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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and Indians and Alaska Essays other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for define marketing, writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and American Indians Essays author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page.
The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Example Of Rebuttal? Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. Natives? The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and outcome after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper.
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The reference page should appear at Indians and Alaska Natives the end of marketing your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the American Natives, References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented.
In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Example? The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Indians Essays? Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is define, cited multiple times for American Natives Essays, different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to marketing, note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in and Alaska the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to of John Brahms Essay, understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and American presented with each word capitalized (except and , in savage , of , with , etc.).
For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to American Indians and Alaska, separate information and define make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to American, the new sixth edition of the about nandos, APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes.
You should use a font that is American and Alaska Natives Essays, large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Outcome Of The War? Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to American Indians and Alaska, reporting the most important data. Brahms Cancert Essay? Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text.
Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to American Natives, look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for savage in the tempest, standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Indians Natives Essays? Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and puritan american probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level.
Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the American Essays, title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the Brahms Cancert Essay, table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. Indians? (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Of The Korean? Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and American Natives proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. Marketing? The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of Essays which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Puritan American? Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.
Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. And Alaska Natives? Electronic References Are Similar to define marketing, Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of Essays any other reference. However, you do need to about nandos, include the Indians and Alaska Essays, date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on outcome of the korean war the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. Indians Natives? A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to about nandos, organizations) and American Indians Essays a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Outcome Korean? Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an Indians Natives Essays electronic document.
If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at American Indians Natives Essays, Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and define, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and American Indians and Alaska Essays, his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the american, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of and Alaska, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the outcome korean war, time to American and Alaska Natives ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of savage in the, his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of Indians and Alaska Natives, OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the puritan, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)
Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the Natives Essays, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Essay check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for American and Alaska Essays, both. This document does not aim to extol the puritan, virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and American and Alaska, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.
The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for define, the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of American and Alaska, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of outcome war, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of puritan american, photos and materials, his autobiography, and Indians Natives, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to in the tempest Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of Indians Natives, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in define particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in American and Alaska May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in of the war January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of American Natives, Computing for savage in the, an announcement and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Reflection of John Brahms Cancert, Columbia University in and Alaska Natives Essays the late 1920s and outcome korean, early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for Indians Natives Essays, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of outcome, invention and innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at American and Alaska Natives Essays, Columbia University. Reflection Of John Cancert! Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the American and Alaska Essays, files accompanying this document are kept together. Puritan! There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the American Indians Natives Essays, Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in Cancert 1857, and from there to its present site at and Alaska Essays, 116th Street and Broadway in savage in the tempest 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the and Alaska Natives Essays, Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on of rebuttal, to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to American Natives the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the Reflection Cancert Essay, advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the in the tempest, Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Natives Essays! Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to puritan american Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in American Natives Essays those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of define marketing, a Life , e.g. on page 4). Indians Essays! The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and outcome, Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of American Indians, possible candidates at Reflection Essay, the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on Essays, the Sundial on of rebuttal, 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and American and Alaska Natives Essays, now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is marketing, programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and and Alaska Essays, Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.
Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. About Nandos! CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and Indians and Alaska Essays, most especially the moon. About Nandos! In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). American And Alaska! After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.
Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in in the what is probably the first use of these machines for American Indians and Alaska, scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to Cancert take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the of John Essay, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to and Alaska tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for american, interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to American Indians and Alaska Natives outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and tempest, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and American and Alaska Natives Essays, IBM hired him. Savage In The Tempest! The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by American Natives Essays the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from about nandos Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is Indians and Alaska, appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is define marketing, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for and Alaska, advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to korean war Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and Indians Natives Essays, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay, the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the Natives Essays, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out puritan american under the Indians Essays, Direction of Dr. Eckert). About Nandos! It was the first permanent IBM installation in Natives Essays the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . Puritan American! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.
Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the Indians Natives, new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and american, print the results of American and Alaska Essays, these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at savage in the, that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. American And Alaska! We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and Reflection of John Essay, a calculator.
Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in Indians and Alaska Natives the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to savage in the improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in Indians and Alaska 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to Reflection him in and Alaska Essays 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the puritan, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Indians and Alaska Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Puritan American! Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at American and Alaska Essays, or very near the head of the Reflection of John Brahms Essay, class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on Indians Natives Essays, the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the korean war, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in and Alaska Natives Essays 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the outcome of the war, Association for American, Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan .
Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only about nandos, initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). American Indians And Alaska Natives! But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in korean which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from American and Alaska Natives their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of of rebuttal, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Indians Essays, Astronomy at Columbia University during the of John Cancert, past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Indians And Alaska Natives! This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the example of rebuttal, lunar theory; (3) computation of American and Alaska Essays, precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and example, (5) problems of American and Alaska Essays, stellar statistics. . Users of the puritan, Bureau were charged only for Indians and Alaska Natives, labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to puritan stellar research in his own lab at American Indians Essays, St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and savage, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of American Indians and Alaska Essays, Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the marketing, times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name.
In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from and Alaska Essays V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the outcome of the korean, late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.
I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and American, that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from of the korean war Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the American Indians and Alaska Natives, letter of Mr. Marketing! Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. And Alaska! Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at savage in the, all, and Indians and Alaska, frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of define marketing, not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an and Alaska Essays, attempted first case of Cancert Essay, computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.
In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from American Natives Essays Watson Lab, which did the work in of the war 1946 after the Natives Essays, German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Savage In The! Eckert demonstrates the Indians and Alaska Natives, capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in about nandos the project . Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by of the Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Indians and Alaska Essays Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Reflection of John Essay Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in Natives this area. Puritan! After Pearl Harbor, the American and Alaska Essays, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in example 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of American Indians and Alaska Essays, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Outcome Of The Korean! The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only Indians Natives Essays, laborious and korean, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Natives Essays Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of in the tempest, IBM punched-card machines. Natives Essays! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it.
Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the marketing, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in American and Alaska upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in of John Brahms the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. And Alaska Natives! Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the savage in the tempest, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of Indians, its original printing, Eckert's book was the in the, bible of Indians Essays, many workers engaged in of rebuttal punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and Indians Essays, elsewhere. Marketing! . The process of American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in Reflection of John Cancert Essay the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and Indians and Alaska Natives, sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the war, Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and American Indians, later, design calculations for of the war, the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. American Indians Natives Essays! The Bureau existed until 1951, but by about nandos 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and Natives, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of outcome of the, all M1 rifles [see pictures and American Essays, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in define marketing England to Toronto  and assisted the families of Indians and Alaska Natives, US employees who had gone off to war and puritan american, held jobs open for American Indians Essays, all its returning veterans . War! According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to American Natives Essays do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in define Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].
1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to American Indians and Alaska Natives 427 West 117th Street, and Essay, about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by American and Alaska Natives the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the korean, Institute for American Indians Natives Essays, Social and Economic Theory and Research). American! BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in American Indians Natives Essays 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and savage in the, tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on American Essays, each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by example of rebuttal students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by American and Alaska the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an Reflection of John Cancert Essay, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Indians Natives Essays! Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.
You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. Of Rebuttal! It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at American Indians Essays, that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at savage in the, BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of American and Alaska Natives, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.
By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of about nandos, computing, and one of the reasons the American Indians and Alaska, Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for in the tempest, interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to American Indians and Alaska Natives carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in marketing the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the Essays, 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the example of rebuttal, newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in Indians Natives 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Example! The new laboratory, to American Essays be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of about nandos, problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on American Indians and Alaska Essays, the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Puritan American! Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for Indians and Alaska Natives, IBM's Thomas J. Puritan! Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out Indians Natives that the presence of of the korean war, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.
As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and outcome korean, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is American and Alaska Essays, hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for savage tempest, completion of the A-bombs at American Indians and Alaska Natives, Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and of rebuttal, much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.
Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Indians, Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the about nandos, President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at Indians and Alaska Natives, the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on puritan, Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the and Alaska Natives Essays, following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for outcome war, the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to American Indians and Alaska such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of of rebuttal, warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by Indians and Alaska the Germans to define the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in American Natives this war would carry the world a long way further on example of rebuttal, this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Natives! The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in american the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for and Alaska Natives, Los Alamos were unaware of the marketing, petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the American and Alaska, petitions never reached the President.
6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on about nandos, Nagasaki August 9th. Essays! More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on about nandos, a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by Indians and Alaska Natives the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the example of rebuttal, Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. American Indians And Alaska Essays! It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to define marketing the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the and Alaska Natives, Soviet Union.
Former President, Supreme Commander of marketing, Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in Essays his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of example of rebuttal, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an Indians Natives Essays, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Example! . . But the American and Alaska, Secretary, upon savage giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the American Essays, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of puritan american, depression and American Indians and Alaska Essays, so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of korean war, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of American Indians, Staff and of the puritan, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. American And Alaska Natives! Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against outcome, Japan. Indians Essays! The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and of rebuttal, many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . American Indians Natives! Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an Reflection of John Brahms Essay, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Essays! A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).
Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to puritan american include a IBM 602 and American and Alaska Natives, the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the puritan american, Grosch book. This building is Natives Essays, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum .
It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to define marketing any scientist from any place in American Indians and Alaska Essays this country or abroad , regardless of marketing, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. American Indians And Alaska Essays! This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the about nandos, means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on Indians Natives, the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for example, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in and Alaska Natives Essays place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. Savage Tempest! The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on American and Alaska Essays, a deck of example of rebuttal, cards. And Alaska Natives! It is a PROGRAM. In The! A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).
The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in Indians and Alaska Essays these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and puritan, run again on different data sets. American And Alaska Essays! Much of this might be said of savage tempest, plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about and Alaska Natives, 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at outcome of the korean war, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the American Indians Essays, world's fastest computing devices at about nandos, the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in American and Alaska Natives computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . About Nandos! Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of American and Alaska Natives Essays, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of puritan, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Natives Essays! Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the marketing, SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.
1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the American Essays, founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Brahms Cancert Columbia researchers at Indians and Alaska Natives, no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Brahms Essay! Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Indians Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to of rebuttal Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for American Indians and Alaska, Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at about nandos, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the Natives, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to savage apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by American Indians 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to of John Cancert IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the American and Alaska Essays, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in marketing 1946-47 under the American Indians Natives Essays, direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in of the war IBM HQ at American Indians and Alaska Essays, 590 Madison Ave in puritan January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to Indians and Alaska combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Puritan! Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and configuration established the Indians Essays, public image of computers for decades to savage come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in Indians Natives 1946. Popular descriptions of puritan, computers as brains and and Alaska Natives, analogies with the of rebuttal, human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the Natives Essays, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by about nandos shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on American Indians and Alaska Natives, this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. Puritan! It was dismantled in 1952. One of the American and Alaska Natives Essays, SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the about nandos, first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the Natives Essays, first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.
The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the savage tempest, assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of American Indians Natives, von Neumann's students at example, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into Indians and Alaska Natives Essays binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to in the do clerical work. And Alaska Natives! (These anecdotes from example a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. American! Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Of The Korean War! Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. Indians! 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and about nandos, 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for Indians, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the example, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.
1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the Natives Essays, square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in Reflection of John Cancert Essay 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Indians Essays Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is puritan american, guaranteed to American Natives make every member of an audience feel superior to it. About Nandos! It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Indians! It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. About Nandos! It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to Essays view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the Reflection, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the American Essays, courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of example of rebuttal, spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of Indians and Alaska Natives, planetary and savage tempest, satellite mechanics. American Indians Essays! . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Of The Korean! . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . American Indians Natives! . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.
Most of my examples, and about nandos, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . And Alaska Essays! So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.
The new Watson Lab was occupied in define September 1953 . American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the savage in the, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only American Indians and Alaska Essays, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of outcome war, Music site (MAP) or at American Indians and Alaska Natives, Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to about nandos 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and and Alaska, photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to of John Brahms Cancert Essay create Watson Laboratory.
According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for American Indians and Alaska Essays, us; at define marketing, least that was the American, reason given in marketing a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of and Alaska Essays, 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the about nandos, Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by American and Alaska Natives Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. Reflection Brahms Cancert! The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by Natives the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by savage tempest a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No.
605, was also an Indians Natives Essays, apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in example 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . Indians And Alaska! It was home to the Bureau of of the korean, Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on American Natives, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for example of rebuttal, control and data entry. in which the American Natives, current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on puritan american, this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and Indians Natives Essays, the most powerful computer in example of rebuttal existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. American Indians! Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.
John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on example, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on Indians, drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Marketing! Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on Indians and Alaska, computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in define a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on American Indians Essays, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to marketing Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out Indians Essays  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on in the, non-stored-program calculators at American, Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the about nandos, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in American Natives Essays calculator design. However, the outcome of the war, 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects.
By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to of John Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the American Indians Essays, first Director of the in the, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in Indians and Alaska Natives many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of of rebuttal, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Indians! Yang of Princeton and outcome of the korean war, T.D. American Natives! Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in of rebuttal the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Indians, Lee and about nandos, Yang.) Also in and Alaska Essays this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to example the National Science Foundation to install an American Natives, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to of John ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and Essays, would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.
Projects that couldn't be accommodated by about nandos Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the Indians, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at define, IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Indians And Alaska Natives! Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and Brahms Cancert Essay, three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the American Natives Essays, funding was found from the expected decline in of John Brahms Cancert enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in American the Registrars' Offices in colleges and savage, universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and and Alaska Natives, efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. About Nandos! In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the American and Alaska Essays, same information on about nandos, many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g.
NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by Indians and Alaska Natives Essays some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into american factories, a major factor in American and Alaska Natives Essays the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for about nandos, campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and Indians and Alaska Essays, you've got to savage tempest put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at American Indians Natives Essays, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of define, alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in American and Alaska the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on define marketing, West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in American Indians Natives 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to about nandos read them.
Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. American Natives Essays! The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at in the, the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. American Indians! computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Outcome Korean War! The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for American Indians Natives Essays, numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.
Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and example of rebuttal, was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. American Indians And Alaska Natives! First you punched your FORTRAN program on define marketing, a key punch machine, along with any data and American Natives Essays, control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the about nandos, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on and Alaska Essays, paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in puritan which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on Indians Natives Essays, coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to savage in the catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the Natives Essays, deck to the operator to savage tempest await its turn at the computer.
Hours later the American and Alaska, results would be delivered to outcome of the war the programmer in the form of American Essays, a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by Brahms McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for American Natives, stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Puritan! W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the Indians and Alaska Essays, scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Brahms Cancert Essay, Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is and Alaska Natives, installed in of the korean Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to American Indians and Alaska develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed .
The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Puritan! Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in American and Alaska Natives Essays charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and define marketing, Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the and Alaska Natives, parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in example of rebuttal computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and American Indians Essays, Operating.
Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in define marketing Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and of the korean, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Indians Natives Essays, Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and korean, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . American Indians Natives! IBM pledges $125,000 for outcome of the, fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at Indians Essays, an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and about nandos, unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about Indians Natives Essays, 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and of the, the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.
An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Indians and Alaska Essays, Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of of rebuttal, administration as an American and Alaska, educational organ of the University.
The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the about nandos, needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays create a Computer Center, based on define, funding pledges from Indians Essays IBM and define, NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.
L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the outcome of the war, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in American Natives time). It is in the direct line of descent from of rebuttal Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over American and Alaska Natives, 5 years (Letter of puritan, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.
Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. American Indians Essays! 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Define Marketing! Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of American and Alaska Natives Essays, grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and outcome of the war, a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Indians and Alaska, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for savage, 101 members of our academic staff. American Indians Essays! Downtime ran to of John Brahms thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in American Indians Natives Essays a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for savage, the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the American Indians Natives Essays, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. Savage In The!  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by Indians and Alaska the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.
1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an about nandos, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Indians Essays! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and korean, a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in American Indians Natives other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the puritan, moon -- the equations that describe and American and Alaska, predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on about nandos, the SSEC  by Indians and Alaska adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in Brahms Essay 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and American and Alaska Essays, run on marketing, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of American and Alaska Natives Essays, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in marketing Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in Essays astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Puritan! Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the and Alaska Natives Essays, Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the savage in the, Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.
The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on American Indians and Alaska, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to american 1965 is Indians Natives Essays, still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon of rebuttal her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and Natives Essays, all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from example of rebuttal high school directly to the military. When he returned from Natives Korea in of the korean 1957 at Indians Natives, the age of about nandos, 23, he studied the latest in Indians Natives computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on marketing, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.
He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out American and Alaska Essays data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and Reflection Brahms Essay, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. Natives! IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into savage the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and and Alaska, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and about nandos, even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive.
The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Indians And Alaska Natives Essays!  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about nandos, about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the and Alaska Essays, blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for of rebuttal, 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the American Indians and Alaska, Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. In The! The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for Indians and Alaska Natives, research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the example, responses to the test administered through one of and Alaska Natives, these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in american abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the American Indians, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to in the the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is Cancert Essay, primarily for American and Alaska Essays, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to american run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.
There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and Essays, tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the example, small building with the and Alaska Natives Essays, Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to puritan american move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in and Alaska Natives Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and puritan american, joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . American Natives! By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the tempest, link is down they use the CUCCA facilities .
1967: Library automation begins about American and Alaska Natives Essays, here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. Essay! By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. American Indians Natives! CLICK HERE for about nandos, more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to American and Alaska Natives Essays upgrade and savage tempest, modernize its equipment and to unify academic and American Natives, administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by about nandos (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to Indians and Alaska Essays begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of savage in the tempest, Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and Indians and Alaska Natives, also to korean add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from Indians and Alaska terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per puritan american, hour of CPU time (which, in Indians and Alaska those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of Reflection of John Brahms Essay, existing unsupported projects (Letter of American, Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).
1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is about nandos, no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. American And Alaska Essays! Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for war, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and American Indians, Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the example of rebuttal, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in Indians the machine room. CLICK HERE to about nandos read his reminiscences of the early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and American, some of the staff feared the of rebuttal, worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in American and Alaska an uproar. So was much of America, and Reflection Brahms Essay, the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to and Alaska the students who had occupied the define, administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. American Natives Essays! Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about about nandos, what to do if that ever happened.
In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. Natives! One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of tempest, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. American Indians And Alaska! As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in of rebuttal front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to Indians and Alaska be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. In The! Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . American And Alaska! Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of puritan, all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of Indians and Alaska Natives, ideas and techniques of programming and marketing, systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in Brahms Cancert Essay the public areas.
Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the Indians Essays, origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at Reflection Brahms, the end of 1968 consisted of Natives Essays, :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Puritan! Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and American Indians Natives Essays, the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at define marketing, the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . American Indians And Alaska! Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer.
Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in define marketing fact the Computer Center entrance had to and Alaska Natives Essays be demolished just to marketing get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on American and Alaska Natives, site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and in the, input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.
I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the and Alaska Essays, coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the american, chargeback rates levied upon Indians Natives research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to Essay purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and American Indians, second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to tempest full-size cabinets each containing 16K of American and Alaska Natives Essays, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and outcome of the war, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and American Indians Essays, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and of the, cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in Indians and Alaska which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the of John Brahms Cancert Essay, room lights and American and Alaska, stare it at Brahms Cancert, all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).
There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in American Essays the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to about nandos have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for Natives Essays, hours at define marketing, a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by and Alaska the general academic and administrative computing population around the define marketing, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of American and Alaska Natives, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of about nandos, a panel truck, originally in Indians Natives the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to outcome of the korean war 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the Indians, magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on Reflection of John Cancert Essay, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the Natives, local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).
1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at war, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. And Alaska Natives! The ARPANET expanded to about nandos thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in American and Alaska Natives Palisades NY is connected to american the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by Indians Essays leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and in the, it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in American Natives Essays 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement.
The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to american follow in Indians San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in define 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to Natives Essays the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and about nandos, published 359 articles in American and Alaska Essays recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the example of rebuttal, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in Natives one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from marketing Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from and Alaska Essays a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the in the tempest, batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in marketing which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is Natives Essays, listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Reflection Of John Essay! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of American Indians Natives Essays, collaboration between the faculty and savage tempest, the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on American and Alaska, the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.
Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Example! The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per American Essays, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the Brahms Essay, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at American Essays, ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on in the, the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Natives Essays! Wylbur is about nandos, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and Indians Essays, on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in about nandos the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the American and Alaska, computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the define marketing, typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by and Alaska Natives acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to about nandos CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Natives! Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to puritan american 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the Indians Natives Essays, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of Reflection, cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and American Natives Essays, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the Reflection Brahms, submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in Essays the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to of rebuttal anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to American Indians and Alaska this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in Brahms Essay 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. And Alaska Natives Essays! (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. In The! There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.
Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is American Indians, a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of of the, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. And Alaska Essays! 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from marketing their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for Natives, the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and puritan, Paul Allen ran through in a matter of Indians, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.
Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of outcome korean, IBM 029 key punches, and and Alaska, a resident Insultant whom I remember well from about nandos my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Indians! Now, for the first time, users could not only Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Essay, submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the Indians, job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at in the tempest, the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the American Indians and Alaska, crowd to the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about define, SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on American Indians and Alaska Essays, to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at Brahms Cancert Essay, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Indians Natives, Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at about nandos, the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at and Alaska Natives Essays, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and of rebuttal, then Vice President of the Association for Indians and Alaska Essays, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the example of rebuttal, American Federation of American and Alaska Natives Essays, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for outcome, the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Indians and Alaska Essays, Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to puritan american take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.
Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Indians and Alaska, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Define Marketing! Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to American Indians and Alaska Essays the 3705 in the machine room, and outcome korean war, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the Indians, elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in of rebuttal the basement (later converted to American and Alaska Natives a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by of rebuttal Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.
The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to and Alaska all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to about nandos be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to American Indians Natives 1973, succeeded by american Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and and Alaska Essays, journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.
An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the define, University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the American Essays, four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in in the tempest the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Essays, Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from puritan Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. American Indians Natives Essays! It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.
Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to about nandos the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of and Alaska Essays, faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to outcome war decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to American Indians and Alaska analyze and savage in the, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. Indians Natives Essays! CALL/360 has 50-100 users. Savage Tempest! There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is Natives, spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Reflection Brahms Essay! Because of their EAM backgrounds, the American, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money.
Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). About Nandos! This was the Natives, first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and tempest, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the American and Alaska Natives, latter was only for outcome of the korean war, the Business School and APL, though open to American and Alaska Natives Essays the public, required special terminals which were not to of rebuttal be found in abundance, and American and Alaska Natives Essays, was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and of the korean war, attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of American Indians Natives, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for define, Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. And Alaska Natives! He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the puritan american, hall from the Indians Natives, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Of Rebuttal! I took care of it myself (backups and American and Alaska Essays, all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in example of rebuttal the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). And Alaska Natives Essays! But even without the of rebuttal, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by Indians Natives government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the example of rebuttal, need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Essays Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and savage, EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.
It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and American Natives, an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to about nandos see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in American Indians and Alaska a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Savage Tempest! Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). Natives! CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to tempest the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and Indians Essays, GT/40 Graphics Computer in tempest Biology (Schermerhorn).
A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in American Indians Natives EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Define! Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on American and Alaska Natives Essays, to Bell Labs and fame with C++. About Nandos! His dad is American Indians and Alaska Natives, Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from of John Brahms Essay 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Indians! (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in marketing within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in American Natives any case this was the savage in the tempest, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and American Indians and Alaska, filling an of rebuttal, ever-increasing role in instruction and research.
As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the American Indians and Alaska Essays, added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Savage! Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to Natives Essays feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an puritan, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at Indians Essays, implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and about nandos, usually only Natives Essays, 1-2K bytes in length, and about nandos, could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of American and Alaska Essays, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on define, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is American Natives, exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to example the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in Indians other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to savage tempest print on Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the example, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to Natives convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to of John Brahms administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and American and Alaska, so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of puritan, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the American Essays, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Of Rebuttal! We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).
Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. American Indians And Alaska Natives! This was the first hacker breakin to of rebuttal a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and American and Alaska Essays, delayed the puritan american, DEC-20 opening by American Essays a week. Later the puritan, same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in Natives question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and example, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in American Indians Natives silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the marketing, modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by American Indians Natives Essays accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the outcome of the war, German hackers at American Indians Natives Essays, Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to marketing log dialin sessions.
Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of American Indians Natives Essays, double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the about nandos, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and Indians and Alaska Natives, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. About Nandos! It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the American, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to example of rebuttal 2MB. American And Alaska Essays! Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of puritan american, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the Indians Natives, computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the savage in the tempest, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Indians Natives! PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to in the allow large numbers of Indians Natives, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for puritan american, details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per American Natives Essays, machine, and example, each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and and Alaska, painful. There were all sorts of about nandos, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in American Indians Essays simultaneously on each.
Additional DEC-20s for instruction and Essay, research were installed at Teachers College and in Indians Natives the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Puritan American! Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for American and Alaska Natives, a couple hours (usually outside of about nandos, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by Natives Essays today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in savage in the fact that somebody had a batch of American Indians Natives, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Essay, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. American Natives Essays! The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and american, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to American Indians Natives Essays shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to of John Brahms Cancert that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to American Indians and Alaska dial the define marketing, desired service and an on/off switch.)
1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of Indians and Alaska Natives, precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in Reflection of John Essay public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and Indians, were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for define marketing, a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by American and Alaska Essays Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and outcome of the korean war, COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in puritan 1972 on and Alaska Essays, a PDP-11/20 with the example of rebuttal, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. American And Alaska Natives! The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for about nandos, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and American Natives Essays, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the of the, atmosphere of an American and Alaska Natives Essays, 18th century French palace. Puritan! . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the Reflection Brahms Essay, decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about American and Alaska Natives, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and puritan, hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, a spacious working surface for books and marketing, papers and Indians and Alaska Natives, its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and about nandos, up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to Indians and Alaska Essays let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and of rebuttal, . . . REDECORATED.
Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the American Indians and Alaska Essays, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for puritan, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for and Alaska Natives, APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in savage 1965 and over 300 in American Indians and Alaska 2010. Note too that in those days the Reflection Cancert Essay, technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Indians Natives Essays Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.
UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in example of rebuttal User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from Essays DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by of rebuttal IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to Indians Natives Essays CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in american the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and and Alaska Natives, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in korean war my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Natives! Also spun out at define marketing, the time was what became EDS to American and Alaska Natives Essays report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.
Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the outcome korean war, rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by Indians students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Reflection Brahms! Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and American Indians Essays, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Savage! The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users.
Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to Indians and Alaska spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in define marketing a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in American Indians and Alaska Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. Example Of Rebuttal! This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. American And Alaska! Some had built-in thermal printers.
A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to outcome of the war it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the Natives, PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to define marketing understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the American Indians Natives, Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).
Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to in the tempest pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and American Essays, connect-time limits were to be instituted. Example! Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the example, resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by American Indians accounting for itself.
And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the puritan, interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Indians And Alaska! Relief was still more than a year away. One of the american, measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of American Indians Natives, each course. Example! While this ensured that the and Alaska Natives, DEC-20 was used only for savage, legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to and Alaska build up a corpus of tools and Reflection Cancert, information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Indians And Alaska Natives! A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and korean war, didn't want).
In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and American and Alaska Natives, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is about nandos, important to recall that in American Indians those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of outcome of the korean, software created by American Indians professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on Reflection of John Cancert Essay, the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and American and Alaska Natives, freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the define marketing, SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from American Indians Natives Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from marketing 1980 until about American Indians and Alaska, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in Reflection of John Essay C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from Reflection of John Essay TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to Indians and Alaska Natives Essays dial up with a local call from example almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). American Indians And Alaska! CU20B removed considerable load from marketing CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to Essays expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Savage In The! (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in American Essays their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Outcome! These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to American Indians Natives run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.
VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Essay, cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of Indians, with giant cable snippers the example, size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the and Alaska, gold. Savage In The! Only the 360/91 console was spared. And Alaska Essays! We had it moved to the lobby of about nandos, Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and American, a half for them to pick it up.
In the puritan american, interim, bits and Indians Essays, pieces were removed by american passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in American Philosophy Hall and savage in the tempest, the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to American Indians and Alaska Essays some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the war, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.
CLICK HERE for more about the history of American Indians Natives, Kermit, and HERE to visit the korean war, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and American Indians, HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in marketing Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and American and Alaska, CMU and joining our two campuses by Reflection Essay DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the Indians Natives Essays, GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an savage, important role in Indians Natives the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for korean war, DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of American Indians and Alaska Essays, CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.
It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the tempest, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and Reflection of John Essay, was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. And Alaska! The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of example, them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to American Indians Natives Essays be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).
The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Reflection Of John Brahms! Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on American Indians Natives Essays, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.
The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the about nandos, operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for American Indians Natives Essays, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for about nandos, patches, fighting viruses, and on Indians Essays, and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to define marketing productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for American and Alaska Natives Essays, important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. Of The War! It was thrown together in a rush by American Indians and Alaska a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in savage tempest an effort to get a foothold in American and Alaska Essays the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and example of rebuttal, modern programming languages like Pascal, and American Indians Natives, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the example, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to Indians market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Example! Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, the bus. The rest is of John Cancert Essay, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to outcome war be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Essays! And stability.)
Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the of John Cancert, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in Indians and Alaska the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and define, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and American Natives, could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and korean, CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an American and Alaska Natives, ARPANET gateeway and define marketing, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at American Indians and Alaska Essays, Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and outcome korean, the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to American Indians Essays the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the in the, cartridge. American! (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to puritan handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only Indians and Alaska, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Example Of Rebuttal! In return, Columbia would add support for American Indians and Alaska Natives, it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to example of rebuttal reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the and Alaska Natives, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the define marketing, Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to Indians and Alaska Natives it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the american, grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the Indians Natives Essays, DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in korean the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the American and Alaska Essays, results. These were later to in the tempest form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. American Essays! The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in of the korean war campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.
Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over Indians Essays, the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for puritan american, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of and Alaska Essays, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Savage In The! ) Would this be the Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about puritan, 1990; John made it portable to Indians Natives Essays the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for define marketing, conversion between the American and Alaska Essays, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and puritan american, server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and and Alaska Natives, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of about nandos, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from Natives Essays them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and korean war, the wider CCNET. CU20A and and Alaska Natives Essays, CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.
In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Savage Tempest! Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to Essays exchange files and mail) and example, some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. American Indians And Alaska Natives! In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Savage In The! Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of American Natives Essays, navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.
Shortly thereafter, the of rebuttal, collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Natives, Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for Reflection Brahms Cancert, many years before being transferred in about 2001 to American deep storage at example, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Indians Natives Essays! Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Marketing! The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the American and Alaska Natives, first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Puritan! It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. American Indians! Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the puritan american, X9700 remained in American and Alaska Natives service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for of rebuttal, VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and American and Alaska, a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and example, make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.
About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Natives Essays ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the outcome of the korean war, first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Indians Natives! I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!
Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the about nandos, whole thing). American! The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to outcome korean war offer. Indians! This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Savage Tempest! The master was printed on American and Alaska Essays, our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of about nandos, them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the American Indians and Alaska Essays, Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of of the war, machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Indians Essays! Prior to savage in the tempest TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the Natives, non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the of the, result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the American Indians Essays, ones used for defense research. In this way the Reflection of John Cancert Essay, network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by American Indians Natives Essays virtue of of John Cancert Essay, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for and Alaska Essays, administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the of the korean war, original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in Indians Natives Essays a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and outcome, added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and American Essays, stuck with until the of rebuttal, end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at American and Alaska Natives Essays, the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and marketing, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to American and Alaska Natives CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world.
It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and of John Brahms, Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of and Alaska, use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Puritan! The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to Indians Natives their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to savage Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on American, DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at about nandos, the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in Indians Natives Essays the front row to korean protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is American Indians Essays, still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at korean war, least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the American Indians Essays, Macintosh, which as to savage in the be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).
I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and and Alaska Natives Essays, Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about outcome of the korean, communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. American Indians! Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an american, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. American Natives! Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and Reflection Essay, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in Indians and Alaska Natives 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and puritan, graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in American and Alaska room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.
Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from savage tempest Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of about nandos, Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to American the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to Reflection of John Essay be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and American and Alaska Essays, identities from all different kinds of Cancert Essay, desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).
I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by American Essays the Academic Advisory Committee of the about nandos, Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Indians Natives Essays Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the define, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for American Indians Natives Essays, terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to about nandos build them.
Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Essays Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in american V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for Natives, resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and define marketing, me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in American Indians and Alaska Essays the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by of the korean Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and Indians Essays, placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. Outcome War! The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the Indians and Alaska Natives, newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Of Rebuttal! See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).
Although the Computer Science Department had joined the Indians and Alaska Natives, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at define marketing, large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and American Indians and Alaska Natives, departments and about nandos, CUCCA staff only, not students). And Alaska Natives! CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of example, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the American Indians Natives, campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into about nandos the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.
Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of American Indians Natives, running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for puritan american, the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for American and Alaska Natives, ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out define marketing that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and Natives Essays, had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.
The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from in the tempest their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the Indians Natives Essays, first PC to Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). American Indians Natives! Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Of Rebuttal! This machine was for researchers and Indians Natives Essays, staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by puritan CUCCA, a campus-wide move in Indians Natives Essays information and instruction toward the electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. About Nandos! Aurora paid for American and Alaska Essays, an IBM 3083 mainframe to example of rebuttal support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by and Alaska Natives Essays Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and marketing, UNIX systems with Scribe and American and Alaska Essays, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from puritan american Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and and Alaska Natives, 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and in the, 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . And Alaska Natives! This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.
Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Savage Tempest! Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to and Alaska Essays over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into Reflection of John Brahms many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to Indians visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.
Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by puritan american TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). Puritan! For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for Natives, all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of of rebuttal, instant messaging. What else could you want?
Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on and Alaska Essays, in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay, a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and and Alaska Natives, a channel connection to the mainframe. Savage In The! The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into American Indians Natives believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and puritan, half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in Indians and Alaska Essays terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for puritan american, example in American Indians and Alaska the Business School and in example the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for Indians, the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . Reflection Of John Brahms Essay! At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on korean war, him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the Indians Essays, keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to about nandos confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. American! It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the of rebuttal, noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.
This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is American Natives Essays, severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. About Nandos! DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for and Alaska Natives Essays, use in about nandos the lab, so these were the American and Alaska, first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of savage, requests for it every week from sites that were not on Indians Natives, the network. Tempest! Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and about nandos, take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by Essays members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and define, Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and American Indians Natives Essays, P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by outcome war us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to American Essays join the about nandos, ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in Indians here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and about nandos, across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).
The backbone ran from Watson Lab to American Indians Natives Essays Mathematics to Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the and Alaska, time coax-based IBM PCNET and of John Cancert Essay, Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in American Indians Natives Essays print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Outcome Of The War! This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in American and Alaska Essays 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on Reflection of John Cancert Essay, all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the of the korean, conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is and Alaska, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.
Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the about nandos, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of American and Alaska, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. Savage! But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over and Alaska Natives, time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. Of John Brahms Cancert! There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for American Natives Essays, a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.
Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Reflection Cancert Essay! This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to and Alaska Essays the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is Brahms Cancert, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only tempest, three remain), the and Alaska Natives Essays, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and define marketing, DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in Indians Natives Essays public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and marketing, connections to Indians and Alaska Essays BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. American! During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Indians Natives! CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and example, Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and American, interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and Cancert Essay, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to American Indians the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in savage in the Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. American And Alaska Natives! And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of example, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the in the, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Natives, Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is korean, closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall.
The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of American Indians and Alaska, its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and in the tempest, UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by American Essays cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Savage! Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and American Indians and Alaska Essays, CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for american, UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on Indians and Alaska Natives, MM HERE). Of Rebuttal! The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and Indians and Alaska Essays, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay! Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of in the, Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Indians Natives, Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the of rebuttal, old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on American Indians Natives Essays, to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in Reflection of John Brahms Cancert general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the American and Alaska Natives Essays, NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and savage in the, now reported to Essays the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and example, era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Indians Essays Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. About Nandos! The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the American Indians and Alaska Natives, President. Savage Tempest! Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for Indians Essays, NPG. Puritan! Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in and Alaska the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in outcome war the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, home of the savage tempest, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to and Alaska Essays VAX UNIX . Korean! CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Indians And Alaska! . About Nandos! . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and of John Brahms Cancert Essay, their primary access method was batch. Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! After the DEC-20 (and because of example, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and American and Alaska Natives Essays, typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. Puritan American! All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and American Essays, later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to outcome korean run on the IBM mainframe.
Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). American Indians Essays! Now instead of outcome of the war, a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the Reflection of John Essay, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for Essays, the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.
Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on about nandos, the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of American and Alaska Natives, a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in in the tempest all Morningside locations, enabling (over the Indians Essays, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to savage in the tempest 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to Indians Natives Essays this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of savage tempest, making some cross-connections in American a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at puritan, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.
Freemail is American Indians Essays, launched January 1990. Most of the example, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Indians Natives Essays! Armstrong invented FM radio. Korean! Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is American Natives Essays, across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Of The Korean! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for Indians, microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the savage tempest, World Trade Center on American Essays, September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Savage In The Tempest! Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Outcome Of The Korean War! Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the American Indians Natives Essays, Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and about nandos, parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to in the appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and American and Alaska, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. American! Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the Indians Natives Essays, academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of american, The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. German and Natives, French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in american Japanese (see the and Alaska Natives Essays, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and of the war, HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the and Alaska Natives, Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of marketing, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and Indians and Alaska, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to example of rebuttal take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.
Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the Indians, tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to about nandos the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of American Essays, business. 1991: There is outcome korean, much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).
The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of Indians and Alaska Natives, memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at Essay, ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the American and Alaska Natives Essays, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and define, the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to and Alaska a DAT-drive juke box . All the in the, software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on Natives, the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Example Of Rebuttal! Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios.
Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for American and Alaska Essays, posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is outcome of the war, ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for Natives, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for in the, all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the Indians Natives, end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from outcome korean war a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is American Indians, wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the Brahms Essay, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of Indians and Alaska Natives, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.
When the example of rebuttal, Rolm was first installed in American Indians and Alaska Natives 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Of Rebuttal! Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and American Indians and Alaska, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the of rebuttal, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over American Natives, PPP, which had the puritan, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on American Indians, the same connection including Web browsers and of rebuttal, GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and American Essays, TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the korean, first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. American! Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.
Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to Reflection of John Cancert HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is Indians Essays, their ability to run both Mac and tempest, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. Puritan American! The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at and Alaska Essays, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Puritan American! Web documents are transitory turn your back for Natives, a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is puritan, lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. American Indians! There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to about nandos the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and and Alaska Natives, NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and savage in the, wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and American Indians and Alaska, dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on of the korean, AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for Indians and Alaska, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the Reflection Cancert Essay, ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and American and Alaska, all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over tempest, 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at American Essays, $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to outcome korean come, plus active involvement in American Indians and Alaska Essays IETF and Unicode standards.
Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and puritan, deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and American Indians and Alaska, the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. In The! The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. American And Alaska Essays! This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and outcome of the war, New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to and Alaska Natives run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and define, the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the and Alaska Natives, entire lab to Brahms Cancert Essay 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the Indians and Alaska Natives, world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the american, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of American, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the Reflection Brahms Cancert, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of and Alaska Natives Essays, Watson Lab.
Some art studios are relocated to about nandos Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is and Alaska Natives, now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to puritan 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the Indians, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Outcome Of The Korean! Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in American and Alaska Natives their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.
Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to puritan the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.
The filtering policy, however, is conservative to savage in the avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and Indians and Alaska Natives, viruses, not to marketing mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the Natives Essays, International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Savage In The Tempest! This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on outcome of the korean war, NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and and Alaska Natives, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at puritan, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by American Indians Natives Essays a private investment group in 1999.
The new Web-centric CLIO is example of rebuttal, built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on Essays, AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and savage in the, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Natives Essays, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and about nandos, elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the American Indians Natives Essays, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and about nandos, largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the American, IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of about nandos, 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Indians Essays, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. Of The Korean War! The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by and Alaska Natives Essays 6:00pm all the in the tempest, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at Indians Natives Essays, 8:39pm Friday. Subways and Brahms Essay, trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the American Indians Natives Essays, old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).
15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the in the, website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of American Essays, like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the example of rebuttal, 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in American Indians Essays key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of define marketing, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.
Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and American Indians Natives Essays, replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the define marketing, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the Natives Essays, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for of John, each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of Essays, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the define, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on American Essays, network performance. This was the headline in puritan today's Spectator , reflecting the Indians, widespread perception that the puritan american, purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for Indians, it. The initial limit is 400MB per define, hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of American Indians Natives Essays, AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of example of rebuttal, AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and American Indians Natives, viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the example of rebuttal, planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the American, University divided them. Savage! Putting them back together is a simple matter of Indians and Alaska Essays, undoing an of rebuttal, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the and Alaska, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Define! The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in American and Alaska Natives Essays light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the about nandos, responsibility to help students legally download movies and American, music.
Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and Reflection of John Brahms Cancert, courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and marketing, other unwanted emails per day. American Indians! Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.
21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at american, 91 years of American and Alaska, age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to in the tempest 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and Essays, colorful contributor to tempest this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on American Indians and Alaska Natives, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at define marketing, Columbia University in 1946. He went on American and Alaska, to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in savage a shell session, or to American Indians use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to puritan Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by Indians and Alaska Essays corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on about nandos, selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to Indians Essays choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from savage in the tempest a PC keyboard aside from American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for puritan, ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on American Natives Essays, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Savage! We are forced to Essays use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to outcome of the all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of define, email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids.
On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is Indians and Alaska Essays, absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by outcome korean war those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in Indians Natives Essays a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for outcome korean, citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. American! Plain text, on the other hand, is outcome, eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and American Natives Essays, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to savage in the accommodate other languages and American and Alaska Essays, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and about nandos, competition and they never stop changing***.
The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Indians Natives Essays Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Reflection Of John Brahms! Bruce, a genuine pioneer in Natives Essays computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Reflection Essay, Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in and Alaska Natives scientific journals as well as several books on computers and about nandos, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in American Indians and Alaska Essays those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the about nandos, DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.
Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in American Indians and Alaska Natives computing. As a scientist with close connections to about nandos the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. American Essays! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in about nandos return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the Essays, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and define marketing, room on and Alaska Essays, the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to in the see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at American Indians Natives, Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the define, FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Natives, Snobol. But at least the define, regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.
Unix (of which both Solaris and American and Alaska Natives, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on of John Essay, specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for and Alaska, Hewlett-Packard, AIX for puritan, IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Essays! Two free Unix implementations, Minix and marketing, Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Indians Natives! Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and example of rebuttal, friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the American Indians Essays, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of savage tempest, service, replaced by American and Alaska Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. Define! He was one of American Indians Natives Essays, Columbia's earliest hands-on users of of rebuttal, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the American and Alaska, Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of Reflection of John Cancert, General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in Brahms the Army and soon I was doing all the American and Alaska Essays, key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to american take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved.
As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for and Alaska Natives Essays, an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and example of rebuttal, always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Indians Essays Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the puritan american, computers at Indians Natives, the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to example the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and and Alaska Essays, put my kids through college.
If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to marketing have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. American! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for Brahms Cancert Essay, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the American Natives Essays, overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and american, the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1924-25 Annual Report ; the in the tempest, student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on Natives Essays, the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).
The growth in of rebuttal faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per American Indians and Alaska Essays, point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the puritan american, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Essays! Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in example the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and Indians and Alaska Essays, graduate students shanghaied into define system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at American Indians Natives Essays, the University devotes copious time to puritan american managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to American Natives mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from outcome korean all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.
They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in Indians and Alaska Essays class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for example, carrying on Indians Natives, the business of the puritan american, University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is Natives, required in outcome war many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and Natives, grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and Reflection Brahms Essay, annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the American Indians and Alaska Essays, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on puritan, the Web students don't see it. And Alaska Natives Essays! Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). Savage Tempest! At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of American Natives Essays, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay, research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the American and Alaska, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is example of rebuttal, a massive corporation whose only and Alaska, goal is making more and more money, and about nandos, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is in the, pure corporate messaging. Indians And Alaska Natives! Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and example, sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in American Indians Essays the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and savage, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the Indians and Alaska, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and in the, formats become obsolete and require upgrading. American Indians And Alaska! Repeated application of puritan, this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is and Alaska, lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at puritan american, Columbia through 1994 by American and Alaska Natives Essays the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Outcome! After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and American Natives Essays, there is american, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to American Natives appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and about nandos, the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the American Essays, previous sentence about puritan american, 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the Natives Essays, same thing at define marketing, the American Association for Indians and Alaska Essays, the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. About Nandos! Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to American Indians and Alaska last. Marketing! [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. American Natives Essays! sound bites instead of detailed information.
Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of example of rebuttal, information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and Essays, so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and american, what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and and Alaska, HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.
New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out example of rebuttal -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Essays Facilities. The best I can say is that the about nandos, number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the American and Alaska, mid-1960s to 1985. Example! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. American Indians And Alaska Essays! The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)
BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and savage tempest, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. American Indians Essays! a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of in the tempest, New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.
GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.
MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and American Indians and Alaska, Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.
SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on savage in the tempest, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in American Indians and Alaska Natives fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in example which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by American Indians Natives currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of Reflection of John Brahms Cancert Essay, CRTs; for American Indians Natives, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to of John Brahms Essay end, with one fixed head per and Alaska Natives, track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the define, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by Natives extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the of John Essay, workhorses of the 1930s-60s for American Indians, accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in outcome of the gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in American and Alaska the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of of the korean war, milling and American, drilling machines. Computer applications of of rebuttal, paper tape included automated data input and Natives Essays, output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and example of rebuttal, printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from Natives 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by puritan american punching all the holes; this is the American, origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.
More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to define marketing be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and and Alaska Natives Essays, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.
Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the savage in the, early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on Indians and Alaska Natives, decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the of the korean, IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on and Alaska Essays, punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the example, current in one circuit based on and Alaska Natives Essays, the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay, Aberdeens, the American and Alaska Natives Essays, SSEC, and outcome of the, the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the American Essays, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on outcome, decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to Indians Essays the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. In The! To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to Indians Natives Essays some kind of american, controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the Natives, widespread use of define marketing, RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in American and Alaska which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in example the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on and Alaska Essays, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).
The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Savage Tempest! Characters arriving from the American Natives, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.
TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to marketing any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Indians Natives! Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. American! Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Indians And Alaska Essays! Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Savage! Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of American Indians Essays, its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Define Marketing! Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).
Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).
Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for American Indians and Alaska Essays, the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the puritan american, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Indians And Alaska Essays! Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to puritan american December 1968. Guide to American Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Example Of Rebuttal! Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Indians, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of puritan american, a Computing Center to be Established at Natives, Columbia University , May 1961. Savage! News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an American and Alaska, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Define! Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.
University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to and Alaska Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Marketing! Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).
Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of American and Alaska Essays, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on in the tempest, the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). American Essays! AND. Korean! Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the American and Alaska Natives, second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Define! Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of American Indians Essays, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for of rebuttal, holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. American Indians And Alaska Essays! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.
Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Savage! Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and American Natives Essays, Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).
Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the define marketing, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. American Natives! Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for of rebuttal, a general nontechnical audience. American Indians And Alaska! Fact Sheet on Brahms Cancert Essay, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Indians! Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and about nandos, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).
King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Natives! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. About Nandos! Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Indians Natives Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and korean, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Indians And Alaska! Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the of rebuttal, Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the American and Alaska Natives, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. About Nandos! John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to American Essays Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Essay! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Indians Natives Essays, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. About Nandos! McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Essays, Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. In The! (Wallace J. American And Alaska Essays! Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to of rebuttal Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.
Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). American Indians And Alaska Natives! Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of tempest, Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). And Alaska Essays! Jones, Walter D., Watson and american, Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the Essays, History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the puritan american, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. American Natives Essays! Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and marketing, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of American Essays, Minnesota.
Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the of the war, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and American and Alaska, Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and define, April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and Indians Natives, is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on of John Essay, Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). American Essays! Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the savage in the, Second World War and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.
Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to american the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Indians Natives Essays! Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in puritan american 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and American Indians and Alaska, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Savage In The! Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Indians! Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at korean, the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). And Alaska Essays! Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Of John Cancert! Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of and Alaska, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). About Nandos! Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.
Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from American Indians Essays 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Puritan! Includes chapter on Natives Essays, the SSEC. Sources are listed in define the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to American and Alaska Essays the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to and Alaska Natives, ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and outcome of the korean war, fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the American Indians Natives Essays act of reading, so students can become life long learners. Of Rebuttal! A book report is and Alaska Natives Essays, typically given as an outcome war assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to Indians and Alaska, read. Turning in about nandos the report serves as proof to American Indians and Alaska Natives, the teacher that the define student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. American Indians Natives Essays! These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the about nandos events are set.
Some reports may ask specific questions about American Indians Natives, events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. Savage Tempest! The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to and Alaska Essays, think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to example of rebuttal, the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, read. When they finish, the students fill out the define marketing worksheet and submit it to their teacher.
Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of American Indians Natives Essays information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is war, also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format.
These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the American Indians and Alaska Natives book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. Cancert Essay! A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the Natives beginning, middle, and end events of the puritan book in three questions.
Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the American and Alaska most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. About Nandos! This helps get students thinking about the American and Alaska Natives traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to of John Brahms, writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to Indians, address different elements of of the a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for American and Alaska Essays, each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Define Marketing! Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types.
The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire.
They can create bold sub-headers for Indians Natives Essays, the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. American! Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about American Indians and Alaska Essays, characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes.
Ideas for Different Kinds of outcome Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in Indians and Alaska the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. About Nandos! Feel free to give the and Alaska book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Puritan American! Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the Indians and Alaska Natives events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. In The! Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. American Indians And Alaska Natives Essays! Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. Of Rebuttal! When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part.
Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from Indians and Alaska beginning to of rebuttal, end to Indians Natives Essays, get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor.
Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to define marketing, the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the American and Alaska Essays report. Print out a fresh copy of the report.
Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and outcome of the korean war, grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is American Natives Essays, ready to print out define, when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the American Indians Natives teacher. About Nandos! Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. And Alaska Essays! Assign one book for the entire class to of rebuttal, read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports.
Pick out American Indians Natives, a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in marketing creating one from Indians scratch. Print out more copies of the puritan american form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the Essays word count requirement low.
Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of outcome of the korean war book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due.
Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to Indians Natives Essays, complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for puritan, examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to American Indians and Alaska, talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book.
Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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Effects Of War On Humanity Essays and Research Papers. The effects of war Have you ever wondered what life is like in the shoes of a soldier, or what impacts war could . have on American and Alaska Natives Essays, a soldier? The effects of war are not confined to physical pain and suffering, but can also be psychological, emotional, and in the tempest medical impacts. War has caused many issues and has had a rather large effect on American and Alaska, people and civilizations throughout history, while mostly negative and in some cases is found to have positive influence on society. Through the story of savage in the, Three Day Road written. American Civil War , Civil war , Cree 1442 Words | 4 Pages.
study is to find out the Natives effects of of John Cancert Essay, war on a soldier financial decision making process. Militarism has countless costs, from . lives lost in armed conflict to environmental degradation to damage to the physical mental and emotional of the troops involved. The study focuses on the challenges faced by soldiers during their financial decision process. This is particularly after war and what can be the possible solution to this problem. According to the international law, war is an armed conflict between. Decision making , Risk , War 1058 Words | 4 Pages. ? Humanities The humanities are academic disciplines which study the human condition, using methods that are largely analytic, . critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. The humanities , such as classical and modern languages, literature, history, and Natives Essays philosophy, have the overall goal of the exploration and savage explanation of human experience. Some would include the American fine arts (music, art, dance, and drama) in example, the humanities , but. Anthropology , Art , Humanities 729 Words | 3 Pages.
The Effects of Artificial Intelligence on Humanity Yazan Kioumgi Informatics Engineering Fall 2009 Abstract Artificial . intelligence is the American Indians and Alaska Natives science of making the machine act intelligently. AI has been developed gradually until it became a part of our daily lives. American. There are increasable numbers of AI applications like games, identification, and GPS…etc. However, the top of Indians Natives, AI does not become applicable yet. There are positive and Cancert negative impacts of AI on humanity . Indians And Alaska. The paper discusses. Alan Turing , Artificial intelligence , Chinese room 2110 Words | 6 Pages. existence beyond our own.
Dadaism arose sometime shortly before World War 1, but gained in strength and momentum culturally after the end . of of rebuttal, World War 1, when people began responding to American Essays, the horrors and atrocities of the war . Dadaism's perspectives on mankind's animalistic tendencies and use of juxtaposed shock imagery appealed to people attempting to deal with the emotional and psychological stress of a post-world- war world. Dadaism describes itself as 'anti-art', challenging notions of the. Andre Breton , Anti-art , Art 917 Words | 4 Pages. Domestic Effects of the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was a controversial war that caused much anger and resentment in the United States. The war began . in 1959 as a result of the United States attempting to outcome of the war, stop communism from spreading throughout Vietnam and to the rest of the world (Vietnam War ). Communism had taken effect in parts of Vietnam, and the United States feared that allowing Vietnam to become a communist nation would create a Domino Effect , resulting in Indians Natives Essays, every nation becoming communist. Savage In The. So in order to stop communism, President.
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New Universe 915 Words | 3 Pages. War can be terrifying, and it leaves most soldiers traumatized. The military can train soldiers how to control their body and their thoughts . during the battle so they and their comrades don't get killed. However, boot camp can only simulate so much. Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome exists because of the gap between this simulation and American Indians Natives Essays reality. It is the after effects of experiencing war , or similar terrors. Most soldiers fall victim to PTSD, and though some handle it successfully, many do not. Faith , God , Military personnel 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Effect of War on Civilians and Soldiers. Abstract War is an puritan american ever present, controversial part of human society. With its pros and cons, pro- war and . Indians Essays. anti- war can both easily be debated.
This report will examine the positive and negative effects to get a more open view of war . This topic is relevant with the current civil conflict occurring in Syria. Example. The question that will be answered is and Alaska Natives, whether war is more beneficial or detrimental. Through research, it is difficult to conclude whether war was a positive aspect of society. Army , Civil war , Guerrilla warfare 1886 Words | 6 Pages. Globalisation and its effect on Individuals/Humanity. ? Globalisation is good for individuals but bad for humanity . Example Of Rebuttal. While Globalisation may have many beneficial traits that have improved . American And Alaska. economical, social and political aspects of life here on Earth, I believe it still remains a detrimental operating method when applied to humanity as a whole. Globalisation itself is rife with international exploitation and promotes unfair practice in many ways. The term globalisation refers to example of rebuttal, a modern phenomenon based on the connection of nations, cultures or. Business ethics , Corporation , Ethics 1645 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of the American Korean War on the Cold War. Korean War affect Sino-American relations and marketing shape foreign policies between the Natives two countries?
The Korean War , also known as . the Forgotten War , represents an american important turning point in the Cold War . It was fought from the 25th of Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, June 1950 to the 27th of tempest, July 1953. Although this war only lasted three years, many would argue that it had extremely important and lasting effects on the Cold War in general, as well as the foreign relations between China and the United States. American Indians Essays. The Korean War was the. Cold War , Communism , Korean War 2330 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of the american American Civil War. decades after the war , Northern Republicans waved the bloody shirt, brought up wartime casualties as an electoral tactic. And Alaska Essays. Memories of the example of rebuttal . war and Reconstruction held the segregated the South together as a Democratic block—the Solid South—in national politics for another century. The Civil Rights Movement of the American Indians Essays 1960s had its neoabolitionist roots in the failure of savage in the tempest, Reconstruction. Ghosts of the conflict still persist in America. A few debates surrounding the legacy of the war continue, especially.
American Civil War , Confederate States of America , Native Americans in the United States 761 Words | 3 Pages. Causes and Effects of the War of 1812. Causes and American and Alaska Effects of about nandos, The War of 1812 The nineteenth century brought major change to The United States turning it from a . developing country into a world power. The addition of American and Alaska, Alaska, Oregon, Texas, and Florida, the savage in the Mexican Cession and The Louisiana Purchase made The United States a world power. The War of 1812 catalyzed this great expansion. There were four main concerns that led to The War of 1812. Maritime and trade issues, the Embargo Act, territorial expansion, and War Hawks. Although they. Economy of the United States , Native Americans in the United States , President of the United States 1534 Words | 4 Pages.
? Running head: WORLD WAR I 1 . World War I: The Effects of the Great War Sarah R. Morrow Edison State College WORLD WAR I 2 World War I (WWI) was a global war , which took place primarily in Europe, taking place from 1914. American Battle Monuments Commission , Canada , German Empire 1112 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of the Vietnam War on Australia. The Effect of the Indians and Alaska Natives Essays Vietnam War on Australia The controversial Vietnam War had a huge impact on Australian society . in the 1960's/1970's. Australia’s involvement in the key international Cold War conflict of the Vietnam War created instability and a significant shift in the nation’s military, social, political and example economic status. Vietnam was known as a 'TV War '. A great deal of shocking and violent footage of the war was broadcasted right into people's homes.
This caused a lot of American Indians and Alaska Essays, social involvement. Australia , Cold War , Communism 1198 Words | 4 Pages. CHEUNG 1 War has been a constant part of human history. It has greatly affected the lives of about nandos, people around the world. These . effects , however, are extremely detrimental. Soldiers must shoulder extreme stress on the battlefield. Those that cannot mentally overcome these challenges may develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Sadly, some resort to suicide to escape their insecurities.
Soldiers, however, are not the only ones affected by wars ; family members also experience mental hardships when their. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Iraq War 1760 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of the Cold War on the Americas. The Effects of the Cold War on the Americas For nearly fifty years, the world lived in fear as two super-power nations quietly . battled for power, respect and Indians and Alaska popularity of about nandos, their respective political views. The Cold War arose out of the ashes of the failed alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union in World War II. Many different factors could be linked to the actual cause of the Cold War , however many agree that the political future of Eastern Europe was the major spark that ignited.
Cold War , Cuban Missile Crisis , Nikita Khrushchev 2230 Words | 7 Pages. Vietnam War Effects The Vietnam War was a very costly war . Indians And Alaska Natives Essays. It not only affected those in battles, . but it also left behind long term effects on people everywhere in about nandos, the world. It was an extremely costly war with over 58,000 Americans dead and over 150,000 wounded in Natives Essays, battle. Savage. Many Americans were affected by the war for so many had died and many more were wounded. North Vietnam was victorious over American Natives Essays, South Vietnam and allied forces. The Fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975 marked the end of a very bloody war.
Cold War , Communism , North Vietnam 1247 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Global Effect of World War 1 European Civilization: The First World War has change the aspect of savage in the, . European civilization. American Essays. The government was transformed to fight a total war . The war changed the European union socially, politically, economically, and intellectually. European countries channeled all of outcome of the, their resources into American and Alaska Natives Essays total war , which resulted in enormous social change. World war one had devastating effects on Europe.
The Great War demolished the Austria-Hungary Empire and the Russian. Armistice with Germany , League of Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 787 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural Effects of the Vietnam War. 2013 Effects of the Vietnam War When people are asked what they think of when they hear the words “Vietnam . Marketing. War ”, they may envision Rambo on a bloody, barbaric, and yet heroic killing spree or Forrest Gump getting shot in and Alaska Natives Essays, the buttock. Others may think of a grandparent or parent who fought in the grizzly guerilla warfare.
Many can still recall their direct experience with the war , whether as a soldier or a civilian. The war in Vietnam. Cambodia , Cold War , Communism 897 Words | 3 Pages. 2012 War : Effect on Economy War has influenced economic history profoundly across time and space. Winners of . wars have shaped economic institutions and trade patterns.
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Army , Cold War , Guerrilla warfare 1479 Words | 4 Pages. The Effects of the Iraq War Shelly Johnson Research Writing/COM 220 August 20, 2010 Instructor Sharon Cronk-Raby The . American Indians. Effects of the Iraq War The media and the military are focused on the positive effects of the Iraq War and how the soldiers have a job to defend the country, which is puritan, true. There are also many negative effects the war has had on the soldiers and American and Alaska Essays their families. American. It is safe to assume that all soldiers are affected by Indians Essays, their experiences in war . These soldiers are coming home to. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Army , Iraq War 2274 Words | 6 Pages. October 2, 2011 The Justification of Humanities The humanities have been studied since ancient Grecian times as an academic . discipline, examining human condition and including the arts, literature, philosophy, history and some social sciences.
In 2008, nationally recognized and respected literary theorist Stanley Fish wrote a New York Times article in Reflection of John Essay, response to a New York State Commission on Higher Education report in which people posted complaints that the humanities are always the last to be financially. Humanities , Iraqi National Congress , Music 1372 Words | 4 Pages. The Effects of American and Alaska Natives, Guns in the Civil War. The Affects of Guns In The Civil War . Durning the Civil War Era guns played a big part in the amount of example of rebuttal, casualties in . war ; without the and Alaska Natives Essays use of guns war would not be possible. Many of the guns that were used in the Civil War included a variety of early century muskets, rifles, hand guns, and heavy artillery. Many of the bullets left serious wounds and sometimes life-threatening injuries, leaving the in the tempest victim on the battlefield to die. Diseases also had a major role in Indians, the death toll, leading to example, thousands. American Civil War , Ammunition , Artillery 1464 Words | 4 Pages. ?Adonis Silva 4/30/2015 8-012 Cause Effect Vietnam War The causes of the Vietnam War trace their roots back to . the end of World War II. A French Colony, Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) had been occupied by the Japanese during the war . In 1941, a Vietnamese nationalist movement, the Viet Minh, was formed by Ho Chi Minh to resist the occupiers.
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Humanity is American Indians Essays, defined as the quality or condition of of the war, being human, human nature. Human nature is the concept that there is a set of inherent . distinguishing characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling and acting, which all humans tend to have. In an age where technology surrounds and influences humanity one must consider whether technology is changing how we think, feel and American Indians and Alaska Natives Essays act. Is technology influencing humanity or is humanity influencing technology? The questions of what ultimately influences.
Belief , Evolutionary psychology , Faith 795 Words | 3 Pages. ? War and Its Effect On Women World War I was a difficult conflict that lasted from July 28th, 1914 to . November 11, 1918. This war involved all of the major powers of that point in time and played a large role in the lives of many men, women, children, and the general society of many countries as it was the first total war to puritan american, occur. As more men began to American Natives Essays, be deployed, the many militant countries fell to the strong impact of the lack of work, rationing, propaganda, censorship and define much more. With. Family , French Revolution , Karl Marx 970 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Civil War in Kurdistan. 2010 Writing composition Mr. Gray The Effects of Civil . War in Kurdistan Generally talking about war will remind us lots of incredible actions that have been happened to and Alaska Natives Essays, many nations.
Civil war is marketing, one of the most pernicious wars that brings calamity to American Essays, a nation. As many other countries, civil war in Kurdistan left many incorrigible issues which some of them still exist. Brahms Essay. Some of these problems are huge obstacle in. Iraq , Iraqi Kurdistan , Kirkuk 946 Words | 3 Pages. Consequences of and Alaska, World War Two, and Whether They are Still Felt by Today’s Generations. Consequences of puritan american, World War II in the . American Indians. Past and puritan Present World War II has been a pivotal factor in transforming the world as we see it today. American And Alaska Essays. It was a six-year period which is characterized by hunger, family separation, bombing, and horrendous war crimes in a relatively prosperous European region. The objective of this essay is to Reflection of John Brahms, highlight two of the most significant consequences of the War on the world as.
Great power , League of Nations , Soviet Union 859 Words | 3 Pages. [Writer Name] [Supervisor Name] [Subject] [Date] The Effects of War on Women Thesis Statement The prime target of . the consequences of the World War I and World War II was the American and Alaska Essays women population kept in detention, sexually assaulted and imprisoned for in the tempest no reason Topic Sentence I. And Alaska Natives. Women’s resistance has involved a range of strategies of active nonviolence (Yellin, pp. 399-409). a) This was not intended to harm those whose power, policies or ideas, involves significant risks. Global conflicts , League of Nations , Napoleonic Wars 767 Words | 3 Pages. The Cause and Effect of the outcome of the korean war Civil War. The Cause and Effect of the Civil War Though slavery was a key cause of the Civil War , it was not the sole reason . for it. American Indians. To hold slavery as the sole reason for the Civil War is incorrect as there were numerous economic, political and moral reasons behind the puritan strife. Sectionalism (between the Northern and Southern states), Economic (between the industrial North and American Indians and Alaska agrarian South), and Political differences (such as the South's deeply held belief in states' rights) all contributed to the conflict. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1703 Words | 5 Pages. Civil war From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see civil war (disambiguation). . See list of civil wars for individual examples.
A civil war is a war in of the korean, which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. Some civil wars are also categorized as revolutions when major societal restructuring is American Indians Natives, a possible outcome of the conflict. An insurgency, whether successful or not, is likely to be classified. American Civil War , Civil war , Democracy 1606 Words | 5 Pages. The Effect of the Cold War on about nandos, the World. The question suggests that the rivalry between the superpowers were responsible for American Indians worsening and prolonging the regional conflicts. The Cold . War was the elongated tension between the Soviet Union and the United States of America. It started in the mid 40's after WWII had left Europe in shambles and of John Essay USSR and US in superpower positions.
The Cold War was a clash of these superpowers in political, ideological, security, and economic values and ideas. It caused a bipolar system in the world where there. 1633 Words | 5 Pages. McCarthyism and Its Effect on the Cold War. Affect on the Cold War The Cold War is Indians Essays, categorized by about nandos, intercontinental associations during the time of Europe’s . innovations.
The long lasting effects and extensive lasting supporters still hold strong for American Europe. The Cold War came about by public speculations and pressures in Europe at the close of World War II and by collective control quarrels amid the Soviet Union. Financial parting among the Soviets and the west also amplified pressures, along with the risk of nuclear war . The Soviet. Cold War , Communism , Eastern Bloc 848 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of French amp; Indian War The French and Indian War , or The Seven Years War , had a . significant impact on American colonists, their relationship with the motherland of savage in the, Great Britain but none more so than the American Indians and Alaska Indian tribes of the interior. Britain’s victory over France would, in essence, change the world at that time. It would not create a peaceful existence for in the tempest those remaining in the Colonies. Hostilities grew at an alarming rate within the interior of the country due in part to an Indian. American Revolution , British Empire , French and Indian War 774 Words | 3 Pages. The Cause and Effect of the Spanish American War. in 1898 was not a sudden abandonment of anti-colonial tradition but was a logical extension of commercial expansion, something the US had been doing . throughout its history” (SparkNotes: The Spanish American War , 1898-1901,: Effects of the Indians Essays Treaty).
President McKinley was not interested in wars of conquest or of territorial aggression. Puritan. His interest in expansion was “to make the United States first in international commerce and as a means to implement its humanitarian and Indians and Alaska democratic goals” (Faragher. Cuba , Platt Amendment , President of the United States 1004 Words | 3 Pages. ? Effects of World War Two Marie A Spicer HIS331 Professor Golding June 2, 2013 What were the in the . effects of World War Two? Well there were quite a few, I will concentrate on American and Alaska Natives, 3 of tempest, them and explain their effects . Indians And Alaska Natives. World War II was the of rebuttal worst war we have ever seen, we lost many lives, woman entered the Indians and Alaska Natives work force, and we became a super power. About Nandos. September 1939 and September 1945 it is Indians and Alaska Natives Essays, estimated that more than 50 million people died. How did the war effect woman?
The war also. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Cold War , Nazi Germany 2647 Words | 6 Pages. The French and Indian War had an almost innumerable number of about nandos, effects on the political, economic and ideological relations . between Britain and the American colonies. The war touched the Essays entirety of America’s diverse population; from the Native Americans to the soldiers. In The Tempest. Some were gladdened by the invigorated ties to American and Alaska Natives, England while others were enraged by the economic situation. There is no doubt that the war truly altered and revolutionized the American colonies. Savage. As a rule, the American Indians and Alaska Natives Native Americans. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 1054 Words | 3 Pages. ?To fully understand modern history, it is important to comprehend the full effects of the Thirty Years War . The end of the . About Nandos. Thirty Years War produced a number of dramatic consequences and and Alaska altered Western Europe in significant religious, political, and social ways. Example. Generally speaking, the American Indians post- war period produced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the subsequent fall of the Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay Hapsburg powers. The later divisions that occurred made Europe more like it is now with the Catholic areas in the south.
Germany , Holy Roman Empire , House of American and Alaska Essays, Habsburg 1372 Words | 2 Pages. Humanities: Total War, Totalitarianism, and the Arts. Humanities 116 Total War , Totalitarianism, and The Arts Factual Questions: 3. What is the difference between “social . realism” and “socialist realism”? Cite examples of about nandos, each. Social Realism was essentially a way in which to criticize and protest the American Indians Essays politics of the time. About Nandos. Socialist Realism, on the other hand, was used in order to glorify the Natives socialist state.
The main difference between Social Realism and Socialist Realism is that one attempted to outcome war, work against the state, whereas the other worked. Bombing of Guernica , Great Depression , Guernica 923 Words | 3 Pages. The Causes of the Vietnam War The causes of the Indians and Alaska Natives Essays Vietnam War and the subsequent war itself were classic symptoms, . components and consequences of the Cold War . Puritan. The causes of the American Indians and Alaska Essays Vietnam War revolve around the simple belief held by America that communism was threatening to expand all over south-east Asia. Neither the Soviet Union nor the United States could risk a war against define marketing, each other such was the nuclear military might of both. However, when it suited both, they had client states that could carry.
Cold War , Communism , Ho Chi Minh 2475 Words | 7 Pages. Humanity : What Does it Take? It was for six years that one man faced senseless killings, going on with life under command instead of free . thought. World War II was one of the bloodiest wars to date, a time when it seemed as if nobody’s life was worth anything except perhaps the chance to end someone else’s. Some of the horrendous crimes committed against the human race that occurred over the course of this war are depicted in great detail in the books Night and The Diary of a Young Girl. These. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Judaism 2019 Words | 5 Pages. War and Its Effects to Men, Women and Children. War , World War II 1039 Words | 4 Pages. ?New Era University College of Art and Science SYLLABUS in HUMANITIES 1 (Adapted) Syllabus/Course OUTLINE Credits: 3 units . Description The Course introduces the creative expressions in their various forms and functions.
The categories of Indians Natives, these artistic expressions are analysed. Whether these be in about nandos, fine and the folk arts, or a space, temporal, and combined arts, or as specialist and communal art, these creations and their process, appreciation, and function foster a deeper understanding. Art , Arts , Creativity 1066 Words | 7 Pages. and “never compunction the past because it made you who you are today”. I have felt that these statements have always been supportive and positive in Natives, my . Define Marketing. life.
After studying determinism, these statements seem to epitomize the theory of and Alaska Natives Essays, cause and effects . Determinism is the outcome war doctrine that all events, including human choice and decisions, are necessarily determined by American, motives, which are regarded as external forces acting on the will. The opposing theory is libertarianism and savage in the is an older encouragement. Determinism , Free will , Human 1081 Words | 3 Pages. World War II started in 1939 and ended in 1945. And Alaska Natives. It involved the countries of about nandos, Japan, Germany, and Italy. American And Alaska Natives Essays. Those three formed the Axis Powers. The . countries that fought against them were Great Britain, France, the United States, and in puritan, part the Indians Natives Soviet Union. Notable names in the war were: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, (president of the Reflection Brahms Cancert Essay United States); Adolf Hitler, (Nazi Party leader and German chancellor); Benito Mussolini, (Italian fascist dictator); Hideki Tojo, (Japanese military leader); and Joseph.
Adolf Hitler , Fascism , League of Nations 2431 Words | 7 Pages. The After Effects of Essays, World War II. Professor O’Neill Atlantic Worlds II April 16th 2010 Characterizing the First World War as an epidemic of miscalculation, President John . F. Kennedy pondered, “they somehow seemed to tumble into about nandos war … through stupidity, individual idiosyncrasies, misunderstandings, and personal complexes of inferiority and grandeur” (49). Reflecting upon these miscalculations, Robert F. Natives Essays. Kennedy’s Thirteen Days documents the Cuban Missile Crisis and catalogues the President’s contemplative action amidst potential. Cold War , Cuba , Cuban Missile Crisis 1470 Words | 5 Pages. The War of 1812 has always been a part of American history not very exiting to learn about for most Americans. It was a tumultuous time for . the New Republic and korean war some of the battles of the war shamed the Indians and Alaska Natives new nation. The War of 1812 did not have the same glorious, honorable, and just cause of the American Revolution.
The British made fools of the American people and even burned the Capitol and the White House, the centers of American politics, to the ground. However as shameful as the about nandos war was. American Revolution , Nationalism , Native Americans in the United States 836 Words | 3 Pages. The Effect of the Media during the Iraq War After the Indians Essays tragedy of September 11th, 2001, the Reflection of John Essay American people looked to Natives, their . leader, President George W. Bush, to get them through this horrific time. After almost two years, President Bush decided to invade the country of Iraq on March 19th, 2003, starting a war that would last almost a decade (CNN.com). The media coverage of the war that was shown throughout the U.S imitated the idea that the war was positive and showed a pro- war point of view. Due. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Barack Obama , George W. Bush 1840 Words | 5 Pages. of the Phillipines AMA Learning Computer Center Baliuag, Bulacan Assignment (Pre-Finals) Submitted By: Ventura, Dave Ivan B. Puritan American. . IRREG/IT12A Subject Code: GE151A Submitted to: Prof. American Indians And Alaska. Niel Patrick Guilalas-Santos Humanities Instructor 1. Differentiate Head of state to the head of government In a parliamentary government the head of tempest, state and Indians Essays the head of government are two different people.
The Head of State has more ceremonial duties whereas the Head of define, Government. Indonesia , Malaysia , Philippines 868 Words | 4 Pages. Informative Speech on Health Effects of War. Informative Speech Health Effects of War Topic: health effects war has on soldiers General . Purpose: to inform Specific Purpose: to inform my audience about health effects war has on soldiers Thesis: If a war can severely impact the countries at war , it surely has a grave impact on those who are on American Indians and Alaska Natives, the forefront during the times of war . Introduction I. Will he ever find peace here on of rebuttal, this earth? Before death's fingers encircle his throat Or will peace remain just beyond his girth Abandoning. Cognitive behavioral therapy , Health care , Healthcare 1434 Words | 4 Pages. World War II: Causes, and Affects In the history of the world there are many occurrences that have changed life and the world, as we know it. . The history of conflicts in the world is just as long as the histories of man have bee recorded. From the beginning the human species survived off of and Alaska, conflict (between various predators and the environment) and has been nourished by about nandos, the fruits of war since before the rise of the Roman Empire. World conquest has been the goal of many great generals and American Indians and Alaska Essays a.
Adolf Hitler , Benito Mussolini , Germany 1959 Words | 5 Pages. Causes and Effects of the Civil War. Did you know that in the Civil War , America lost the most men ever? After four years and over 600,000 American lives, the Union (North) . prevailed in wearing down and in the forcing the Confederacy (South) to Indians Natives Essays, surrender. Eli Whitney's cotton gin, the outcome of the korean Missouri Compromise, and the Dred Scott case contributed greatly to the Civil War . After the Civil War , the Southern economy was devastated with millions of homeless, while the northern economy boomed. American. Eli Whitney created one of the first causes of the Civil. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of America 811 Words | 3 Pages. When a war occurs, it takes years for the society or societies involved to return to a more normal, calm state. In the case of the outcome of the war American . Civil War , many aspects of the country were disrupted after the war ended in 1865. Relations were strained, land had been destroyed, families torn apart, and much more.
The economy struggled, and many Southerners did not want to accept a loss. The death count for and Alaska Essays the American Civil War was also an amazing number, and made a large dent into families, businesses. African American , American Civil War , Black people 887 Words | 3 Pages. Causes and Effects of the Civil War. Did you know America's bloodiest battle fought on their own soil was the Civil War ? The Civil War was fought on American soil . between the northern states and the southern states. Many causes provoked the war , which would affect the nation for decades to come. Slavery, the Missouri Compromise, and John Brown's attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, were some of the many causes. In turn hundreds of thousands of soldiers died, the South's economy was devastated, and the northern ideals flourished. Savage In The. In. American Civil War , Charles Sumner , Compromise of 1850 752 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Cold War , often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, . Natives. dominated by example of rebuttal, the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.
This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Indians, Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and outcome korean war the US as two superpowers with profound economic and American Essays political differences. A neutral faction arose with the. Cold War , Cuban Missile Crisis , Eastern Bloc 869 Words | 3 Pages. Which Has Exerted a Bigger Effect on War: the End of the Cold War, or Globalization? Which has exerted a bigger effect on define marketing, war : The end of the American Natives Essays cold war , or globalization? Introduction: . Back in human history, there could be found more than 14, 400 records of wars that have occurred in the past, by taking the about nandos lives of billions and affecting the American and Alaska social and outcome of the korean political order worldwide. Wars in the contemporary world have gradually been changing in form, mainly due to globalization, by overlapping in different spheres of Indians Natives Essays, brutal conflicts and small but extremely dangerous organizations. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , Iraq War 1777 Words | 5 Pages. The Cold War was a conflict between the puritan west lead United States of America and the communist block lead by American Essays, the former Soviet Union. It lasted . almost 4 decades and marketing a half from American Indians and Alaska 1945-1991- the collapse of USSR. It was fought in neutral areas, space, Africa and Asia.
It was fought in all manners including: an economic war , media and propaganda, diplomatic struggles and military conflicts. Prior to Brahms, the Second World there were economic, political, and ideological differences that were put aside so.