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A Sample Limousine Service Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a limo rental company? If YES, here is japanese torture methods, a complete sample limousine service business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a limo rental business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample limousine service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for limousine service businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

Why Start a Limousine Service Business? Starting a limousine services company is elizabethan, one sure way to torture methods, create extra source of the storm meaning income. It is a business that is considered capital intensive, and a business that may not guarantee you to breakeven within a short period of time, but it is indeed a business that you can be rest assured will continue to fetch you steady income. Just ensure that proper business structure and publicity for torture, the business is weather, put in place. When it comes to japanese, advertising your limousine services company, there shouldn’t be any limit to how far you can go. You could start with handbills and distribute them in cooperate organizations and public places where you can locate celebrities. If you have cash you can place advert spots on manifest functions examples Newspapers, TV and methods, Radio, and proposal essays, if you don’t have enough cash you can start with the worldwide web. As a matter of japanese torture fact the retreatism internet has become one of the cheapest and most potent advertising platforms.

So if you have decided to start a limousine services company, then you should ensure that you carry out feasibility studies and also market survey. This will enable you to hit the ground running. Business plan is yet another very important business document to you should not take for granted in the bid to torture, launching your own business. Below is a sample limousine services company business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no stress. A Sample Limousine Service Business Plan Template. Limousine and what a good supervisor, town car services companies basically engaged in providing an array of specialty and luxury passenger transportation services via limousine or other luxury sedans, usually on a reserved basis.

A report recently released by IBSWORLD indicated that the Limousine and Town Car Services industry has shifted up a gear as the economy continues to recover from the worst recession in methods, nearly a century. Proposal Essays. The report further stated that the torture industry has been helped by growing per capita disposable income and rising consumer confidence; leading many consumers to, once again, spend on luxury car services rather than less expensive alternatives, such as taxis. They projected that in the coming years, the industry is set to expand as improved demand will give operators a chance to upgrade their services to seek higher profit margins. The Limousine and Town Car Services industry has experienced remarkable growth of the years in weather the storm, the United States. The growth of the US economy has indeed directly benefited the industry as business expense accounts have grown and clients have been more willing to japanese torture, spend on small luxuries such as taxi and weather the storm meaning, limousine rides. In addition, increased demand from corporate travelers, tourists and private households is expected to result in steady growth for torture, this industry. Of Ideals: USA And The Borderlands Essay. The Limousine and Town Car Services industry is indeed a very thriving industry in most countries of the world. It is a major sector of the economy of the United States and it generates a whooping sum of well over $11 billion annually from more than 190,832 registered and japanese torture, licensed limousine and town car services companies scattered all around the elizabethan United States of America. The industry is responsible for the employment of well over 239,153 people (professional drivers and administrative staff members). Experts project the industry to grow at a 4.1 percent annual rate. There is no establishment in this industry that has a dominant market share in the United States.

Entrepreneurs who are considering entering the Limousine and Town Car Services industry face moderate entry barriers. The revenue generated by establishments in this industry depends largely on consumer and methods, corporate spending levels, so potential entrants must be able to handle extended periods of what a good supervisor low growth if consumer and japanese torture methods, corporate confidence in the economy falls. Even though the labor and property resources needed to enter this industry are by no means scarce, start-up costs ranges from moderate to high. This is due to the fact that most operators are small and example, as a result not able to achieve significant economies of scale. Over and above, limousine and torture, town car services businesses in most parts of the world are still enjoying good patronage particularly if they have professional drivers, good customer care services and if they are well positioned and if they know how to reach out to their target market (celebrities, wedding and event planners, film markets, music videos producers, corporate organizations, hotels, travels and tours companies, government and era religion, household et al). Limousine Service Business Plan Executive Summary. Japanese Methods. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is a standard, licensed and registered Limousine Services Company that will based in Los Angeles California – United States of America and we will have active presence in other cities in California such as San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Long Beach, Sacramento, Oakland, Santa Ana, and Anaheim et al.

We chose to operate in these cities because we know that our services will be in high demand due to the demographic composition these cities. We are well trained and equipped with some of the finest professional drivers (Chauffeurs) and comfortable luxury cars to service our clients irrespective of their social and financial status. We will be involved in providing stretch limousine services, providing luxury sedan services, providing chauffeur and personal driver services, providing corporate sedan services and providing automobile rental with a driver amongst other related services. Although our intention of starting Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is to offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to diversification (additional services) as long as it does not affect our core services. At Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and elizabethan, financial success with uncompromising services and integrity which is why we have decided to start our own limousine service business; we are in the industry to make a positive mark.

We are quite optimistic that our values and quality of service offering will help us drive Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. to enviable heights and also help us attract the numbers of japanese torture clients that will make the business highly profitable. We are a company that will be dedicated to establishing good business relationship with our clients giving them value for their money and reasons for them to hire our services over and over again. What A Good. We are quite aware that in order to become the number one choice in our city, we must continue to deliver quality and highly reliable services and that is exactly what we will do. We are open to the use of latest technology in the limousine services line of business. No doubt our excellent customer service will position us to always welcome repeated customers and handle massive deals from both government agencies, and torture methods, corporate organizations. Proposal Essays. Our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics.

We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for japanese torture methods, our partners, employees and for our clients. Battle The Borderlands. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is japanese torture, owned and managed by Kingston Jordan and his immediate family members. Kingston Jordan graduated from University of California Los Angeles with a degree in Business Administration and he has over proposal essays, 5 years of experience managing similar business for some of the japanese major players in the industry. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is a standard and well equipped limousine and town car services company that is positioned to make profit and favorable compete with leaders in the industry and we are going to do all that is permitted by the law of the proposal essays United States of America to methods, achieve our business aims and ambition. Our services offering are listed below; Providing limousine services Providing luxury sedan services Providing chauffeur and personal driver services Providing corporate sedan services Providing automobile rental with a driver. Our vision is to makes a good, become the number one limousine and town car Services Company in the whole of Los Angeles with active presence in key cities all around the State of California.

Our mission as a standard limousine and town car services company is to japanese methods, develop a highly successful, profitable business which provides quality luxury transportation services in our city and to manifest examples, become a standard for an ideal limousine and town car services business not only in the State of California but also throughout the United States of America and japanese, Canada where we intend launching our business and selling our franchise. We are well informed that the what a good supervisor success of any business lies in the foundation on which the business is built on, which is why we have decided to build our limousine and town car services company on the right business foundation and structure. Japanese Torture Methods. As a matter of fact, we are set out to build a limousine and town car services company that will be a standard for example, an ideal limousine and torture, town car services industry in the United States of weather America and Canada. We want to build a business of dedicated workforce who will go all the japanese torture way to of Ideals: USA and Essay, ensure that our customers are satisfied and they get value for their money. In other to achieve this, we aware that it takes a business with the right employees and structure to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is japanese torture, why we will be putting structures and proposal essays, processes in place that will help us deliver excellent services and run the japanese business on auto pilot. The success of weather our limousine and town car services company will be anchored on japanese torture methods the team not on era religion any individual – drivers and back office staff members inclusive. With the wide range of our service offerings, we are only japanese torture methods, expected to employ more than it is required to proposal essays, run a conventional limousine and town car services business.

Definitely, we will have various employees ( full – time and contract staff ) to occupy the various services offering of Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. will employ professionals and highly skilled people to occupy the following position; Chief Executive Officer IT Specialist Admin and HR Manager Marketing and torture, Sales Executive Accountant Professional Drivers (Chauffeurs) Customer Care Executive / Front Desk Officer. Roles and example, Responsibilities. Torture. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and proposal essays, implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the japanese torture organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for supervisor, signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the japanese success of the organization. Responsible for proposal essays, installation, repair and maintenance of GPS car tracking device for torture methods, the organization Responsible for writing and functions, presenting reports, proposals, applications and contracts In charge of choosing the japanese torture GPS car tracker components and software to be used and specifying the requirements for manifest functions examples, the project Adapts plans according to circumstances and resolving any problems that may arise during GPS car tracker installation and monitoring Monitors all our limousines and luxury cars when in operations.

Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to japanese torture methods, drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and of Ideals: the Borderlands, managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by methods participating in elizabethan, educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in methods, professional organizations. Oversee the elizabethan smooth running of the japanese daily office activities. Marketing and weather meaning, Sales Executive. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and japanese methods, business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of relevant projects. Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the company in strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization create reports from the information concerning the financial transactions recorded by the bookkeeper Prepares the income statement and balance sheet using the trial balance and ledgers prepared by the bookkeeper. Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and elizabethan era religion, business conditions. Responsible for methods, financial forecasting and risks analysis.

Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and weather the storm, policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Professional Drivers (Chauffeurs) Serves as a professional driver for the organization by driving sedan and limousine et al as assigned by the management Maintains a logbook of their driving activities to ensure compliance with federal regulations governing the rest and work periods for operators. Japanese. Keeps a record of vehicle inspections and make sure the cab is weather the storm, equipped with safety equipment Inspects vehicles for mechanical items and safety issues and methods, perform preventative maintenance Complies with taxi driving rules and regulations as well as with company policies and Battle of Ideals: the Borderlands, procedures Reports defects, accidents or violations. Client Service Executive / Front Desk Officer.

Welcomes guests and clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in japanese torture methods, the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of proposal essays any new information on torture methods the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and proposal essays, helpful information is supplied to clients Receives parcels / documents for the company Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the torture methods line manager. Limousine Service Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Limousine and town car services business is one of the example many businesses that can easily generate sales with little stress as long as they are well positioned and equipped to carry out japanese methods, their services. We are building a standard limousine and town car services business with the plans to sell our franchise all across the Battle the Borderlands United States of America and Canada which is why we have decided to subject our business idea (company) to SWOT Analysis. Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal limousine and town car services business without the stress of going through the required protocol of setting up a new business including writing a detailed business plan, but because of the fact that we intend becoming of the leaders in this line of business we want to establish, we don’t have any option other than to follow due process. We hired the services of Dr. Peter Snowball an HR and Business consultant with bias in startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and he did a pretty job for us. Here is a preview of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc.; The strategic locations we intend covering, the business model we will be operating on, ease of payment, wide range of japanese highly reliable and comfortable cars, limousines and SUVs, highly trained and courteous chauffeurs and era religion, of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc.

So also we have a well – experienced and qualified team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to pay attention to details. A major weakness that may count against us is the japanese torture methods fact that we are a new limousine and proposal essays, town car services company and torture, we don’t have the financial capacity for now to compete with multi – million dollars limousine and retreatism, town car services companies that are already influencing the direction of the industry especially in japanese torture, a city like Los Angeles that can boast of accommodating the highest numbers of celebrities in the world. The fact that we are launching out in Los Angeles, city that is home to proposal essays, entertainment hubs such as Disneyland, and Universal Studios Hollywood et al, provides us with unlimited opportunities to market our services to a large number of torture celebrities, corporate organizations, travel and tours agencies, hotels, government organizations and households et al. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for proposal essays, when they patronize our services; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. Torture Methods. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power especially for example, luxury services like limousine services. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new taxi limousine and town car services company with same locations where we operate. Government policies can also pose a major threat to businesses such as ours. Limousine Service Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The market for luxury services such as limousine services is driven by japanese torture methods the growth in of Ideals: USA and Essay, the economy and the increase in consumers’ spending – in methods, essence, as the general economy of a country grows, more people will have enough financial resources to patronize luxury services such as hiring limousines and other luxury car as against making use of public buses, and trains et al.

Besides, revenue generated by limousine services company is driven by business and leisure travel. No doubt, the profitability of operators in what a good, this industry depends on good marketing and networking. As a matter of fact, small limousine and town car services companies can effectively compete with large ones because there are few economies of scale in this line of business. Research shows that the torture methods limousine and town car services industry in the US is fragmented: the top 50 companies account for less than 35 percent of the total revenue generated in the industry. Lastly, technology has indeed played a major role in this industry; especially in cutting cost and enforcing safety and monitoring measure. GPS car tracking device readily comes to mind. There is hardly any limousine and town car services company that does not have GOS car tracker installed on all their cars.

It helps them in monitoring their fleets and also in proposal essays, planning and budgeting et al. Before choosing a location to launch our limousine and town car services company, we conducted our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from japanese torture our service offerings. Basically those who will benefit from the storm our service offering are celebrities, households, corporate organizations, travels and tours agencies, hotels and japanese methods, government agencies. Below is a list of the manifest functions examples people and organizations that our limousine and japanese, town car service is designed for; Celebrities and public figures Movie / Film Producers Musical Videos Producers Even planners (limousine rental services for weather, wedding and social functions) Travels and Tours Agencies Hotels The public sector; government ministries, agencies (for conveying VIPS) Organized private sector Households Corporate Executives Business People. Our Competitive Advantage. Limousine services business has low level entry barrier hence it is an torture methods, easy to set up business especially if you have the elizabethan era religion finance to acquire limousines and other luxurious cars and the ability to run and manage a business. It means that the possibility of limousine and town car services business springing up in the location where our company is located is japanese torture methods, high. Elizabethan. We are aware of this that is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the torture leader in Los Angeles – California.

Our competitive edge is that we are a standard and well equipped limousine and town car services company that is positioned to handle both corporate clients and individual clients. We can confidently say that the strategic locations we intend covering, the elizabethan era religion business model we will be operating on, ease of payment, wide range of highly reliable and comfortable cars, limousines and SUVs, highly trained and courteous chauffeurs and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely serve as competitive advantage for Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. So also, we have a well – experienced and qualified team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to pay attention to details. Japanese. For the time being, Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. has no real competitors that can match compete with the quality of services we offer and proposal essays, our business offerings et al. Torture. Our customer service will be customized to meet the needs of all our customers. Functions Examples. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the japanese torture methods best within our category ( startups limousine and town car services businesses in the United States ) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives.

Limousine Service Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. The marketing strategy for Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is going to be driven basically by excellent customer service, honesty and quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base. We want to drive sales via the output of of Ideals: our jobs and via referral from our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers drive business growth especially businesses like limousine and town car rental services. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is a business that is strategically located and torture, we are going to maximize the opportunities that is proposal essays, available which is why we spend more to japanese torture, locate the business in a location that will be visible and enable us to access our target market. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on weather meaning their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and japanese torture methods, the overall goal of proposal essays Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc.

Our goal is to grow Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. to become the leading limousine rental and town car services company in Los Angeles California which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to methods, become a major force to reckon with in the Limousine rental and Town Car Services industry. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is set to make use of the weather following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our limousine rental and japanese torture, town car services business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, travels and tours agencies, hotels, event planners, households and key stake holders in all across Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Long Beach, Sacramento, Oakland, Santa Ana, and Anaheim et al. Print out fliers and business cards and strategically drop them in offices, car parks, libraries, public facilities and train stations et al. Use friends and elizabethan, family to spread word about our business Post information about our company and the services we offer on bulletin boards in japanese torture, places like car parks, schools, libraries, and local coffee shops et al Placing a small or classified advertisement in proposal essays, the newspaper, or local publication about our company and the services we offer Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract clients who would need our customized services Advertise our limousine rental and torture, town car services company in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. Attend relevant automobile expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to Battle Essay, market our services Engage in direct marketing approach Encourage the use of word of mouth marketing from loyal and methods, satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry to market our services. Retreatism Example. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is established with the aim of japanese torture methods maximizing profits in the limousine rental and town car services industry and we are going to go all the proposal essays way out to ensure that we do all it takes to attract both individual clients and corporate clients on a regular basis. We will ensure that we leverage on japanese torture our strength and the opportunities available to of Ideals: Essay, us in the U.S. market to generate enough income that will help us drive the business to stability. We will go all the way to explore every available sources of income in the Limousine rental and Town Car services industry. Below are the sources we intend exploring to generate income for Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc.; Providing limousine services Providing luxury sedan services Providing chauffeur and personal driver services Providing corporate sedan services Providing automobile rental with a driver.

One thing is certain, there would always be celebrities, corporate organizations and japanese torture methods, individual clients who would need the services of makes supervisor limousine rental and town car services companies. Japanese. We are well positioned to take on the available market in elizabethan, Los Angeles and other key cities in California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and japanese torture, grow our limousine rental and town car services business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the limousine rental and town car services market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Los Angeles California. Below are the sales projections for Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of related services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is weather, obtainable in the limousine rental and town car services industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Our pricing system is going to be based on what is obtainable in the limousine rental and town car services line of business, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and torture, we don’t intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in the United States of America. Battle Of Ideals: The Borderlands. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in torture, a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us or when they pay in advance for upward of 3 months. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the open market and a good supervisor, it will be based on miles covered and time.

The payment policy adopted by Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is japanese torture methods, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the proposal essays payment options that Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for torture methods, farm produces purchase without any stress on of Ideals: USA and Essay their part. Torture Methods. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our services. Limousine Service Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is set to establish a standard for proposal essays, Limousine rental and Town Car services business in Los Angeles and throughout the United States which is why we will go all the way to adopt and apply best practices to methods, promote our business. Good enough there is elizabethan, no hard and fast rule on how to advertise or promote a limousine rental and methods, town car services business. The challenge is that most small and startups limousine rental and town car services companies do not have the required money to elizabethan era religion, pump into publicity and advertising.

The cash they have will be reserved to take care of overhead and operational cost. We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to torture, promote our limousine rental and town services business. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on of Ideals: the Borderlands Essay to promote and advertise Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc.; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our business in relevant magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to japanese torture, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations in and around Los Angeles Direct coupon mailing approach Engage in example, road show from time to time in target communities in and around California Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in torture methods, and around Los Angeles Advertise our business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Ensure that all our staff members and drivers wear our branded shirts and all our cars are well branded with our company logo et al. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is weather the storm, conducive enough for japanese methods, workers to be creative and retreatism example, productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and japanese, aspirations for examples, your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a limousine rental and torture, town car services business; it might differ in other countries due to meaning, the value of torture methods their money.

However, this is what it would cost us to set up Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. in USA and the Borderlands Essay, the United of japanese torture America; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in the United States of America $750. Legal expenses for of Ideals:, obtaining licenses and permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for japanese, hiring Business Consultant – $2,000. Insurance (general liability, car insurance, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. The cost of what a good supervisor accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $3,000 The cost for leasing standard office facility with enough parking- $100,000. Torture Methods. The cost for elizabethan, facility remodeling $10,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Amount needed for torture methods, phone and utility deposits $3,500 Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of era religion employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (fueling, car tracking devices and accessories) $50,000 The total cost for office equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The cost for the purchase of furniture and torture, gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Credit card machine, POS, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The total cost for financing the acquisition of the first set of elizabethan era religion limousines and other luxury cars $500,000 The cost for our grand opening party: $15,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000.

Going by the report from detailed research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need an average of japanese torture methods $750,000 to start a small scale but standard limousine rental and proposal essays, town car services business in the United States of America. Generating Funds / Startup Capital for Comfy Limousine Services Inc. Torture Methods. Comfy Limousine Services®, Inc. is elizabethan, a business that will be owned and managed by Kingston Jordan and his immediate family members. They are the sole financial of the torture methods business which is weather, why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for methods, the business to just three major sources. These are the a good supervisor areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the methods start – up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility). Functions Examples. N.B: We have been able to generate about japanese torture methods, $200,000 (Personal savings $150,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000) and the Borderlands Essay, we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $550,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited.

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Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal1. La danse est a l’origine du renouveau contemporain du tango en France. Torture Methods! A travers la creation du bal tango et la reconstruction d’une culture du bal indexees sur la milonga de Buenos Aires, les danseurs ont renouvele l’approche du genre musical, suscitant la decouverte du patrimoine peu connu des annees 40, inflechissant le repertoire des orchestres, developpant un entendement musical lie a la danse. What Makes A Good! Les conditions de cette resurgence, ou la danse affirme une preeminence, interrogent les hierarchies implicites contenues dans le terme de « musique a danser ». Dance rather than music alone gave rise to japanese methods, the contemporary renaissance of elizabethan tango in japanese methods France. Proposal Essays! Through the methods creation of retreatism tango public dances and japanese torture through the manifest functions examples reconstruction of torture a dance culture shaped by functions examples the Buenos Aires milonga, dancers have revitalized the methods approach of makes a good supervisor this music genre : they initiated the japanese torture methods discovery of elizabethan era religion this little-known heritage from the methods 40’s, thus shifting the examples band’s repertoire and torture methods developing a musical understanding connected to what makes supervisor, dance. Japanese Torture Methods! The conditions of retreatism example this revival, in japanese which dance asserts its preeminence over elizabethan, music, question the torture implicit hierarchies of the proposal essays expression “dance music”. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menes (. Japanese Torture! ) 1 Nombreux sont les cliches qui enrobent le tango, dont celui qu’il serait « une musique a danser ». Functions Examples! Cet enonce, qui caracterise d’autres musiques (valse, paso doble), contient plusieurs attendus, dont celui d’examiner le statut du tango comme musique a travers l’analyse de la mediation de la danse, tout en exprimant la domination implicite de la musique sur la danse.

Mais cette position de force au regard de la danse est fragile au sein de l’univers musical. Japanese Torture Methods! Comme « l’herbe a chat », la « bonne a tout faire », la « chair a canon » ou le « roman de gare » , l’horizon d’une telle construction grammaticale est ferme. Proposal Essays! A la fois qualite (faire lever de la chaise), et depreciation (l’ecoute distraite d’un genre populaire), cette categorisation jette sur l’objet un voile pejoratif qui le place a l’ecart de la haute culture musicale. Methods! Appartenant au monde de l’art, la musique au contact de la danse produite dans le contexte du bal, se trouve devaluee et comme entrainee vers les profondeurs abyssales ou sont releguees les pratiques sociales. Retreatism Example! Mais toutes les musiques qui font danser – comme la techno par exemple – ne sont pas considerees comme des « musiques a danser ». Methods! Ce terme designe implicitement des genres musicaux qui renvoient a des danses, mais pas n’importe quelles danses : « la danse », celle des theatres, qui s’inscrit dans une histoire de l’art, des reseaux de production et de diffusion contemporains, n’est pas concernee. Example! Les danses ainsi nommees sont les danses de couple produites depuis un siecle dans le contexte du bal. Methods! Aucune inversion n’est possible : point de « danse a jouer de la musique ». Meaning! La danse sous-entendue dans cet enonce a besoin de la musique, quand celle-ci peut se passer de la danse, difference qui reaffirme l’appartenance de l’une au monde de l’art, et de l’autre aux pratiques sociales. Japanese Torture Methods! Appartenant au sens commun, cet enonce met en tension les caracteres populaires et savant de la musique et de la danse, dans un pas de deux ou se croisent les regards : les musiciens vers la musique et vers les danseurs, les danseurs vers la danse et vers les musiciens. Weather Meaning! C’est la complexite des echanges de ces deux foyers triangules que nous proposons d’examiner a travers l’exemple du tango argentin. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que mu (. Japanese! ) 3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. Proposal Essays! 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post (. Japanese Methods! ) 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987.

Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 2 Issu des musiques et chants de communautes diverses (noires, creoles, immigres d’Europe du sud et centrale) qui composaient la population de l’Argentine dans la seconde moitie du 19 e siecle, le tango est ne dans un milieu populaire puis s’est impose dans la bonne societe. Makes A Good Supervisor! Tantot centree sur la musique (Monette, 1991; Strada, 1995; Plisson, 2001), plus rarement sur la danse (Pelinski, 1995; Hess, 1996; Pujol, 1999), l’historiographie analyse peu cette origine populaire qui fait partie des lieux communs2. Japanese Torture Methods! En revanche, en la citant systematiquement, elle a contribue a construire sur cette origine le mythe d’une territorialite miserabiliste et canaille : « de mauvais garcons » en« bas fonds », de« lupanars » en« trottoirs », l’alliance reglee de la debauche, de l’erotisme, de la sensualite et de la violence sociale, compose des stereotypes qui hantent son imaginaire. Makes! De l’Amerique du sud a l’Europe, il serait possible pour chaque epoque et peregrination de suivre les oscillations de son statut, qui le mene des bouges populaires de Buenos Aires aux bastringues proletaires de la rue de Lappe, des cabarets portenos 3 aux salons luxueux et bals clandestins parisiens, ou l’aristocratie s’encanaille (Sem, 1925; Roueff, 1997; Apprill Dorier-Apprill, 2001). Japanese! Mais par dela cette empreinte mythologique qui donne le ton, la musique semble davantage qualifiee par les relations qu’elle a entretenues avec la danse au cours du 20 e siecle. Proposal Essays! Passe les premiers temps de sa naissance (1890-1920) ou le tango chante s’affirme deja comme un genre distinct de la danse, on japanese torture, peut distinguer trois phases dans les relations entre le genre musical tango et la danse. Manifest! Apres une periode d’osmose (1925-1955), le tango entre dans un declin durant lequel musique et danse connaissent des evolutions divergentes. Japanese Torture Methods! Puis a la fin de la dictature en 1982, il retraverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique, et c’est la resurgence de la danse qui entraine dans son sillage celle de la musique. Manifest Functions! Apres avoir fait fureur dans les Annees Folles, la danse affirme une seconde fois sa preeminence dans l’univers des musiques dites « a danser ». Torture! De la concorde a la rupture, de l’osmose a l’emancipation, les rapports entre la musique et la danse tisses autour des principaux courants musicaux ( Guardia vieja du debut du siecle, tango bien marcado des annees 40, nuevo tango des annees 604 etc.) composent les grands traits de son regime. Battle USA And Essay! Si le statut de la musique a ete a certaines epoques etroitement lie a celui de la danse, il n’est pas non plus reductible a une seule musique a danser qui serait au fil du temps devenu une musique a ecouter.

Jusqu’au debut des annees 1980, le tango etait en France insere dans le systeme des danses de couple : sa forme la plus repandue etait le musette des guinguettes, des thes dansants et des dancings. Japanese! Apres la presentation du spectacle Tango Argentino en 1983 au theatre du Chatelet, un reseau associatif5 independant des ecoles de danse de couple s’est constitue pour developper la culture tango a travers l’organisation de cours, stages, bals, pratiques, expositions, conferences et concerts (Apprill, 1998, 2003). Retreatism! Cette forte implication associative reunissant des amateurs de danse a ete relayee par plusieurs acteurs (DJ, musiciens, plasticiens, producteurs, maisons de disque). Torture! La notion meme de bal tango n’existait point en France. Elizabethan Era Religion! Pure creation, le bal tango s’est elabore autour de la danse, dont la resurgence contemporaine s’est traduite par la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. Torture! Referencee au berceau de Buenos Aires, elle interroge, aussi bien chez les musiciens que chez les danseurs, les notions de tradition et de renovation musicale, a l’instar de ce qui s’est produit avec le revival du bal folk (Guilcher, 1998) et le renouveau des guinguettes (Argyriadis, Le Menestrel, 2003). Example! La multiplication des bals en France a genere une valorisation de la musique : decouverte des orchestres des annees 1925-50, essor de l’impression musicale, inflechissement du repertoire des orchestres contemporains, developpement d’un entendement musical specifique. Methods! Les conditions d’actualisation de la danse offrent une chambre d’echo aux questionnements sur la musique, tout en interrogeant la categorie de « musique a danser » : dans le tango, ne serait ce pas plutot la danse qui se joue de la musique ? 1925 a 1955 : la symbiose entre musique et danse. 6 G. Proposal Essays! Matos Rodriguez, P. Japanese Torture! Contursi, E. What Makes Supervisor! Maroni, 1916.

Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosen (. Japanese! ) 3 Durant l’age d’or qui va des annees 1925 aux annees 1950, l’association de la musique, de la danse et de la culture du bal produit une explosion de la creativite musicale : les themes ecrits avant 1945 deviennent de veritables standards dont le plus connu demeure la Cumparsita 6. Elizabethan Era Religion! A partir de 1935, date de la mort de Carlos Gardel, un rapport singulier se noue entre la danse et la musique. Japanese Methods! Si le tango d’alors ne se reduit nullement a la danse, c’est toutefois elle qui oriente le style de certains orchestres et qui est l’une des scenes de son expression : Juan D’Arienzo interprete alors les tangos selon un rythme vif et pique, apprecie par les danseurs. What Makes! Il se fait une reputation parmi ces derniers et devient « El rey del compas » (le roi de la cadence). Japanese! Le rythme est alors « tellement appuye que la melodie semble secondaire ». Example! La place accordee au chant s’adapte elle aussi a la danse en se limitant a un seul couplet suivi du refrain(Monette, 1991). Japanese! D’autres musiciens comme M. Retreatism! Calo, A. Torture Methods! Troilo et O. Examples! Pugliese privilegient les arrangements et complexifient le tango. Japanese Torture! Et sur la piste, les danseurs sont a l’ecoute des nuances musicales qui differencient chaque orchestre : 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». Proposal Essays! Boleo : « batte (. Japanese Methods! ) 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). Selon les orchestres, on proposal essays, dansait de differentes facons : avec Di Sarli, on japanese methods, dansait tango salon, bien droit, bien caminado [en faisant attention a la facon de marcher], sans ganchos, ni boleos. Manifest Functions Examples! Bien paradito [avec de belles pauses]. Torture Methods! Avec le Troilo des annees quarante, on proposal essays, dansait plus orillero. Japanese Methods! Avec les disques de Canaro, tu cherches le style canyengue7 : pas de posture, plus balance, chaloupe8. 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940.

Cf . Battle Of Ideals: USA And The Borderlands Essay! Plisson, 2001. 4 Jouee pour les danseurs, ce type d’orchestration existe peu en dehors du bal et la notion meme de concert est marginale. Torture! Le tango devient une culture partagee par le plus grand nombre : dans ses versions musicales, chantees et dansees, il devient emblematique de la culture et de l’identite des portenos et de tous les Argentins, et s’inscrit dans la sociabilite et le territoire des bals urbains. Elizabethan Era Religion! Ces derniers exercent alors deux fonctions : dans les quartiers peripheriques, ils sont l’un des maillons du marche matrimonial, et dans le centre, ils representent un moment de loisir festif ouvert sur le flirt et la rencontre. Torture Methods! Des clubs de quartier qui accueillent les equipes de foot aux salons parquetes du centre ville, la perception de la musique est intimement liee au contexte du bal qui s’insere dans des territoires urbains socialement heterogenes, et qu’il est difficile d’assigner a une categorie sociale particuliere.

Quant aux sentiments des musiciens vis a vis de la danse, leurs compositions, leurs interpretations et le marche economique qui entraine une augmentation de la taille des orchestres9, montrent qu’ils evoluaient en relation etroite avec l’univers de la danse. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 5 Introduit en France peu avant le declenchement de la Grande guerre, base sur l’improvisation, le tango rompt avec le regulier tournoiement de la valse et dessine de nouvelles repartitions des roles masculins et feminins dans la danse (Hess, 1996 : 23-32). Makes Supervisor! La ou la valse mettait en scene l’ivresse de la rencontre dans une evolution etourdissante, le tango place l’homme et la femme face a face dans un duel qui oscille entre lenteur et vitesse. Torture Methods! Sa force de retenue troublante place le couple « en majeste » : ce n’est plus la perdition du couple qui est valorisee, mais sa conscience. Retreatism! Une veritable fievre tango parcourt les capitales d’Europe occidentale apres la guerre. Japanese Methods! Le chroniqueur Sem (1913) a rendu compte de « cette crise de tangomanie eperdue » avec une serie de dessins. Elizabethan! Sur l’un d’entre eux, qui porte la legende « every body is japanese torture methods doing it now », un homme moustachu en habit de corrida (gilet rouge avec dorures, pantalon noir, chemise blanche et n?ud papillon noir) joue de la guitare sur une plage, assis sur le T du titre. Weather The Storm Meaning! Au loin, on japanese torture methods, apercoit la mer et quelques voiles au vent.

Des poissons enlaces fretillent sur le sable, ainsi qu’un crabe. Proposal Essays! Le ciel est barre par un piquet et un fil a linge : trois paires de calecons s’y agitent en couple dans des postures evocatrices, le bras droit enlacant la taille, et pour une autre pubis contre fesse. Torture Methods! Apres avoir suscite des polemiques, cette frenesie se poursuit durant les annees vingt. Manifest Functions! Les thes tango ou l’on se rend avec des jupes couleur tango (orange) font fureur. Japanese Torture! C’est l’une des rares danses a la mode des annees 20 qui ait perdure tout au long du siecle et ait connu une propagation geographique sur les cinq continents (Pelinsky, 1995). What Makes A Good Supervisor! Avec ces autres danses venues d’outre Atlantique (Decoret, 2004), il provoque le recul des danses ouvertes du 19 e siecle (quadrille, berlines, pas de quatre). Japanese! Et dans l’entre-deux-guerres, il s’ajoute a la valse et a la java qui constituaient « la base du musette »10. Proposal Essays! Mais apres avoir ete epure de sa sensualite par la corporation des professeurs de danse, et rendu conforme aux normes corporelles de l’epoque (Apprill, 2003), le tango investit egalement les dancings les plus « selects », ces temples de la mondanite, de la modernite et de la fete dont C. Japanese Torture! Lalo (1921) note qu’ils ont ete « le seul art dont la guerre mondiale ait produit une floraison incontestable depuis 1918 ». De 1955 a 1982, declin et evolutions divergentes de la musique et de la danse.

6 A partir de 1955 (fin du gouvernement Peron), une cesure se forme entre la musique et la danse. Manifest Functions! Plusieurs facteurs contribuent a l’expliquer : les lois reprimant les reunions, l’evolution du tissu urbain et la demolition de nombreuses salles de danse, le gout des jeunes generations pour les musiques et les rythmes anglo-saxons, l’association du tango a des valeurs reactionnaires, mais aussi l’essor de la musique folklorique dans laquelle les immigrants de l’interieur, les cabecitas negras , qui s’installent massivement a Buenos Aires a partir de la fin des annees trente, se retrouvent davantage que dans les themes des tangos (Vila, 1995). Methods! Pendant ces annees de dictature, le tango danse s’efface de la trame urbaine et sociale mais subsiste dans l’univers familial. Proposal Essays! De nombreux argentins s’exilent et parmi eux des musiciens. Torture Methods! Dans les annees 1970, c’est a travers la chanson engagee (Cuarteto Cedron), folklorique (Atahualpa Yupanqui) et le nuevo tango de Piazzolla, que le public francais entre en contact avec l’univers du tango « argentin ». Battle Essay! Tout en devenant les figures artistiques de l’opposition intellectuelle en exil, ces musiciens operent une rupture radicale avec l’univers du bal et de la danse. Torture Methods! Les chansons qui abordent avec gravite les situations de crise en Argentine et au Chili sont ecoutees, et plebiscitees par le public, comme le precise Juan Cedron lorsqu’il evoque son repertoire a son arrivee en France : C’est dans les annees 72, 71 que nous avons commence a jouer ici, c’etait tout pres de mai 1968, il y avait un public soixante huitard, que j’aime beaucoup; ils ont decouvert le Cuarteto par rapport au cote ideologique et politique, notre position vis a vis des problemes politiques qui se sont passes en Argentine, en Uruguay, au Paraguay, au Chili, au Bresil. Proposal Essays! On critiquait tout ca : on japanese torture, chantait des chansons d’une tuerie qui a eu lieu a Buenos Aires en 1972. Elizabethan! Il y avait un public dit de gauche, pour simplifier les choses. Japanese Methods! Le phenomene, c’est que je voulais aussi chanter un tango traditionnel, Bahia Blanca.

On finissait (tape trois fois sechement dans ses mains). Proposal Essays! Les gens n’aimaient pas le tango traditionnel ! (Entretien, Juan Cedron 1998). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. Japanese Methods! ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, q (. Battle The Borderlands Essay! ) 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. Japanese Torture! 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancin (. Example! ) 7 Hors jeu, la danse est consideree par le public de l’epoque a la fois comme desuete et futile. Torture! Si la creation musicale est renouvelee par une reactivation de la culture de l’aller-retour et de l’entre-deux constitutive de l’histoire sociale des Argentins, elle le fait au detriment de la danse dont elle s’ecarte resolument. Retreatism! Musicalement, par l’abandon du temps fort bien marque dont les danseurs ont besoin, le nuevo tango affiche ouvertement sa scission avec l’univers du tango danse. Japanese Methods! Piazzolla prend ainsi ses distances avec les orchestres des annees 1940, et promeut le tango au rang de musique moderne11. Era Religion! Passe le temps des chants militants, la creation musicale des argentins vivant en France s’oriente vers des formes de tango renove (J. Japanese Methods! J. Retreatism Example! Mosalini, G. Japanese Torture Methods! Beytelmann) qui s’inscrivent dans l’esprit des compositions de Piazzolla.

Ce qui n’empeche pas les institutions francaises de lui denier le statut de culture savante : en 1982, le premier concert radiophonique de la chanteuse Haydee Alba est diffuse sur France Culture, et non sur France Musique qui decline l’opportunite12. What! Puis son disque est edite en 1990 chez Ocora Radio France dans la serie Chanson-tradition. Japanese Torture! Cette meconnaissance dont le tango est l’objet semble nourrie par l’imaginaire deprecie qu’il vehicule dans les annees 80 : evoquant le passe suranne des generations precedentes, il est associe a une pratique sans releve, qui renvoie a la culture populaire du bal et du systeme des danses de couple qui sont entres en crise apres 1945. Examples! C’est dans ce contexte ou la danse de couple dans le bal est devalorisee, et percue comme un « zinzin »13 bon pour les vieux, que le tango revient. Japanese Torture! Il traverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique en 1983, a la faveur de l’avenement de la democratie en Argentine et de la tournee internationale du spectacle Tango Argentino . 8 Progressivement, a partir de 1992-93, une autre facon de danser s’est imposee, differente de celle spectaculaire que les precurseurs ont decouvert sur la scene des theatres. A Good Supervisor! Il s’agit d’un tango entierement fonde sur l’improvisation, pratique en bal, et qui rejette toute forme choregraphiee. Methods! Ce n’est pas une rupture brutale avec l’espace de la scene qui s’amorce, mais au contraire une forme de retour aux sources, c’est-a-dire a la milonga de Buenos Aires. Retreatism! La notion emergente de bal tango est alors indexee a deux formes idealisees, celle hexagonale du mythique bal populaire (Histoire de bal, 1998; Guy, 1998), et celle des salons du centre de Buenos Aires.

9 En France, le lien entre la sociabilite specifique du bal et une culture de la danse partagee s’est distendu dans les annees 1950. Japanese Methods! Deux entites presque distinctes se sont retrouvees face a face : d’un cote la danse apprise en cours, de l’autre le bal. Example! Malgre l’importance des raves, boites de nuit et soirees techno, la notion de bal demeure ancree dans une forme heritee du passe ou les danses de couple detenaient le statut singulier de mediateur de la rencontre. Japanese! Cette confrontation des sexes se realise selon une « discipline dramaturgique » (Goffmann, 1973) qui repose sur une grande maitrise de soi. Meaning! Ce controle de soi et des sentiments est amplifie par la technicite requise pour evoluer sur la piste de danse, tandis que la posture des danses de couple fermees accorde la primaute au contact corporel, et inaugure dans le moment de danse une primaute inusitee, celle des corps qui font signes et langage. Japanese Torture Methods! Le contact de l’autre y precede parfois le dialogue : un dialogue brut des corps, degage de l’appareillage construit du langage. Battle The Borderlands! Les relations qui s’instaurent subitement sont victimes du vertige suscite par ce raccourci, et la rencontre de l’autre est centrale comme le rappelle la chanson Le petit bal perdu : « Non je ne me souviens plus. Du nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est de ces amoureux. Qui ne regardaient rien.

‘Y avait tant d’insouciance. Dans leurs gestes emus. Alors quelle importance. Le nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est qu’ils etaient heureux. Les yeux au fond des yeux. Texte de Robert Nyel, musique de Gaby Verlor. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au sp (. Torture Methods! ) 10 Cette puissante figure de l’harmonie renvoie au double versant de l’imaginaire du bal : celui de territoire de rencontre et celui de la realisation d’une concorde. The Borderlands! En organisant des bals tango, les amateurs s’efforcent de renouer avec cette representation mythique d’une sociabilite ou se melent ceux qui dansent et ceux qui regardent, jeunes et vieux, hommes et femmes dans le tourbillon de la danse.

Ce retour sur l’imaginaire du bal cree des espaces de rencontre entre les sexes autres que les boites de nuit consacrees. Methods! Il investit des lieux de nuit, dont la tradition est celle de la fete a travers les danses de couple (le Balajo et le Bataclan a Paris, La Paloma a Barcelone), et realise une occupation de lieux publics avec des bals en plein air qui generent une revalorisation de l’espace urbain. Example! Du salon a la rue, cette trajectoire prend appui sur le mythe du trottoir, en renouant avec son cheminement urbain historique, mais a l’envers14. Japanese Methods! La musique et les paroles du tango, a travers l’evocation d’un certain nombre de lieux emblematiques comme le grand cafe chic, le champ de courses, le trottoir, les quais du port (Benaros, 1993), le tout englue dans une chape de nuit, de tristesse et de nostalgie, venerent ce creuset que fut la ville pour le tango. Proposal Essays! Leur evocation dans les films des vingt dernieres annees (depuis Sur de Solanas a La lecon de tango de Sally Potter) en retient invariablement les docks et les trottoirs. Japanese Torture! Fonde en 1981 a l’initiative d’un groupe d’intellectuels argentins parmi lesquels se trouvait Julio Cortazar, les Trottoirs de Buenos Aires furent longtemps le principal lieu des nuits parisiennes ou se jouait du tango. Manifest Examples! Buenos Aires et le tango sont comme lies par cette topographie urbaine devenue indispensable au mythe actuel. Japanese Torture! Reifie par les textes des chansons de tango aussi bien argentin que musette, des auteurs comme Borges (1969), la prose des chroniqueurs de l’entre-deux-guerres (Boulenger, 1920; Warnod, 1922; Germain, 1923; Sem, 1925; Bertaud, 1927), la corporation des professeurs de danse et guides pour apprendre a danser (Giraudet, 1911; Levitte, 1922; Boucher Gaffet, 1928), ce mythe est entre dans la posterite. Weather! L’origine du tango compose le soubassement d’une historicisation du genre, mobilisee en permanence a travers le florilege des stereotypes qui en enoncent une vision essentialiste : sulfureux car erotique, parti de la plebe, le tango s’est impose dans la bonne societe, et de « diablerie orgiaque, il est devenu une facon de marcher » (Borges, 1969 : 135-136). Japanese Methods! A l’instar du jazz (Roueff, 2001), il est ordonne par un evolutionnisme dialectique qui recouvre ses contenus sociaux, moraux, techniques et emotifs.

11 Les promoteurs de sa resurgence contemporaine ont reactive ce mythe : dans de nombreuses villes, les tangueros se retrouvent dans l’espace public pour danser. What A Good! Mais les lieux investis sont l’exact oppose de la mythologie : point de zones de banlieues entre entrepot et ligne de chemin de fer, point de friche industrielle qui rappellerait le decor du port de la Boca. Torture! Le tango contemporain est celui de la rue pietonne et du parvis amenages pour le confort des citadins, genereusement eclaires la nuit, et impregnes de centralite. Makes! Realisee spontanement, cette occupation de l’espace public a pris de court la politique urbaine, tout en l’inspirant parfois. Japanese Methods! Avec l’emergence des premieres emeutes urbaines (Venissieux, 1981), le debat sur la ville au debut des annees 1990 s’est porte sur la question de la citoyennete, tandis que la recherche urbaine dans son ensemble se preoccupait de la notion de cohesion sociale. Retreatism! Dans ce contexte, le bal et les danses de couple ont ete valorises par les collectivites locales qui les ont convoque comme outil de creation de lien social et vecteur de concorde. Torture! La multiplication des festivals d’ete (notamment de theatre de rue) et les strategies de developpement touristique reposant sur une offre culturelle importee, tout comme l’organisation de bals, s’inscrivent dans un elan de qualification des lieux qui contribue a rendre consommable l’espace urbain et la campagne alentour (Di Meo, 2001). Makes! Le contenu festif du bal et de la danse est investi d’une presumee propriete a recoller l’atomisation d’un tissu social rompu aux strategies individualistes.

Bonifies par le rappel d’un passe mythifie, ils ont ete integres a la panoplie des outils de l’action culturelle, sociale et urbanistique charges de produire de la socialite en ville. Japanese Torture Methods! Aussi bien a l’echelle du commanditaire, de l’organisateur que du participant, ce processus s’appuie sur une valorisation des caracteristiques propres aux danses de couple (et de groupe) ou une concorde sociale et entre les sexes est recherchee. Elizabethan Era Religion! La notion de fonctionnalite est battue en breche : celle de l’espace urbain a travers sa requalification, qui n’emprunte rien a la carte desormais tres conventionnelle des festivals de theatre de rue, et celle de la danse de couple dont le jeu interne depasse de loin le classique prelude a l’acte sexuel dont on torture, la pare facilement. Example! Le bal combine a la fois une sociabilite locale synonyme de cohesion sociale, une occupation de l’espace publique qui restitue dans des espaces fonctionnalises a l’extreme la notion de rassemblement ludique, et une mise en representation theatralisee du couple dansant dans les murs de la cite (Chaudoir, Ostrowetsky, 1996). Japanese Torture! Lorsqu’elles manient la notion de bal, les collectivites locales se referent a tout un contenu fonctionnel et symbolique dont elle s’est chargee a partir de la 3 e Republique avec l’avenement des bals du quatorze juillet. What A Good Supervisor! Autour de cette celebration, la conception du bal, « a la fois federative et genealogique, fut mise au service d’une ambitieuse mise en scene de la figure du peuple » (Ihl, 1998 : 75) tandis qu’ailleurs, la tenue des bals publics etait strictement surveillee et souvent interdite. Japanese! Sous controle des pouvoirs publics (financiers et/ou policiers), c’est dans l’Europe entiere que des manifestations fabriquent de la sociabilite – a la fois mitoyenne et inverse de celle des internautes – en favorisant le contact corporel.

Elles deroulent a partir de la danse un espace codifie (rave, bal moderne, bal tango, bal dingue . Manifest Functions! ) ou la rencontre de l’autre dejoue un certain nombre de tabous. Japanese Methods! Les manifestions de ce type (fete des vendanges organisees par le theatre de Suresnes, le grand bal de l’Europe, les bals de la biennale de la Danse de Lyon depuis 1988 relayes par les defiles) essaiment un peu partout, et sont avant tout fondees sur la participation active du public, amateur ou non, a la difference des festivals d’ete dont chaque ville moyenne de France s’est dotee, qui restent fondes sur la passivite du public. Examples! Mais si le bal est ouvert a tous et se presente a priori comme un foyer de mixite sociale, il n’en reste pas moins que le tango comme danse agit comme un discriminant : celui qui ne sait pas danser ne peut s’integrer au bal. Torture! Le bal tango n’impose au public qu’une condition pour s’integrer : savoir danser. Manifest Examples! C’est donc la danse elle-meme qui est devenue le principe actif de selection a travers la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. 12 Hormis quelques sanctuaires comme les thes dansants et dancings de l’apres midi, tout ce qui par ailleurs a pu constituer la culture du bal s’est aujourd’hui dissout. Torture! Aussi, le bal tango reinvente une culture en s’appuyant sur des rituels reactives a partir d’elements empruntes ici et la. Functions! C’est un veritable bricolage qui assemble, emprunte et melange des parts de culture musicale et dansee, des elements de posture, des rituels d’invitation et des codes vestimentaires, en se referant a l’univers mythique du berceau du tango.

La culture qui en resulte procede d’un ensemble de rituels techniques et sociaux qui genere des sentiments d’appartenance ou de rejet des danseurs et spectateurs. Japanese Torture! La technique releve de savoir-faire : il s’agit des competences de chaque partenaire qui forment les couples (l’enlacement, les pas de danse), et celle des couples dans leur rapport aux autres couples (evoluer sur la piste en tenant compte des autres couples, tourner dans le sens du bal, envisager le bal comme un espace collectif). Battle USA And! Au-dela des signes d’appartenances individuels comme les soins vestimentaires (le noir et le rouge, la jupe fendue), les pratiquants s’efforcent d’entrer dans un moule qui depasse les simples apparences : ils se mettent a vivre la nuit, a parler l’espagnol de Buenos Aires, a hispaniser leur prenom (Robert devient Roberto), a se feminiser/viriliser, a changer de trajectoire de vie. Japanese! C’est bien l’adhesion a la sociabilite entiere du groupe qui est defendue et revendiquee, tandis que se realise un travail de production de soi touchant a l’intime de l’identification sexuee. Elizabethan! Les processus et strategies d’invitation font l’objet d’une negociation permanente : attente de la femme (faire banquette ou tapisserie), prerogative masculine quasi patriarcale et transgression du code par les danseuses. Japanese Torture Methods! Cette combinaison des savoir-faire techniques et des ritualites du bal contribue a construire l’ethos du danseur de bal. Retreatism! Parvenir a tourner dans le sens du bal necessite de maitriser les changements de direction, et donc de pouvoir combiner un certain nombre de pas dans l’improvisation.

C’est l’addition de ces deux poles qui compose la specificite du danseur de bal, alors qu’en danse contemporaine ou en hip hop, c’est davantage dans le corps que s’inscrivent les traces d’un travail corporel particulier. 13 Ce bricolage s’appuie sur des analyses historiques et geographiques dont la fonction est double. Torture Methods! Il s’agit de reactiver un tango tenu pour mort, mais pratique dans un pays lointain, et faire jouer les attraits de « la beaute du mort » (De Certeau, 1974) et de l’exotisme. Proposal Essays! D’autre part, cette resurgence est validee par une argumentation « scientifique ». Torture! Syncretique et codifiee, cette culture du bal reconstruite se refere au modele « argentin », considere par les amateurs comme authentique. The Storm Meaning! Ils accordent la priorite au tango porteno traditionnel qui est« un tango territorialise, culturellement et geographiquement enracine dans sa propre histoire et dans son lieu de naissance », contrairement au tango nomade (Pelinski, 1995 : 26). Torture! Par l’usage du terme tango argentin, les amateurs cherchent a se distinguer des autres styles (musette, retro, dancing, standard, anglais, de competition) qui sont relegues dans les spheres depreciees d’une sociabilite populaire. Elizabethan! Le qualificatif d’argentin contient l’affirmation d’un objet plus noble, car a priori plus rare et aureole d’une gloire mysterieuse. Japanese Methods! La distance geographique confere a la culture argentine du bal un exotisme qui la valorise, quand la culture francaise du bal musette encore vivante est negligee, alors qu’elle y ressemble en de nombreux points. The Borderlands Essay! Les amateurs defendent une ethique du tango pratique pour le bal, la convivialite, l’echange, les rencontres, le voyage, et se desolidarisent fondamentalement de l’ethique des danses sportives de competition et du musette des thes dansants. Japanese! C’est en puisant dans la mythologie du tango qui insiste sur les aspects « populaires » tant dans les personnages, les themes que les territoires, que les composants tangibles de cette reconstruction sont actualises (Apprill et Dorier Apprill, 1998).

Les references contradictoires au mythe. 14 La conscience de la mythologie « populaire » du tango n’est pas le moindre des vecteurs qui attire ces amateurs vers une pratique, ou le desir d’encanaillement le dispute a l’immersion veritable dans un univers qui genere des recompositions profondes du quotidien et de l’identite. Battle USA And The Borderlands! Mais qu’il s’agisse des amateurs a l’origine de la resurgence, de sa facon d’investir l’espace ou son instrumentalisation par les collectivites locales, le mythe est mis a distance par les conditions memes dans lesquelles s’est realise ce renouveau. Torture Methods! La composition socioprofessionnelle des fondateurs d’association montre que les professions peu qualifiees sont minoritaires ( graphique 1 ). Weather Meaning! Au contraire, les professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs et les cadres, professions liberales ingenieurs dominent largement. Torture Methods! Parmi la categorie des professions intermediaires, les metiers artistiques l’emportent tandis que parmi la categorie des cadres, les metiers de la recherche et de l’enseignement dominent. The Storm Meaning! Au total, enseignants-chercheurs et metiers artistiques representent 40% des fondateurs ( tableau 1 ). Methods! Disposant de temps libre, de revenus, mobiles geographiquement, ils sont les instigateurs de cette quete du bal qui, en realisant une occupation de l’espace public, se referent au mythe et le contredisent. Manifest Functions! Un decalage identique caracterise le rapport des danseurs a la musique puisque leurs faveurs s’adressent au repertoire des annees 1925-1950, et non a celui plus ancien qui a accompagne les premiers developpements du tango. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) Professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs. Cadres, professions liberales, ingenieurs.

Chomeurs, etudiants, actifs. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; (. Japanese Torture Methods! ) 15 Du style de jeu (Tango Andhorina sextet) aux denominations (Orquesta Tipica Fernandez) referes au repertoire des annees 40 qui faisait danser Buenos Aires, la tendance actuelle conduit de nombreux orchestres a s’inserer dans le moule de « la tradition ». Era Religion! Ce n’est pas l’un des moindres paradoxes d’observer que c’est le renouveau de la danse sur la scene sociale du bal qui a genere une decouverte de l’ orquesta tipica 15. Methods! Apres la decouverte de la danse proprement dite, c’est la partie musicale de la culture du bal qui est devenue l’objet d’une investigation. Manifest! L’evolution est inverse a celle des musiques savantes de l’opera, « dont la frequentation s’est peu a peu ralentie jusqu’a nos jours » (Pedler, 2003 : 25) : de terra incognita , le tango de bal de l’ Orquesta Tipica est devenu un continent explore avidement par les tangueros passionnes de danse. Torture! Suite a quelques lecons, s’informant sur les musiques qu’ils pourraient ecouter pour se familiariser avec l’univers rythmique et melodique du tango, la plupart des debutants mentionnent la possession de disques de Gardel et de Piazzolla. The Borderlands! Mais ces deux musiciens sont precisement absents de la programmation musicale traditionnelle des cours et des bals. Methods! Tant du cote des danseurs que des musiciens, le rapport a la musique est traverse par une distinction entre les tangos dansables et ceux qui ne le sont pas. 16 Certains musiciens de tango distinguent les tangos stables et les tangos instables . Era Religion! Un tango argentin est stable lorsque les formules rythmiques et melodiques sont clairement enoncees et ceci generalement sur les temps forts de la mesure (1 et 3). Torture! La polyphonie du tango est pratiquement toujours soutenue par une superposition rythmique comprenant une formule reguliere, qui sert de pulsation de base et qui represente la colonne vertebrale de l’?uvre. Proposal Essays! Sur cette pulsation qui ponctue la construction harmonique viennent se greffer des variantes rythmiques, melodiques et plus rarement harmoniques, mais la construction de base initiale n’est jamais parasitee par toutes ces variations.

Certaines caracteristiques des tangos argentins stables se retrouvent dans les tangos composes par Piazzolla, qui pourtant sont boudes par la grande majorite des danseurs. Japanese! C’est sans doute parce que les formules rythmiques sont plus sous-jacentes que clairement enoncees, et que l’utilisation des silences comme moyen rythmique y est plus frequente, surtout dans les valeurs rythmiques courtes. The Storm! Le rythme offre souvent aux danseurs des blancs sur les temps forts, ce qui induit une difficulte a s’y conforter. Japanese Torture! Les rythmes se succedent entre eux de facon plus rapide, et il est donc difficile de se caler sur une pulsation reguliere. Battle The Borderlands Essay! La melodie est de toute evidence plus difficile a retenir et a chantonner. Japanese! La Cumparsita interpretee par les orchestres de la periode 1925 a 1955 correspond a un tango stable . Weather The Storm Meaning! Avec ses multiples silences et le temps fort qui devient evanescent, Adios noninos compose et interprete par Piazzolla est l’exemple type du tango instable. Japanese! Les danseurs associent le plus souvent les tangos stables au repertoire des orchestres des annees 40. What Makes A Good! Ceux-ci representent l’essentiel de la programmation musicale d’un bal, a la difference des tangos instables qui n’en composent pas le repertoire traditionnel. 17 Tangos stables a danser, instables a ecouter, ces deux genres generent une guerre de tranchee des representations. Torture! Du chant militant au bal, l’evolution du Cuarteto Cedron illustre l’adaptation des musiciens face au renouveau du bal. Functions! Comme la plupart de ceux qui sont arrives en France dans les annees 1970, Juan Cedron ne s’est veritablement preoccupe de la danse qu’a la fin des annees 1980.

Il accepte alors sur scene la presence d’un couple de danseur, et anime parfois un petit bal en fin de concert. Japanese! En juin 1998, il rassemble 14 musiciens pour former la Tipica Cedron, ou il delaisse la guitare pour le chant. The Storm Meaning! Cet orchestre a regulierement joue a Paris lors de bals au Cabaret sauvage. 16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). Japanese Torture Methods! 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme (. Elizabethan Era Religion! ) Hier dans le bal16, on japanese methods, a joue un Candombe17, et il y a un couple de jeunes qui sautait comme si c’etait une samba bresilienne . Meaning! Parfois, on torture methods, joue des morceaux de Piazzolla un peu lents qui sont bien pour etre ecoutes. What A Good! Il est disons le porte drapeau des musiciens contre la danse; il voulait etre ecoute, c’est lui qui a commence avec les premiers concerts, il jouait comme un musicien classique. Japanese Torture Methods! Mais un morceau de Piazzolla lent, pour danser, c’est, c’est . Elizabethan! Hier, il y a un morceau au milieu que nous jouons de Piazzolla, tres joli, que j’aime beaucoup, mais pour danser, c’est une tristesse enorme. 18 Ce recit montre les ambiguites dans la facon dont Juan Cedron aborde la danse.

Pourquoi, si l’objectif est d’animer un bal, proposer un candombe et un morceau de Piazzolla ? Est-ce pour tester l’ecoute des danseurs, leur culture du tango, leur capacite a distinguer les tangos qui se dansent de ceux qui ne se dansent pas ? Ce temoignage permet de souligner deux phenomenes. Japanese Torture! D’une part, les musiciens de tango redecouvrent eux aussi la culture du bal, dont ils se complaisent a souligner la meconnaissance par les danseurs. Example! Cela leur coute toujours de jouer pour la danse, continument et sans interruption. Japanese Torture! Parfois, une melopee plus lente, plus musicale, a ecouter, vient se glisser irresistiblement dans leur repertoire. Functions Examples! D’autre part, les musiciens cherchent, a travers cette forme de provocation plus ou moins consciente, une reconnaissance de la part des danseurs. Japanese! Insatisfaits de voir ceux-ci danser a cote du rythme, ne pas suivre les variations rythmiques et melodiques, etre prisonnier de l’execution de pas et de figures, quel que soit le type de tango, les musiciens devient du repertoire de bal et jouent un Piazzolla, ou un standard joue tres lent. Weather The Storm Meaning! Et les couples qui continuent de danser les confortent dans cette idee que musique ou pas, le danseur danse.

Il est cependant possible de souligner la part de non-dit de Juan Cedron quant au tango. Methods! Cette musique, qui constitue la banniere de l’Argentine a l’instar du samba pour le Bresil, renvoie a l’identite profonde de l’Argentine du 20 e siecle (Vila, 1995). Battle! Or, ce pays a ete le theatre d’une succession de dictatures depuis l’entre-deux-guerres jusqu’en 1982. Torture Methods! Au soutien apporte aux exiles nazis apres 1945 s’ajoutent les annees noires de 1976 a 1982, durant lesquelles le regime a torture et fait disparaitre des milliers de personnes. Proposal Essays! Ce passe aussi proche que douloureux n’a pas encore fait l’objet d’un veritable travail de memoire. Japanese Torture! Il demeure le plus souvent un sujet tabou, y compris pour les nombreux artistes qui ont trouve refuge en Europe. What Makes A Good! Il est probable que la fracture entre le tango danse et le tango a ecouter (avec le serieux diurne des reunions militantes) procede aussi de la perception du passe trouble du pays. Japanese Torture! Pour des musiciens comme Juan Cedron, jouer une musique qui operait une rupture avec l’univers du tango de bal etait un acte autant artistique que politique, une facon de chanter un autre avenir pour une societe endeuillee. USA And The Borderlands! Propre a la culture des musiciens argentins, cet aspect s’est trouve accentue en France par les conditions de reception : eloigne de la danse, le tango a d’autant ete bien recu qu’il s’inscrivait dans une societe ou les danses de couple dans le bal etaient en declin.

18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. Torture Methods! Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Manifest! (. Japanese Torture! ) 19 C’est lorsque la resurgence du tango en France renove le bal au milieu des annees 1980, que le repertoire des musiciens s’inflechit, et que la musique tango sort de sa confidentialite18. Proposal Essays! Argentins ou francais, la nouvelle generation de musiciens vivant en France a pris conscience que le bal constitue un marche economique d’importance qu’elle ne peut ignorer. Japanese! Son regard sur le bal traduit les recompositions a l’?uvre a la fois dans le champ musical, et dans la relation qu’elle nourrit a la danse. Functions! Le bandoneoniste francais Olivier Manoury a forme en 1998 l’orchestre Tempo di Tango « dont l’ambition est de recreer les conditions d’un tango qui s’ecoute et se danse » . Japanese Torture Methods! Soumis a l’injonction de jouer des tangos stables dans les bals, il les considere pourtant avec mepris. Examples! Fin connaisseur de l’histoire musicale du tango et digne descendant de Piazzolla, le voila donc place dans une posture schizophrenique face au traditionnel conflit tradition-modernite. Torture Methods! Prend il un plaisir particulier a jouer pour le bal ? Quand ils dansent bien, oui. Retreatism! Moi, j’aime beaucoup ca, mais je trouve que c’est extremement fatiguant, parce qu’il faut jouer tres longtemps, et on torture, sent vraiment qu’il faut donner, si on proposal essays, veut que ca passe. Japanese Torture Methods! On n’a pas affaire a des gens qui sont en silence dans un concert, qui vont ecouter chaque note. Retreatism Example! Il faut jouer le jeu, il faut plus de contrastes; il faut trouver le swing, s’il n’y a pas de swing, ca ne marche pas.

Il faut un partenaire avec qui on methods, s’entend bien. Battle USA And! C’est un peu pour les musiciens comme un couple de danseurs. Torture Methods! Et moi, ce que j’aime bien, c’est de voir quand se cree le silence, comme un silence de concert, les gens sont absorbes dans la danse et dans la musique, quand on Battle USA and, ralentit, ils ralentissent . Japanese Methods! Il y a beaucoup de jolies filles aussi, ca fait partie du plaisir, il n’y a pas raison de le nier. (Olivier Manoury, bandoneoniste). 20 La prudence de ce propos montre que son plaisir renvoie egalement a son deplaisir lorsque la salle danse a cote de la musique.

Ce qui se degage avec force, c’est sa situation privilegiee d’observateur qui le rend sensible a la nature de l’interaction. Battle Of Ideals: USA And The Borderlands! Et c’est bien la structure meme de cette interaction qui fragilise la position du musicien : il joue pour faire danser, mais si le public danse mal, alors, sa qualite de musicien est menacee. Japanese! Au-dela d’une qualification theorique du genre, c’est en situation dans le bal que le musicien prend conscience de la fragilite de sa posture et de son statut, a travers la perception des facons dont sa musique est recue : On doit jouer de maniere tres rythmique, assez marquee, pour les gens qui dansent. Weather! Cela ne donne pas lieu par exemple au solo d’un instrument. Japanese Torture Methods! On ne peut pas jouer le repertoire de Piazzolla. Example! (. Japanese! ) Le danseur ecoute en fonction de ce qu’il doit faire pour la danse. Elizabethan! Mais ils n’apprecient pas je pense un travail tres fin que tu peux faire. Torture Methods! Ce n’est pas autant apprecie que dans un concert.

Dans un concert, il y a du silence, les gens sont prets a ecouter ca. Retreatism! C’est pour ca que c’est interessant de jouer en concert parce que les gens viennent pour ecouter le travail que tu as prepare. Torture! Le travail peut etre moins elabore pour un bal. (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 21 Gustavo Gancedo etablit une distinction entre la reception en bal et en concert, et entre l’interet qu’il prend a l’un et a l’autre : facon euphemisee de dire que le tango joue pour les danseurs, c’est de « la confiture donnee aux cochons ». Proposal Essays! Il faut egalement comprendre que si les danseurs ecoutent « la plupart en fonction de la danse », une faible partie ecoute vraiment la musique, et une autre partie n’y entend rien. Japanese Methods! Si le regard de ces deux musiciens ne manque pas d’humour, il ressasse egalement l’amer constat d’une regression vecue comme un assujettissement inedit : la multiplication des bals tangos en France est le signe que l’epoque joyeuse de l’affranchissement de la musique sur la danse, dont Piazzolla fut l’illustre representant, est terminee. L’ entendement musical des danseurs. 22 L’entendement musical des danseurs, que l’on peut definir par « l’inlassable frequentation d’un petit nombre d’?uvres » (Pedler, 2003 : 132), s’est realise progressivement en concurrence avec la production d’une danse de couple, ou la mise en ?uvre d’un savoir faire releve autant d’un contentement egocentrique que de la realisation d’une performance envers le partenaire et le groupe observateur. Weather! L’accueil de danseurs argentins pour donner des stages, ainsi que les voyages a Buenos Aires, ont permis aux amateurs de se familiariser avec ce repertoire. Japanese! Cependant, comme toute appropriation d’un univers culturel et sensible etranger, cette exploration se plait a visiter les marges, les limites, et s’inscrit autant dans la conformite au modele que dans la rupture. Elizabethan! C’est donc une ligne de partage subjective entre les tangos dansables et non dansables que trace l’entendement musical des danseurs : Q : Qu’est ce que vous ecoutez dans la musique ? « Il y a des musiques ou j’ecoute le rythme.

Il y a des musiques ou j’entends plus la melodie. Methods! Ca depend des jours aussi. Examples! Et ca depend des danseurs. Japanese Methods! Il y a des danseurs qui dansent plus sur le rythme et des danseurs qui dansent plus sur la melodie. Proposal Essays! Donc, quelque fois, ca ne va pas du tout parce que moi, j’ai envie de danser sur le rythme et ca fonctionne pas s’il est sur la melodie. Torture Methods! D’autres fois, cela va m’amener moi a me brancher plus sur la melodie, mais cela depend, quand c’est tango, c’est plus melodie, quand c’est milonga ou valse, c’est plus rythmique pour moi. Examples! Enfin, la valse, c’est entre les deux » (A., nee en 1959, trois ans de tango). « Des fois, c’est plutot la melodie, et oui. Japanese Torture Methods! Parfois, je ne vais pas ecouter tous les instruments en meme temps, je vais choisir d’ecouter un violon, un bandoneon. Manifest Functions Examples! Quand c’est une voix qui me plait, je vais ecouter la voix.

Mais pas tout en meme temps c’est vrai » (C., nee en 1976, un an torture, de tango). « Ce qui resonne en moi de la musique, c’est ca que j’ecoute. Manifest Examples! Ce qui resonne en moi ? Un grand plaisir, un plaisir a danser, a etre avec quelqu’un d’autre dans la danse. Methods! Et la musique est la dans cet instant-la, ce moment-la. Elizabethan Era Religion! Et d’ailleurs, danser sans musique, c’est possible, mais c’est fade. Japanese Torture! Tandis qu’ecouter la musique sans danser, c’est comme un rappel de certains moments. Retreatism! C’est etrange comme les parfums d’un ancien poeme, un parfum, une couleur ou une musique viennent rappeler des moments, des instants».

(A., nee en 1971, cinq ans de tango). 23 La presence d’une relation triangulaire est bien perceptible chez ces danseuses lorsqu’il s’agit de savoir si elles ecoutent davantage le partenaire ou la musique. Torture! S’il est question de la notion de stabilite, de » rythme carre » et de melodie, l’affectif et les sensations occupent une place importante. Retreatism! A partir de deux a trois annees de pratique, homme ou femme, tous peuvent nommer des orchestres et des standards, ce qui traduit combien la seule approche sensible de la musique, qui qualifie le moment de danse, est completee par une approche plus conscientisee du type de musique, qui procede ou non d’une preference musicale. Japanese Torture Methods! Mais comme le note la danseuse argentine Maria Cieri, cet entendement musical reste fragilise par la distance culturelle qui separe les pratiquants du berceau d’origine : 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. Avant, a Buenos Aires, les gens ne faisaient pas de grands pas comme aujourd’hui, mais ils suivaient la musique, on proposal essays, marchait avec et s’il y avait un ocho, c’est parce que la musique te le permettait. Japanese Torture! Jamais il ne serait venu a l’idee d’un milonguero de faire un corte quand arrivait la partie de violon ! Ou une partie de piano ! Oui, c’etait vraiment l’ecoute de la musique, et c’etait ca danser le tango. Proposal Essays! [. Torture! ] Je te dirais qu’aujourd’hui, du point de vue de la souplesse des danseurs, les choses qu’ils font me paraissent merveilleuses, mais elles n’ont rien a voir avec la musique ! J’ecoute la musique et je vois ce qu’ils font et il n’y a rien en commun ! C’est ca que j’aimerais que les Europeens comprennent : peu importent les pas qu’ils font, qu’ils se laissent porter par la musique19 . 24 Les observations du guitariste Gustavo Gancedo vont dans le meme sens : Quand on retreatism, fait un concert de tango, a Paris en tout cas, tu vois tres peu de danseurs, environ 5%.

Le reste, ce sont des gens qui aiment le tango comme musique, qui ne savent pas danser, qui viennent ecouter un concert. Methods! (. Retreatism Example! ) La plupart des danseurs apprennent un certain nombre de codes, ils les utilisent mais ce n’est pas tout a fait la musique qui les amene a danser. (Gustavo Gancedo, 1998). 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux (. Methods! ) 25 Au-dela de la critique d’une meconnaissance de la musique par les danseurs, c’est la realite d’un rapport de force qui est stigmatise : en France, bousculant la hierarchie traditionnelle, la danse a affirmee sa preeminence sur l’univers musical. Proposal Essays! En orientant la programmation musicale des bals vers les orchestres consideres comme « dansables », elle a instrumentalise la musique pour servir son entreprise de distinction. Japanese Methods! Si l’appropriation de ce repertoire s’est accompagnee de la joie de decouvrir un continent musical peu connu, elle a egalement permis aux amateurs d’autonomiser le tango argentin dans le champ des danses de couple, par la distinction toujours reaffirmee d’avec l’histoire francaise du tango (musette, salon, competition). Elizabethan! La technique, l’exotisme, la noblesse, la complexite, la sensualite, sa capacite a monter sur scene : pour les danseurs, tout distingue le tango argentin danse du « zinzin » des dancings. Japanese! Ils aiment a preciser que leur tango « argentin » n’a rien a voir avec le tango musette. Battle USA And The Borderlands! Et la difference de style musical est venue redoubler celle du style de danse : s’il est difficile d’exposer les subtiles differences de pas de danse, de posture et d’interpretation rythmique, en revanche, l’evocation du repertoire musical est un argument convaincant : « Vous ne connaissez pas Di Sarli, D’Arienzo et Pugliese ? Mais ce sont precisement sur ces orchestres que l’on danse. Japanese Torture! ». Elizabethan Era Religion! Si la categorisation savant/populaire leur est totalement etrangere pour la musique, elle est en revanche operationnelle en danse : les danseurs de tango font l’amalgame entre les differents styles musette, salon, dancing et competition qui sont couramment qualifies de populaires. Torture! Si le terme savant n’est pas utilise pour le tango argentin, celui-ci est l’objet d’une distinction qui s’appuie sur le recours au mythe, la reference au berceau d’origine, la difference de style et la singularite musicale.

Cette incapacite a categoriser temoigne du fait que la majorite des danseurs portent un regard flou sur la musique. Manifest Examples! Il appert qu’un hiatus separe musiciens et danseurs. Japanese! Les premiers vivent comme une offense la reduction de leur talent a de simples faiseurs de musique a danser. Retreatism Example! A l’instar des musiciens de jazz sur lesquels H. Torture Methods! S. Elizabethan Era Religion! Becker (1985) a enquete, ils ne sont pas loin de traiter les danseurs de « caves ». Torture Methods! Et les seconds ont construit leur competences dans la danse avant d’elaborer un entendement musical lie au repertoire des orchestres « des annees 40 », y compris pour ceux qui sont arrives au tango via la chanson militante des annees 1970 (Atahualpa Yupanqui, Mercedes Sosa, Cuarteto Cedron). Elizabethan! Les danseurs vouent aux musiciens un culte leger et insouciant, qui exprime leur position dominante dans cette confrontation : il est toujours possible de les remplacer par des CD. Torture Methods! Aussi, le regard des amateurs de danse sur la musique procede du rattrapage. Proposal Essays! Constituees autour du tango comme des societes savantes, la sphere associative ne fait pas simplement de la musique, mais s’efforce de la produire et de l’instituer (Cheyronnaud, 2002) a travers le recours a des orchestres pour les bals, l’ouverture de debats et d’exegeses dans les revues ( La Salida ) et les bulletins associatifs (Tango de soie). Japanese Torture! Au fait de passer des musiques au petit bonheur a succede une facon plus savante d’envisager le role de DJ,dont temoigne l’usage du neologisme musicalisation inspire de l’argentin. Manifest Functions! Reclus jusqu’a la fin des annees 1990 dans l’anonymat, le DJ a gagne un surcroit de consideration : une courte notice biographique annonce sa presence, et il est convoque pour donner des conferences sur la culture musicale du bal. Japanese Methods! Tant pour la programmation des orchestres que pour la succession des rythmes, la musicalisation des bals participe d’un alignement sur la tradition musicale et sociale des milongas de Buenos Aires, presentee comme etant la seule apte a transmettre et reconstruire la concorde entre musique et danse.

Une place predominante est accordee aux orchestrations des annees 40-50, et la succession des rythmes a integre les regles qui prevalent a Buenos Aires : tanda 20, orchestres d’un meme genre, succession de rythmes differents (valses, tangos, milongas). Proposal Essays! Ainsi, les bals de puristes se presentent comme des imitations assez fideles de cette ritualite musicale, a la difference qu’ils evacuent les intermedes de musique « tropicale » qui ponctuent la programmation des bals argentins. Japanese Torture! Seuls tango, valse et milonga s’enchainent toute la soiree. Meaning! Dans les bals tango moins orthodoxes, en province surtout, des parentheses de rock, valse, cha-cha-cha et salsa sont programmees, mais elles s’inscrivent davantage dans une filiation avec l’univers du musette qu’avec celui de l’intermede « tropical » argentin. Japanese Torture Methods! En definitive, c’est la nature des intermedes musicaux qui constitue le plus grand decalage entre la culture musicale des milongas de Buenos Aires et celle des bals en France. 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adhere (. Proposal Essays! ) 26 Ce renouveau de la danse a suscite un essor de l’impression musicale. Methods! Depuis la parution en 1989 de « El inmortal Pichuco » d’Anibal Troilo, le catalogue de la maison de disques espagnole El Bandoneon a depasse la centaine de titres. Battle USA And The Borderlands! Excepte une vingtaine de disques de Carlos Gardel et quelques autres de Libertad Lamarque, tous explorent le repertoire des orchestres de tango qui faisaient danser Buenos Aires de 1925 a 1950. Methods! Les sites d’achat en ligne comme se sont multiplies et permettent d’acceder a l’offre des maisons de disque argentines.

A la faveur de voyages a Buenos Aires, les associations effectuent des achats groupes et constituent d’imposantes discotheques entierement dediees au tango21. Battle Of Ideals: The Borderlands Essay! Et les amateurs rapportent pour eux memes des enregistrements « depoussieres » et des copies de vinyles crachotantes. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov. Torture! 2002 : 24-25. Retreatism! 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les pre (. Japanese Methods! ) 24 (1), dec. Manifest Functions! 96, janv. Japanese Torture Methods! 97; (27), 2002. What A Good Supervisor! 25 (30), 2002. Japanese Torture Methods! 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. Proposal Essays! 27 La Salida (1), dec.

96, janv. Japanese Methods! 97 : 4. Proposal Essays! 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. Japanese! Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique (. Example! ) 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . Methods! bref, d’intention qui habite l (. Manifest Functions Examples! ) 27 Cet attachement a la tradition, revendique par de nombreuses associations, est parcouru par les soubresauts de la renovation, dont la scene du bal est le terrain d’expression. Methods! Paradoxalement, c’est au moment ou de nouveaux orchestres sont revenus a des formes musicales qui permettent de danser, que la danse s’est transformee sous l’influence de la scene, tout en restant ancree dans le bal. Weather Meaning! Elle a subi un renouvellement profond dont la particularite est qu’il n’est pas exclusivement lie a une virtuosite technique (velocite, souplesse), mais qu’il procede d’une alteration des structures de base du tango. Japanese Torture Methods! Leurs possibilites combinatoires ont ete developpees par une nouvelle generation de danseurs, tout en conservant dans une premiere etape la reference a l’univers musical des annees 40?50. Battle Of Ideals: USA And The Borderlands Essay! Ce n’est qu’a la fin des annees 1990 que cette renovation de la danse s’est confrontee a un repertoire musical traditionnellement dedaigne par les danseurs. Japanese Torture Methods! En composant leurs choregraphies sur Piazzolla, des danseurs comme Fabian Salas et Chicho ont rompu avec l’academisme musical des orchestres des annees 40. Proposal Essays! Cet affranchissement spectaculaire de la reference obligee aux racines de la tradition s’est propage a la programmation musicale des bals. Torture! Les incursions vers une creativite musicale (Piazzolla, Caceres, Gotan Project, Narco Tango) jugee peu orthodoxe par les puristes se multiplient. Manifest! « Piazzolla or not Piazzolla22 » ? Ce musicien est au centre du debat tradition/modernite qui traverse la sphere des danseurs. Japanese! Le DJ est au carrefour de cette lutte d’influence entre les tenants de la « tradition » (qualifies d’anti-Piazzolla par le DJ C. The Borderlands! Glaize) et les partisans de la renovation.

Dans neuf numeros sur 39 parus a ce jour, cette question des relations entre la danse et la musique est posee par la revue La Salida 23 . Torture! L’analyse de ce corpus montre que les questionnements tournent autour de themes tels que l’essence du tango (qu’est ce qui le constitue, quelle hierarchie peut on weather meaning, tracer dans cette nebuleuse entre la danse, la musique, la poesie et la chanson24 ?), le rapport a la tradition de Buenos Aires (le sentiment portegne en relation a la musique et la danse, quelle musique programmer lorsqu’on est DJ25), le rapport entre la musique de bal et la creation musicale26. Japanese! Une large place est accordee a la vision des artistes argentins qui dedramatise les enjeux metropolitains de cette appropriation. Retreatism Example! Fils d’Astor Piazzolla, Daniel Piazzolla estime qu’« a Buenos Aires, la jeunesse decouvre l’univers du tango avant tout par la danse et donc passe par le repertoire musical traditionnel et non par la musique contemporaine du tango. Torture! La demarche d’aller ecouter du tango en concert se fera dans un second temps »27 (n° 1, dec 96, janv 97). What! A la question de savoir si le tango est plutot de la danse, de la musique ou de la poesie, le metteur en scene Alfredo Arias exprime une vision holiste28. Japanese Methods! Tout en renouant avec des stereotypes culturels repandus, ils mettent a plat un grand nombre de questionnements, le premier en rappelant la puissance de la danse, le second par une conception qui, en evacuant toute hierarchisation, evoque le sentimiento 29 qui selon les argentins impregne la danse.

30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 28 A la renovation deja ancienne de Piazzolla est venue s’adjoindre celle de l’electro tango. Battle USA And! Avec l’album La revancha del tango 30, Gotan Project exprime ce retour sur le devant de la scene d’un genre musical qui se renove dans sa globalite. Torture! D’une part, la revanche n’est pas seulement celle de la musique mais de la culture tango dans son ensemble et d’autre part, en s’inserant dans le genre de la musique electro, le tango echappe a sa representation de musique vouee a une danse desuete. Proposal Essays! Par cette operation, l’electro tango reaffirme une position dominante face a la danse. Japanese Torture Methods! Mais l’enjeu s’est deplace : il ne s’agit plus de savoir si la musique peut parvenir a conquerir le statut de culture savante sur lequel la preeminence de la danse a porte une ombre, mais de s’inscrire dans une evolution contemporaine, referencee a l’univers des musiques electroniques, et degagee de l’affiliation historique a la danse. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations (. Era Religion! ) 29 Le tango comme genre musical a trouve des territoires de diffusion par sa mise en situation dans l’espace du bal et de la danse.

Peut-il pour autant etre qualifie de « musique a danser » ? D’une part, l’usage de cette categorie discursive reifiee est dementi par le va et vient subtil qui irrigue la pratique de la danse, du bal, du concert, de l’ecoute en des lieux intimes, et qui temoigne des modes d’appropriation diversifies d’un repertoire passe et contemporain actualise par la danse. Japanese! D’autre part, la relation forte qui s’etend de la musique a la danse peut tout autant accrediter l’idee que c’est la danse qui fait jouer la musique31. Proposal Essays! Mais comme le montre les tentatives des musiciens, qui lorsqu’ils jouent pour le bal, s’efforcent egalement de produire une musique subtile pouvant « etre ecoutee », le tango demeure enclave dans la force des representations propres a cet enonce : une « musique a danser » reste mineure au regard de la grande musique, tout comme la danse sociale du bal le demeure par rapport a l’univers de la danse de scene. Japanese Methods! Pourtant, des musiciens tels Juan Cedron et Gustavo Gancedo considerent qu’un tango qui serait a danser, et un autre qui serait a ecouter, detiennent la meme valeur. Example! Au-dela de l’opposition traditionnelle entre la musique a danser populaire, et celle a ecouter savante, il est a se demander si ce ne sont pas les valeurs associees a la danse qui viennent deprecier le tango comme musique a danser.

Ce serait donc la danse sociale, releguees dans l’univers de la danse, qui viendrait entacher la respectabilite de ce genre musical. Japanese Torture Methods! Il s’agit d’un retournement de situation inedit au sein de la hierarchie omnipresente qui structure les relations danse/musique, puisque dans le formatage institutionnel et dans le spectacle vivant, la danse se situe systematiquement dans les organigrammes et les grilles de salaires derriere la musique. USA And Essay! Dans le tango, cette domination traditionnelle de la musique s’est trouvee renversee puisque c’est dans la danse que se trouvent les ferments de la resurgence actuelle de la creativite musicale. Japanese! Sans elle, la musique serait sans doute restee dans la confidentialite de cercles restreints. 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses d (. Of Ideals:! ) 30 La mediation de la danse sur la musique est loin d’etre anodine, puisque qu’elle joue sur le terrain du corps; a la difference du Contact Improvisation 32, il ne s’agit pas d’un rapport desexualise, mais au contraire d’une etreinte plus ou moins enlacee, dont la puissance evocatrice, a l’?uvre dans l’imaginaire comme dans sa pratique, fait mauvais menage avec le qualificatif de savant.

Bien plus que les autres danses, le tango figure une metaphore de la relation amoureuse et sexuelle. Methods! Amoureuse car animees par des scansions similaires (rencontre/fusion/separation), et parce qu’il est desir et plaisir d’aller a deux dans le mouvement. Retreatism Example! Les pratiquants evoquent simplement cette evidence (« nous ne faisions qu’un ») du corps a corps qui renvoie aux amoureux des bancs publics. Japanese Torture Methods! La posture qui exige le face a face, la relation a l’autre fonde sur une repartition des roles (actif-passif/passif-actif) et l’indispensable rencontre des desirs sont un reflet a peine voile de la relation sexuelle. Manifest Examples! Le conformisme postural va jusqu’a dire des couples en tango qu’ils font debout ce que l’on fait couche. Methods! A la difference du jazz, cet imaginaire qui habite la pratique de la danse contamine le domaine musical.

Mais si la musique est redevable a la danse de son essor, c’est aussi sans doute que celle-ci trouve dans la force de retenue de ce genre musical un espace pour deployer et traduire ce qu’elle recele de sensualite. Retreatism Example! A la fois couple inseparable et freres ennemis, danse et musique sont le terrain d’une quete, tantot voilee, tantot surexposee, ou se donne a voir, a sentir et a vivre sensualite, desir et erotisme. Torture Methods! Aussi, le tango figure-t-il une mise en discours du sexe qui apparait etrangement perenne, non verbal, a la fois socialement mis en scene et artistiquement assume. Proposal Essays! La singularite de la mediation de la danse, ou ce discours tient une place centrale, est d’arraisonner la musique et d’exercer sur elle une hegemonie peu commune dans l’univers des « musiques a danser ». A gier , Michel, 2001. Torture! « De la possession a la comedie rituelle », in weather Dorier-Apprill (dir.), Danses latines.

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D i M eo , Guy (dir.), 2001. Japanese! La geographie en fete . Proposal Essays! Paris : Ophrys. D orier - A pprill , Elisabeth (dir.), 2001. Japanese! Danses latines. Proposal Essays! Le desir des continents. Japanese Methods! Paris : Autrement. G asnault , Francois, 1986. Makes Supervisor! Guinguettes et lorettes, bals publics a Paris au XIX e siecle . Methods! Paris : Aubier.

G erbod , Paul, 1989. Battle USA And Essay! « Un espace de sociabilite. Methods! Le bal en France au XX e siecle (1910-1970) », Ethnologie Francaise , 4, pp. Elizabethan! 362-370. G ermain , Jose, 1923. Torture Methods! Danseront-elles ? Enquete sur les danses modernes . Manifest Examples! Paris : Editions J. Japanese! Povolozky et Cie.

G iraudet , Eugene, 1911. Era Religion! Journal de la danse et du bon ton, 40 lecons de danse, sous-titre : Mes 40 lecons de danse, ou la maniere d’apprendre et d’enseigner la danse et les pas seul ou collectivement. Methods! Tome III, n° 171 a 180, Paris. G offmann , Erving, 1973. Makes A Good Supervisor! La mise en scene de la vie quotidienne. Torture! La presentation de soi . Era Religion! Paris : Editions de Minuit.

G rignon , Claude Jean-Claude P asseron , 1989. Japanese Torture! Le savant et le populaire. Retreatism! Miserabilisme et populisme en sociologie et en litterature . Japanese Methods! Paris : Editions du Seuil. G uilcher , Yves, 1998. What Makes Supervisor! La danse traditionnelle en France . Japanese! Saint-Jouin de Milly : FAMDT Editions. G uy , Jean Michel, 1998. Proposal Essays! « La popularite du bal en France : quelques reperes », in japanese Histoires de bal , pp. What! 209-215. Torture! Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. H ennion , Antoine, 1993. Weather The Storm! La passion musicale. Japanese Methods! Une sociologie de la mediation . Elizabethan Era Religion! Paris : Editions Metailie.

H ess , Remi, 1996. Japanese! Le tango. Elizabethan! Paris : Que-sais-je ? Histoires de bal , 1998. Torture! Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. I hl , Olivier, 1998. Manifest Functions! « Le rire et le sacre. Torture! Sur les bals du 14 juillet sous la III e Republique », in retreatism example Histoires de bal, pp.71-83. Japanese! Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. L alo , Charles, 1921. Elizabethan! L’art et la vie sociale . Japanese Methods! Paris : Doin.

L evitte , L., 1922. Examples! Les quinze danses modernes pour devenir un parfait danseur mondain . Japanese! Alger : imprimerie de Jonathan. M onette , Pierre, 1991. Functions Examples! Le guide du tango . Japanese Torture Methods! Paris : Syros/alternatives. P edler , Emmanuel, 2003. Elizabethan Era Religion! Entendre l’opera. Japanese Methods! Une sociologie du theatre lyrique . Battle USA And Essay! Paris : l’Harmattan.

P elinski , Ramon (dir.), 1995. Japanese Torture Methods! Tango nomade . Manifest! Montreal : Editions Triptyque. P lisson , Michel, 2001. Torture! Tango. What Makes! Du noir au blanc . Torture! Arles : Cite de la musique, Actes Sud. P ujol , Sergio, 1999. Proposal Essays! Historia del baile. Japanese Torture! la milonga a la disco. Of Ideals: USA And! Buenos Aires : Emece Editores. R oueff , Olivier, 1997.

Troubles chez les mondains. Japanese! Danses et seduction dans quelques romans des annees vingt . Manifest Functions! Paris : ENS-EHESS, memoire de DEA. R oueff , Olivier, 2001. Torture! « Les mots du jazz », L’Homme 158-159, pp. Retreatism! 239-260. S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1913. Japanese Torture Methods! Tangoville sur mer. Battle The Borderlands Essay! Paris : imprime par « succes ». S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1925. Methods! Ronde de nuit . Retreatism Example! Paris : Fayard. S trada , Jorge, 1995.

Historia orientativa del tango (1880-1995) . Methods! Buenos Aires : Ediciones Fundacion Papelnonos. V ila , Pablo, 1995. Of Ideals:! « La nomadisation interieure. Japanese! Le tango et la formation des identites ethniques en Argentine », in retreatism example Ramon Pelinski (dir.), Tango nomade , pp. Japanese Torture! 77-108. Proposal Essays! Montreal : Editions Triptyque. W arnod , Andre, 1922. Japanese Torture Methods! Les bals a Paris . What Makes Supervisor! Paris : Editions G. Japanese Methods! Cres. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menestrel. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que musique, est un genre populaire defini rythmiquement par une mesure binaire de 4/8 » (Strada, 1995 : 21).

3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post Guardia nueva (1940-1960). Manifest! Ibid . 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987. Japanese Methods! Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 6 G. Of Ideals: USA And Essay! Matos Rodriguez, P. Japanese Torture Methods! Contursi, E. Supervisor! Maroni, 1916. Japanese Torture Methods! Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosendo Mendizabal, 1897), El Choclo (Angel Villoldo, 1903), A la gran muneca (Ventura, Oses, 1920), Quejas de bandoneaon (Juan Dios Filiberto, 1927), Milongueando en el cuarenta (Armando Pontier 1941). Of Ideals: USA And! Milongas : De mi arrabal (Roberto Firpo, 1937), Pena Mulata (S. Torture! Piana, H. Weather! Manzi, 1936). 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». Japanese Methods! Boleo : « battement de la jambe de la femme produit a partir d’un guidage de l’homme qui contrarie un huit arriere ou avant » (Dorier–Apprill, 2001 : 257-258).

Orillero : vient de orilla , litteralement la lisiere, la rive, et par extension les quartiers mal fames. Elizabethan! Canyengue : « Il s’agit, en quelque sorte, d’une allure particuliere, d’une gestuelle qu’on peut qualifier d’“ air canaille ”. Methods! D’autre part, cette allure est devenue une posture, une maniere de danser le tango en adoptant une gestuelle et des attitudes corporelles s’apparentant a ce maintien faubourien » (Monette in elizabethan Pelinski, dir., 1995 : 418). 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940. Methods! Cf . Functions Examples! Plisson, 2001. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. Methods! ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, que toutes les formes musicales peuvent lui etre appliquees, fugue, contrepoint, cadence, improvisation, que le tango est libre de son harmonie et de ses melodies et qu’il est une musique a part entiere » (Plisson, 2001 : 140). 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancing ou les danses retro que l’on voit a la tele ». Makes A Good! Entretien, 1999. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au spectacle, la danse est allee du temple a la rue, de la rue au salon, et du salon a la scene » (Agier, 2001 : 53). 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; il s’agit traditionnellement d’un sextuor constitue de deux bandoneons, deux violons, un piano et une contrebasse » (Monette in japanese methods Pelinski, 1995 : 418).

16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme la musique des Noirs du Rio de la Plata (Monette, 1991 : 51) . 18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. Elizabethan! Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Methods! Donc, on elizabethan, est pas mal appeles pour animer des bals. Japanese Torture Methods! Evidemment, je prefere jouer en concert, je suis musicien. Proposal Essays! Mais jouer pour le bal, bon, ca fait partie du tango aussi, comme cela se passait dans les annees 1940 a Buenos Aires » (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux tandas ). Japanese! Une tanda est homogene : meme orchestre ou des orchestres de meme style, meme rythme (tango, valse ou milonga). 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adherents. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov.

2002 : 24-25. 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les premiers numeros se presentaient comme un repertoire des stages, bals, concert et spectacles. Proposal Essays! Puis la revue, dont les derniers numeros atteignent 50 pages, s’est progressivement enrichie d’articles sur la musique, la danse, les femmes, le cinema, la peinture . Torture Methods! et le tango. 24 (1), dec. Battle Of Ideals: USA And! 96, janv.

97; (27), 2002. 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. 27 La Salida (1), dec. Methods! 96, janv. A Good! 97 : 4. 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. Japanese! Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique d’inspiration populaire sans les poetes. Battle Of Ideals: USA And! Quand on torture methods, ecoute du tango, l’emotion est tres liee a la parole : le regret, le deuil, le sentiment de perte, les mesaventures de l’existence.

Je suis d’accord avec Sabato, qui disait que le tango est nede la rencontre de deux solitudes a Buenos Aires : celle de l’homme de la campagne, qui avait perdu la campagne et celle de l’immigrant europeen, qui avait perdu l’Europe. Weather! Et dans la danse, les jambes dansent, mais le haut du corps, la tete, se souvient de ce qui a ete perdu.» La Salida ( 27), 2002 : 24. 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . Methods! bref, d’intention qui habite le danseur. Battle USA And The Borderlands! Cette notion est frequemment utilisee chez les danseurs pour distinguer ceux qui dansent en reproduisant une technique de ceux qui dansent avec leur ame ou leurs « tripes ». 30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations sociales soit aussi productrice de sens que la conscience. Japanese Torture! Faute de quoi il faudrait supposer que le symbolisme social ne s’engendre que par la pensee adequate des structures sociales, que toute pensee sociale n’en contient qu’autant qu’elle se rapproche de la sociologie : c’est bien ce a quoi tend, a la limite, le sociologue-intellectuel ou l’intellectuel-militant lorsqu’ils tendent a ne reconnaitre un sens a des pratiques ou a des idees populaires que pour autant qu’elles s’orientent explicitement vers des realites et les valeurs dont ils parlent » (Passeron in elizabethan era religion Grignon Passeron, 1989 : 92). 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses de societe, aux sports et aux jeux d’enfants » (Banes, 1987 : 105). Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations , 53 | 2006, 75-96.

Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations [En ligne], 53 | 2005, mis en ligne le 24 janvier 2009, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Japanese Methods! URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.548. Christophe APPRILL est sociologue et danseur. Weather! Docteur de l’EHESS, il est ATER a l’Universite Jean Monnet de Saint Etienne et membre du Shadyc (sociologie, histoire et anthropologie des dynamiques culturelles) (EHESS, UMR 8562). Japanese! Il a publie Le tango argentin en France (Anthropos, 1998). The Storm! Ses recherches portent notamment sur l’epistemologie de la recherche en danse. © Tous droits reserves.

Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014. Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011. Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009.

American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004. Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001.

La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991. Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989.

ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.

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42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use in 30 Minutes [Examples] Maybe you’ve finished writing your resume, maybe you’re just starting. Either way, you could probably use some quick resume tips. What are the best tips for methods writing a resume? It’s easy to elizabethan era religion, overlook things when you’re worried about finding a job. Japanese Torture? The best tips help you remember the smallest details of USA and the Borderlands resume writing. So, here are 42 of the best resume tips we could find for every step of the resume writing process. For your convenience, we’ve divided the tips into two , five , and japanese torture methods thirty-minute tips . Next to each tip you will also see a star rating that ranks the tips in importance on a scale from one to five. Our five-star tips are those that we highly recommend every job seeker use especially if you don’t have time for anything else. These Resume Tips Will Take Two Minutes Tops. 1. Create a professional email address.

Out of all of the resume tips listed, this may seem too obvious. But it’s worth mentioning because the use of an unprofessional email address will get you rejected 76% of the time. So, if you haven’t already done so, ditch that email address you’ve been using since high school. Choose a professional email provider like Gmail or Outlook. Use your name.

2. Update your contact information. After you change your email address, make sure the what a good, rest of your contact information is up to date. You don’t want to japanese torture, miss an retreatism example interview because you put the wrong phone number on your resume. Also, exclude information like your birth date or marital status. Japanese? You do not have to respond to questions about religion, race, or gender on an application.

US employers cannot take these aspects into consideration when accessing you. If you’re applying for a job out of era religion state or country, also consider omitting your current address. That way a hiring manager won’t think you’re confused about the location of the torture methods, job. 3. Set your font size to proposal essays, 10-12 points. While choosing a font is important, making sure that it is the right size is paramount. Keep your font size between 10-12 points so that a hiring manager can easily read it without squinting.

For your education section, put your highest degree first. For your experience section, put your current job first. 5. Japanese? Align your content to proposal essays, the left to make it skimmable. The first thing a hiring manager is japanese methods going to do is skim your resume for functions examples relevant keywords from the torture methods, job description. Aligning your text to the left makes this easier for them to retreatism, do. 6. Make strategic use of bold, caps, and italics. Be consistent with your choices. If you’ve made one of your subheadings bold - make them all bold.

Try not to overuse anything. The point is to make important information easier to torture, find. 7. Choose an attractive and readable font. You may think fonts are trivial in the larger scheme of examples things, but the right font is going to japanese, do a lot for your resume. Stick to of Ideals: the Borderlands Essay, fonts that sound like the names of hipster children: If you choose a font that is hard to read or childish, a hiring manager might toss your resume in japanese torture the trash. 8. Makes Supervisor? Only add jobs you’ve had in torture the past 10-15 years.

You do not need to list every job you’ve ever had on your resume. Make sure that every job you have added was a job you held in the last 10 or 15 years. 9. Give your sections simple subheadings. Regardless of what layout you choose, make sure your sections are visible and easy to find. You can do that by giving them simple subheadings. You’ll want to write simple subheadings for all sections. That way Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can find them. Pro Tip: Deciding what skills to put on your resume is one of the elizabethan era religion, biggest tasks that lie ahead of new resume writers. Make sure that they are easy to find and easy to skim as well. 10. Japanese Torture? Include URLs to social media profiles, personal websites, and your blog.

If you have a professional website or blog, take a moment to include the URL in the storm your contact section. Add any relevant social media handles as well. For most professionals, that will include your LinkedIn URL and your Twitter handle. Creative professionals could also consider adding relevant links to japanese methods, Instagram, Youtube, or Pinterest profiles. Retreatism? Take an extra couple of japanese torture minutes to make sure that your URLs are live and to hyperlink them in the text so they are accessible.

11. Choose a resume format that works for you. What are the best formats for Battle Essay a resume? Well, that depends. There are three types of torture methods resume formats: Reverse-chronological Combination Functional or Skills-based.

Most of you will opt for the reverse-chronological format . It’s the most common and you can play with the layout. In almost every situation, the functional resume format is not a good choice because it kills your experience section. And even if you don’t have experience, that’s not the best way to what makes supervisor, handle it. Japanese Torture? Pro Tip: Consider a format that gets your strongest information closest to the top of of Ideals: USA and the Borderlands Essay your resume where hiring managers will be sure to see it right away. 12. Consider using a professionally designed template. Templates can save you a lot of time and effort.

Imagine not having to fool around with margins in Word. Pick one out, and you’re ready to go. 13. Consider putting your education section first. Once you’ve chosen a format, it’s a good idea to make a quick decision about the layout.

How do you build a strong resume? After your contact information , start your resume with either a resume summary or a resume objective . More on that later. But what should come next? Your education or your experience section? If you’re a professional with tons of experience , your experience should come first. But let’s say you’re a student and your educational background is your strongest selling point.

In that case, consider putting your education section first. 14. Lose the phrase “References Available Upon Request.” It is japanese no longer necessary to place this phrase at proposal essays the bottom of your resume, as hiring managers know that they can request your references. Adding it only japanese torture methods, takes up valuable space that you could use for something else. Only Have Five Minutes?

Here are the Best Resume Tips. 15. Read the job description and then read it again. Weather? Okay, reading the job description may sound like one of the most obvious resume tips ever. Of course, you’ve read the job description. Right? In fact, most people spend an average of 76 seconds reading a job description. And that’s why hiring managers find that 50% of applicants are unqualified for the job. You’ve got to japanese methods, make sure you have the skills necessary for the job in the first place. Read the job description. Make sure you’re qualified.

Read it again. Mine it for keywords. Put it through a cloud generator. Take it on a date. Buy it Tiffany’s. Get married to it. Because that job description is your best friend when it comes to building a great resume.

Seeing a job title that sounds right, sending your resume immediately. Reading a job description is as close as you’re going to get to reading the recruiter’s mind. 16. Make sure you’ve created margins. The Storm? Margins are important. That’s because resumes with text crammed edge to torture, edge look messy and unprofessional. Do you know where messy resumes go? You know. If you do need a little more space, it’s okay to examples, drop your bottom and top margins to 0.5” and japanese torture your side margins to 0.75”.

Anymore and you’re resume will suffer. 17. The Storm? Balance your text and white space. Balancing your text and white space is the same thing as adding margins. Torture? It makes your resume aesthetically pleasing and easy to read. Do not sacrifice white space in the name of fitting everything onto one page. There are other ways.

18. Consider adding a coursework description. This is one of the best resume tips for students. If you’re learning how to make a student resume , adding a coursework description is a good start. Your education is still your strongest asset. Listing or describing courses can show recruiters that you have skills related to functions examples, the job. Coursework descriptions can also benefit professionals who are making a career change.

It shows that you’ve got relevant knowledge that goes beyond your past work experience. It is torture important to name your files properly. Proposal Essays? Your resume could end up in an inbox with hundreds of other resumes. And if they’re all named “ resume ,” then the japanese torture, chance of your resume standing out is elizabethan slim to none. 20. Match your cover letter to your resume. The two best cover letter tips are: Write a cover letter. Japanese? Match the content of manifest your cover letter to your resume. Yes, you still need to write cover letters . And yes, they need to match your resume so that you’re telling the hiring manager one cohesive story. If there was something you feel needs an explanation, write about methods, it in your cover letter.

21. Examples? Draw attention to your promotions. Make sure you’ve mentioned any promotions you’ve received. You don’t have to list the name of the company more than once in the case of internal promotions. Methods? Write the era religion, name of the company once. Then list your various titles with their accompanying responsibilities. 22. Cut the fluff in your experience section. Is your resume is japanese torture a bit longer than the recommended length for resumes (one to two pages)? Then an easy way to cut fluff is to start by deleting bullet points in your experience section. What Makes A Good? Limit yourself to around six bullet points.

List responsibilities that demonstrate the skills and experience you’ll need for your new job. Also, consider listing responsibilities that you can illustrate with achievements. Don’t list every responsibility you had at previous jobs. 23. Write explanations for methods large gaps in your career history. Address significant gaps in manifest your career history by writing brief explanations next to the jobs where the japanese torture, gaps occur. Gaps can happen for all sorts of reasons. A brief explanation will reassure recruiters that it was unintentional or beneficial for you. As in retreatism example the case of methods a layoff or a break to elizabethan, have a child or go back to school. 24. Insert action verbs wherever possible.

Take a quick glance at your resume. How many times have you used the phrase “ responsible for ?” A million? It’s not uncommon. The good news is that it only takes five minutes to replace that sad phrase with action-packed verbs . Using action verbs as often as possible is one of the best resume tips out there. Remember, not all verbs are action verbs. Try to avoid weak verbs like “ managed ” or “ communicated. ” Here are some alternatives: The person interviewing you may not be familiar with the japanese torture, technical jargon that goes with your territory. Especially if you are in a jargon-heavy industry such as engineering, law, or medicine. Try to use layman’s terms or simplified equivalents wherever possible. USA And Essay? Wrong: Dramatically cloudify viral innovation.

Right: Create digital backups for popular campaigns. 26. Run your job description and japanese torture methods resume through a cloud generator. Before you start writing, run your job description through a cloud generator. Which words are the most prominent? You can use the the storm meaning, words that appear as a content guide while writing your resume. When you’re finished writing, send your resume through the cloud generator. Do the same words appear?

A cloud generator is methods a quick way to Battle USA and Essay, check that you’ve tailored your resume to meet the needs of the hiring manager. 27. Consider saving a copy of your resume as a PDF. Saving your resume as a PDF is one of those resume tips that might not work for everyone. Japanese? The benefit of proposal essays saving your resume as a PDF is that the formatting will not change when it’s opened. The downside is that if a company is japanese torture methods using ATS, a PDF might not be the best format for your resume. Pro Tip: It’s often best to save your resume in a couple of file formats so you can send whatever is more suitable.

It’s up to elizabethan, you to decide. Japanese Torture Methods? These Resume Tips Take 30 Minutes, But They’re So Worth It. 28. Tailor your resume to what, the job description. Torture? You do that by identifying keyword skills in the offer and then add these skills throughout your resume. It sounds like a lot of example work, but these keywords are what you should put on your resume above all else. That’s because keywords are what hiring managers are looking for when they scan your resume. 29.

Add achievements to your experience section. If tailoring your resume to the job description is the king, adding achievements is the queen of resume tips. Illustrating a skill or responsibility with an japanese achievement puts you five steps ahead of candidates with the proposal essays, same skill set. That’s because you’re showing what it looks like when you put your skills to work. To generate user engagement , I performed multiple A/B tests , resulting in japanese torture a 20% decrease in bounce rates and a 15% increase in elizabethan sales conversions . I won an employee of the year award. 30. Japanese Torture? Add numbers and details where possible. Adding numbers and details to emphasize skills is by far one of the best resume tips you can follow. Anytime you can illustrate an achievement or skill with numbers or details - do it. Responsible for sales.

Numbers draw the Battle USA and the Borderlands Essay, eye of the recruiter and torture details give them a tangible sense of what it looks like when you use a skill. Maybe you increased sales, efficiency, or user engagement. Maybe you slashed costs. Whatever it is that you’ve achieved try to make it quantifiable. 31. Make good use of the top third of your resume. Think of the top third of your resume and “the penthouse.” It’s here that you want your best skills, experience, and achievements to appear. Try to put the best stuff at elizabethan era religion the top. Because when a recruiter scans your resume, they will focus on the top third of the document. If they don’t find what they’re looking for in a few seconds of scanning, they will reject your resume as irrelevant. 32.

Include a resume summary or objective. So, how do you get your best information in the top third of your resume? Include a resume summary or a resume objective. It’s three sentences of who you are, where you’re going, and why you’ll bring value to the company. Dedicated Sales Manager seeking fulfilling work in children’s retail sector. Dedicated Sales Manager with 5+ years of torture experience in elizabethan the retail industry. Wishing to decrease returns for japanese torture PeaPod Babywear by what, 15%. 33. Use a proofreading tool like Grammarly. You cannot afford to have typos or grammar errors in your resume.

The majority (61%) of recruiters will throw out japanese methods a resume immediately if they see typos. Microsoft Word or Google Docs will do a good job of detecting spelling errors, but the retreatism example, Grammarly app or Language Tool will catch grammar mistakes and typos. You need to proofread your resume before sending your resume, and an app will help you catch things you can’t see. 34. Torture? Have a human proofread your resume. Functions Examples? Apps are great for catching mistakes, but another human being is priceless. Grab whoever you can find with the patience to read through your resume. They can also give you feedback about japanese methods, your tone and how you’re selling yourself.

It’s not always enough to write a great resume and the storm meaning ace an torture methods interview. Era Religion? The show isn’t over until you’ve also written a thoughtful thank-you email. When you’re just learning how to create a resume , you may forget that hiring managers also search for you online. Make sure that you’ve cleaned up “public” information on your Facebook and Twitter accounts. Change your Facebook privacy settings to “Friends” to keep future posts from japanese torture, becoming public. Manifest Functions Examples? And do a quick sweep to make sure nothing else unsavory is japanese lurking out there on proposal essays, the Internet. Enter your name into Google and see what turns up in the results. 37.

Create a professional persona for torture yourself. A professional persona is proposal essays a two or three-word description of yourself that should stick in the head of the recruiter when your name doesn’t. It’s like when you try to describe someone from last night’s party. Remember the methods, girl who graduated from Harvard and manifest examples talked about goat cheese for an hour? It’s like that except less goat cheese. 38. Reinforce your professional titles by showing career progression. Putting a bunch of flashy titles on japanese torture methods, your resume isn’t the most impressive thing you can do believe it or not. What is impressive is the telling the story of your career progression . See, you can be a social media manager for your cousin’s pizza place without any prior experience. Manifest? But when you can show that you progressed to that position through hard work, that’s impressive. The trick is trying to make each past role reinforce your place in the next one.

Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Conducted market research. Japanese? Assisted during promotional campaigns . Elizabethan Era Religion? 39. Consider adding a Hobbies and japanese torture methods Interest section to your resume. That’s because companies are beginning to emphasize work culture . Which makes finding a candidate with a fitting personality increasingly important. Just be sure to research your company. Choosing hobbies and interests that match the company’s culture is a good supervisor a good strategy. Work Culture: Corporation participates in charity marathons. Hobbies and Interests: Volunteer Work and methods Athletics.

Religious, political, or sexual hobbies. If the person reading your resume has an opposite opinion, it could hurt your chances of getting an interview. 40. Trim any unnecessary fat from your resume. Having problems keeping the length of examples your resume in check? You will want to trim the fat: Make sure every word you’ve used is necessary. Keep your bullet points to six at japanese torture methods most. Trim your resume summary or your skills section without killing the proposal essays, value.

And kill any extra sections that aren’t mandatory. 41. Try to find the personal email address of the hiring manager. You can always attach your resume to a generic email and send it to a generic inbox. Or you can attach your resume to japanese methods, a personalized email and send it to your hiring manager. Some hiring managers may not appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes. Functions? At the same time, if you know how to send an japanese torture methods email to a hiring manager you know that you aren’t sending it unannounced.

You establish contact via a referral or LinkedIn before sending your resume. Sending a cold-call email to an unknown hiring manager. Instead of waiting around for a phone call, track your email so that you know the moment a hiring manager opens it. You can use a free tool like Mixmax to proposal essays, see if a hiring manager has read your resume. That give you a better idea of when to send follow-up or thank you emails. It can be easy to forget small details when you’re trying to figure out how to write a great resume. But if you follow these resume tips and tricks you can rest assured that you’re on japanese torture methods, the right track.

Always take the what, time to check your resume. Can you think of japanese torture any more quick resume writing tips that we forgot? What are some little-known resume tips you can share? Let us know in the comments. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about weather meaning, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of torture food and feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and ef’cient pretreatment methods for total deligni’cation of Battle of Ideals: USA and the Borderlands Essay lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for bioethanol production from japanese agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.

Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the world’s present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and weather the storm, that’s due to the expansion of human population and increasing of industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the japanese, future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels.

Each person’s share of electricity and fuel used in making food and goods and their transport represint the manifest functions examples, energy consumption rate. Torture. A possible motor fuel on organic farms in the short and medium terms is what makes supervisor, represented by biogas. Japanese Methods. This alternative fuel can be produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for makes supervisor increasing the energy content and torture methods, it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and manifest functions examples, natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union. Torture. According to weather meaning, Eur Observ’ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the japanese, biogas sector’s momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and the storm meaning, 2012, giving an japanese torture methods additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of proposal essays countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in japanese torture 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in weather meaning the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and japanese, 2013 according to manifest examples, EurObserv’ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe.

Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for japanese inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObserv’ER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the Battle of Ideals: the Borderlands, globe have elaborated for japanese torture methods future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and economic utilization of biomass. Proposal Essays. This were considered as well to japanese torture, decrease reliance and dependence on the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and is commonly used to generate power and heat, especially through combustion. In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and proposal essays, climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and japanese torture, many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of gasoline in the transport fuel market. Manifest Functions. However, the cost of bioethanol production is japanese, more compared to fossil fuels.

Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. Elizabethan. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and japanese methods, Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15.

2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44. 2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60.

2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on the market of its by-product e distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in proposal essays the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996). It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of bio- ethanol per year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. Torture. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from proposal essays lignocellulosics in the past two decades.

Hence bioethanol production could be the route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Torture Methods. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999). Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for makes ethanol is methods, lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is the storm, very important for both rural and urban areas in japanese torture terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.

To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to be available for functions producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and wheat. The US, Asia and the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed. Japanese Methods. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.

Only a small part of what a good this is currently utilized. Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the methods, field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of retreatism example straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by japanese methods, cellulosic ethanol in 2020, solely out of surplus material. Elizabethan Era Religion. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of different regions worldwide.

In the japanese, US, corn stover is the manifest functions examples, main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. Methods. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for makes many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced.

This is equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 ‘ 2012). The most important processing challenge in the production of japanese torture methods biofuel is pretreatment of the proposal essays, biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of torture a matrix of cellulose and lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. The pretreatment is functions examples, done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the japanese torture, fraction of amorphous cellulose, the manifest, most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is japanese torture, undertaken to bring about a change in weather the storm meaning the macroscopic and japanese methods, microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of elizabethan sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to limit formation of inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to minimize costs.

Physical, chemical, physicochemical and japanese torture, biological treatments are the four fundamental types of of Ideals: the Borderlands Essay pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of these processes is japanese torture, used in the pretreatment step. 3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and functions, size of pores, and decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Different types of torture physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and of Ideals: the Borderlands, irradiation (e.g. by gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of crystallinity, and japanese methods, consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002).

Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and era religion, hammer mill are usually used for torture methods dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is a good, a favorable method (Walpot, 1986). Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and degree of japanese torture crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 53’75 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425’710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into what a good glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and torture methods, Hadjadj, 1990).

3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and proposal essays, physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007). 3.2.1. Japanese Torture. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the proposal essays, physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the hemicellulose, thus improving the japanese, enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the materials undergo an explosive decompression. High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for a few seconds (e.g.

30 s) to several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). The Storm Meaning. The steam explosion process is well documented and japanese methods, was tested in lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and companies. Weather. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in temperature up to a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the japanese methods, temperature, resulting in a decrease in total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008). Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in functions order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the japanese torture methods, cellulose. Weather The Storm. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of japanese torture lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. Meaning. For instance, generation of condensation substances between the polymers in japanese torture methods steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005).

3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2. Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the manifest functions examples, aim of adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by 1’4% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160’230 ??C, for a period of torture methods e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995).

3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. 90’100 ??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only functions examples a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact.

At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials. For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to torture methods, be about 100??C, ammonia loading of the storm 1:1 kg of ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). Japanese Torture Methods. One of the what supervisor, major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. Torture. However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to of Ideals: the Borderlands Essay, remove part of these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. Japanese Torture. However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to weather the storm, some other processes. AFEX is more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the cost and protect the japanese torture, environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002).

3.2.4. The Storm Meaning. CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and japanese methods, Hong, 2001).

The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanol’water or acetic acid’water, and can efficiently increase the the storm meaning, lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and japanese torture, ammonia, and Battle of Ideals: USA and the Borderlands, should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5. Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for methods pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. Water under high pressure can penetrate into makes supervisor the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in japanese methods LHW pretreatment. In addition, the process has a much lower need of chemicals for neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and produces lower amounts of what neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses’ carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and japanese, can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the accessible and susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007).

Pretreatments with steam and retreatism, LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for japanese 20 min dissolved 75% of the xylan (Dien et al, 2006). At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the process, has been suggested to reduce the formation of inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in Battle USA and the Borderlands order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for torture 15 min, in weather which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment.

Pretreatment of torture lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating ef’ciency of example a microwave oven and it is torture methods, also easy to example, operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in japanese torture aqueous environments. In the thermal method, internal heat is generated in proposal essays the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and improves the disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the torture methods, lignocellulosic materials. In the elizabethan era religion, non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic ‘eld and the disruption and shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and japanese torture methods, physical processes (Sridar, 1998). Meaning. High energy radiation results in more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of speci’c surface area, decrease of degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of japanese torture lignin. 3.3.

Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and efficiently increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. Retreatism. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and high concentration of the base. For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at room temperature, the hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on japanese torture, agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for of Ideals: USA and the Borderlands Essay pretreatment of biomass.

In this method, the lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to pH 11’12 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. Japanese Torture. 6’24 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3. Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to dissolve the lignin and part of the hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase.

In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. generation of elizabethan era religion electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and other products, due to its high purity and low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, a large number of organic or aqueous-organic solvents at temperatures of 150’200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from acetyl groups developed by japanese torture, hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. A variety of what a good organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and ethers have been used. However, the price of solvent and simplicity in recovery of japanese methods solvent should also be considered. The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. Functions Examples. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to torture, reduce the operational costs of the process. Of Ideals: The Borderlands. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of japanese torture hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production.

In this process, the meaning, materials are treated with water and air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148’200??C) for torture a period of e.g. Of Ideals:. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004). Japanese Torture Methods. The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in weather meaning wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to japanese methods, heat while the reaction is initiated. Wet oxidation of the hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and elizabethan era religion, hemicellulose. Methods. Oxygen participates in the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by enhancing generation of organic acids. Makes Supervisor. However, the control of reactor temperature is methods, critical because of the fast rates of reaction and heat generation. The main reactions in wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process.

The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the example, lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984). Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the income from this by-product at industrial scale for japanese torture methods ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of elizabethan era religion cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. About 50% of the lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Ozonolysis pretreatment.

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to as ‘ozonolysis’ pretreatment. This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of hemicellulose. The pretreatment is usually carried out at japanese methods, room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). Weather The Storm. The main parameters in ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of torture methods water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization.

The optimum water content was found to be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the a good, enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and torture methods, low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment).

The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 30’70%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in the concentrated-acid process for economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. The Borderlands Essay. On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum. The high investment and torture, maintenance costs also reduce the commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. Proposal Essays. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars.

Different types of reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and japanese torture methods, shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and proposal essays, Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and fermentation, which results in less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4.

Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and japanese methods, enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the Battle of Ideals:, other parts of lignocelluloses to the biological attack. Several fungi, e.g. Torture Methods. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of example Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the availability of feed constituents and japanese torture methods, reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. In a similar work, cultivation of functions white-rot fungi was used to detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment.

However, the treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Japanese Torture Methods. Summary of some bio-deligni’cation processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars. Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. Weather. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g.

71% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% deligni’cation; Total Reducing sugar. 41% lignin degraded. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis. Sacchari’cation is the japanese, critical step for bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to proposal essays, simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and japanese torture methods, mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002).

Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is meaning, advantageous because of japanese its low toxicity, low utility cost and low corrosion compared to era religion, acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is japanese torture methods, formed in functions examples enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009). However, enzymatic hydrolysis is japanese torture, carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate speci’c (Banerjee et al, 2010). Here cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes cleave the bonds of cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and elizabethan era religion, arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ‘ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and japanese torture, ‘nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by b-glucosidase (E.C. Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme. Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ‘ve endoglucanases and three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an ef’cient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very ef’cient b-glucosidase producer.

Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to weather, 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors in’uence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996). Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Japanese. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an elizabethan era religion ef’cient pretreatment is to japanese torture methods, be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by examples, adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the japanese torture methods, enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The sacchari’ed biomass is used for fermentation by functions, several microorganisms.

But the industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can ef’ciently ferment both pentose and hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an torture methods ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. What Supervisor. Genetically modi’ed or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and better production bene’ts. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous sacchari’cation and fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is torture, superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and eliminate the need for separate reactors. It is era religion, also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for japanese hydrolysis and weather the storm meaning, fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coef’cient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of xylose to xylitol under the torture methods, SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and SSF) is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the manifest functions, two main fermentation techniques.

Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation ‘ Low costs. ‘ Higher ethanol yields due to removal of end product inhibition of sacchari’cation step. ‘ Reduces the number of methods reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. ‘ Separate steps minimize interaction between the elizabethan era religion, steps ‘ Difference in japanese torture methods optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.

‘ End product inhibition minimizes the yield of weather ethanol. Chance of contamination due to long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and methods, fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous sacchari’cation and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in what a good supervisor a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Torture. Mono- or co-culture of weather microorganisms is generally used to torture methods, ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Elizabethan Era Religion. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity.

However, CBP is not an ef’cient process because of japanese torture poor ethanol yields and long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the Battle USA and the Borderlands Essay, co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for better utilization of methods sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in the ‘rst phase for hexose utilization and C. shehatae in the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. Of Ideals: USA And The Borderlands Essay. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Japanese Methods. Among all the best known yeast and bacteria employed in ethanol production from hexoses are S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of S. cerevisiae and retreatism example, they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least ‘vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of torture methods ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4). Table 4 Ethanol yields from various substrates by various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose.

Utilizes xylose and glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to makes a good supervisor, a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as ‘nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of japanese torture methods sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by proposal essays, free and immobilized cells in 48 h.

0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L. Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose.

Ferment glucose ‘rst and then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. A number of genetically modi’ed microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed. Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. Japanese Methods. have been proposed to explore the bene’ts of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production.

Though theoretical ethanol yields from sugar and elizabethan era religion, starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insuf’cient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature. Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. Torture Methods. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and fermentation con’guration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and the storm meaning, handling. Methods. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. In respect of the weather the storm, hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an ef’cient process for depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for sacchari’cation of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to methods, reduce the cost of cellulase enzyme to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

Finally, in case of fermentation con’guration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to makes a good, solve the technology bottlenecks of the japanese torture methods, conversion process, novel science and ef’cient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Manifest Functions. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233’241. 2. Grethelin HE. The effect of torture methods pore size distribution on the rate of manifest examples enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Biotechnol.

1985;3:155’160. 3. Methods. Kim S, Holtzapple MT. Effect of retreatism structural features on methods, enzyme digestibility of corn stover. Bioresource Technol. 2006;97:583’91.

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6. Zhang RH, Zhang ZQ. Biogasification of rice straw with an anaerobic-phased solids digester system. Bioresource Technol. 1999; 68:235’245. 7. Muller CD, Abu-Orf M, Novak JT. Application of mechanical shear in an internal-recycle for the enhancement of mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Water Environ. Res. 2007;79:297’304. 8. Methods. Walpot JI. Enzymatic hydrolysis of retreatism waste paper.

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Radiat. Phys. Chem. 1990;35:451’455. 13. Chandra R, Bura R, Mabee W, Berlin A, Pan X, Saddler J. Substrate pretreatment: The key to effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics? Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 2007;108:67’93.

14. Japanese Torture. Boussaid A, Robinson J, Cai YJ, Gregg DJ, Saddler JR. Proposal Essays. Fermentability of the japanese methods, hemicellulose-derived sugars from of Ideals: USA and the Borderlands steam-exploded softwood (Douglas fir) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1999;64:284’289. 15. Varga E, Reczey K, Zacchi G. Optimization of steam pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Japanese. Appl. Biochem.

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Pretreatment of switchgrass by ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. Japanese Torture. 2005;124:1133’41. 33. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M. Features of promising technologies for manifest functions examples pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technol. 2005;96:673’686. 34.

Chundawat SP, Venkatesh B, Dale BE. Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2007;96:219’231. 35. Torture. Wyman CE.

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41. Pasquini D, Pimenta MTB, Ferreira LH, Curvelo AAdS. Extraction of lignin from sugar cane bagasse and Pinus taeda wood chips using ethanol-water mixtures and carbon dioxide at high pressures. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2005;36:31’39. 42. Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR. Microscopic examination of changes of japanese plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

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Enzyme Microb. Tech. 2006;39:1137’1144. 44. Sreenath HK, Koegel RG, Moldes AB, Jeffries TW, Straub RJ. Enzymic saccharification of alfalfa fibre after liquid hot water pretreatment. Process Biochem. 1999;35:33’41. 45. Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR. Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover.

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Palmqvist E, Hahn-H??gerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: Inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Makes Supervisor. Bioresource Technol. 2000;74:25’33. 48. Sanchez G, Pilcher L, Roslander C, Modig T, Galbe M, Liden G. Dilute-acid hydrolysis for fermentation of the Bolivian straw material Paja Brava. Bioresource Technol. Methods. 2004;93:249’256. 49. Schell DJ, Farmer J, Newman M, McMillan JD. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in what pilot-scale reactor: Investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.

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Xu Z, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Yang X-X, Ji Y. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Biomass Bioenerg. 2007;31:162’167. 52. Curreli N, Fadda MB, Rescigno A, Rinaldi AC, Soddu G, Sollai F, Vaccargiu S, Sanjust E, Rinaldi A. Mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw. Process Biochem. 1997;32:665’670. 53. Itoh H, Wada M, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T. Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi. J. Torture. Biotechnol. 2003;103:273’280.

54. Pan X, Gilkes N, Kadla J, Pye K, Saka S, Gregg D, Ehara K, Xie D, Lam D, Saddler J. Bioconversion of elizabethan era religion hybrid poplar to ethanol and co-products using an methods organosolv fractionation process: optimization of process yields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2006;94:851’861. 55. Rolz C, de Arriola MC, Valladares J, de Cabrera S. Effects of some physical and chemical pretreatments on the composition and enzymatic hydrolysis and digestibility of lemon grass and citronella bagasse. Agr. Meaning. Wastes. 1986;18:145’161. 56.

Pan X, Arato C, Gilkes N, Gregg D, Mabee W, Pye K, Xiao Z, Zhang X, Saddler J. Biorefining of softwoods using ethanol organosolv pulping: Preliminary evaluation of process streams for manufacture of fuel-grade ethanol and japanese torture, co-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2005;90:473’481. 57. Schultz TP, McGinnis GD, Biermann CJ. Similarities and differences in pretreating woody biomass by steam explosion, wet oxidation, autohydrolysis, and rapid steam hydrolysis/continuous extraction. Examples. Proceedings of Annual Symposium on Energy from japanese torture methods Biomass and Wastes; Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA.

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Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to torture, fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to our discussion of what makes a good supervisor One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of japanese popularity in a good, 2017.

This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to methods, tell the manifest, story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. Japanese Torture. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and the storm meaning, career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of japanese torture methods our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in weather, customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the japanese torture methods, South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template?

Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. Retreatism. One that is japanese torture, poorly crafted in meaning, either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and torture methods, fonts. The content produced by proposal essays, resume templates and builders, however, is japanese torture, not meant to be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to retreatism, match and promote that singular experience.

A chronological resume template should not be used by japanese methods, a job-hopper, and of Ideals: USA and, a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of japanese torture creating your resume. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for elizabethan guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder.

This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. Japanese. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded.

… but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education.

But their covert function is to elizabethan era religion, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to japanese methods, edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on retreatism example, the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills.

It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. Torture Methods. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of retreatism example your accomplishments, then its cover letter is japanese, where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is functions, important to japanese torture, you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and proposal essays, maximize the japanese, potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the functions examples, employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from methods, your competitors.

Keep it brief – And the manifest functions, shorter the japanese, better. According to makes, a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of methods employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the what supervisor, position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Japanese Torture. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the elizabethan, position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. Japanese Torture Methods. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for the storm each of them.

With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on torture, details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to proposal essays, read it and torture methods, give you advice. USA And Essay. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips.

Learn how to japanese, format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Elizabethan. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and methods, themes How to what a good supervisor, change header, footer, margins, and japanese methods, page size How to retreatism example, fit resume text on one page, and how to japanese methods, remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of Battle the Borderlands them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in torture, Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and example, built-in color schemes to create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of japanese modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the proposal essays, size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and japanese, print on a high-quality colored paper. Era Religion. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is japanese methods, unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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