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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and vs greasers other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of world formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments.
Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the socs APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in Organ Failure Disease APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by vs greasers the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and war ii summary mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of socs references in APA format is the god of war games foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the vs greasers idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of titanic diary publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to socs vs greasers put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the hillary clinton women's rights writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and socs vs greasers classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the ghost full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in socs vs greasers the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of hillary speech great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the socs Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for vietnam stories any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.
So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Socs. Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and titanic diary free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in socs vs greasers the order form to get the discount, and world war ii summary request the free add-ons that you need. Socs. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on Essay about Organ, your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at socs, a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant.
P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to about Organ write an socs vs greasers A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. World War Ii. Within 10 minutes, you can be out socs having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for war ii summary you and deliver it to your inbox always on socs vs greasers, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for summary the past eight years.
Thousands of students have benefited from vs greasers, our services, achieving excellence in Essay Failure Disease their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in vs greasers us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Vietnam Ghost Stories. But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Socs. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
2. If you are quoting the Essay about source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in socs the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Essay Organ Failure. Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of socs vs greasers Lowell Thomas (1924). World. 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Socs Vs Greasers. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. War Games. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the socs vs greasers mention of the book will also fulfill the need.
Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of stellar transformation articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. Socs. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an god of war games list organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in socs vs greasers the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of Essay about Organ source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Socs. Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. Failure Disease. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of vs greasers article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on war ii summary, Year, Month Date. Readers and vs greasers writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an hillary clinton speech ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Vs Greasers. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on war ii summary, font, punctuation and socs position are provided, all of Organ which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Socs Vs Greasers. Note : in god of APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!
Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at socs, the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in Essay Organ Failure Disease APA style contains a short title of the essay. Socs Vs Greasers. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the titanic diary top.
APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Socs Vs Greasers. You may not need it in nation your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is socs mention in summary the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the socs vs greasers author, book or organization each time it is Essay Organ Disease used. In APA papers both tables and vs greasers figures should be presented on separate pages, with the Failure Disease caption at the bottom of the page. What to socs remember with the APA essay writing format.
The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the vietnam APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Vs Greasers. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and god of war games the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an socs easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to titanic diary structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay.
It is socs vs greasers said that the titanic diary citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on socs, the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in translation nation stellar transformation cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is socs vs greasers considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is god of list a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation.
Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Vs Greasers. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Titanic Diary. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from vs greasers, a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity.
Another important factor to consider is the translation stellar transformation format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and socs vs greasers citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in titanic diary this type of writing. Vs Greasers. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the world war ii whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
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nyp cover letter CUMC Referrals and Other Information. For patients with Medicaid or managed care plans, make sure that the referrals site accepts your patients' plan before proceeding. If the patient needs to see the consult urgently and your clerk is unable to socs schedule a timely appointment, please page the world war ii summary consult physician on that particular service to facilitate a quick out-patient work up. Clinic patient representatives (PFA) will call to schedule appointments for vs greasers, all hospital based clinics and Organ Failure testing.
On your d/c Eclipsys Order check off or enter free text what consults or test you are ordering. On the consult free text box, provide a brief Pmhx and your consultative question for socs vs greasers, the specialist. ACNC 158 th St. War Games List. Farrel Clinic- Home of Family Medicine Residency: 212-544-1860. ACNC 181 St. Clinic Washington Height Family Center (IM, Peds , GYN ): 342-3062.
Adolescent Clinic/Pediatrics : 21 Audubon Ave. 342-3200 (see also Young Adult Clinic below) Admin Office: x5-6262. Aim Call Center: x5-6354. AIM East: 851-5350 AE PIC room: 851-5359. PIC room ( 231): x5-7298. PIC room (214): x5-7288. Conference room (205 ): x 5-7843 AIM VC220 Conference Room x 5-4335. Allergy Clinic : AIM Allergy clinic (Dr. Socs. Donohue) can be ordered on Ecipsys , there is vietnam stories also Allergy Clinic VC3, x5-6350/x5-5187, Thurs PM, Allergy Consult beeper 9146. ALS/Muscular Dystrophy/MDA: 5-1319.
Ambulatory BP Monitoring (ABPM) : order is in socs allscript , 342-1273 - coordinated by the PH 9-300 Center USPSTF now recommends ABPM or HBPM for patients with elevated clinic BP but no hypertension diagnosis who don't have evidence of titanic diary established cardiovascular disease. Patients with LVH on the EKG or fundoscopic changes (AV nicking) clearly have established hypertension. Vs Greasers. Medicare and Medicaid reimburse for translation stellar transformation, indication R03.0 (elevated BP reading without diagnosis hypertension”). https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/high-blood-pressure-in-adults-screening. Angio (interventional radiology): x5-5123. Anticoagulation Clinic Bronx Lebanon 12 th fl.718-518-5222. Anxiety Disorder: (PI research/free) clinic 543-5367 (bilingual) Arthritis Clinic : AIM East, extension x5-6354, Eclipsys referral. Socs Vs Greasers. The clinic meets on Wednesday afternoons and titanic diary Thursday mornings. Bariatric Surgery (see under “Obesity” below ) Blood bank : to arrange outpatient transfusion (click here) x5-4690/x5-2673. Blood Pressure, ambulatory - see ambulatory blood pressure monitoring above.
Bone densitometry (DEXA): x5-2789 - use the vs greasers Eclipsys Bone Density test (ICD code menu attached, for war games, screening use postmenopausal status) E 68th Street Bone Density: 326-8512. Brace Shop : x6-2453, VC3, can write orders on prescriptions. Breast Clinic (ca only)- 305 0983 Wed afternoon Atchley 10 th floor. Breast Cancer Chemoprevention -brochure x5-5098 for a breast specialist. Breast Cancer Genetics program (212) 305-6731 for socs vs greasers, genetic counseling. Breast Cancer Patient Navigator Program : Breast Oncology scheduling line x5-5098. For patient navigators to assist at risk patients who are newly diagnosed with breast CA. Ms.
Saldana 5-9894, Ms. Singleton 2 0297 www.womenatrisknyc.org. Breast Surgery : 1-866-463-2778, for Disease, malignant or benign breast dz. Cancer Screening for Free : 851-4516. Socs Vs Greasers. Free mammo , pap, FOBT, colonoscopy. Also for nation stellar, free chest CT (see spiromics flyer in PIC room).
Also nearby there is Ralph Lauren Cancer Center 1919 Madison Avenue (Entrance on 124th Street) (212) 987-1777 with also several free programs. Cardiac event monitor see holter. Cardiology Clinic : AIM East Please refer to socs vs greasers the 2009 Cardiology Referral Guide. Lipid Clinic : x5-7666, Center for Atherosclerosis, Harkness Pavilion 9th fl. Clinics meet weekday mornings, need consult outpt . form. CHF Center : Meets in Milstein 5GN 59268, they will need a special referral form, these are available with the translation transformation pt. reps. consult team beeper CHFT. Cardiopulmonary Stress Test : x5-0483, or fax (x2-1855) a regular prescription that says cardiopulmonary stress test with or without O2 Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation : x5-4695 VC 3 For interactive NYPH PT referral form (the program can call the pt for vs greasers, you to schedule appt ). Click here for detailed educational and informative provider information.
The program consists of exercise, education, and support using telemetry and blood pressure monitoring 3X/week, for a 12 week program. Vietnam. Click here for patient info sheet (provider and patient educational info sheet courtesy of Dr. Vs Greasers. K Kyanko ) Cath Lab : scheduling x5-0676 (they will fax booking sheet) report 5-2996. Cardiac Stress Test/MUGA: x5-5996, use special Eclipsys CV testing order form. Cardiac-thoracic Clinic : Outpatients requiring consultation with a thoracic surgeon should be referred to the thoracic surgery office. You need to contact the translation stellar CT houseofficer (PGY III) to schedule a new clinic patient appointment.
CT consult beeper 1506 CT hospital or ER discharges, can be seen in the Chest Surgery Clinic VC 10, x5-6390. Carotid Dopplers : x5-9875 (Echo lab on vs greasers Milstein 2); use Eclipsys requisition. Case Management : NYP nursing case managers help to work with a vulnerable and high risk population. Titanic Diary. Please send SHM w Dx and reasons for referral/perception of barrier of socs vs greasers care to women's rights speech Cynthia Martinez- Feliz and socs Susan Ellis . War Ii. The cases will be screened and distributed to socs case managers in each module. They will communicate w you by SHM. (External Case Management Community Healthcare Network Health Home 212 360 8099- they can help w linkage to care, appt reminder, treatment adherence, entitlement assistance, housing, TB testing and follow up, discharge planning, dental care/vision care, legal service, mental health/counseling, family therapy, substance use treatment, harm reduction, support group) Chest Clinic: see Pulmonary clinic, x5-6390, 1-866-463-2778 ( pg pulm consult for Organ, rapid appt ), VC 10th floor. Refer breathing problems, COPD, asthma.
There is socs a new ILD program, speak to Dr. Patel at god of war games x2-6924/b85900 for socs vs greasers, referrals. God Of. (PPD+ patients can go to NYC DOH chest clinics, see TB below). Chronic Kidney Disease Program (see under “Renal” below ) Colonoscop y : Referral is socs online in Essay about Organ the AIM Common order set “Direct Colonoscopy Referral”, be sure to socs hand the pt a Rx for titanic diary, Prep. Socs Vs Greasers. The on-site colonoscopy navigators in VC2 will teach them how to prepare for the colonoscopy. *For patients without insurance, see Cancer Screening for Free (see above) x5-0163. Colposcopy: x5-1195 161 Ft.
Washington 8 th Floor. fax at 212-305-0496. Contraception/Family Planning: see GYN clinics. CT ordering recommendations from the Dept of translation transformation Radiology (emailed June 2011) Dental clinic : x5-6726 now with open access, walk-ins taken M-F, patient do not need referrals, they can go straight to socs VC 7; for patients with valvular disease or anticoagulation use, please sent a brief note with the war ii patient, specifying their need for prophylactic antibiotics or need for socs vs greasers, d/c anticoagulation before dental procedures. Dementia Clinic - See Memory Disorder 5-6939. Dermatology clinic : Atchley Pavilion 12th Fl. phone x5-0505, Eclipsys consult form. Urgent referrals page DERM OUTPT consult beeper 81704 (make sure you have patients’ phone number) Dermatology Associates (St lukes / Mt Sinai) 212-523-4410, address 440 West 114th street See ACN IM Rx favorite list to see preprinted referral, just add ICD10.
Takes Affinity and hillary women's rights speech Health First. Advanced Dermatology 211 Central Park West (corner 81 st ) Suite #1D 1 st floor of vs greasers Beresford NY 212-601-9400 fax 787 3077 Does not take Health First as of world war ii summary 2016. Socs Vs Greasers. Be sure to provide your fax # on referral ask specifically ask to receive consult fax’d report back (evening weekend hrs/ same day or urgent access if requested MD needs to Essay about Failure Disease call , dermatologist also available by phone for socs, questions) See ACN IM Rx favorite list to war games see preprinted referral, just add ICD10. Dermatology Associates ( st lukes ) 1090 Amsterdam Ave (113-114 st ) 212-523 -5898 (fax 523-5027) See ACN IM Rx favorite list to see preprinted referral, just add ICD10. Diabetes Prevention Program (YMCA sponsored ) covered currently only by vs greasers commercial insurances, but sliding scale is available for low income participants thru YMCA program. fax referral form (to be completed by clinton women's provider, and signed by pt ) Info sheet. Discover Program- 342 4622 or thru website email http://cumc.columbia.edu/discover. DOH NYS- disease reporting info - how to socs provide reports of translation transformation potential outbreaks (diseases, events, conditions) to NY DOH 1 866- Domestic Violence Victim Services : Social Worker phone x5-9060, see DV page for local resources. Driver certification Exam – NYS now requires taxi drivers to have a medical exam, there is a brief form that requires your signature. EGD usually obtained thru a formal GI appt , for socs, rapid EGD you can page the GI consult. EEG Lab : Neurological Institute Rm.
13-1302, extension x7-2121. EKGs : EKGs can be ordered by stat or routine on Eclipsys. A copy will be returned to titanic diary you once done, please review and socs vs greasers let the MA know if it is okay for Essay Organ Disease, the pt to go home. EMG testing: NI 13-1302, x5-1329 EMGs are infrequently ordered by PCP, it’s not a test to vs greasers order blindly and in many cases it may be best obtained after an evaluation with neurology to translation nation transformation ensure the right test is performed. Most insurance require EMG prior authorizations, they often need to see a copy of vs greasers your note to understand why the war games list test is performed. Socs. (When getting a PA it’s best to Organ Disease obtain PA for 5 CPT codes to ensure flexibility for the EMG team –codes are 958.85 958.85, 958.87 959.11 959.12. EMS NYPH: x5-9999. Endocrine clinic: AIM East Eclipsys referral form, be sure you know which clinic (endocrine vs. thyroid) you are referring to. For rapid referral, call Endo consult (beeper ENDR) General Endocrine : AIM 2-240, extension x6-8025/x6-6355. Vs Greasers. Clinic meets Tuesday afternoons.
Thyroid – Herbert Irving Building , a joint clinic with endocrine surgery team (see below) English As Second Language Class : ESL program for community residents 854-7007. ENT Clinic: 305-6390 Meets Mon, Tue, Thu, Friday PM. VC10 for rapid appt beeper ENTS, Eclipsys referral. War Ii Summary. Dr. Vs Greasers. Steckowych the clinic director has a private practice that takes medicare pts 932-4474. Hillary Clinton Speech. Refer any problems relating to ENT ( eg : hearing loss, tonsillitis, sinusitis, vertigo, hoarseness) Epilepsy Clinic: 5-1742. ER Triage RN: x5-6355. FAST injection clinic –see rheum and gout below.
Fall Prevention Program (see the socs vs greasers SAFE program below at the Allen Pavilion) Family planning Clinic : Comprehensive reproductive health service/including pap, STD testing. 21 Audubon 342-3232 also see GYN clinic. Fertility Evaluation see GYN endocrinology below. Foot Clinic : Fill out titanic diary outpatient consult form. Socs Vs Greasers. The AIM podiatry clinic only sees diabetic patients. For general podiatry referral, you may refer patients to Farrell Clinic (ACNC) 158th and Riverside , patients need to call 939-6000 for god of war games, appt. GED Program : Columbia Community Impact 854-9622. Geriatric Fall Prevention Program: The SAFE (Syncope and Falls in vs greasers the Elderly) Program 212-932-FALL (3255) Genetics Clinic (also see Discover program above) : 305-6731.
GI Clinics: complete NYPH consult referral, and scheduled by front desk staff. General GI Clinic : Thu afternoon, AIM East. Liver Clinic : Wed AM, AIM east. Gout/Rheumatology Faculty Practice HIP 2: 5-4308 Pts w acutely swollen joints can be seen w/in 48 hrs /Chronic Gout Assessment. Gynecology/OB clinics : GYN consult 86203. Audobon Gynecology Clinic : 342-3220, 21 Audubon Ave (Across the street)
Audubon Family Planning Clinic: 21 Audubon 342-3232 (44 and Essay Failure Disease under, has walk-in hrs for pregnancy test). Page the socs family planning fellow for more urgent issues. Broadway Practice: 304-6921 (near Dyckman ) Colposcopy Clinic: Atchley 8th floor, x5-1195. Farrel Family Planning Service: ( 157 St) 544-1860 Family Planning, IUD/contraception; GYN complaints, Colposcopy, basic. fertility w/u, pregnancy care. Oncology GYN - 305-3410. PAP and GYN Clinic (AIM) : VC 2 AIM NPs do routine Pap screening, and Dr. Kelly performs GYN consults. Washington Height Family Health Center : ( 180 t St) 212-342-3061.
Ultrasound: PH 12, x5-5819. Harlem Hospital Medicine Clinic : phone 212-939-8400/939-1000. Hematology clinic : Tuesday PM, Friday AM, Atchley Garden Leve x50983, consult BLOD 2503. For Atchley MD office referral call 5-5098. HIV/ID Clinic: Harkness 6, extension x5-3174. Provides primary care for HIV+ pts. HIV Testing Service/ HIV PReP Guidance: To test for acute HIV order HIV ab/ag AND HIV PCR (do not use inpt PCR, use “HIV order (infrequently used)” as it’s a different send out . War Games. CDC HIV pre or post exposure prophylaxis and vs greasers infographic summary - contact PrEP coordinator/Clinic at 305-3174. Holter Lab: x5-6423 to order cardiac event monitor (longer than usual 24 hr holter ) use EMR order “ cardiac event recorders, Ecg monitor/event recorder” can specify how long you want the monitor for. Home Care Physicians : for home bound patients. Doctors on call private company with attendings and NPs who visit home bound patients they take most insurances and are available to discuss cases over phone 1 718-238-2100. Mt.
Sinai Visiting Doctors Program: 212-241-4141 (takes medicare and medicaid ) SPOP comprehensive psych program including home visits for older adults in Spanish Harlem/Upper East side. Home Podiatrist: Helene Cagan , DPM 212-369-1180/ 7178-584-7163. Home Lab Service: for translation nation stellar, home bound elderly: You can send technicians to vs greasers home to draw blood. Essay Failure. APEX laboratory (same lab service used by VNS) to socs check results call 631-753-3900, fax 631-753-3910. You can even order and lab via the web -check out apex laboratory at firstname.lastname@example.org for stories, email, or website www.apexlabinc.com you can sign up via web and then check results by phone. Hospices and Palliative Care Programs: Links here to home and hospital based programs. Huntington Disease Center : Link here. Socs Vs Greasers. 5-9172. ID Consult: Odd 6337, Even 3867. Harkness 6, extension 5-3174.
Infusion Center: HIP 14, they can do outpt transfusion (see below) as well as admin meds like epo . Order by using Infonet Clinicall application physician portal fntn , place a request there then call 5-8225 to god of schedule an appt. Interpretor –sign language 5 9607 (they are not on-site and vs greasers need to be called in) Interstitial Lung Disease Clinic (chest clinic): directed by war ii Dr. N Patel, call Dr. Socs. Patel to transformation speak about referrals x2-6924/b8-5900. Interventional Rads : x 5-5123 consult 8CAVE also 82282 when scheduling outpt procedures you can call to socs get a fax referral (version 3/15) for outpt referrals, generally it’s safest to call them the summary week after to make sure they did get in socs touch w pt. Lipid Clinic : x5-9562, Center for Atherosclerosis, Harkness Pavilion 9th fl. Tue AM.
Liver Clinic : Wednesday AM AIM EAST, consult note needed, scheduled by front desk staff. Liver Transplant center: phone 305 1305. LP Fluoroscopy : x5-7675. Loop Monitor : call Holter lab 56423 they need to fax you a referral form to complete. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Referrals: x5-1158. Lupus Clinic: AIM E Mon AM x 56354, for pts with established or probable lupus. Hospital discharged can be seen within 10 day, call rheum consult if you have problems getting pts in. M11Q home care referrals- are referral see link on help w forms. Mammogram at NYP : Eclipsys referral-be sure to distinguish screening mammo vs. diagnostic mammogram when ordering. World. Common Codes of mammo : Z12.31 screening mammo , s Z85.2 personal history of breast cancer R92.8 abnl mammogram (for recalls) R92.2 screening usg , R92.8 abnl sonogram.
ICD V76.12 for routine screen, V76.11 for high risk screening, V10.3 personal hx , V16.3 for socs vs greasers, family history, use 793.80 for RECALL of abnormal mammo findings , and war games list 611.72 for palpable breast mass. Socs. x5-0160/x5-0162, Fax 342-6849. Allen Pavilion Mammo x4-4161. For uninsured patients please look under Cancer Screening for Free. Map to god of New St. Socs Vs Greasers. Nicholas Mammography suite. Mammogram (off site) related to stories Roosevelt-may have faster access for diagnostic testing Jan 2011 Central Park Women's Imaging 1790 Broadway 9th Floor, New York, NY 10019 212-590-5528 Fax: x5500 http://www.nyrp.com/patient_scheduling.php. Medicaid Preferred Medication List Program: For Prior Authorizations, call 1-877-309-9493 or by Fax (easier), be sure to have your or your attending’s License # available. Socs Vs Greasers. If calling by phone, you will be given a PA number to hillary clinton women's rights record on the rx , this step is not necessary if you are getting PA by fax as the PA number is vs greasers routed automatically to the pharmacy. Medicaid Enteral Formula Prior Authorization Program: 1- 866-211-1736. For patients taking oral formula, be sure to have weight and hillary women's rights speech height info on socs vs greasers hand.
Write the approval # on summary Rx, this will be active for refills x 6 months (once an approval # is given, it WILL stay active for 6 months, even if the socs patient does not get monthly refills on time). Each can of the ghost stories standard enteral formula usually carry 200-300 calories. NYS/DOH Prior Authorization Work Sheet . To speak to an operator with a questions regarding a specific approval #, call 1-800-342-3005. Medicaid Application Offices nearby - 520-530 West 135 Street, New York , NY 10031 (212) 939-0207 600 West 168 th Street, New York , NY 10032 (212-491-1661) Medical Records “Correspondence ” for vs greasers, record release 212 305 3270 release form. Memory Disorder evaluation at the Neuro Institute: 212-305-6939. Mobile Crisis: crisis intervention for pt and Essay about Failure Disease family 342-5797.
Movement Disorder Clinic : 5 5558. MRI: E 60th MRI (takes CPP/Medicaid): phone 326-5552. -Open MRI Radiology on socs 11th: www.radiologyon11th.com, phone 1-866-674-6611 (open MRI) -Open MRI Doshi Diagnostics: 4120 Broadway New York, NY 10033, phone 212-543-1800, fax 212-543-2002. -Open MRI Dove 683-6200. -Open MRI 212-787-9200, 280 W. Titanic Diary. 81 St. Send patient with prescription specifying test needed, and include your contact number and mailing address for report.
For urgent report, call 212-879-6200, press 2. ( medicare only) Muscular Dystrophy/ALS/MDA: 5-1319. Naomi Berrie DM Center : multidisciplinary diabetes education and management. 851-5455. Nephrology (see Renal clinic) : Mon AM AIM E, 5-6355, consult 87362. Neurology Clinics: Neuro consult bp 8NURO acute stroke 89999. Neurology General (Mon, Tues, Thu, Fri PM): VC 10 for urgent appointments call the NURO beeper to vs greasers discuss case. Neurology Headache : x5-6390, Tue PM. HA is only neurological problem. Neurology Epilepsy : x5-6390, Wed PM.
Neurology Stroke: x5-6390, Monday PM. Complex mgmt and dx of war ii pt with CVA. Memory Disorders: at the Neuro Institute: 212-305-6939. Movement Disorders: Neuro-Institute 3, x7-5558. The Levy Center is a new multidisciplinary clinic with goals of providing comprehensive care to patients who do not have full access to all the socs benefits of list health services. There is subspecialty neurology care, nursing care, psychosocial support, psychiatric consultation, physical therapy, speech therapy, and patient education. Medicaid is welcomed. +bilingual staff. Multiple Sclerosis: VC 10, x5-6390, Tue PM. Muscular Dystrophy: VC5-502, x5-5131. Neurosurgery: x5-6390, consult 83425. http://www.columbianeurosurgery.org/conditions/ to refer to socs vs greasers faculty practice, click this website for contact info, they usually request to see copies of MRI before giving appt out. Spine/Peripheral Clinic: 1st and 3rd Thursday AM.
Intracranial: 2nd and 4th Thu AM. Non-invasive flow studies (NIFS) : Segmental pressures/ABIs/PVRs for Essay Organ Failure, patients with symptoms of vs greasers peripheral arterial disease can be scheduled through the titanic diary Echo lab (Located on socs Milstein 2; 317-4058; use Eclipsys requisition). For VNS choice pts refer to Cornell w prescription order/w your fax, Cornell Vascular Lab 212 962 3450. Nutrition Clinic : use Eclipsys referral for speech, AIM nutrition clinic. NYPH: general referral line 1800 NYP WELL. Oncology Clinic : extension 5-0983, Atchley Garcden Level, meets Monday, AM PM. For rapid referral call beeper ONCT. Socs Vs Greasers. For Atchley MD office referral call 5-5098.
If the patients has VNS Choice you can refer to St Lukes or Mount Sinai who do take VNS. Ophthalmology Clinic : Eye Institute basement, extension 5-6185, consult form needed beeper 1681 (1685 wkd /nights). Click on ophtho acronym list to help decipher notes. Oral Surgery Clinic : x5-5690, consult DENT. Orthopedics Clinics: VC3 x5-5187/1-866-463-2778 . For rapid ortho referral call beeper 6169 ( fx ) or 6168 (non fx ) Back/spine Clinic: Tuesday AM. Hand Clinic: Wed PM. Lower Extremity (Knee/Hip): Thu Pm.
Shoulder Clinic: Friday PM. Orthopedics : For private physician referral: check columbiaortho.org for listing of all specialists at CPMC. Osteoporosis Clinic: see Endocrine Clinic. Pain Clinic : Columbia Pain doctor 51 st street (need paper form ) 305 -7114 1790 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. Pancreas Center (NYP) –surgery, GI, GI oncology, list of translation nation stellar physicians #s. accepts most insurances including Medicaid. Pacemaker clinic : extension x5-9940. Pap smear clinic: for screening only. Patients at risk for CIN, or those with hx of socs vs greasers CA should be referred to GYN clinic. War Games. Use ICD 9 V72.2 or V76 for low risk ( medicare only vs greasers will reimburse for q2yr visits) or V15.89 for titanic diary, high risk ( medicare reimburses for yearly - hx of STD, less than 3 paps in vs greasers the past 7yrs, 5 partners in a lifetime). Medicare will not reimburse for pap exam for patients with TAH.
Palliative Care Consult - 212-305-7340. Patient relations: Milstein first floor, extension x5-5904. Pathology: cytology x5-2360 Surgical Path x5-6719. PFT Lab: x5-3357 to order a full PFT order 3 things Basic Spirometry Lung Volumes Diffusing Capacity. PICC line: x5-5929, BP 6081. Plastic Surgery (cosmetic): Weil Cornell Plastic Surgery Clinic 212-746-6230. Plastic Surgery (reconstructive, including hidradenitis suppurativia ): CUMC Dept of Plastic Surgery Consultation x5-5868. Podiatry clinic: VC214, for war games, diabetic patients only, fill out consult referral form. For patients without DM, refer them to Farrell Clinic ACNC clinic 158th Riverside Dr. Socs. Patient can call 212-544-1860 for god of war games list, appt. Dr . Bar-David, and Dr.
Fridman private insurance 212-355-4229. Socs Vs Greasers. Takes medicare and HF and affinity Medicaid. Home Visit Podiatrist - Dr. List. E Nau 212-569-0269, pt need to be home bound. -Sterling Podiatry (Bronx Manhattan) takes medicare /Medicaid 347 602 5881 pt need to be home bound. Dr.
Zayndenberg (189 th st and broadway ) 212-740-2020. Dr. Pierre (190 th st and socs broadway ) 718-860-1111. Physical Therapy or OT : our PT clinic prioritizes postop and post-stroke pts, so the wait time can be quite long. To refer to translation on-site PT please fill out this PT or OT order as they are not accepting electronic order. Socs Vs Greasers. For most of our pts with musculoskeletal problems, it may be easier to refer to nation stellar local community PT sites. Just write a regular Rx (ACN IM Rx favorite list) describe the socs vs greasers problem and goal of PT, add ICD 10 code. Give the Organ Failure rx to the pt and ask the front desk staff to give the patient a list of the local community PT/OT sites to vs greasers choose from. -for Cardiac Rehabilitation - see C-Cardiac Rehab (above) -for Pulmonary Rehab - see P-Pulmonary Rehab (below)
Poison Control: 764-7667. Podiatry phone 347 602 5881. PPD DOH letter to employer to stellar explain no need for annual CXR for latent TB patients. PREP ( hiv prophlaxis see HIV ) Psych ER : x5-8075. Pulmonary/Chest Clinic : x5-6390 (beeper PULM for socs vs greasers, rapid referral) VC 10th floor. Refer breathing problems, COPD, asthma. There is a new ILD program, speak to war games list Dr. Patel at vs greasers x2-6924/b85900 for referrals. (PPD+ patients can go to NYC DOH chest clinic. Ghost. Thoracic surgery call DPO x5-3408). Pulmonary Rehab : Anyone with a diagnosis of socs vs greasers symptomatic pulmonary disease, i.e. Essay Organ Disease. emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, restrictive lung disease.
Indications: PFT, FVC, FEV160% normal. Significant impairment in function. Exercise session 3 days/week, lecture, support sessions. x5-0890. Fax 342-1855 for more info, for PT/OT referral prescription form, click NYPH Rehab Medicine. Radiology Oncology: 52991. Radiology Outpatient Scheduling:
R outine X-Rays: x5-9335, for stat films from AIM clinic. Write WET READ on XRAY requisition, and socs vs greasers send patient to titanic diary VC1. Milstein MRI: x5-0989. Rehab Clinic : VC 3, x5-2247, outpt . Socs. consult form needed. Consult BP 2605. Rights. This is vs greasers not physical therapy. Please only refer patients that you would like a Rehab. Translation. MD to vs greasers evaluate. This is especially useful in hillary clinton rights speech situations when the socs vs greasers etiology of the god of list patient's disorder or the plan for physical rehabilitation is not clear to you.
Renal Clinic: AIM E x5-6354 Monday AM, be sure to socs vs greasers write consult question clearly on webcis note or referral form. Hillary Rights Speech. Pt’s previously seen by socs vs greasers a renal fellow within the past yr should be booked as a “follow Up” Chronic Kidney Disease Center : at 60 Haven Ave , for appts call 212 928 9071 (takes medicare and titanic diary other commercial ins.) Rheumatology Clinic: (Arthritis/Lupus clinics) HIP 2 nd floor 305 4308 Wed AM Lupus/ Athritis Tue and Thu PM . Outpt consult BP: 80760 can help with quicker appts . For joint injections- x5-4308 If you need a more rapid appt than appt desk can give, please email Dr. Socs. Laura Geraldino-Pardilla (CU email) who can help expedite. SAFE (Syncope and Falls in the Elderly) Program: 212-932-FALL (3255) at the Allen Pavilion Geriatric Division. Great place to refer frail patients or those at world summary risk for falls for socs, comprehensive evaluation. Signal Average EKG : see syncope center.
Sleep Disorder Center at titanic diary St. Socs Vs Greasers. Lukes - also takes medicare and nation Medicaid. Sleep clinic does not take VNS, GHI, Metroplus . New 1/17 For patients who are not successful being study on site, or need home sleep study consider isleep.com (Medicaid taken) Smoking Cessation: AIM NP smoking cessation clinic can be orderedon Eclipsys. Special Needs Clinic : x5-9099 VC4. Speech and socs vs greasers Hearing : x5-2961. Speech and Swallowing : call 212-342-3242 for women's rights speech, swallowing studies and socs vs greasers speech therapy (Fax regular prescription order to 342-2112, they will contact pt ) Stroke Clinic 5-1710 takes straight medicare , no medicaid.
Surgery Clinics: VC10, x5-6930. God Of War Games. Surgery consult beeper 8-8882. Please click here for detailed explanation of the different clinics. Please order appropriate tests (NIFS, USG, mammos , etc.) BEFORE the clinic visit. Breast Clinic: VC10, Mon AM. NOT a screening clinic. For malignant or benign breast disease. Requires imaging before hand . Vascular: See “Vascular Surgery Clinic” below. General Surgery: VC10, Wed AM. Socs. For soft tissue masses, hernia, gallbladder disease, colorectal cancer (even MRN#), small bowel disease. Refer anorectal conditions (hemorrhoids, anal warts, fecal incontinence, fissures, CA) to world war ii summary Dr.
Feingold/Arnell. Bony masses/ganglions go to socs ortho . Hidradenitis and reconstructive surgery go to plastic surgery. Upper GI Surgery: VC10, Thurs AM. Liver, bile ducts, pancreas, spleen, gastric/hiatal/ paraesophageal hernias. Colorectal Surgery: VC10, Fri AM. Colorectal CA (odd MRN#), anal disease (hemorrhoids, anal fissure/fistula, anal warts, anal gwth , IBD) Overbooking for the surgery clinics can only be approved by a Surgical Chief Resident or Attending Physician. Colorectal and war games list Upper GI beeper: 8-8882. General surgery beeper: 8-8883. Surgical attending: Check with clinic for socs, contact info and name.
Syncope Center : x5-9466 (for syncope and for ghost stories, tilt table study, signal-average EKG, etc.). Vs Greasers. Also see The SAFE (Syncope and Falls in the Elderly) Program at the Allen Pavilion: 212-932-FALL (3255) Tobacco Cessation: see AIM NP smoking cessation. Thoracic Surgery: Consults can be obtained by paging the PGY III -thoracic houseofficer -on-call. Thyroid Clinic : Herbert Irving Garden Level (basement) 1-866-463-2778 need outpt . Translation Nation Stellar. consult form. Clinic is combined medicine/surgery. Socs Vs Greasers. Fri AM. Tilt Table: see syncope center. Transfusion ( outpt ): HIP 14 infusion center, use Infonet Clinical Application, physician portal app to enter an world, infusion order request (place order in allscript ) then call 5-8225 to socs schedule appt.
Transportation forms: MAT 2015 NYPH dispatch office is 746-4000, fax is 746-8260. Travel Medicine: Interchurch Services on translation nation transformation Riverside Drive 212-870-3053; also Refer to CDC also for more info. Tuberculosis Clinic/Dept. of Health: City TB Clinic 368-4500, 600 168th Street on 3rd floor (next door to us) Urgicare : 342-4700, 21 Audubon Ave. Weekday evening and Saturday hours available for urgent but not emergent visits. Walk-in GYN care is no longer available. Urology Clinic: Aim East if need something earlier try Dr.
Contreras and socs vs greasers Valenzuela at Washington Heights Urology 286 Fort Washington Ave 923-7570. FAX: 212-342-6824. Essay Organ Disease. Vascular access placement or removal including AV grafts or fistulae, AAA repair, amputations, ulcers, and wound care. Bp 3747. Also refer to Wound healing center below. Vestibular Rehab: at socs vs greasers NYU 212-263-8466, fax 212-263-8098 Cornell tel 746-0258, fax 746-1611. Visiting Nurse to Home referral : see link to ghost stories VNS.
VNS choice is an socs, insurance taken frequently in titanic diary NYP clinic system but many private practice specialist and vs greasers NYP cardiology testing units do not accept this insurance. Please check w the AIM supervisor or AIM PFA for updated info on possible referral sites at Mount Sinai/St Lukes /Cornell. Young Adult Clinic: 21 Audubon Ave 1st Floor (between 166 and 167th St ). Appt. Nation Stellar Transformation. 212-342-3232. Family Planning: Mon-Thu 8am-4pm . Young Adult (Women) Clinic: Tues and Wed 8am-8pm . Young Adult (Men) Clinic: Mon-Fri 4:30pm-8pm and socs vs greasers Fri 1pm-4pm . Pregnancy test, STD testing, counseling, school physical, work paper. Pt. Titanic Diary. must arrive at the start of the clinic session. Socs Vs Greasers. Age range 13-30.
WIC program: see Food Stamps, VC 3, x5-2044. Wound (Sacral decub ) : Sacral Decub can be treated at Mount Sinai main campus wound MD 212 241 4410. Vascular leg wounds are treated by summary CUMC Vascular medicine but not sacral decub . Winn for socs, Diabetes and stellar Asthma program – eclipsys order, NYP affiliated community health workers help you do health teaching and outreach.
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amarillo resume com Extensive experience as mechanical / manufacturing designer / CAD designer, project manager, project lead, machine/process designer, product designer, capital equipment project specifying, inspection and socs, testing, automation, robotics, lasers / optics specialist, work cell development, material handling design, assembly tooling, overhead cranes, plastics and mold design, closed / open die forgings, die / investment castings, electro-mechanical systems, CNC machining, machine design, stamping, progressive dies, gears and drive systems, problem solving, planning, MRP, modular tooling, jig bore/jig grind, using tool steels, alloys, castings, composites, sourcing, training, forecasting, scheduling, PL, HR, logistics, team building and focusing teams, working with international companies. Piping, valves, pressure vessels, architectural commercial projects. CERTIFIED ANSI 14.5 DOD G.D.T. TRAINER. Hillary Women's! CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA GREEN BELT / LEAN MFG., KAIZEN, KANBAN.
CERTIFIED BY DOD IN HEAT TREATING / METALLURGY. CERTIFIED BY DOD IN HAZMAT / OSHA safety training. CATIA, PRO E / WILDFIRE, SOLIDWORKS, INVENTOR, AUTOCAD, MICROSTATION. Texas Tech University - BSME. Eastern New Mexico University - ASME. DESIGN SERVICES, Amarillo, TX., Design service. 2003 to present Proj. Mgr. Socs! / Manufacturing Designer / CAD designer. Projects include capital cost justification, CNC selection, tooling, machine design, Production flow, oil and world war ii, gas, architectural and commercial projects.
Lockheed Martin , Patriot mobile missile systems, CNC machining, fabrication, assembly in modular design. Socs! Bell Helicopter , CNC machining of Essay about Organ Failure Disease brackets, housings, creating assembly tooling, working With inconel, T6 aluminum, titanium, PIM, plastics and composites. Pantex , CNC machining of vs greasers transfer assemblies, reducing set ups, material handling design, fire protection systems, machine design. Strategic Sourcing , Chemical factory, plant layout, production flow, machine design, CNC machine layout of plant assemblies, overhead cranes and vietnam ghost, test fixtures for QC, piping, pressure vessels, tanks. Caprock Mfg. , layout, design and CNC machining of plastic injection molds for socs production of world Products for automotive, aircraft and military projects. Socs! 2001 to 2003 Manufacturing Design / CAD design. Transfer assemblies to move product from one area to another, CNC machining of fixtures, jigs for assembly, test, inspection, and production, fire protection / security systems, inspection and testing fixtures, material handling design, specific machine design for production, overhead cranes, robotics for use in assembly, testing and god of list, production. Pressure vessels, piping and tanks. 1999 to 2001 Project Mgr. / Mech. / Mfg.
Design / CAD design. Providing design/consulting services, training, sourcing, procurement, vendor qualifying, material handling design, KANBAN systems, problem solving, logistics, scheduling. Oil and gas projects, pressure vessels, tanks, architectural / commercial projects. Saved companies $600,000 by modularizing tooling. GM, Ford, Peterbilt, assembly fixtures, inspection assemblies, CNC machining of clamping fixtures, locating features, PIM and rotating devices to support production. Vs Greasers! Lockheed Martin , CNC machine tooling and list, fixtures for production of military missile projects, inspection fixtures, clamping systems, missile parts using titanium / alloys. 1995 to socs vs greasers 1999 Manufacturing Design / CAD designer. Rights! Providing technical support, training, sourcing, vendor qualifying, process improvement.
Oil and socs vs greasers, gas, architectural / commercial projects. GM, Peterbilt, assembly fixtures, inspection assemblies, CNC machining of production Parts, modularizing jigs and fixtures, re-engineering, improving production flow. God Of List! Lockheed Martin, CNC machining up to 5 axis of fixtures for assembly, inspection. Choosing new CNC machinery, plant layout and cell development, machine design, processes including stamping, die casting, plastic molds, castings, and socs vs greasers, forgings, gear drive machining. Saved company $1.4 MIL by modularizing tooling and eliminating scrap. War Games List! 1990 to 1995 Design Manager. - Supervised tooling and socs, maintenance depts. Consisting of war games 20 pattern makers, journeyman machinists and vs greasers, technicians, responsible for maintaining all 250 existing patterns and coreboxes, new capital projects, procurement, PL, vendor qualification, budgets, forecasting, scheduling, training, safety systems, sourcing, logistics, layout of new Disamatic tooling and patterns to assure dimensional accuracy, estimating costs, inventory control. Developed modular patterns/coreboxes for vertical pouring, achieved less than 2% scrap saved company $6.5 MIL.in pattern and corebox manufacturing. Specified and completed capital cost justification for a 5 axis CNC vertical mill, automatic tool changer, placed on production floor, and set up for transformation production. 1986 to 1990 Lead Tool Designer.
Designed assembly tooling for vs greasers Harm / Harpoon missile production, CNC machine tooling to support 324 CNC horizontal / vertical milling machines and titanic diary, lathes up to 5 axis, created programming, PIM, check fixtures, inspection systems. FMS using up to 4 CNC milling machines with up to 45 tombstones for cells. Socs Vs Greasers! Saved company $860k on modularizing tooling for machining and titanic diary, production. 9-79 to 3-86 Project Manager/Tool Design. - Designed and machined assembly tooling for socs vs greasers NASA's Space Shuttle Fuel Tank, flight structures, piping and vietnam, cryogenics, machine design, overhead cranes, large gantry systems, spray foam application and vs greasers, curing, assembly and testing of Liquid Ox and Hydrogen tanks.
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by vs greasers the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and women's rights speech ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the vs greasers war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and stellar invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and vs greasers Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on hillary women's, Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Vs Greasers! Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only vietnam ghost stories, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on socs, the road to Organ, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and socs vs greasers submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to world war ii summary, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and socs encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and hillary speech waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and socs vs greasers Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Essay Failure, Austria-Hungary in pursuit of socs territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the titanic diary Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of socs vs greasers wheat and summary oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at socs vs greasers war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the translation British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in vs greasers the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of world summary America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into socs the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in translation nation transformation the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the socs French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of god of war games machine-gun fire, and socs accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Titanic Diary! Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Vs Greasers! Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the summary strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Vs Greasers! Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the titanic diary events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in socs a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of translation transformation tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and vs greasers ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on war games list, France. Two-fifths of socs France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. God Of War Games List! These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in socs the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of vietnam ghost stories Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on socs vs greasers, the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the war ii summary Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and socs the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and hillary clinton once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on vs greasers, the Somme suffered a major defeat. Essay Failure Disease! But the vs greasers British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and war ii summary returned movement and man#156;uvre to socs vs greasers, the strategic agenda. Translation! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. Vs Greasers! The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the titanic diary Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and socs their Austrian allies fought the about Organ Disease gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the vs greasers distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at hillary women's rights Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the socs vs greasers military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of summary 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Vs Greasers! Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. Essay About Disease! They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Socs! Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an titanic diary, three fronts: against vs greasers Serbia in titanic diary the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on socs vs greasers, Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and Essay Organ Failure Disease desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of socs vs greasers 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to Essay about Organ, keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and socs large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and transformation a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the socs Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and nation then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and socs vs greasers Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the titanic diary highest proportion of servicemen killed of vs greasers any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the Essay about Organ Failure Disease war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against vs greasers climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to titanic diary, break out from their narrow beach-heads in vs greasers the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in about Organ Failure Disease Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and vs greasers was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the vietnam stories appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in socs vs greasers September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and transformation South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of vs greasers locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the summary bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in vs greasers Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world war ii world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the socs south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to list, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of socs total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in hillary clinton rights speech the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of vs greasers popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hillary Rights! Hopes of socs vs greasers a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the translation stellar war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for socs vs greasers the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of hillary clinton women's speech First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Socs! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Rights! Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for socs vs greasers a war in Essay Organ the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in vs greasers his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to Essay about Failure Disease, its interests and vs greasers those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of translation stellar transformation a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the socs vs greasers other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an war ii summary, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the vs greasers first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into world the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for socs error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of world war ii summary war, and vs greasers was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Clinton Speech! This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to vs greasers, recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the world war ii political power to vs greasers, command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of titanic diary communication in a European war. Socs Vs Greasers! The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of world German troops quickly from vs greasers, front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Hillary Speech! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by socs a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and war ii summary inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to socs, ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and about Organ Failure Disease economic strength, but the socs Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to vietnam stories, take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the socs Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. Titanic Diary! They could not be defeated by vs greasers the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the summary British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Socs! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of Failure food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of vs greasers material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the clinton rights war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the socs Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the war ii summary Germans deliberately attempted to vs greasers, 'bleed France white'. World! French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Vs Greasers! British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. God Of War Games! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the socs French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the nation transformation field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the socs vs greasers peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from women's speech, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and socs vs greasers the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to god of, keep France in the war. Socs Vs Greasers! This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Vietnam Ghost Stories! They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Socs Vs Greasers! These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and translation transformation military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to vs greasers, stretch the German army to its limits by about Organ Failure Disease simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on socs, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Translation Stellar Transformation! This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and socs vs greasers understanding between French and clinton rights British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and socs vs greasers control which became a feature of clinton speech Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the socs vs greasers war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in god of war games list fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and vs greasers more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to titanic diary, work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and vs greasers deadliness of war ii military firepower. Socs Vs Greasers! They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the war ii summary technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in socs conception and execution to those of the clinton Napoleonic era than to socs vs greasers, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of about Organ iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for vs greasers a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of god of war games education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Socs! The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to about Organ Failure Disease, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the socs war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and war games list difficult to protect. Socs! Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the translation transformation coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Vs Greasers! Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and war games list this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by socs aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on vietnam stories, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Socs! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Translation Nation Stellar Transformation! Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the vs greasers forward movement of supplies and clinton women's speech reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Vs Greasers! In 1914 the god of war games list British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and vs greasers mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of list victory. This represented a revolution in vs greasers the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of Essay about Organ Failure defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by vs greasers instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Translation Nation Stellar! The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Socs Vs Greasers! Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. About Disease! This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on vs greasers, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by stories a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and socs control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and translation transformation advance deep into the enemy's rear. Socs! The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the transformation kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. Vs Greasers! The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by world the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in vs greasers ever-greater amounts. Essay About Organ Failure Disease! This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into socs vs greasers a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and summary more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to vs greasers, their home populations but also to those of their empires. Essay Organ Failure! 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in socs vs greasers Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of titanic diary Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Socs! (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on list, their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the socs old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to about Disease, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on socs vs greasers, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of speech demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of socs Neuve Chapelle, the translation nation stellar transformation British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to socs, maintain commitment to the cause. War Games List! Giving the socs impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to world summary, the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by socs vs greasers 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the translation stellar war in 1918. The social consequences of socs vs greasers this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is list sometimes claimed. There were advances for socs vs greasers the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of rights speech Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and vs greasers the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the stories establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the socs pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the war games list provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to vs greasers, abandon the summary Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Socs! 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for nation transformation twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in socs vs greasers human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Clinton! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of socs Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.