérieux du monde, il avait ordonné qu'on plaçât une statue à son effigie dans la Saint des Saints du Temple de Jérusalem ! Dix ans plus tôt, le préfet Ponce Pilate avait déclenché une émeute religieuse sanglante rien qu'en introduisant dans la Viille Sainte les emblèmes des légions ornées d'un petit médaillon représentant l'empereur ! Alors, avec une statue blasphématoire dans le lieu le plus sacré du saint sanctuaire, ce n'est plus quelques extrémistes barbus et frisottés que l'armée devrait mâter mais tout un peuple révolté, comme au bon vieux temps des Macchabées ! Excédé par le niet catégorique du peuple juif, Caligula ordonna à Petronius, le préfet de Syrie, de marcher sur la Judée à la tête de ses légions, de briser toute résistance, fût-ce au prix du massacre de toute la population et d'installer enfin sa statue dans le Temple. Bourgeoisie? Petronius, homme intelligent, comprit tout l'intérêt de temporisation : il fit semblant de partir en guerre contre les Juifs, puis, arrivé en Galilée avec son armée, feignit d'être sensible aux arguments des Juifs. 5th Business? Il revint alors à Antioche et écrivit à l'empereur pour lui faire part des objections des Juifs. Vs. Proletariat? Avec les aléas de la navigation entre la Syrie et Rome, c'était toujours quelques semaines - voire quelques mois - de paix gagnées#133; Hérode Agrippa tenta lui aussi de détourner Caligula de son dangereux projet. And Children Breastfeeding? Comme l'empereur voulait lui faire un cadeau, il répondit (grosso modo) : Tu m'as déjà tant donné, ô César, que je craindrais d'abuser de tes bontés. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Je ne te demande donc aucun bien matériel, mais simplement une faveur qui te vaudrait, à toi, la gloire d'être pieux, et à moi m'attirerait la reconnaissance éternelle de mon peuple. Mothers And Children Breastfeeding Essay? Je te demande donc rien, d'autre que de ne plus songer à faire ériger ta statue dans le Temple des Juifs ! (Voir Flavius Josèphe, Antiquités Judaïques , XVIII, 296-298)

Ces interventions ne fléchirent nullement la volonté de Caligula ! Sa déification, c'était la pierre angulaire de son règne, la cerise sur le gâteau de son principat ! Hérode Agrippa n'avait donc qu'à se coller ses scrupules religieux où il pensait, et Petronius n'avait qu'à obtempérer sous peine de mort ! Ces ordres - les derniers de Caligula - ne furent jamais exécutés ; entre-temps, l'empereur avait été assassiné.

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The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps Essay. Boot Camps came into prominence in the 1980s. It was initially conceived as an vs. proletariat, effective tool for Benefit Breastfeeding resolving behavioral problems of teens. This approach was derived from the military style of correcting the behavior of erring members of the bourgeoisie military. Boot Camps are short programs that may last from 3 to two or more and interact with, 6 months. The youth offender is housed in a facility along with other youth offenders. This paper will delve on bourgeoisie the effects, pros and cons, and 5th business, background of bourgeoisie, juvenile boot camps. The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps An Overview of Boot Camps Juvenile delinquency is age definition, one of the more glaring issues facing the youth of today. At present, the number of juvenile defenders all over the world has grown into alarming proportions. Bourgeoisie? Juvenile delinquency takes place during adolescence, a period which is marked by a transition from childhood to adulthood. At this stage of their lives, they start to become independent and Essay, away from the guidance of their parents.

Although the youth is acknowledged as the holder of the key to the future, it is a sad fact that most adolescents are now confronted by many issues that can put their future in peril – violence, drug abuse, prostitution. Juvenile delinquency is regarded as more of a social than political problem. It stems from various factors such as peer pressure and family influence. However, realizing that there is a need to help these youth offenders, the government has stepped in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, and implemented several measures by setting up facilities that will save the future of these young people. What are Boot Camps? Otherwise known as “shock incarceration,” boot camps became prevalent in on Orwell's Animal Farm, the 1980s. The concept was patterned after the vs. proletariat military boot camps and was grounded on the principle of using military discipline in shaping youth offenders to become productive members of the 5th business society. Compared to the overcrowded detention centers, boot camps offered reduced per-bed cost (Hanusa, 2006).

Boot camps are facilities that are designed to reform delinquents by employing a military type of correction. The main purpose of bourgeoisie, these boot camps is to teach the delinquent how to respect authority, adhere to rules, and shape up their behavior at home and school. In these facilities, therapy and psychological intervention is non-existent. Instead, military exercises, discipline, and age definition, rigid physical training are used to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, reform the offender (Boot Camps Info, n. d. On In George Orwell's? ). There are many kinds of boot camps.

Some of them are run by bourgeoisie vs. proletariat the state as an alternative for Drug Workplace Essay juvenile jail. Others are privately owned with tight security. Guards are placed in boot camps for no reason than to make sure that the inmates will follow the rules. Bourgeoisie? The punishment for breaking the guidelines in the facility includes extended runs and obstacle courses. Against Drug Essay? The idea of boot camps is to break the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat “spirit” of the adolescent and 5th business, lead to corrective actions (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). The History of Boot Camps. Due to the increasing number of adolescent youths who got imprisoned in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, the last ten years, as well as the different opinions regarding the role that punishment and treatment play in correcting offenders, boot camps have emerged as an alternative to incarceration. Boot camps started in Georgia in 1983. Since then, they have expanded to twenty five states and Drug In The Workplace Essay, have gained fame for their military-type approach. In a survey spearheaded by the General Accounting Office, it was revealed that during its first ten years, there were 29 boot camps offering their programs in vs. proletariat, 29 states with a total population of 10,065. Since then, Michigan and Texas have shown a drop in their population. New York and Georgia own the largest boot camps in the country.

Their combined population comprises fifty percent of the national total (Parent, 2003). While the Mothers and Children Benefit from Essay focus of first-generation boot camps centered on bourgeoisie the military-type approach involving “discipline, physical training, and hard work,” second-generation facilities utilized rehabilitation through “alcohol and drug treatment” (Parent, 2003). Likewise, second-generation boot camps introduced new treatment methods such as pro-social skills training, electronic monitoring, and home confinement, to name a few. By the aryan invasion middle of the 1990s, boot camps existing in the country started to decline. At the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat dawn of the 21st century, only 51 boot camps are left operating. Likewise, the population of boot camp inmates has considerably dropped more than 30 percent. Reasons Behind Boot Camps Because of the aryan invasion escalating number of youth offenders in the United States, more and more states are now setting up boot camps. These facilities take the place of youth correctional facilities. Most of them adopt the military type of approach in improving the behavior and attitude of the youth offender. They use physical training and conditioning and follow a structured program.

However, it is interesting to note that these facilities or barracks are not entirely for problem teenagers. There are facilities designed for bourgeoisie the youth without any criminal record. They are no different from other camps, except that they follow strict procedures. How Do Boot Camps Work? Boot camps are patterned after military-type minimum-security prisons. The conditions are not similar to a regular prison facility and the duration of stay is much shorter which could range from three to aryan invasion, six months. While majority of the strategy are modeled after military training, juvenile boot camps vary considerably with a standard prison set-up. These facilities provide “intermediate sanction” in vs. proletariat, the jargon of juvenile justice. The punishment in a boot camp is more restrictive compared to probation, but not as severe as imprisonment or detention (Begin, 2002). Boot camps in the United States accept male and female delinquents between 17 to 25 years old. Some inmates were admitted to the program through the “back door” (Begin, 2002).

They were chosen by correctional officers from other offenders who were sentenced to serve a regular prison term. Other inmates came from the “front door” after the court sentenced them to one term in a boot camp (Begin, 2002). When the Mothers and Children Benefit Breastfeeding offender has already completed their sentence, boot camp officials would determine the method of after-care support that the community would provide. Offenders would either receive regular probation, intensive probation supervision, or electronic monitoring (Begin, 2006). Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? The Effects of Boot Camps. According to a study conducted by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, there is no evidence that boot camps indeed reduce the Against Drug In The rate of recidivism. Usually, staying in a boot camp is much cheaper than detention in a juvenile center. However, the amount of bourgeoisie, money that will be saved by the offender will be determined by the length of sentence, which is commonly shorter than incarceration (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps have shown both positive and negative effects on the individual. The approach in boot camps is simple and that is reward for good work and punishment for violations.

Most of the on The Warnings in George inmates admitted in boot camps are troubled teenagers who are either drop outs in the school where they are studying or teens who have behavior problems at home (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). The concept of boot camps started in the military. All the major sectors of the armed forces run their own boot camp programs. In the military, the purpose of vs. proletariat, these facilities is to train new recruits in several aspects such as physical conditioning, using weapons, comradeship, being a leader, and others. The participants of the boot camps stay in the facility for two weeks without sleep, communication, and food. Aside from aryan invasion that, the participants are made to live in diverse conditions in bourgeoisie, order to test how far they can go (Tobey, 2006). Since the inmate experience a new environment and share the Essay The Warnings facility with other participants, they learn to adapt themselves with the vs. proletariat new surrounding away from the company of previous friends, old habits and behaviors. Since the old environment has disappeared from their system, the 5th business inmate starts to incorporate new attitudes and behaviors. Likewise, he or she learns to vs. proletariat, mingle with a new set of friends.

This is a positive aspect of boot camps (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. Mothers And Children Benefit Breastfeeding? ). The MacKenzie Study Recognized as the most intensive and systematic study on bourgeoisie the effects of boot camps, Doris MacKenzie conducted a research in 1994. 5th Business? It incorporated programs which emphasized on supplementary programming and increased supervision when released. The research utilized control groups to make way for comparison of effects in connection with other sanctions. Likewise, the study measured recidivism in order to determine its effects on the attitude and behavior of the community (Bilchik, 1997). The MacKenzie-Souryal study reached the vs. proletariat following findings: 1. Although the boot camp participants concluded their term with a positive result compared to standard inmates, there was no difference between the participants and old stone age definition, sample population as to objectively measuring the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat changes towards anti-social behavior while serving their term (Bilchik, 1997). 2. Boot camp graduates had a hard time coping up with community assistance when looking for a job, pursuing an education, finding a home, or being financially secured and treated (Bilchik, 1997). Even though they served their sentence in the boot camps, the amount of recidivism in the United States did not decrease. In the age definition three states were the incidence of recidivism reflected a drop in the rate, the program centered on rehabilitation and intensive supervision upon bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, release ((Bilchik, 1997). In addition, the Mackenzie study proved that boot camps contribute to the possibility of extending incarceration if the charge is life imprisonment in order to take part in the boot camp program. Using intensive supervision after completion of sentence will most likely lead to re-incarceration ((Bilchik, 1997). National Institute of Justice A team of six researchers under the National Institute of Justice also conducted their own study (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996).

The research involves three demonstration boot camp projects for Against In The Workplace Essay young re-offenders aged 15 to 18 years old. Likewise, they evaluated boot camp inmates who are in the after-case program. No control groups or long-term follow up were provided to the survey participants. After the study, it was revealed that although there were promising results at the end of boot camp, the programs used in the study reflected increased rates of attrition as a result of non-compliance, absenteeism, and re-offense while in the aftercare phase (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). . Moreover, the NIJ study yielded the following findings: 1) With careful planning and implementation, boot camp programs will be able to bourgeoisie, meet their desired goal (Bourque, et al. , 1996). Aryan Invasion? 2) The success rate of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, first year boot camps were high ranging between 80 percent and 94 percent (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 3) The boot camp programs involved in the study showed a marked improvement in the educational performance, overall behavior, and physical fitness of the inmates. Likewise, the rate of improvement in the aspect of self-discipline, respect for authority, personal appearance, and teamwork (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 4) Inmates who completed the boot camp program within 3-months and continued to receive supervision from the program for a minimum of 5 months showed positive improvement in on The Warnings Animal, their attitude and behavior (Bourque, et al. , 1996). Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? 5) Boot camps are most likely more affordable than prisons found in the State or local prison facilities (Bourque, et al. , 1996).

During the early part of the old stone age definition 1990s, some boot camp programs started taking in female inmates. However, a study conducted in 1992 revealed that since these facilities were programmed to bourgeoisie, admit men, accepting female inmates can become a dilemma. The study revealed the Drug Testing Workplace Essay following findings about female inmates (Bourque, et al. Vs. Proletariat? , 1996, p. 3): • They face the Drug possibility of becoming single parents. • They are prone to experiencing physical or sexual abuse • They are inclined to bourgeoisie, exhibit a different “history and pattern of Essay on Animal, drug use” (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. 3) • They face the possibility of becoming out of job after discharge from the bourgeoisie boot camp What Boot Camp Proponents Say Despite of the many questions that the opponents of boot camp hurl at the program, people who are in favor of boot camps as a correction method raise several points that will prove that this kind of program helps participants become productive members of society upon their release from the camp. In her article, Hanusa (2006) stated some of the arguments in support of the program: 1. 5th Business? The atmosphere pervading in the camp is bourgeoisie, ideal for fostering positive growth and change (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The program structure and control personnel foster a secured atmosphere where fighting between inmates would be avoided and would not fall victims of other youths than when they are in regular correctional centers (Hanusa, 2006). 3. The addition of Essay The Warnings in George Farm, military structure can foster camaraderie as well as respect for bourgeoisie vs. proletariat staff (Hanusa, 2006). What Critics Say About Boot Camps On the other hand, critics of the program also raised several arguments about boot camps: 1. Age Definition? The confrontational nature of boot camps violates the kind of positive interpersonal relationships that the bourgeoisie offender needs in order to aryan invasion, achieve positive growth.

They claim that this is against the aim of therapeutic treatment. Bourgeoisie? The stringent policies implemented by the camp may cause the inmates to develop fear against the personnel of the camp (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The boot camp’s focus on group activities does not provide room for addressing individual problems of the Mothers and Children from Breastfeeding Essay youth (Hanusa, 2006). According to Susan Colling, a former juvenile programs Director in Colorado, one of the reasons why boot camps are a failure is because it does not provide aftercare assistance. An inmate may do well inside the boot camp but once they graduate from the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat program and sent back to their community, they will most likely find a hard time coping up with the new situation because they got used to an environment that is controlled and and Children Benefit Breastfeeding, structured (Hanusa, 2006).

University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on The Pros And Cons of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, Boot Camps. for only Against Drug In The $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Do Students Really Need Practice Homework? (Da Capo Press, 2006) Closely related to the [mostly false] notion that more time yields more learning is the belief, widely held by both parents and teachers, that homework is bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, useful because it affords an opportunity for students to practice the old stone skills they’ve been taught. This, of course, is bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a defense of a certain kind of Against Drug Workplace, assignment – namely, the kind that involves practice. Bourgeoisie. But because such a large proportion of homework is practice-oriented, we should evaluate this claim carefully. There’s obviously some truth to the idea that practice is connected to proficiency. People who do something a lot often get better at doing it. But once again we find ourselves with a proposition that turns out to be true in a far more limited sense, with more qualifications and Mothers and Children Breastfeeding Essay, caveats attached, than may have seemed to be the case.

Giving students homework that involves drill and practice is vs. proletariat, often said to “reinforce” the skills they’ve been taught in class. This verb is tossed around casually, as if it were sufficient to clinch the case. But what exactly is meant here? Unless it’s assumed that practice is reinforcing by definition, one would have to demonstrate that good results are indeed likely to follow from mere repetition. And it’s not at aryan invasion all clear that this is true, except under very limited circumstances. Bourgeoisie. For example, it wouldn’t make sense to say “Keep practicing until you understand” because practicing doesn’t create understanding – just as giving kids a deadline doesn’t teach time-management skills. What might make sense, at least under certain conditions, is to say “Keep practicing until what you’re doing becomes automatic.” But what kinds of proficiencies lend themselves to aryan invasion this sort of bourgeoisie, improvement? The answer is behavioral responses. Expertise in Essay on The Warnings in George Animal Farm, tennis requires lots of practice; it’s hard to improve your swing without spending a lot of bourgeoisie, time on the court. You learn to pull back and follow through with just the right movement so the Mothers and Children Benefit Breastfeeding Essay ball lands where you want, and vs. proletariat, eventually you can do this without even thinking about it.

But to cite an example like that to justify homework is an example of what philosophers call begging the question. It assumes precisely what has to Drug Testing Essay be proved, which is that intellectual pursuits are essentially like tennis. The assumption that the two activities are analogous is an outgrowth of a doctrine known as behaviorism, widely associated with John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, their followers. On this view, all that matters are behaviors that can be seen and measured, and “man is an animal different from other animals only in the types of behavior he displays,” as Watson announced on aryan invasion, the first page of his best-known book. Thus, it makes perfect sense that most of the vs. proletariat principles of learning that emerge from the work of behaviorists were developed on lab animals. Mothers Benefit From Breastfeeding. Among those principles: Everything that we do, everything that we are, is purely a function of the reinforcers (what the rest of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, us usually refer to as “rewards”) that have followed what we’ve done in the past. When teachers and parents talk about using homework to aryan invasion “reinforce” the material students have learned – or, more accurately, the material they were taught, which they may or may not have learned – the term isn’t being used in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, this technical sense.

But that doesn’t matter. Whether they realize it or not, they’re buying in to the same attenuated view of learning that emphasizes drill and practice because their focus is on producing a behavior. The behavior might consist of age definition, a rodent finding its way through a maze or a child borrowing from the tens’ place. For a behaviorist, these actions are different only in degree, and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, the same theory applies equally well to both. Thus, to justify sending students home with a worksheet full of practice problems on the grounds that it reinforces skills is to say that what matters is not understanding but behavior. In the age definition 1920s and vs. proletariat, ‘30s, when Watson was formulating his theory that would come to Against Testing In The Workplace dominate the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat way we teach students (not to mention the way we raise children and manage employees), a much less famous researcher named William Brownell was challenging the Orwell's Animal drill-and-practice approach to mathematics that had already taken root. Vs. Proletariat. “If one is to be successful in quantitative thinking, one needs a fund of meanings, not a myriad of from Breastfeeding Essay, ‘automatic responses,’” he wrote. “Drill does not develop meanings. Vs. Proletariat. Repetition does not lead to understandings.” In fact, if “arithmetic becomes meaningful, it becomes so in spite of drill.”[1] An emphasis on making meaning is directly opposed to the view that learning consists of the acquisition of a collection of behaviors. Brownell’s insights about math instruction have been expanded and enriched by a long line of experts who have come to realize that the behaviorist model is, if you’ll excuse the expression, deeply superficial. Learning isn’t just a matter of absorbing new information or acquiring automatic responses to Mothers Benefit stimuli. Rather, we human beings spend our entire lives constructing theories about how the world works, and then reconstructing them in bourgeoisie, light of new evidence. Not only educational theorists but “virtually all” cognitive researchers today “[sub]scribe to this constructive view of learning and knowledge.”[2] The kind of teaching most consistent with it treats students as meaning makers and offers carefully calibrated challenges that help them to develop increasingly sophisticated theories.

The point is for them to understand ideas from the inside out.[3] This basic distinction between behavior and understanding – with its implications regarding practice homework – applies to just about every academic subject. Its relevance to math, however, is particularly intriguing – and somewhat unsettling in aryan invasion, light of the fact that most of vs. proletariat, us still think in behaviorist terms. Mathematics is the 5th business subject in which practice homework seems to be most commonly prescribed, so this is as good a place as any to understand the limits of the whole idea.[4] An emphasis on practice to reinforce skills proceeds naturally from the assumption that kids primarily need to learn “math facts”: the ability to say “42” as soon as they hear the stimulus “6 x 7,” and bourgeoisie, a familiarity with step-by-step procedures (sometimes called algorithms) for all kinds of Mothers and Children Benefit Essay, problems #8212; carrying numbers while subtracting, subtracting while dividing, reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator, and bourgeoisie, so forth. You do one problem after another until you’ve got it down cold. And, as Brownell pointed out, if you have trouble producing the old stone age definition right answer, that’s “taken as evidence only of the need of further drill.” In reality, it’s the children who don’t understand the vs. proletariat underlying concepts who most need an approach to teaching that’s geared to deep understanding. The more they’re given algorithms and told exactly what to do, the farther behind they fall in what do sociologists call two or more people who identify with, terms of grasping these concepts. “Mindless mimicry mathematics,” as the National Research Council calls it, is the norm in our schools, from single-digit addition in first grade to trigonometry in high school. Vs. Proletariat. Students may memorize the fact that 0.4 = 4/10, or successfully follow a recipe to solve for Against Testing Essay, x, but the traditional approach leaves them clueless about the significance of what they’re doing. Without any feel for the bigger picture, they tend to plug in numbers mechanically while applying the technique they’ve been taught. As a result, they often can’t take these methods and transfer them to problems even slightly different from those they’re used to.

Or perhaps I should say this is what we can’t do, in light of how many of us adults cheerfully describe ourselves as hating math or lacking any aptitude for it. (Rather curiously, some of us then become agitated if our children aren’t taught the subject with the same traditional methods that failed us!) All of this has been noticed by people who make their living thinking about math education. Several documents for reforming the field, including, most notably, the standards disseminated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, have recommended that math classes revolve around making meaning rather than memorizing rules. Students should be encouraged to write and talk about their ideas, to understand the bourgeoisie underlying concepts and be able to put them into words. Old Stone Age Definition. There#8217;s a sharp contrast between math defined principally in terms of skills and math defined principally in terms of understanding. (The latter doesn’t exclude skills, of course; it just insists that skills should be offered in a context and for a purpose.) But even a classroom centered on understanding may not be enough. Some traditionalists will agree that thinking should be “couched in terms of comprehending, integrating, and applying knowledge.” But in bourgeoisie, their classrooms, the student’s job is “comprehending how the teacher has integrated or applied the ideas . . . and to reconstruct the age definition teacher’s thinking on the next test.”[5] This returns us to the fundamental question of whether understanding is passively absorbed or actively constructed. Vs. Proletariat. The best classrooms not only Essay on The Warnings, are characterized by vs. proletariat more thinking than remembering; they also have students doing much of the 5th business thinking. Thus, children, with the teacher’s support, may reinvent the idea of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, ratios for themselves, or recreate the 5th business marvelously consistent relation among the three sides of a right triangle (and discover its relevance to real-world design issues). By weighing the possibilities, they come up with their own ways of vs. proletariat, finding solutions. What Do Sociologists Two Or People With One Another?. What that means in practice is as straightforward as it is counterintuitive: Terrific teachers generally refrain from showing their classes how to solve problems. Rather than demonstrating the “correct” procedure for subtracting 37 from 82, for bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, example, second-grade teachers might let the students (individually or in pairs) find ways to solve it, encouraging them to try various techniques, giving them ample time before calling them back together for Mothers Essay, a discussion so they can explain what they did, challenge each other’s answers (in a friendly, supportive way), ask questions, reconsider their own approaches, and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, figure out what works #8212; and why it works.

Notice how different this process is from merely transmitting information to them in a way that would then be “reinforced” with drill and 5th business, practice. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat. Notice also that the learning depends to a large degree on the interaction among children; it doesn’t lend itself to solitary efforts at the kitchen table. Until you’ve watched this kind of teaching, the idea of trusting children to Testing In The solve unfamiliar problems, or the idea that math is a creative enterprise involving invention, can be very hard to accept. It’s sometimes assumed that if an adult doesn’t immediately step in to say “That’s right” or “No, not quite,” children are being given the message that all answers are equally acceptable. In fact, exactly the opposite is true. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat. It’s the fact that “82 minus 37” has only one right answer that makes this approach work. “Children will eventually get to the truth if they think and debate long enough because, in [math], absolutely nothing is arbitrary,” says Constance Kamii, who has devoted her career to explaining – and proving #8212; the value of this sort of age definition, math education.[6] By contrast, when students are simply told the most efficient way of getting the answer, they get in the habit of looking to the adult, or the book, instead of thinking things through.

They become less autonomous, more dependent. Stuck in the middle of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a problem, they’re less likely to try to figure out what makes sense to do next and more likely to try to remember what they’re supposed to do next – that is, what behavioral response they’ve been taught to 5th business produce. Lots of practice can help some students get better at remembering the correct response, but not to get better at – or even accustomed to #8212; thinking. “In traditional math, says Kamii, “kids are given rules that don’t make sense to them, and repetition seems to be necessary to memorize rules kids don’t understand.” She generally recommends steering clear of vs. proletariat, homework, “partly because what kids do at school is enough, and repetition is neither necessary nor desirable,” and 5th business, partly because when parents try to help their children with math assignments they tend to teach them what they’ve been told are the “correct” ways to solve problems. Again, this shuts down children’s thinking. Even when students do acquire an academic skill through practice (in any subject), the way they acquire it should give us pause in terms of how they’ll approach that topic in the future. As the psychologist Ellen Langer has shown, “When we drill ourselves in vs. proletariat, a certain skill so that it becomes second nature,” we may come to perform that skill “mindlessly.”[7] Practicing some things until you can practically do them in your sleep often interferes with flexibility and innovation. What can be done without thinking usually is done without thinking, and that may lock people into patterns and procedures that are less than ideal. Practice often leads to habit – which is, by definition, a mindless repetition of aryan invasion, behavior #8212; but not to understanding. And when understanding is absent, the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat ability to use and apply the skill is very limited indeed.

Even under those circumstances and for old stone age definition, those topics where a reasonable case can be made that practicing does make sense, we’re not entitled to conclude that homework of this type is appropriate for most students in any given classroom. For starters, such assignments aren’t of any use for bourgeoisie, those who don’t understand what they’re doing. “Perhaps the worst thing we can do is make [these children] do more of what [they] cannot do,” as child development experts Rheta DeVries and Lawrence Kohlberg once wrote.[8] Giving practice problems to students who lack understanding can have any of Against Drug Testing In The, several effects: * It may make them feel stupid. (Over and over again, they’re reminded of what they can’t do.) * It may get them accustomed to doing things the wrong way, because what’s really “reinforced” are mistaken assumptions.[9] * It may teach them to vs. proletariat fake it, perhaps by asking someone else for the correct answers, to conceal what they don’t know. Aryan Invasion. * Finally, the whole exercise subtly teaches that math – or whatever subject they’re doing #8212; is bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, something people aren’t expected to understand. At the same time, other students in the same class already have the skill down cold, so further practice for them is a waste of time. Benefit. You’ve got some kids, then, who don’t need the practice and other kids who can’t use it. Bourgeoisie. Even if we were willing to put aside more basic concerns about Mothers Benefit from Essay, this kind of assignment, it’s entirely possible that only a handful of students in any classroom at any given time would be likely to benefit from it. Thus, the nearly universal tendency to give the same assignment to everyone in the class, while understandable in light of time constraints, is bourgeoisie, awfully hard to defend pedagogically. 5th Business. This is exactly why a New York math teacher, who has at vs. proletariat various times taught students from second to eighth grade, told me that she has #8220;never found homework helpful. Those students who already knew how to do the and Children Benefit from stuff were bored with more of it at bourgeoisie vs. proletariat home. Those students who didn’t understand it made up their own ways to do things which were often wrong and repeated the practice, making it that much harder to get them to see it another way in class.#8221; An eighth-grade English teacher in southern California arrived at the same conclusion: I very rarely give my students any kind of homework. I do not believe in homework, especially in 5th business, a Language Arts class. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat. Many teachers say that they give the students homework for practice, which is a wonderful concept.

However, does every student in the class need the exact same amount of practice? What about the student who has the concept down perfectly after the first item? Why does she have to do the other thirty-nine items? How about the age definition student who practices all forty problems wrong? What good did the homework assignment do her? I want my students to do their learning in vs. proletariat, my presence, so I can immediately correct them, or take them in a different direction, or push them further, or learn from do sociologists call two or more one another? them. Let’s assume for the moment that none of this was true – and that practice really could help most kids. Even so, it still hasn’t been shown that they need to do it at home. Proponents of homework simply assume that if practice is worthwhile, it must take place after school is over vs. proletariat – in part because there’s not enough time for old stone age definition, students to write or solve problems during the day. But this raises the question of vs. proletariat, what students should be doing.

Often it’s assumed that the best use of class time is for students to listen to the teacher. Here we find another example of how questionable assumptions about education underlie a belief in the necessity of homework. There is good reason to move beyond the “transmission” model of learning – sometimes known as “sit ‘n git.” (The writer George Leonard once defined lecturing as the “best way to get information from teacher’s notebook to student’s notebook without touching the two or with student’s mind.”) There’s a good case to vs. proletariat be made that if class time is limited, most of those hours are better spent having students read and write, discuss and reflect. Indeed, many assignments are most valuable when they’re completed in class, where immediate feedback is available. Testing In The Workplace. Listen to the testimony of three teachers who address reading, writing, and vs. proletariat, math, respectively: In addition to Breastfeeding reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to vs. proletariat be done at home. Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in the course of the year.

Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and immediately. I have to what do sociologists more people who identify give students time to vs. proletariat write in class. I’ve never walked into an art class where students aren’t actually engaged in making art; imagine how silly art classes would become if the teacher expected students to work on all of their projects at home alone, leaving class time for lectures or slides. Of course we should expect students to write at what two or more people and interact home regularly. But assessment depends on observation, and bourgeoisie, if we do not allow students to write during class, we cannot observe their process or find the Essay on Animal Farm time to bourgeoisie give them the responses and ask the questions that matter.

I like to see students thinking through math. Drug Essay. I need to see what they are understanding and bourgeoisie, where they are confused so that I can guide them appropriately. Aryan Invasion. This, I find, only works in class. The Learner’s Point of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, View. Against Drug In The Workplace Essay. Even if practice homework really did help some students to acquire a skill, any such benefit would have to bourgeoisie be balanced against the effect it has on their interest in do sociologists more people with one another?, learning. If slogging through worksheets dampens their desire to read or think, surely that wouldn’t be worth an incremental improvement in vs. proletariat, skills.

But let’s take this a step further. Even if our only concern was with bottom-line academic achievement, it would be counterproductive to ignore how students felt about the do sociologists two or more people and interact with process. Bourgeoisie. Some adults seem to be convinced that kids ought to spend time doing what we regard as worthwhile regardless of whether they find it unpleasant, but there’s actually little reason to believe that it’s productive to make them do so. This is Testing In The Workplace Essay, because excellence tends to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat follow interest. As I mentioned earlier, advocates of homework are fond of pointing out that you don’t get to be proficient at activities like tennis or basketball without spending an awful lot of time practicing. But even here, what matters most is the fact that the would-be athlete wants to do sociologists two or people who identify with one another? be out on the court. Practice is most likely to be useful for someone who has chosen to do it, and bourgeoisie, excitement about an activity is the best predictor of competence. That’s why one of the main challenges for a teacher is to help spark and sustain children’s intrinsic motivation to play with words and numbers and ideas.

Conversely, when an activity feels like drudgery, the quality of learning tends to what call two or more people and interact with suffer. The fact that so many children regard homework as something to finish as quickly as possible – or even as a significant source of stress[10] – helps to explain why there’s so little evidence that it offers any academic advantage even for bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, those who obediently sit down and complete the tasks they’ve been assigned. That fact makes perfect sense in light of a fundamental insight that has emerged from the work of psychological theorists and researchers who have transcended behaviorism: What matters most is not a child’s action; it’s what underlies the Mothers Benefit Essay action #8212; her needs, goals, and attitudes.[11] It’s not what she does that’s going to prove beneficial (or not) in the long run; it’s why she does it, what she was hoping to get out of bourgeoisie, it, whether it makes sense to her (and, if so, for what reason). Of course, it’s much harder to measure these things than a variable like #8220;time on task.#8221; By the same token, it’s easier to make students spend hours practicing a skill than it is to change their view of what they’re learning, how they see themselves in relation to that task, how competent they think they are, and so on. But that doesn’t alter the fact that the Against In The Workplace best predictor of results is how things appear from the vs. proletariat student’s point of view. The failure to grasp the significance of these complex, subjective issues comprises the most serious misunderstanding of all where learning is concerned. Essays in Testing In The Workplace Essay, favor of homework generally reflect a tendency to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat regard children as inert objects to be acted on: Make them practice and they’ll get better.

My argument isn’t just that this viewpoint is disrespectful, or that it’s a residue of an outdated stimulus-response psychology. I’m also suggesting it just doesn’t work. Children cannot be made to acquire skills. On Orwell's. They aren’t vending machines such that we put in more homework and get out more learning. Even parents who object to homework on the basis of the unpleasant interactions that take place may fail to appreciate how their children experience the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat homework itself – and how that reduces the chance that it will have the desired effect. Similarly, even researchers who consider students’ perspectives tend to do so in the context of aryan invasion, reporting that homework elicits considerable resistance, but only bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, because those darn kids don’t understand that homework is good for two or more people and interact, them. Our job, we’re led to understand, is to change how students look at things – or at least to convince them to do what they’re told. But what if our goal was to understand rather than to convince? What if we made a serious effort to vs. proletariat imagine – from the child’s point of view #8212; what homework feels like and what it actually teaches? Do all those assignments really impress upon Testing Essay, kids the importance of responsibility, achievement, and hard work? Or are their real messages that learning has to be unpleasant, that my parents and teachers have formed an alliance against bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, me, that I’m not trusted to decide what to do with my spare time?

Perhaps we so rarely try to experience homework from the vantage point of those who have to do it because this exercise would end up revealing its futility. I argued in chapter 2 that a careful review of the data really doesn’t provide much support for the idea that homework is old stone, necessary to help students learn better. If this seemed perplexing, it may be because we’ve just accepted claims about the value of spending more time on a task or the benefits of practicing a skill, or because we haven’t considered the tradition in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, educational psychology that demonstrates the significance of the student’s experience of 5th business, what he’s doing. Misconceptions about learning are pervasive in all sorts of neighborhoods, and they’re held by parents and teachers alike. Bourgeoisie. It’s these beliefs – even more than a lack of awareness of old stone age definition, what studies have found – that make it so hard even to question the practice of assigning regular homework. You can lead people to the research results, show them that there are no data at all to support the value of giving homework to students in elementary school, and it won’t have any impact if they’re convinced that practice makes perfect and more time naturally produces more learning. If, in other words, we assume homework is a necessary part of education, that may be because of bourgeoisie, how little we know about how children actually become educated. To learn more about learning is to look at the assignments kids are required to do in a very different light. [Full citations appear in the book’s bibliography.

Some endnotes in 5th business, the book have been omitted here.] 1. Brownell 1935, pp. 10, 12. Emphasis added. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat. Elsewhere, he wrote as follows: “The child who can promptly give the answer 12 to 7 + 5 has by no means demonstrated that he knows the combination. He does not ‘know’ the combination until he understands something of the reason why 7 and 5 is Against In The Workplace Essay, 12, until he can demonstrate to himself and to others that 7 and 5 is bourgeoisie, 12 … and Against Testing, until he can use the combination in an intelligent manner – in a word, until the combination possesses meaning for him” (Brownell 1928, p. 198). 2. Putnam et al., p. Vs. Proletariat. 89.

Lauren Resnick and other experts have made the same point. Against Testing Essay. 3. In so doing, it also invites them to think critically about those ideas. Bourgeoisie. By contrast, as the Brazilian educator Paolo Freire pointed out, “the more students work at storing the deposits entrusted to them” — a pretty good summary of most homework — “the less they develop [a] critical consciousness” (p. 54). This raises the interesting possibility that while a reluctance to ask provocative questions may help to perpetuate the 5th business institution of homework, the institution of vs. proletariat, homework may also discourage students from asking provocative questions.

4. In what follows, I draw from do sociologists two or more and interact The Schools Our Children Deserve (Kohn 1999b), which, in turn, contains references to the work of many other thinkers. 5. Windschitl, p. 352. 6. Kamii, 1994, p. 67. 8. DeVries and Kohlberg, p. 374. 9. This is exactly what the eminent educator John Goodlad discovered in his “Study of Schooling” across the U.S.: “A very large percentage of children [in elementary schools] reported to bourgeoisie us that they frequently did not understand the Benefit directions for bourgeoisie, the work they were to do. Aryan Invasion. The consequence of this is bourgeoisie, that they did not get much done at Against Drug In The school and so had a good deal to bourgeoisie do at home—but did not understand the Drug work in the first place. In other words, if there was any reinforcement in bourgeoisie, the behavioristic sense, homework probably provided reinforcement of the wrong way of figuring out a mathematics problem” (personal communication, November 2005). 10.

All of this also applies to more sophisticated homework, by the way. Even if the old stone rationale is to promote “integration of skills” – a current buzzphrase #8212; rather than the mere rehearsal of those skills, the reality is often that “the only skills being integrated are those of procrastination and panic” (Waldman). Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat. 11. For more on this, including some supporting research, see Kohn, The Schools Our Children Deserve , especially chapter 2.

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Essay: The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit. The smart emergency first aid kit would be convenient and easy to use by a normal technical person. It would be having compartment of materials to be used during particular emergency which would show LED indication. Simultaneously it will show the instructions related to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, particular emergency on do sociologists call two or more people and interact, LCD. It would also give an indication for the refilling of the compartments when they are empty. Vs. Proletariat? It would also have an additional feature of pre-recorded instructions in local language useful for guiding the laymen handling the aryan invasion, emergency case. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. 1.1 What is bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a First Aid Kit? Currently available first aid kits are mainly used during: Accidents- cuts, wounds, injuries, fractures.

Emergencies- Absence of old stone breathing, absence of heartbeat, choking, sunstroke, drowning, electric shock, poisoning. It comprises of: Band aids and elastic bandages. Gauze and Adhesive tape. Antiseptic wipes and cotton wool. Safety pins and Scissors.

Fig. 1(a) Ordinary First aid kits. Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. 1.2 Aim #038; Objective of the Project. Developing an bourgeoisie vs. proletariat innovative Smart Emergency First Aid Kit to cater different medical emergencies. Do Sociologists People Who Identify And Interact? Following medical emergencies would be covered:

6. Unconscious not breathing. 7. Unconscious breathing. 1.3 Problem Identification: The following are the problems that are faced: No first aid kit available in the market which caters all or major medical emergencies. Improperly assembled kits.

Inefficient interface between user and a kit. No serial communication or software integration with kit. No telemedicine integrated first aid kit. No Innovative design to cater individualized industry specific kit. Peripheral areas of the vs. proletariat, country having dispensaries are unable treat the what two or more, patients effectively during emergencies. Fig.1 (b) Currently available first aid kit.

Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION. The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit is the device containing a collection of materials useful for giving first aid to the person suffering from an emergency. During any emergency conditions, a layman would feel it difficult to help the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, person in emergency due to physical or mental instability developed by what do sociologists call two or people who identify with one another?, looking at the emergency condition. We have worked upon this condition and developed a novel kit where in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a layman-ordinary person can help the person in emergency by following the predefined and simplified steps. These steps (protocols) have been defined using our extensive research and data collection from clinicians working in emergency department of Drug Testing In The renowned hospitals. The steps to be followed pertaining to bourgeoisie, any defined emergency has three potential ways of old stone age definition communication with the user. First, once the switch pertaining to predefined emergency is pressed, the materials required for the emergency gives LED indication in the compartments.

This helps the user to easily identify the materials required for bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, particular emergency. Second, the predefined steps which needs to be followed pertaining to particular emergency has a visual display in the form instructions. Third, there are predefined audio instructions pertaining to particular emergency which will help user to follow the steps easily. The kit is a well-organized and comprises of compartments for arranging the 5th business, materials according to the emergencies. In addition, there is a provision of bourgeoisie indication for refilling the supplies whenever the compartment is and Children, empty.

2.2 Layout of the kit: Fig.2 (a) Layout of the smart First Aid Kit. 2.3 Description of the kit: Push buttons are provided to select a particular type of vs. proletariat emergency. There are total 10 push buttons. One push button is assigned to one emergency condition in following manner:

1.2 Heart attack. 1.6 Unconscious not breathing. 1.7 Unconscious breathing. LCD display will show the instructions related to particular emergency when it is selected. There are LED indicators provided which will glow when a particular material is required during the specific emergency.

Example: If 1 button is pushed then for what do sociologists two or more who identify and interact with, bleeding as the required materials are cotton and sterile piece of cloth and bandage then the compartments having these materials will be indicated by their respective LEDs. 4. Weight Sensors: Weight sensors will be IR sensors which will be in vs. proletariat, each compartment. This will show that the particular compartment is empty or is filled. If it shows red indication it means compartment is empty and needs to be refilled.

If it shows green indication it means that the compartment is not empty. 5. Against Drug? Instructions to be displayed: Immobilize the injured part. Don’t remove the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, bandage. LED: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

5.2 Heart attack. Chew and old stone age definition, swallow an aspirin. Begin CPR if unconscious. Immobilize the injured part. Don’t move the injured part. LED: 3, 8, 9, 10, 12. Keep the person still. Stop any bleeding. Watch for breathing.

If not give CPR. LED:2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Stop bleeding using sanitary pads. 5.6 Unconscious not breathing. If not give CPR. Lay down on the back. 5.7 Unconscious breathing. Give CPR if irregular breathing.

Keep the person warm. Give sugar to avoid faint. Lay on the back. Place other hand on the first hand. Give 100 compressions per vs. proletariat minute. Remove sharp objects. Soft thing under head. Hospital within 24 hrs.

Cooling pads on head. Hospital within 1 hr. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Block Diagram. Fig.3 (a) Block diagram. 1) ATmega 2560 R3: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. Drug In The? It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to vs. proletariat, support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. 2) Weight Sensors: IR sensors.

Infrared sensors are the sensor which helps to detect whether a particular object is present or not. These will be present in each compartment for the purpose of refilling the age definition, materials. 20*4 LCD display for the display of the instructions related to the particular emergency. It is 20 character 4 line displays. 4) LED Indicators: LEDs to indicate particular material to be used during the particular type of an vs. proletariat emergency. Also it will indicate that a particular material is present or not.

Database includes the information regarding each emergency and instructions to Mothers from Breastfeeding Essay, be displayed on the LCD screen . These instructions will be fed in the controller. 6) Micro SD Memory Card Socket: The memory card socket is used to store the instruction in the different languages if the person is unable to vs. proletariat, read the Testing, instructions displayed on the LCD screen. 3.3 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION: a) ATmega 2560 R3: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. Vs. Proletariat? It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. And Children Benefit From Essay? The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. The Mega 2560 is an update to the Arduino Mega which it replaces. The Mega2560 differs from bourgeoisie, all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip.

Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 in the revision 1 and aryan invasion, revision 2 boards) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. Revision 2 of the Mega2560 board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into bourgeoisie, DFU mode. Revision 3 of the board has the Mothers Benefit from Breastfeeding Essay, following new features: Added SDA and vs. proletariat, SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and and Children Benefit from Breastfeeding Essay, two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to vs. proletariat, adapt to the voltage provided from the board. Essay On In George Animal Farm? In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that use the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin that is reserved for future purposes. Stronger RESET circuit. Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2. Schematic, Reference Design #038; Pin Mapping.

Operating Voltage 5V. Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V. Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V. Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 15 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 16. DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA. DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA. Flash Memory 256 KB of which 8 KB used by boot loader. Clock Speed 16 MHz. The Arduino Mega can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply.

The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an vs. proletariat AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. What Call Two Or People With One Another?? The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and old stone age definition, the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is bourgeoisie, 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows: The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an aryan invasion external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). Vs. Proletariat? You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the aryan invasion, regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator.

Maximum current draw is 50 mA. This pin on the Arduino board provides the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, voltage reference with which the on The Warnings in George Animal, microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the vs. proletariat, IOREF pin voltage and aryan invasion, select the vs. proletariat, appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V. The ATmega2560 has 256 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 8 KB is used for the boot loader), 8 KB of SRAM and 4 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library) Input and Output: Each of the aryan invasion, 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an input or output, using pin Mode(), digitalWrite() and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of vs. proletariat 40mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized. Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX); Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX); Serial 2: 17 (RX) and 16 (TX); Serial 3: 15 (RX) and 5th business, 14 (TX). Bourgeoisie? Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data.

Pins 0 and 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. 2 (interrupt 0), 3 (interrupt 1), 18 (interrupt 5), 19 (interrupt 4), 20 (interrupt 3), and 21 (interrupt 2). These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. The SPI pins are also broken out on the ICSP header, which is physically compatible with the Uno, Duemilanove and Diecimila. 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. Aryan Invasion? When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off. 20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL). Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Support TWI communication using the 5th business, Wire library. Note that these pins are not in the same location as the TWI pins on the Duemilanove or Diecimila.

The Mega2560 has 16 analog inputs, each of which provides 10 bits of vs. proletariat resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to aryan invasion, 5 volts, though is bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, it possible to Against Testing Essay, change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and analog Reference() function. There are a couple of other pins on the board: AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Used with analog Reference(). Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on Testing In The Workplace, the board. The Arduino Mega2560 has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers.

The ATmega2560 provides four hardware UARTs for bourgeoisie, TTL (5V) serial communication. Old Stone? An ATmega16U2 (ATmega 8U2 on bourgeoisie, the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on Mothers Benefit, the computer (Windows machines will need a .inf file, but OSX and bourgeoisie, Linux machines will recognize the board as a COM port automatically. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is Mothers, being transmitted via the ATmega8U2/ATmega16U2 chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the. Mega2560’s digital pins:

The ATmega2560 also supports TWI and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the TWI bus; see the documentation (http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Wire) for details. For SPI communication, use the vs. proletariat, SPI library. The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the Arduino software . The ATmega16U2 (or 8U2 in the rev1 and Mothers and Children from Essay, rev2 boards) firmware source code is available in the Arduino repository. The ATmega16U2/8U2 is loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by: On Rev1 boards: connecting the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, solder jumper on the back of the board (near the aryan invasion, map of bourgeoisie Italy) and then resetting the 8U2. On Rev2 or later boards: there is a resistor that pulling the 8U2/16U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. You can then use. Atmel’s FLIP software to load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an external programmer. Automatic (Software) Reset.

Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Mega2560 is designed in a way that allows it to 5th business, be reset by software running on bourgeoisie, a connected computer. Aryan Invasion? One of the bourgeoisie, hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the aryan invasion, ATmega8U2 is. connected to the reset line of the ATmega2560 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to bourgeoisie, upload code by Mothers Breastfeeding, simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the upload. This setup has other implications. When the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, Mega2560 is connected to what do sociologists call two or people with one another?, either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, software (via USB). For the following half-second or so, the bootloader is what do sociologists people who identify and interact, running on the Mega2560. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. Bourgeoisie? anything besides an upload of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data.

The Mega2560 contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. The pads on either side of the Essay Farm, trace can be soldered together to bourgeoisie, re-enable it. It’s labeled “RESET-EN”. You may also be able to aryan invasion, disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset line. USB Overcurrent Protection: The Arduino Mega2560 has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer’s USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the old stone age definition, fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed. Physical Characteristics and Shield Compatibility. The maximum length and width of the Mega2560 PCB are 4 and vs. proletariat, 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension.

Three screw holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. 5th Business? Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16?), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins. The Mega2560 is designed to be compatible with most shields designed for the Uno, Diecimila or Duemilanove. Digital pins 0 to 13 (and the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, adjacent AREF and GND pins), analog inputs 0 to 5, the power header, and ICSP header are all in equivalent locations. Further the main UART (serial port) is Mothers and Children Benefit from Breastfeeding Essay, located on the same pins (0 and 1), as are external interrupts 0 and 1 (pins 2 and 3 respectively). SPI is available through the ICSP header on both the Mega2560 and bourgeoisie, Duemilanove / Diecimila. Please note that I2C is not located on 5th business, the same pins on the Mega (20 and bourgeoisie, 21) as the Duemilanove / Diecimila (analog inputs 4 and 5). Fig. 3(b) Arduino mega 2560 R3 board.

Fig. 3(c) Arduino mega 2560 R3 Schematic. DISPLAY CONTENT’20 CHAR x 4ROW. c) IR proximity sensor: Fig. 3(e) IR sensor. IR proximity sensor module has 3 pins. One pin is VCC, one pin is Ground and aryan invasion, one pin is Negative. By connecting it to LED and resistor we can obtain the interfacing with LED which is used for LED indication. d) Micro SD memory card and socket.

Accepts standard Micro SD memory cards for mounting in vs. proletariat, your embedded projects. From? These are the same sockets we use in our Micro SD memory card interface boards model 1102 and 1103 and they work great. Bourgeoisie Vs. Proletariat? The Micro SD memory cards are the 5th business, same memory cards used in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, mobile phones which are available at Essay in George Orwell's Animal, very low cost, making it ideal for using in vs. proletariat, embedded projects like memory card storage, audio mp3 players and Workplace, such. The socket is Push Push type, means. ‘ Push again to Eject. Fig. 3(f) Micro SD memory card and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, socket. CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING. #define SD_ChipSelectPin 53 //example uses hardware SS pin 53 on Mega2560. const byte ROWS = 4; //four rows.

const byte COLS = 3; //four columns. //define the cymbols on the buttons of the Mothers from Essay, keypads. byte rowPins[ROWS] = ; //connect to the row pinouts of the keypad. byte colPins[COLS] = ; //connect to the column pinouts of the keypad. //initialize an instance of class NewKeypad. Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS); // initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins. LiquidCrystal lcd(14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19); TMRpcm tmrpcm; // create an object for use in this sketch.

// set up the LCD’s number of columns and rows: // Print a message to the LCD. tmrpcm.speakerPin = 11; //5,6,11 or 46 on Mega, 9 on Uno, Nano, etc. return; // don’t do anything more if not. char customKey = customKeypad.getKey(); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Dirt, Immobilize “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Don’t remove bandage”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Begin CPR “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Chew and bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, swallow an “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding#038; Apply”); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“move injured part…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Keep person still “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Stop any bleeding “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Watch for breathing “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” If not give CPR…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding using “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” sanitary pad, “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Check Breathing, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” If not give CPR, “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” Loosen Clothes, “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Lay down on the back”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” CPR if irregular “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Lay on the back, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“place other hand on “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“first hand#038;Give 100 “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“thing under head. “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Using soap, wash “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” throughly bitten “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” within 24 hours…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Cooling pads on head”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“Hospital within 1 hr”); void led1(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led2(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led3(int i,int j,int k,int l,int m) CHAPTER 5: LITERATURE REVIEW. 5.1 AIM: First aid kit and method of replenishing. Includes a carrying case which has means for providing quick access to the contents carried by the case. Each pack being designated a colour, each pack being designated by an icon, and each pack containing medical products for different types of aryan invasion first aid situations.

Guidebook which have a matching colour to the pack. The first aid kit further including an overview card which includes an bourgeoisie vs. proletariat overview of the 5th business, packs, the overview card being color coordinated to assist the user in finding the bourgeoisie, appropriate pack for a situation, the do sociologists call two or more people and interact one another?, overview card further being icon coordinated to assist the user in finding the appropriate pack for a situation. Fig. 5(a) First aid kit and method of bourgeoisie replenishing. 5.2 AIM: First-aid kit. Body attached first aid kit. Specially designed for Against Drug Testing In The, battle field. Pockets designed according to the equipments. flap adapted to vs. proletariat, overlie the age definition, upper open edge over the false one preventing the materials from rain.

Materials covered in this are standard size of bottle of Morphine, hypodermic needle, individual swabs, special bandage cutting scissors,splints,thermos bottle etc. Invention is to provide a body-attached first aid kit for vs. proletariat, use in emergency field work, which kit does not hinder the movement of the wearer and is adapted to be opened from the carried position with all pockets and equipment items in the proper position for use while the wearer is administering first aid to the patient. Fig. 5(b) First aid kit during military services. 5.3 AIM: Emergency burn treatment pack. Comprises of what do sociologists two or people with one another? soft resilient foam material adapted to support a patient lying on said foam material,

A sterile sheet on said foam material interspersed between said foam material and a patient lying on vs. proletariat, said foam material and adapted to completely cover and protect said patient from contamination, and. a flexible outer covering having at Essay on Animal, least a pair of cooperating interlocking portions completely encompassing said foam material, patient and said sterile sheet for maintaining the sterile atmosphere about the patient. Required to check the pulse and breathing issue. Openings are provided in the waterproof covering to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, provide access to the patient’s arms and what do sociologists two or more who identify, legs for intravenous blood transfusions should that be necessary. A pair of flexible straps located on bourgeoisie, each side of the on in George Animal Farm, waterproof outer covering provide the means for transporting the patient while in the sterile and moist protective cocoon environment. Fig. 5(c) Emergency burn treatment pack. 5.4 AIM: Emergency medical care kit with medical emergency instructions. Can be used by bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a laymen. Plastic organizer to age definition, insert the compartments. Each compartment for a particular medical emergency.

A compartment for instruction and vs. proletariat, emergency telephone numbers. On one side there are necessary items for the medical emergencies and on the other side there are drugs related to primary relief. Each compartment is directed to a particular medical emergency and 5th business, is so identified on its cover or lid. Bourgeoisie? The reverse side of the compartment cover has instructions for treating the particular emergency, while the and Children, compartment contains the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, necessary care items for that particular emergency. A divider is held by snaps across the upper section of the case to help contain the contents and also provides instruction for use of the Drug Workplace, kit, some general first aid information, and a list of emergency telephone numbers.

Fig. 5(d) Medical organised care kit with instructions. 5.5 AIM: Emergency eye kit. Comprises of vs. proletariat sterilized pads(2’*2?), drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape ,spray kind of Orwell's Farm flush systems etc.An emergency medical kit having a container with a hinged lid and a latch for use in organizing and protecting ophthalmic instruments and supplies, such as sterilized pads, drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape and other items needed by a physician or emergency personnel working under the auspices of aphysician in rendering emergency medical assistance to a person suffering an eye injury. The container would have one or more compartmentalized trays so that the instruments and supplies would be separated from each other and readily available for use. The container may have a locking device to prevent unauthorized access to instruments and supplies stored within. The container would be lightweight and compact, so that it is readily portable and easily stored. It is contemplated for the present invention to be used in any location where a physician or emergency personnel is called upon to vs. proletariat, diagnose and treat someone who has suffered an eye injury, including, but not limited to, medical offices of non-ophthalmic physicians, accident sites, shopping malls, residences, sporting events, and camping facilities. Fig. 5(e) Emergency eye kit.

5.6 AIM: Emergency relief system. System comprises of In The Essay packs of bourgeoisie vs. proletariat guidebooks of the first aid for 5th business, the medical emergencies which gives the bourgeoisie, idea about the instructions on and Children from Breastfeeding Essay, how to use the products given in the pack during a particular medical emergency. The guide book is color and icon coordinated to assist the person to quickly find the respective emergency pack. It also contains an instruction guide in the video /audio format. Also there is a functional intelligence which gives the bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, columnar array accordance to the packs kept in the system which results in the accuracy of the Against Drug Testing In The Workplace, treatment related to first aid. Contains burn pack,bleeding pack,cpr pack,head and bourgeoisie, spine pack,shock pack,bite and sting pack,bum pack,bone pack etc. The first aid kit further includes an overview card that is an overview of the components of the first aid kit, identifying each of the packs for 5th business, quick reference in a first aid situation. Vs. Proletariat? Each of the Mothers Benefit from Essay, packs contains medical products specifically selected for different types of first aid situations as well as an instructional card that gives quick reference instructions for administration of first aid in these situations. Fig.

5(f) Emergency relief system. 5.7 AIM: Portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit. CN 202909126 U, 2013. The utility model discloses a portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit and relates to bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, a first aid medicine containing device for a patient who has coronary heart disease. Old Stone? The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit comprises an elastic hanging rope, a box body, a box cover, a moving picture experts group audio layer-3 (MP3) integrated voice storage sounding device, and a time-delay starting switch. The MP3 integrated voice storage sounding device is arranged at the lower end of the box body. The portable voice guidance coronary hear disease first aid kit is convenient to carry and quick in taking medicine, and vs. proletariat, enables the patient to take first aid medicines timely, quickly and aryan invasion, accurately by self at coronary heart disease attacking time. When the patient is incapable of self rescue, the portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is capable of automatic voice alarm for help, provides the name, the address, illness conditions and first aid measures which can be taken, and therefore the purpose of bourgeoisie first aid is achieved. The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is suitable for age definition, self rescue or being rescued at the coronary heart disease attacking time. Fig. 5(g) Portable coronary heart disease first aid kit.

CHAPTER 6: FUTURE EXPANSION. Different kits based on the needs of the industries like hospitals, industries i.e. pharmaceuticals, drugs etc. Application of Video conferencing. Increasing the bourgeoisie, emergencies and similarly its compartments. Making them more portable. Implementation of aryan invasion kits in bourgeoisie vs. proletariat, rural areas and outskirts, crossroads, public places etc. Making it more portable, user friendly and more compatible. 5. Meditrain first aid kits.

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