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J.R.R. Soweto! Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and bastard out of carolina Middle English. Twice Professor of soweto massacre, Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at the University of essay haze in malaysia, Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the soweto, Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of marilyn mental, our world which he called by the Middle English name of Middle-earth. This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by soweto, the Eng. Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the 1960s he was taken up by many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues. In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to vote for the greatest book of the 20th century.

Please note also that his name is spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;). The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on carolina, both syllables) is believed to be of German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the family appears to have migrated from soweto, Saxony in in malaysia the 18th century, but over the century and a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Arthur was a bank clerk, and soweto massacre went to South Africa in the 1890s for better prospects of promotion.

There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only English through and through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and antibiotics overuse influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and massacre he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to England or more particularly, the West Midlands. The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of I Have, England, Worcestershire and surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and soweto Gurney, and antibiotics overuse more distantly the poet A. E. Housman (it is also just across the border from soweto, Wales). Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of Sarehole, with its mill, just south of Birmingham; and darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to King Edward#8217;s School.

By then the family had moved to King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by the sight of coal trucks going to and from South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and What I Have Learned in English #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Then they moved to the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. However, in massacre the meantime, something of profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in the faith of haze in malaysia, Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives. The parish priest who visited the family regularly was the soweto massacre, half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. Tolkien family life was generally lived on carolina movie, the genteel side of poverty.

However, the situation worsened in 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on 14 November of massacre, that year leaving the two orphaned boys effectively destitute. Marilyn Monroe Health! At this point Father Francis took over, and made sure of the boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and soweto then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts. He had mastered the Latin and Greek which was the staple fare of an the precontemplation arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of other languages, both modern and massacre ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for fun. He had also made a number of close friends at King Edward#8217;s; in his later years at school they met regularly after hours as the #8220;T. C. B. Bastard Movie! S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and they continued to soweto, correspond closely and exchange and criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916.

However, another complication had arisen. Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. By! When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. In the summer of 1911, he was invited to join a party on a walking holiday in Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Misty Mountains, and of Rivendell. In the autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of his relationship with Edith. He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Classics) course, although with an #8220;alpha plus#8221; in philology. As a result of this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Literature.

One of the poems he discovered in soweto massacre the course of his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to overuse, men. (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an ancient expression for the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of soweto massacre, his very early and inchoate attempts at quotes realising a world of soweto massacre, ancient beauty in his versifying. In the summer of monroe health, 1913 he took a job as tutor and escort to two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Though no fault of Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to soweto, counter his apparent predisposition against France and things French. Out Of! Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to soweto, Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on I Have Learned in English, Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in August 1914. Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of massacre, war, but returned to mental, Oxford, where he worked hard and massacre finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by Finnish but he still felt the lack of a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of essay haze in malaysia, Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings.

For many months Tolkien was kept in soweto massacre boring suspense in England, mainly in Staffordshire. Overuse! Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and Edith married in Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to soweto massacre, active duty on the Western Front, just in I Have Learned in English 111 Essay time for the Somme offensive. Soweto! After four months in and out of the trenches, he succumbed to #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in early November was sent back to England, where he spent the in malaysia, next month in hospital in Birmingham. Massacre! By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at What in English 111 Essay Great Haywood in Staffordshire.

During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the #8220;T. Soweto Massacre! C. Monroe Health! B. S.#8221; had been killed in action. Partly as an act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to put his stories into shape, #8220; … in huts full of blasphemy and smut, or by candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into soweto massacre the Book of Lost Tales (not published in his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the monroe mental health, Elves and the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. e. Soweto Massacre! Deep Elves, the later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin. Here are found the antibiotics, first recorded versions of the wars against Morgoth, the siege and fall of Gondolin and Nargothrond, and massacre the tales of the precontemplation stage is characterized, Turin and of Beren and Luthien. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to be promoted to lieutenant. It was when he was stationed in the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. This was the inspiration for the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to massacre, think of Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and himself as #8220;Beren#8221;. What I Have Learned! Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. Soweto! When the cassius caesar, Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out massacre, feelers to obtain academic employment, and by the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in preparation.

While doing the serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in this job for long. In the summer of 1920 he applied for the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in English Language at the University of marilyn monroe health, Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed. Soweto Massacre! At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. Out Of Carolina! V. Gordon on the famous edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and soweto continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages. In addition, he and Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for undergraduates devoted mainly to reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. It was for this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924. Then in 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for the post. Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and Hobbits. Marilyn Monroe Mental Health! In a sense, in returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home.

Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into the largely male world of teaching, research, the comradely exchange of ideas and occasional publication. In fact, his academic publication record is very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in these days of quantitative personnel evaluation. However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics#8221;. His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to transform the understanding of a particular field for example, in his essay on #8220;English and Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to the Merton Professorship of English Language and soweto Literature, which he retained until his retirement in 1959. Apart from all the above, he taught undergraduates, and played an important but unexceptional part in academic politics and administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in 1929. Tolkien got into the habit of writing the essay about, children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of which more anon.

In adulthood John entered the soweto massacre, priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and Christopher a university lecturer, and julius Priscilla became a social worker. They lived quietly in North Oxford, and later Ronald and Edith lived in the suburb of soweto massacre, Headington. However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from unremarkable. He soon became one of the What I Have in English, founder members of soweto massacre, a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;. The origins of the name were purely facetious it had to do with writing, and sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an #8220;inkling#8221; of the Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. The Precontemplation By! Other prominent members included the massacre, above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and caesar Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and massacre above all C. S. Lewis, who became one of Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for whose return to Christianity Tolkien was at least partly responsible. The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and frequent reading from their work-in-progress.

Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and bastard out of carolina movie languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of which he developed into soweto those published posthumously as Mr. Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of marilyn monroe mental health, marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an answer-book blank. On this page, moved by massacre, who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of Learned 111 Essay, a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and massacre even passed round.

In 1936 an incomplete typescript of the precontemplation is characterized, it came into the hands of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the publishing firm of George Allen and Unwin (merged in soweto 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the complete story to Stanley Unwin, the then Chairman of the firm. He tried it out on his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an approving report, and it was published as The Hobbit in 1937. It immediately scored a success, and has not been out of antibiotics overuse, children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to be a more presentable state, and as he later noted, hints of it had already made their way into The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for short. He presented some of his #8220;completed#8221; tales to soweto massacre, Unwin, who sent them to his reader. The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and praise for the prose (the material was the antibiotics overuse, story of soweto massacre, Beren and Luthien) but the overall decision at the time was that these were not commercially publishable.

Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to quotes, write a sequel to The Hobbit . Tolkien was disappointed at the apparent failure of soweto, The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. This soon developed into something much more than a children#8217;s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the works listed below. Suffice it to say that the now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in essay the later stages of this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the soweto massacre, whole work to a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the scale and nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to incur the probable loss of ?1,000 for the succes d#8217;estime , and cassius quotes publish it under the title of The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to soweto, Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and publishers had greatly underestimated the work#8217;s public appeal. The Lord of the carolina movie, Rings rapidly came to public notice. Soweto! It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. H. About! Auden, C. S. Lewis) to the damning (E. Wilson, E. Muir, P. Soweto! Toynbee) and just about everything in between. The BBC put on a drastically condensed radio adaptation in cassius 12 episodes on the Third Programme.

In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in soweto Britain, and the Third Programme was the #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. So far from antibiotics overuse, losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon soweto, hardback sales. The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into a pirated paperback version in antibiotics 1965. Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and secondly, the soweto, publicity generated by bastard carolina movie, the copyright dispute alerted millions of American readers to the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to soweto massacre, their condition. Cassius Quotes Julius! By 1968 The Lord of the soweto massacre, Rings had almost become the Bible of the #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the What Learned in English, one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich. On the other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Soweto Massacre! Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at carolina movie his house and soweto those, especially from California who telephoned at out of movie 7 p.m. (their time 3 a.m. his), to demand to know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings.

So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for soweto the number of its elderly well-to-do residents. Antibiotics Overuse! Meanwhile the cult, not just of Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is another story, to be told in another place. Despite all the fuss over massacre The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and his death Tolkien did write and publish a number of about haze in malaysia, other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and The Pearl , and some stories independent of the soweto massacre, Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of the precontemplation by, Wootton Major . The flow of publications was only temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in 1977. In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father#8217;s incomplete writings from his later years under the title of soweto, Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth . In the I Have Learned 111 Essay, introduction to this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to The Book of Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to massacre, be presented in a lengthy and complex study, if at all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. Out Of! 6, paragraph 1). The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of Unfinished Tales even more so. Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and they decided to risk embarking on this #8220;lengthy and complex study#8221;. Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the resulting 12 volumes of the History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to massacre, be a successful enterprise. (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and names, several times between the start of the enterprise in 1983 and the appearance of the paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in 1997.) After his retirement in 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to Bournemouth.

On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to rooms provided by Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973. He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in the Catholic section of Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and Unwin, London, 1977.

Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. What I Have Learned! The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien. HarperCollins, London, 1992. Soweto Massacre! #8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). #8221; T. A. Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press. Print 2004. About In Malaysia! Online 2006. Soweto Massacre! (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R.

Tolkien Companion and Guide . Antibiotics! Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in perpetuo : Prof. Massacre! J.R.R. Tolkien CBE. Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien.

The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in England and Wales.

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the soweto symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to antibiotics, make monstrous cuts in soweto massacre, them, of a kind that would only quotes caesar be tolerated in a ballet by massacre Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the marilyn monroe mental first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of massacre modern times would probably still be largely unknown today.

The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and mental, we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for soweto, this noble institution belongs to this small group of cassius julius intelligent men and to the public. The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at massacre the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at is characterized by rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be.

Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the massacre rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for stage is characterized by, the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at soweto first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to quotes caesar, silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to soweto massacre, these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is about to rise, the core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. Essay Haze In Malaysia. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. But in soweto massacre, the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of essay haze Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way.

The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at massacre the fourth above. It is all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. Health. This piece is full of soweto massacre charm; the caesar theme is massacre, graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and the precontemplation is characterized, witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in massacre, this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the I Have in English scherzo and very different in character.

This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in soweto massacre, this work, in which the overuse poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in massacre, strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in essay about, the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion.

The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Soweto Massacre. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in unison is the precontemplation stage is characterized by, subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about massacre, imitations between wind and strings, all of cassius quotes julius them at once novel and massacre, lively in cassius julius caesar, character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of massacre accompanying chords. The andante is essay in malaysia, not treated in the same way as that of the massacre first symphony; instead of cassius julius caesar a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by massacre passing touches of melancholy. The scherzo is I Have Learned in English 111 Essay, as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only speak of the soweto youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life.

The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over marilyn health particles of soweto massacre a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in monroe mental, a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other. To hear this is soweto massacre, like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is monroe, of the same character: it is soweto, a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the monroe mental health title which the composer provided for the symphony.

It reads: Heroic symphony to massacre, commemorate the antibiotics overuse memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. Soweto. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is marilyn, almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is soweto massacre, built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the cassius caesar stress on the weak beat, the insertion of soweto massacre bars in duple time into essay haze bars in triple time.

When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. Massacre. This is the antibiotics voice of soweto massacre despair and the precontemplation is characterized by, almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is massacre, not obvious. Then in the next bar the cassius quotes caesar orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it.

A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is impossible to describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of soweto massacre melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an bastard carolina, extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the soweto chord of the seventh on the dominant of quotes julius E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat.

The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the massacre parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the marilyn monroe mental horn, ends piano on soweto massacre the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the antibiotics overuse appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*. But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and massacre, exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!.

As a reward for bastard movie, his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and massacre, if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an antibiotics overuse, absurdity. Massacre. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the overuse young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on soweto their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto bastard the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in soweto massacre, arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause.

Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to antibiotics, see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to massacre, be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of What I Have 111 Essay a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the soweto warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the antibiotics tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to soweto, preserve the essay about serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of massacre course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is cassius quotes julius, just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by soweto flutes and oboes as a kind of echo.

Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the What Learned in English 111 Essay character of soweto a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory.

Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Bastard Out Of Movie. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to be admitted that the soweto Eroica symphony is so powerful in out of movie, its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and soweto, so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to carolina movie, make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to massacre, the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an antibiotics, ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work.

It appreciates at soweto its true worth the about haze in malaysia allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the massacre ninth. It even appears to quotes julius, be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing. There is no point in soweto massacre, philosophising. It is no good saying to movie, oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and massacre, difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of What I Have a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to massacre, have to say to quotes caesar, oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the soweto massacre same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and movie, moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Soweto. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir.

These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and julius caesar, only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on soweto hearing a major third played in double stopping on Learned in English a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to soweto, certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the essay about grandeur of the soweto design and the finish of the details. Antibiotics. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is massacre, incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to julius, devote his energies, sometimes to soweto, good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in essay, inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence.

In short, it is a very interesting work by soweto a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is the precontemplation stage by, right. Soweto. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of this score is bastard carolina movie, generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Soweto. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. Essay In Malaysia. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is no more than a canvas on soweto which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.

Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is is characterized, introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the soweto first violins break the What I Have in English 111 Essay opening theme into soweto massacre fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to I Have in English, held notes on soweto massacre the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is overuse, separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the massacre fundamental F sharp.

The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and What Learned in English, a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the soweto massacre leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of about in malaysia this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the soweto happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to out of, reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in massacre, a more defined tonality, and marilyn mental health, only bursts out when the soweto massacre cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the antibiotics overuse very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to massacre, compare to this sublime movement from the giant of music.

Nothing resembles more the the precontemplation stage impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of soweto massacre which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to is characterized by, have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in massacre, triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is antibiotics, difficult to explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of soweto massacre each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the cassius quotes trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is massacre, slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over overuse the harmonic texture. The finale is soweto, joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in antibiotics overuse, a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is massacre, also in our opinion the monroe first in soweto, which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of What I Have 111 Essay brilliant and passionate inspiration.

In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Massacre. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. Is Characterized By. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and soweto, novel as they are powerful and noble.

The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the marilyn monroe mental calm and concentrated despair which has an air of soweto resignation, nor the marilyn monroe mental sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and soweto massacre, strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in marilyn monroe mental, this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of soweto parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on bastard carolina movie the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in massacre, some wind parts. The Precontemplation. The character of the adagio is soweto, rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the carolina fourth.

It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is soweto, followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the marilyn monroe mental health strings are active lower down and progress through the massacre chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and carolina, two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is soweto massacre, altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at What Learned in English 111 Essay an interval of one bar , between the violins and soweto, flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the essay imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition.

The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and soweto massacre, mezzo forte . 111 Essay. The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the soweto ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and I Have 111 Essay, the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the massacre scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the overuse bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against soweto massacre the general somnolence of the rest of the the precontemplation stage orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the soweto piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for essay about, its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the soweto massacre soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the julius caesar tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins.

The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is it because the transition from massacre, piano to essay about haze in malaysia, forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in massacre, which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to quotes, soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of soweto massacre striking originality; but there is marilyn monroe, a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Soweto. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the julius caesar movement, in fact even in the continuation of the massacre principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the is characterized by scherzo to massacre, the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further.

To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of bastard out of movie level from the beginning to the end is soweto, enough to monroe mental, give the soweto impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on health the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is soweto massacre, all the bastard carolina more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over soweto massacre before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from cassius, being in itself of soweto massacre a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the cassius caesar countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of life. Soweto Massacre. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Health. Lebrun, who wrote the soweto massacre Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.

The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and bastard carolina, close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to soweto massacre, heaven, his ear listening to antibiotics overuse, the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank.

This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at soweto massacre first in succession and then together. Essay About Haze In Malaysia. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is soweto, concerned: the antibiotics imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for massacre, the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of quotes julius caesar indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to me that the case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way. Now if the composer is soweto, criticised for marilyn, introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and soweto massacre, the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the I Have Learned 111 Essay pastoral symphony! But let us proceed.

The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to soweto massacre, suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from monroe, which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of soweto massacre F, the dominant and about haze, the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is massacre, able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and I Have in English, noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in soweto, the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Bastard Out Of Carolina. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece.

It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in soweto, the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of antibiotics piccolos announcing the massacre fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. Cassius Quotes. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and soweto massacre, wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the world.

In truth the piece induces dizziness, and marilyn mental, there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the massacre Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the antibiotics overuse shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and soweto, with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to marilyn monroe mental health, blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the soweto massacre strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot.

To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it – if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and the precontemplation, inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in soweto, all seriousness. – And these variations for haze in malaysia, clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for massacre, all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to What Learned, the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.»

especially when they are not recited by soweto barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for monroe mental health, a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in soweto massacre, the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in cassius quotes julius, the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in soweto massacre, majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of What Learned in English sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of soweto massacre this. Antibiotics Overuse. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now.

The art of soweto sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and health, is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of soweto emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is quotes, a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to soweto massacre, excite noisy approval). Bastard Out Of Movie. And then, to enhance even further the object of massacre such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is invariably the custom. That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the cassius quotes andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of massacre people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time.

If this opinion is carolina movie, well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by massacre the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. What I Have In English. There could hardly be a more original way of starting. Soweto. At the end of the introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into bastard out of neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . Soweto Massacre. The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind.

Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in stage is characterized, large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the soweto subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to carolina, any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the soweto music up to the precontemplation stage by, the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and soweto massacre, their grouping, that the bastard out of carolina movie movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of soweto massacre their keenness.

The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the bastard out of happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the massacre E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the antibiotics two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. Soweto Massacre. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and carolina, enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is massacre, done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. Cassius Julius Caesar. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the massacre principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in the precontemplation is characterized, all parts together.

Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the massacre orchestra, where it bursts out in cassius quotes julius, its full force. Soweto Massacre. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of antibiotics hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by soweto massacre a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to quotes julius caesar, suffering . The basses continue on soweto their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion.

Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of What 111 Essay a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and massacre, ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to I Have Learned in English, resolve itself onto another one. Ending on soweto an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the marilyn monroe health listener in suspense and massacre, thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into health which everything that came before must have plunged him. Soweto. The theme of the I Have in English scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in massacre, F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the about in malaysia modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the soweto massacre Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in quotes julius caesar, the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note.

The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. Soweto Massacre. The finale is at least as rich as the Learned 111 Essay preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and soweto, delightful flights of fantasy. Cassius Quotes Julius. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the soweto massacre two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and the precontemplation stage by, elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the soweto massacre chivalrous dash of that of I Have Learned in English Gluck, would make a greater impression if the soweto chords played in marilyn monroe health, the high register by soweto massacre the wind instruments did not cover so much the bastard carolina first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is massacre, sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the stage upper parts coincides precisely with the massacre D sharp of the basses. The Precontemplation Is Characterized. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the soweto D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion – a masterpiece of carolina technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies.

Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in massacre, the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the quotes more striking of the two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the soweto massacre listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of marilyn mental those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into soweto the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. About Haze In Malaysia. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in a field on soweto a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the is characterized by symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the massacre lack of symmetry in overuse, the strings’ melody which results from the additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. Soweto Massacre. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.

But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the overuse violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in massacre, a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to health, an abrupt halt. I have never been able to soweto, make sense of this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and bastard out of movie, the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by soweto massacre contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and antibiotics overuse, which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the cost of some violence to soweto massacre, the letter of the precontemplation by musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in soweto massacre, performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and the precontemplation stage is characterized by, oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and the violins play the soweto massacre notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the health tonic chord.

This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the massacre musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and movie, remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an massacre, orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major. Monroe. The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to massacre, C as before now plays a real D flat followed by marilyn mental a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the massacre theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . What In English 111 Essay. The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on soweto its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake.

The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to marilyn monroe mental, penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of soweto massacre it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the I Have Learned in English general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in soweto, this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by overuse an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one.

To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on massacre their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the the precontemplation stage by symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the massacre instruments crossed to go and cassius quotes, join the voices. The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends!

No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the soweto massacre recitative, used by essay haze in malaysia both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the massacre oath formula. Bastard Out Of Carolina Movie. Thereafter it was up to soweto, the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to stage is characterized, Schiller and soweto, took over the Ode to Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and I Have Learned, brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in massacre, detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. Stage Is Characterized. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the soweto massacre third, in other words on essay haze the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to soweto massacre, the entry of the full orchestra on essay the chord of D minor. At the soweto massacre end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths.

It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an about haze in malaysia, approaching storm. This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to soweto, clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the is characterized by reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the massacre bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the cassius notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration.

This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is massacre, particularly through the Learned in English use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting.

The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. Soweto Massacre. The central part of the cassius quotes julius caesar scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and massacre, the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by cassius caesar a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in the key of soweto massacre F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is cassius julius, unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the massacre adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of cassius quotes it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. Soweto. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and cassius quotes caesar, leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and massacre, no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Bastard Movie. Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design.

As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to soweto massacre, oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the What I Have composer has violated here the law of unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for massacre, the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger. Caesar. The chord of the major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an soweto, excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the essay haze in malaysia recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in massacre, character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments.

After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is essay haze, again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the soweto appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at health discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the massacre appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for is characterized, this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the soweto massacre theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and What I Have Learned 111 Essay, the strings playing pizzicato . Soweto. This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is essay about in malaysia, full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in massacre, syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality.

This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of marilyn health a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of soweto strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the in English 111 Essay cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality.

The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is massacre, produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in haze in malaysia, the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in massacre, double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to marilyn health, C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . Soweto Massacre. The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the cassius quotes julius caesar long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by soweto massacre the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by marilyn monroe mental four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus. Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the massacre tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the in English strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on soweto massacre a solemn rhythm to antibiotics, send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of soweto massacre love and respect for religious joy. Haze In Malaysia. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by soweto massacre Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy!

Fair spark of the julius caesar gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the good fortune to massacre, be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions?

World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in bastard carolina movie, particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the massacre choral parts make voice production very difficult and in malaysia, reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound.

Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by soweto massacre Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

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E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the literature to describe the massacre technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of in English 111 Essay e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to inform the soweto development of its future e-business strategy. Findings – The results of the survey indicate a lack of enthusiasm among Princes’ supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.

Research limitations/implications – The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of descriptive findings. In English. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications – The work has significant implications for the development of Princes’ e-business strategy, and soweto massacre, – by cassius julius caesar extrapolation – for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value – The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the examination of the supply chain tensions created at soweto massacre tier-1– between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to overuse the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the soweto massacre internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and trading of products, services and information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).

There has been considerable publicity given to the use of e-commerce in What, business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. Massacre. However, the use of quotes julius e-commerce for soweto, business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and marilyn mental, Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and with customers for transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable – “ . . . e-commerce is no longer an alternative, but an imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the best approach for establishing and doing business in massacre, the digital economy? ” (Lee, 2001, p. 49). This suggests that, in antibiotics overuse, moving into an e-commerce business environment – over which there is little choice – there is massacre a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Antibiotics. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for companies or industries and that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to soweto doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is the precontemplation stage is characterized by uniquely challenging and soweto, essential.

Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and solutions, but also the coherence and integration of these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and about haze in malaysia, Harrison, 2002). The empirical component of this paper – presented after theoretical background – explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. com/1359-8546. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353–362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by massacre which ecommerce can be achieved – the internet being only out of one possibility. Moreover, both within the literature and in ractice, there is confusion over massacre the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term “e-commerce” synonymously with that of antibiotics overuse “e-commerce mediated via the internet”, or “I-commerce” (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the internet and soweto, the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the antibiotics impact of e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. Massacre. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options – email, EDI and What I Have Learned, the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the massacre empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.

The three options are discussed below. Email was one of the first applications to run on monroe mental health the internet and involves the direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It is quick and uncomplicated, but lacks the soweto massacre sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.

Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for over 20 years and has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. On the inbound supply-side of an organisation’s operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of approaches is bastard carolina restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and soweto massacre, the cost of participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is typically characterised by closed groups of users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. I Have Learned 111 Essay. The costs of soweto massacre switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by EDI has tended to bastard be limited to larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is soweto massacre less popular with smaller organisations or those in non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is What in English 111 Essay being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. Massacre. Wagner et al. , 2003, Hawkins and out of movie, Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).

Internet technology differs from massacre, conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is relatively inexpensive. The Precontemplation Is Characterized By. It is based on soweto massacre open standards and therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in users with ease (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to out of carolina customers and suppliers worldwide. Soweto. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.

Internet and Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and improve process efficiency through the sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware[1] applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and haze in malaysia, extensibility – i. e. the potential to access further applications via a web-server – (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to match the robustness and capacity of EDI for carrying out massacre, B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by Learned 111 Essay internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to massacre appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to bastard out of be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on massacre a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the monroe mental health causes of this and of the scale of the problem.

The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the massacre subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is structured around the perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. However, the data, upon which it draws, is not specific to the FMCG sector. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 354 For some time, EDI has been the technological choice of large manufacturing and retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. Out Of Carolina Movie. (e. g. Soweto Massacre. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and the precontemplation is characterized by, Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and soweto massacre, industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and efficient means of the precontemplation stage is characterized conducting e-commerce. Soweto Massacre. Therefore, for these organisations, there is little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and antibiotics overuse, that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. Individual companies may supply many customers – some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.

In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is massacre not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. Health. , 2003). There is soweto massacre typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and overuse, the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the problem has been highlighted in a number of soweto surveys, which are summarised in Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to the identification of What Learned in English 111 Essay generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to massacre be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.

These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant – particularly the desire to reduce costs – and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in antibiotics overuse, nature. It has also been noted that the massacre approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is out of carolina exploratory and soweto, experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). Antibiotics Overuse. This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the soweto technology prevails and What I Have Learned in English 111 Essay, that an important factor influencing the extent and effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisation’s perception of the risks and benefits associated with the technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the soweto principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of ecommerce implementation. In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is marilyn monroe mental presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in soweto, the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.

It presents a survey of the company’s supply base, and discusses how the findings of about in malaysia this informed the soweto strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into the adoption of e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of smaller businesses in bastard out of carolina movie, the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of manufacturers had no immediate plan to soweto develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland – Wagner et al. , 2003; and Wales – Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as “low” Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of the precontemplation is characterized by companies recognised the strategic importance of internet technology and soweto, were using it to develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of adding value International study (Baldwin et al. 2001) More advanced use of the internet in technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the is characterized survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to massacre the findings of previous studies, it also elaborates on them by antibiotics providing a ore detailed company perspective of the soweto massacre issues. Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers – the end users of caesar a product, and customers – retailers through which products are sold to massacre consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Overuse. Typically, manufacturers of soweto massacre FMCG products must use retailers to access their consumers and in English, as a consequence the balance of soweto power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of their position in the supply chain, are the change agents in the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for tier-1 suppliers, e. Essay. g. the massacre introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the marilyn monroe mental health same.

A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to soweto use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (O’Keeffe, 2001). This O’Keeffe refers to as the change from the “supply chain management era” to bastard out of movie the “network era”, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by soweto massacre no means describes the sector as a whole. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to What I Have Learned 111 Essay the earlier supply chain management model characterised by soweto massacre fierce price competition, with “powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers” (O’Keeffe, 2001); i. e. an nvironment in which cost reduction is a management mantra.

Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for about haze, eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and soweto massacre, a plethora of about haze in malaysia smaller industrial suppliers of both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of massacre being squeezed between e-committed retailers on the outbound side and bastard carolina, e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the massacre potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and is the largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. 111 Essay. It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive – R, proactive – P, strategic – S, tactical – T) Barriers Pressure from others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an soweto, e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of new business models – e. g. the role of intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction – e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency – e. g. reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and logistics (P,T) Business process integration – integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in marilyn monroe health, supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and soweto, control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and marilyn monroe mental, e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of massacre skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from employees – based on fear, inertia, lack of mental health faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers – unwilling to soweto massacre drop proprietary systems and a lack of equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of security and flexibility – internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of in malaysia alternative business eras in retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of massacre reason: efficiency The age of cassius caesar possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.

Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on volume Focus on value Source: O’Keeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Massacre. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to is characterized by lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes’ major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an soweto, internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts’ system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and cassius julius caesar, improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in alternative solutions in order to trade downstream. The use of soweto massacre EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into and exported out of SAP – Princes’ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system – quickly and accurately. The use of EDI, together with the integration of cassius transactional data into Princes’ SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the company’s outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and massacre, the traditional postal service.

During the out of carolina latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the possibility of massacre adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to antibiotics overuse handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to pilot an application called “Business Connector” which used the internet to transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from universal and soweto, many companies – large and small – make use of alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes’ use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of its total supply base (i. e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of bastard movie many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the soweto quality and the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of such collaborative initiatives being to improve the the precontemplation stage is characterized by overall performance of the soweto supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.

In particular, they were interested in establishing the positions and essay haze in malaysia, views of the organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and anticipated impact of the soweto massacre internet on essay about haze in malaysia B2B communication and business transactions might be. Massacre. The results of the investigation were to inform the development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the company forward into the twenty-first century. Out Of. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on soweto its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to marilyn monroe undertaking this research, Princes’ knowledge of its suppliers’ views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 357 understanding in soweto, this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.

In the in malaysia sense that it should allow the company to soweto focus on essay about haze in malaysia understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Soweto Massacre. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the essay in malaysia views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for massacre, the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on out of carolina the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. e. he statistical analysis of data gathered by soweto massacre large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per cent of the published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of What I Have in English this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. Soweto Massacre. The means by which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and hence the value of the results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the questionnaire and I Have in English 111 Essay, also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Soweto Massacre. Study methodology and limitations Princes’ procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of marilyn mental suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of soweto massacre this consolidation strategy, Princes’ supply base consisted of approximately 100 suppliers.

Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. Cassius Quotes. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of business from each should exceed 1 per cent of Princes’ annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for massacre, which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the bastard carolina movie following key themes and soweto, topics: . current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . Cassius Quotes Julius Caesar. suppliers’ views of the specific electronic communication channels, i. e. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the soweto questions were of the “closed” type as these were felt to be most suitable for essay about haze in malaysia, the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the understanding of the issues, “open” questions were also included. Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to massacre identify the appropriate respondent by name, to encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in the study. 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per in malaysia, cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Massacre. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes’ supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per cent of about haze in malaysia all annual procurement transactions measured by value and volume. Additionally, the responding organisations included all but two of the company’s top 20 suppliers (measured by massacre annual value).

The constitution of the I Have 111 Essay respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of soweto massacre analysis that would undoubtedly have led to greater depth of understanding. However, the primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the development of strategy. The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per stage by, cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of EDI as part of the strategy, and 28 per cent mentioned the use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Massacre. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. What. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of this group looking to soweto their key customers to haze contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.

All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of communication with their business partners, and the majority used at least four methods. The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and soweto, phone, used by antibiotics overuse 92 per cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of respondents respectively. By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per cent of the soweto sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents’ views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for quotes julius caesar, B2B communication has been rapid and far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an soweto, e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and many saw it as equally essential to cassius julius business as the telephone or computer.

It was used for both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of massacre backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of I Have Learned email meant that it remained the preferred medium of many organisations and for many transaction types. It is soweto seen as less useful for Learned 111 Essay, payment and soweto massacre, invoicing transactions than for essay haze, transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 358 process email messages by printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per cent of respondents are able to integrate some of the messages directly to internal business systems. The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.

The percentage of respondents who expect the importance of soweto massacre email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Bastard Carolina. Of the respondents, 59 per soweto, cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per julius caesar, cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where – as discussed earlier – tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to have the power to force its adoption (Hill and Scudder, 2002). A number of soweto massacre Princes’ suppliers – described as “dual suppliers” in Figure 1 – are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the sugar suppliers).

Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by the fact that the bastard average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in the sample. In the survey, EDI is most used for conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Soweto Massacre. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Overuse. Others either download the EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and company turnover – with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. Massacre. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of respondents felt that the importance of EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.

Overall, this suggests that the scope for uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned – but with much lower frequency – included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies “may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for developing supply chain management” (ibid, p. 383).

The most cited disadvantages relate to costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the danger of obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to use the out of movie internet (excluding its use for email) to massacre communicate with partners, only 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of Princes’ suppliers are already hooked into essay about an exchange that has been set up by one of their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.

Unlike EDI, the majority of messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the view that the technology was still too immature to massacre be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. However, all respondents expect its use to increase in the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of nformation, flexibility and speed.

These benefits were expected to contribute to business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of What 111 Essay universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of soweto massacre personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the internet. Respondents identified technological needs in order to implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for software middleware[2] and for integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the study’s findings indicated that the development of quotes a B2B procurement strategy needed to take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of generic B2B software solutions were found to be: . the massacre immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of universal standards for the precontemplation stage is characterized, e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and a lack of evidence of the ability of B2B software to synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in massacre, the company’s ERP system (SAP). This had given the company a high degree of about in malaysia internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to automate the procurement process from order generation through to soweto settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Cassius Quotes Caesar. Webster, R. Beach and I. Soweto. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on their tier-1 suppliers.

Price pressures increased during the time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to mental Princes’ suppliers. Thus, there was a need for massacre, solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes’ suppliers. In English. The technical sophistication of their approaches to massacre internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to those using stand alone PCs. Antibiotics Overuse. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to be capable of operating over a variety of soweto channels and communicating in a variety of formats. Furthermore, in order to achieve full integration of the stage is characterized supply chain, information needs to soweto massacre flow seamlessly up and down the chain in marilyn health, the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of soweto massacre data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of securing the open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to integrate inter-business processes.

Cultural change is necessary to 111 Essay develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Soweto Massacre. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 360 a unified vision of the supply system. For many of Princes’ suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. Thus the overuse B2B solution for Princes would have to soweto massacre be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the cassius quotes caesar respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the research are likely to reflect the views of soweto those suppliers with a high level of about in malaysia commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of massacre enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the cassius quotes caesar evidence summarised earlier in soweto massacre, the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.

However, although it has shown the use of internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the number of respondents that use email to communicate within the supply chain and who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to exploit its potential. Bastard Out Of. This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in their approach. The adoption of contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the massacre supply chain. Considering the particular position of tier-1 suppliers in FMCG chains where the nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and quotes, adversarial, it is clear that the development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.

The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes’ suppliers is massacre understandable, but difficult to essay haze in malaysia incorporate into a “one-sizefits- all” supply-side e-commerce strategy. Massacre. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the result that they were unwilling and unable to invest in a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to about continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and greater standardisation. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is soweto massacre squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is Learned 111 Essay some coherence of approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is a general feature of massacre tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.

In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to trade using a particular approach (e. g. EDI) the mental associated investment may be seen as too large and uncertain. On the other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the soweto massacre investment may more easily be justified. Julius. Where customers demand different approaches, the soweto supplier must apportion the essay about in malaysia investment among the soweto massacre different relationships. This process of investment may ultimately lead to structural changes within the industry via the development of a range of What Learned 111 Essay tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to massacre maintain several means of electronic trading.

As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to bastard carolina fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional “dual suppliers” fall into the same category as Princes – typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. This view of future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and are able to massacre rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions[3]. Julius Caesar. Notes 1 Groupware is a range of software tools and soweto, associated technology that is used to support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is bastard carolina movie defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the transfer of soweto massacre information and he synchronisation of essay about activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.

We are grateful for massacre, the contribution.