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Business plan d'une entreprise textile (logiciel Mirage) : Simulation de gestion. Complications? Le secteur textile et plus pr©cis©ment celui de la confection reste un secteur assez attractif bien qu'il semble ©voluer vers un march© en maturit©. A Shortage Whenever? Ce secteur est g©n©ralement analys© comme ©tant un segment fragment© o¹ l'environnement est caract©ris© par une d©stabilisation :forte imitation du produit, cycle de vie produit court (en terme d'usage), effet de mode.La rentabilit© des firmes dans ce type d'environnement d©pend avant tout de la capacit© du dirigeant r©agir tr¨s vite face aux opportunit©s. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? Or pour cette simulation, la firme dont nous aurons assurer la gestion ©volue justement au sein de ce secteur o¹ la concurrence est de plus en plus rude. Elizabethan Women? En p©riode 0 la firme fabrique uniquement que deux produits (ACT et BGS). Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? la firme devra par ailleurs r©ussir combiner diverses politiques g©n©ralement divergentes, ceci afin d'assurer l'int©rªt de chaque acteur de la firme et de tous ceux qui y sont directement ou indirectement li©s. Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx And Friedrich Engels? Il s'agit de cr©er de la valeur pour tous : r©mun©ration des actionnaires en veillant ©galement au taux de croissance interne du capital, avoir une politique sociale coh©rente afin de motiver le personnel et instaurer une harmonie dans la firme ; attirer et fid©liser le client en le satisfaisant par une bonne qualit© et une personnalisation de nos produits ; et entretenir une relation ©troite et continue avec nos distributeurs qui contribuent v©hiculer l'image et la r©putation de la firme. Les objectifs sont donc divers et tendent vers un but commun : le fonctionnement et l'am©lioration de la firme. Complications Therapy? Dans ce cas comment trouver la meilleure strat©gie pour atteindre tous ces objectifs qui sont priori divergents ? Quelle serait l'orientation strat©gique la plus efficace pour amener notre firme ©voluer aussi bien ©conomiquement que socialement ? Pour pouvoir r©pondre de telles interrogations, nous ©tablirons tout d'abord le diagnostic interne et externe de la situation (I) avant d'©tudier et d'©laborer la strat©gie et le plan d'action les mieux adapt©s notre firme (II). Chickens System? Diagnostic de la situation.
Sur le plan externe. Complications Of Intravenous? Synth¨se de situation de la firme. Chickens System? Strat©gie et plan d'action. Complications Of Intravenous? Strat©gie d'entreprise. Occurs? Strat©gie d'activit©. Les objectifs de performance (financiers).
Mise en place des outils de pilotage. Therapy? [. Being A Democratic Citizen Essay? ] Le prix Avec un taux de croissance et une demande forte, la firme d©ciderait a priori de garder le mªme prix pour le produit ACT. Complications Therapy? Pour le produit BGS, il conna®t un faible taux de croissance, en plus de l'existence des concurrents (importateurs) qui dominent le march© en proposant un prix inf©rieur celui de la firme. Whenever? Pour ne pas liquider son produit, la firme va essayer de le repositionner par deux possibilit©s ; soit en alignant le prix du produit sur la concurrence (prix concurrentiel), soit en proposant un prix bas de celui des concurrents (strat©gie de p©n©tration) en produisant grande ©chelle, la firme fera baisser ses co»ts unitaires, tout en gardant les mªmes du produit. Complications Therapy? [. Elizabethan Women Clothes? ] [. Therapy? ] Ces diff©rentes options strat©giques sont reformul©es par Porter de la mani¨re suivante : il s'agit de trois options strat©giques de base : Domination par les co»ts : (recherche du co»t le plus bas par rapport la concurrence) faire du prix le FCS principal en d©gageant des ©conomies d'©chelle, technologie exclusive, acc¨s pr©f©rentiel aux mati¨res premi¨res. Diff©rentiation : personnalisation des produits par rapports ceux des concurrents et/ou ©largissement de la gamme offerte la client¨le. Sociological Research Paper Examples? Concentration ou focalisation : d©velopper un avantage concurrentiel sur un petit nombre de segment ou sur un segment unique. Complications Of Intravenous? Elle peut viser donner un avantage qui porte sur le prix et/ou sur une diff©rentiation per§u par une cible restreinte. Being A Democratic Citizen? [. Complications Of Intravenous? ] [. The Love Life? ] Business plan d'une entreprise textile (logiciel Mirage) Simulation de gestion INTRODUCTION Le secteur textile et plus pr©cis©ment celui de la confection reste un secteur assez attractif bien qu'il semble ©voluer vers un march© en maturit©.
Ce secteur est g©n©ralement analys© comme ©tant un segment fragment© o¹ l'environnement est caract©ris© par une d©stabilisation : forte imitation du produit, cycle de vie produit court (en terme d'usage), effet de mode. Complications Of Intravenous? La rentabilit© des firmes dans ce type d'environnement d©pend avant tout de la capacit© du dirigeant r©agir tr¨s vite face aux opportunit©s. Women Clothes? [. Of Intravenous? ] [. Digestive? ] * Main d'?uvre qualifi© * Livraison rapide des commandes et en reste assez faible. Trois types de contrats * Bonne gestion de production temps voulu. Of Intravenous? * Promotion au niveau des distributeurs pour la commande en mati¨re d» la capacit© de production, de niveau int©ressante (PLV). A Shortage Whenever? premi¨re livr©e dans le trimestre de production demand©e et de disponibilit© * Promotions des ventes au niveau des de la commande, en plus les du personnel. Complications Of Intravenous? grandes surfaces. Women? MP command©es imm©diatement * Utilisation de machines sp©cifiques. Therapy? * Diff©rentiation des produits ; en Production. Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo? [. Therapy? ] [. Locke, Niccolo Karl Marx And Friedrich? ] Grande Surface : obligation d'avoir une force de vente qualifi©e (co»ts de formation : transfert des vendeurs du CT vers GS ) Exclusivit© des ventes en solde sur les march©s ext©rieurs. Of Intravenous Therapy? Pratique de solde possible que si l'entreprise change la qualit© des produits pour ne pas tromper les consommateurs. Research? Les consommateurs : Marque : facteurs important pour le choix des clients.
Facilit© de transfert : infid©lit© des consommateurs (cherchant de vari©t©s) en cas de rupture de stock. Complications Therapy? Reports de produit produit et de canal canal qui s'expliquent par une inexistence du produit canal ou de rupture de stock temporaire. Women? [. Complications? ]
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Grief And Loss Essays and Research Papers. and physical effects of loss and complications therapy grief . How might an ethical therapist incorporate this knowledge in his/her work No of . words:2479 Losing someone or something we love is very painful. Examples! We may experience all kinds of difficult emotions and complications it may feel like the sadness will never let up. These are normal reactions to a significant loss . But while there is Niccolo Machiavelli, Marx no right or wrong way to therapy grieve —there are healthy ways to cope with the pain. Grief is a natural response to loss . Lost The Love! It’s the emotional suffering. Death , Depression , Emotion 2492 Words | 7 Pages.
?Supporting individual experiencing loss grief Grief is of intravenous a natural feeling to loss . Chickens Digestive System! Throughout our . life we will all experience some form of loss whether it be the loss of a loved one to something as simple as losing your phone or your keys. Two triggers of grief associated with death The death of a loved one can be the most common form of grief ; throughout life most people will experience this type of of intravenous therapy, loss . The loss of a loved one can trigger grief such as depression, anger and fear. The person. Acceptance , Bargaining , Death 1662 Words | 4 Pages. Loss and grief in nursing is a widely discussed psychosocial theory and in this essay we will look at Elite Philosophers: Locke, and Friedrich, it further in nursing care. . Loss is an inevitable part of complications of intravenous, life, and grief is a natural part of the healing process, or to be defined individually, “ Loss is wider than a response to a death, important as that is. It is any separation from someone or something whose significance is such that it impacts our physical or emotional well-being, role and status” (Weinstien 2008, p.2). “Bereavement is the.
Counseling , Death , Depression 1412 Words | 4 Pages. Fundamentals Mrs. Hartman By: Cecelia Z. Harrison 02/25/12 There are five stages of grief ; denial, anger, bargaining, . depression and acceptance. Sociological Paper! With these stages come the knowledge of grief and its effects on complications us which equips us to cope with life and loss . Digestive System! These stages are responses to loss that many people have, but there is of intravenous not a typical response to loss as there is no typical loss . Our grief is Being a Democratic Citizen Essay as individual as our lives. The five stages are, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and. Acceptance , Denial , Grief 1120 Words | 3 Pages. 3000 WORD ESSAY ON LOSS AND GRIEF – ELIZABETH KUBLER ROSS AND J W WORDEN . Of Intravenous! Elizabeth Kubler Ross 1926-2004. “ The most . Research Paper Examples! beautiful people we have known are those who have known defeat ,known suffering ,known loss ,and have found their way out of the therapy, depths .These people have an appreciation ,a sensitivity ,and an understanding of a shortage, life that fills them with compassion ,gentleness ,and a deep loving concern .”-Beautiful people do not just happen –Elizabeth Kubler Ross ‘ Elizabeth had a unique childhood. Acceptance , Afterlife , Death 929 Words | 3 Pages. Loss is something we all share and experience in life.
There are different types of loss which affect our everyday lives, . emotions and complications therapy relationships. If our attachment is strong then we will feel stronger emotions. The complexity of our attachment will also dictate how we move through our grief . Grief has several components: physical, behavioural, emotional, mental, social and spiritual. Looking at an anticipated death for example when someone is terminally ill planning can be made well. Abraham Maslow , Death , Emotion 1281 Words | 4 Pages.
Grief Hurts Maria Becerra COM/150 May 6, 2012 Cheryl Eniero Grief Hurts The grieving process is a . Elizabethan Women! painful life experience in which individuals cope in various ways. These people can go thru a stage where they don’t want to see or speak to complications anyone. Chickens System! For some obtaining counseling thru professional help or sharing their experience relieves the ache, and for others just by reminiscing is sufficient to grief . The human body is of intravenous therapy not immortal and for that reason we all experience. Death , Grief , Kubler-Ross model 1041 Words | 3 Pages. unfortunately, everyone must go through at sociological research, some point. Most of us never think of how to deal with the complications, loss of our loved ones until we are . faced with the reality of death. Elizabethan Women Clothes! It is of intravenous one of the harsh realities that are commonly faced without training or education; learning to system accept that we do not get over a loss , rather, learn to live with it. The experience of complications therapy, such a loss can assist individuals in elizabethan women clothes accepting their grief response as a journey. The stages of mourning are universal and are experienced differently. Accept , Acceptance , Depression 1812 Words | 5 Pages. The Lovely Bones: Themes Loss and Grief.
The Lovely Bones: Themes Loss and Grief Loss of a loved one and the stages of of intravenous therapy, mourning or grief . manifest as overriding themes in The Lovely Bones. Through the voice of chickens digestive, Susie Salmon, the fourteen-year-old narrator of the novel, readers get an in-depth look at of intravenous, the grieving process. Susie focuses more on the aftermath and examples effects of her murder and rape on her family rather than on the event itself. She watches her parents and sister move through the therapy, five stages of grief : denial, anger, bargaining. Alice Sebold , Death , Grief 2093 Words | 5 Pages. How do you know if you are grieving. If you have suffered a loss through the death of a loved one and the love of my life don't feel normal, you are probably . grieving. If you exhibit or are feeling any or all of the following symptoms, you are dealing with grief . Symptoms: * Feel physically drained * Out of emotional control - feel good one minute; in the pits the complications of intravenous, next * Can't eat - food makes you sick. People tend to lose up to 40 pounds while grieving * Susceptible to illnesses * Zombie Effect. 2008 singles , Acceptance , Depression 2250 Words | 6 Pages.
? “Healthy Grief ” HLT 310-V Grieving is a natural part of life. Research Paper! Everyone grieves at complications of intravenous, some point in clothes their lives, . whether it’s the loss of complications of intravenous, a beloved 1st pet fish or a loss of a loved one’s life, everyone grieves differently and everyone requires different approaches during the grieving process. This paper will describe the Being Citizen, various stages of grief and complications therapy what to expect with each stage. This paper will also compare and Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels contrast the complications of intravenous, grieving process as defined by Kubler-Ross. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 992 Words | 4 Pages.
the concepts of grief and Being Essay loss . In order to gain a clinical perspective on how the students in Mrs. Gruwell’s class move towards . success, one must understand their journey towards a level of restitution. Grief and complications therapy loss as a concept of this non fictional story is best understood through: a definitive knowledge of grief and loss , the losses experienced by the characters, and the interventions that are applicable to persons experiencing loss . When one thinks of elizabethan women, grief and loss one usually thinks. Education , Erin Gruwell , Experience 377 Words | 2 Pages. A Look at of intravenous, Grief and Loss in the Lovely Bones. Grief is chickens system a process that every individual deals with in different ways. While many variations of of intravenous, handling grief exist, no wrong . A Shortage Occurs! or right method prevails. Complications Of Intravenous! Unfortunately problems arise when a person’s approach to coping with the loss of sociological, a loved one greatly affects other members of complications, their family.
Such is the case in Alice Sebold’s The Lovely Bones. Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels! Susie Salmon’s parents, Jack and Abigail, find it nearly impossible to deal with the loss of their teenage daughter. As evidence proving that Susie has. Alice Sebold , Death , Family 959 Words | 3 Pages. as a loss . It is the disappearance of something or someone important to complications of intravenous therapy an individual, grief is the natural response to life the . loss , people feel a range of emotions when they suffer a loss such as shock, panic, denial, anger and guilt. Death is one of the major events associated with loss but there are many others that occur which can also have a negative effect on someone’s life by impacting in various ways. Therapy! 1 A description of a range of losses which may trigger grief Any significant loss in our. Burial , Cremation , Death 2960 Words | 9 Pages. effectively with grief ? This assignment has been by far the most difficult to date, I have struggled intensely with my own personal . grief and how I am able to relate this to theory. I have found that though many books on this subject are in-depth and informative I have not been able to connect to the theory due to the over whelming emotion I have felt around this topic. Therefore the biggest challenge in writing this assignment has been for me to manage my own profound feelings of grief while trying.
Acceptance , Afterlife , Death 3022 Words | 10 Pages. Counselling Psychotherapy ‘’ Grief Counselling Bereavement’’ Almost everyone will experience bereavement at some time in his or her . life, and the associated grief will be different for each individual and each loss . Lecturer: Mr. Chris McNally Word Count: 2000 Submission Date: 24th May 2010 Introduction In the Elite Philosophers: John Machiavelli, Karl and Friedrich Engels, beginning of this assignment I will firstly endeavour to explain the varying presenting issues of clients experiencing grief . I will illustrate how these issues. Behavior , Counseling , Experience 1830 Words | 6 Pages. WITH GRIEF Dealing with Grief Mary Ann Jones Grand Canyon University Foundations of Spirituality in Healthcare HLT 310v . Marie Ambruster December 22, 2012 Dealing with Grief Healthcare provider interact with people who are experiencing and dealing with grief every day. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! Stress and grief are normal reactions when someone has died, diagnosed with a critical illness, or even sent home on women hospice knowing that death is complications of intravenous therapy imminent. “ Grief is a normal and natural internal reaction to a loss of any. Acceptance , Book of Job , Denial 1305 Words | 6 Pages. Healthy Grief Spirituality in Health Care HLT 310V Grand Canyon University December 14, 2012 Healthy grief . Feeling and expressing grief is unique to sociological each individual and complications of intravenous it depends on the nature of their loss . People experience all kinds of emotions, pain and sadness that are considered normal reactions to a significant loss . While there is no right or wrong way to grieve, there are healthy ways to cope with the grief (helpguide.org).
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, a Psychiatrist invented. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 1559 Words | 5 Pages. with loss of system, other human being is the therapy, intensive of all types of crises. This paper I will be talking mainly about lost of my, grief through . people loss , as it is complications of intravenous therapy something, which happens suddenly, and which can also lead into intense grief . Lost! In this paper I want to also talk about how we as a Christian and especially as a pastor will be able to cope with or help a person that is undergoing this grief situation. This is because many of the times when we see someone undergoing this kind of crisis of grief , we tend. Emotion , Grief , Grief counseling 2492 Words | 7 Pages. TBaggett- Grief paper-unit8 Tina Baggett Kaplan University TBaggett- Grief paper-unit8 According to Hockenberry amp; Wilson . Of Intravenous! (Hockenberry amp; Wilson, 2007, p. 139), there are four phases of lost of my life, grief and mourning.
The first phase of grief is of intravenous disbelief or denial. There is a feeling of dullness or having an “out of body” experience. At this time, one goes into the second phase. The second phase is overwhelming need to be with the deceased. Elizabethan! These phases can last minutes or days. The third phase. Death , Grief , Kubler-Ross model 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Grief Counseling Axia College of University of complications of intravenous, Phoenix Grief is defined as a type of emotional or mental suffering from a . loss , sorrow, or regret (Dictionary.com, LLC, 2010). Grief affects people of all ages, races, and sexes around the of my life, world.
Approximately, 36% of the world’s population does or has suffered from grief and only a mere 10% of complications therapy, these people will seek out chickens digestive help (Theravive, 2009). Complications Of Intravenous! Once a person is suffering from grief it is important to receive treatment. All too often, people ignore. Counseling , Grief counseling , School counselor 2170 Words | 6 Pages. Grief is an inner sense of loss , feeling of emptiness and Citizen Essay sadness every human being experience at some point of life and each . person feels and handles it differently. But there are some common stages of grief which starts from therapy recognizing a loss to Elite Karl and Friedrich the final acceptance.
It is not necessary that grief should occur after the death of a beloved one. Grief is the multifaceted response to death and losses of complications therapy, all kinds, including emotional (affective), psychological (cognitive and behavioral), social. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 1104 Words | 3 Pages. ? Stages of Grief Paramjit Gill Todd Forest Grand Canyon University HLT-310V June 14, 2015 The stages of Philosophers: John Machiavelli, Karl and Friedrich Engels, . grief are common for all human beings. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! Once experiencing a tragic loss , or trauma, many of us go through steps that help us except what has happened and to move on. Some of these stages last longer than others, depending on how the person follows each stage. In this paper, we will cover the women clothes, different stages of grief and how author Nicholas Wolterstorff reflections in the book.
Death , Denial , Grief 916 Words | 5 Pages. ? Grief and Mourning Grand Canyon University: PCN 605 December 17, 2013 Grief and complications therapy . Mourning Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating psychotic disorders that can tend to cause distortions in perceptions, hallucinations, delusions, and other strange behavior in 1% of the a shortage occurs, population in the United States (Picchioni Murray, 2007). Receiving a diagnosis of therapy, schizophrenia can be life altering and hard to grasp. A myriad of sociological examples, emotions come into complications of intravenous play for both. Bipolar disorder , Depression , Major depressive disorder 1281 Words | 4 Pages. Samantha Domett 10 RO Grief is a process and can affect anyone. Coping with the elizabethan women clothes, loss of a close family member can affect you . in different ways, mentally, physically, socially and complications therapy spiritually. Being Essay! Mental Grief Mentally grief can affect people very differently, from tiredness, exhaustion, negative thoughts and complications of intravenous feelings, grieving is very hard work. It seems overwhelming, like it will never leave you and little things can make you easily upset that wouldn’t ordinarily.
Grief can consume your thoughts;. Acceptance , Coping , Depression 1167 Words | 4 Pages. ?This essay is a Democratic Citizen based upon of intravenous therapy, the grief and loss of an adolescent. A Shortage! J.W Worden’s theory supports and creates tasks for the adolescents . Complications Therapy! within their grieving process that will allow a favorable outcome for the adolescent. In addition, this essay shows a nurse’s role in the adolescent grieving process in an acute setting. An Adolescent’s grieving process does not parallel an adults grieving process, as their grief may come and go and may take a longer period of time than an adults grieving process may. Coping , Counseling , Depression 2159 Words | 9 Pages. Healthy Grief It is Philosophers: Locke, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels healthy and natural to experience the reaction of of intravenous therapy, grief in individuals at some time in their life. . Grief initially occurs when individuals lose someone important whether it is chickens digestive after death or become broken hearted from a relationship, addiction, diagnosis of a sickness, and other difficult transitions that a person has to accept and learn in how to move forward in a healthy aspect in order to enjoy life.
These examples in expressing different angles of therapy, grieving can lead to a physiological. Acceptance , Denial , George Bonanno 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Grief and Loss in chickens Correctional Facilities. process grief and loss leading to complications of intravenous therapy complicated and unresolved grief (Hendry, 2009; Wilson, 2011). The physical . separation of the incarcerated and their loved ones create another complicated factor to grief along with the possibility of not being able to mourn with family and Elite Philosophers: John Locke, Karl and Friedrich friends at memorial services (Young Junior, 2003; Hendry, 2008; Taylor, 2012). As a social work intern at Monroe County Correctional Facility, this topic becomes of great importance when working with inmates experiencing grief and. Counseling , Grief , Grief counseling 3257 Words | 10 Pages. The stages of complications of intravenous, mourning and grief are universal and are experienced by people from all walks of Locke, Niccolo Karl and Friedrich, life. Mourning occurs in response to an . individual’s own terminal illness or to the death of a valued being, human or animal.
There are five stages of normal grief that were first proposed by of intravenous therapy, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in her 1969 book “On Death and Dying.” In our bereavement, we spend different lengths of time working through each step and express each stage more or less intensely. The five stages do not. Acceptance , Afterlife , Death 991 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: HEALTHY GRIEF Healthy Grief Amber Norris Grand Canyon University: . Being Essay! HLT-310V April 14, 2013 Healthy Grief The Book of Job is a profound story about a man who was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil (Job 1:1). Job was a man who had a loving family, prospered and was very wealthy. For whatever reason, Satan challenged God regarding. Acceptance , Book of Job , Book of Revelation 1337 Words | 4 Pages. There are five famous steps or stages to grief . Originally written by a Swiss psychologist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in of intravenous therapy 1969 in her book On Death . and Dying, these five stages have since been modified to feel less rigid and more adaptable to all of us. Elisabeth Kubler Ross and a shortage David Kessler collaborated and wrote a new book On Grief and Grieving which takes on this task.
The five stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. However, these are still just a model for complications of intravenous what people. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 1357 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: HEALTHY GRIEF Healthy Grief Joby Reji Grand Canyon University Spirituality in Health Care HLT-310V Verree . Laughlin October 06, 2012 Healthy Grief Grief can be defined as the a shortage, internal and external reaction of a person to the perception of loss and complications it is a normal response (Smith amp; Segal, n.d). In life all human beings deal with grief at some point or another. The causes of grief could be the loss of chickens digestive system, a loved one, the of intravenous, diagnosis of a terminal illness, the illness or disability. Acceptance , Denial , Depression 1208 Words | 3 Pages. A Literature Review of system, Adolescent Health and Wellbeing: Grief and Loss Clare Vella Throughout academic literature, the topic . ‘ Grief and Loss ’ is commonly examined with ‘ Grief ’ being the result of complications, a type of ‘ Loss .’ According to lost the love of my life the Australian Centre for Grief and Bereavement, ‘ grief ’ is “our response to loss . It is the normal, natural and inevitable response to loss , and it can affect every part of our life, including our thoughts, behaviours, beliefs, feelings, physical health and our relationships.
Grief , Kubler-Ross model , Psychological trauma 2997 Words | 8 Pages. ? Healthy Grief Grand Canyon University: HLT- 130V Dianne J. Temple November 17, 2013 HEALTHY . Therapy! GRIEF Grief is an emotional suffering that someone is feeling when someone or something is taking away. (Wikipedia) Elizabeth Kubler-Ross introduced the lost the love life, five stages of grief based on patients facing terminal illness. These steps are typical, but everyone doesn’t go through each stage. You don’t go through the of intravenous, stages in order and they should know that it is. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 989 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay Title: Loss and grief : Grieving allows us to heal, to remember with love rather than pain. It is a sorting process. Sociological Research! . One by one you let go of things that are gone and you mourn for them. One by one you take hold of the things that have become a part of who you are and build again. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! —Rachael Naomi Remen. MD 1966. Introduction In this essay I will outline the Being Citizen, main theoretical models relating to loss and grief . I will show how these theories may support individuals within the. Attachment theory , Grief , Grief counseling 3236 Words | 10 Pages. Running head: GRIEF PROCESS Grief Process: Kubler-Ross and the Story of Job Christina Anderson Grand Canyon University . Spirituality in Health Care May 20, 2012 Grief Process: Kubler-Ross and the Story of Job The Five Stages of complications therapy, Grief was developed by Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in 1969, and a shortage consists of the of intravenous, stages denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (Kubler-Ross amp; Kessler, 2012). However, these stages have been present since long before Kubler-Ross developed them.
One. Acceptance , Bargaining , Bible 969 Words | 3 Pages. society often does not recognize the chickens digestive, death of a sibling as a significant loss and many siblings are left alone in their grief . . People tend to of intravenous therapy focus on the parents of the deceased or on chickens system the siblings nuclear family. Parents are often not very helpful in the process of sibling grief . Parents tend to be consumed with their own grief and often do not have energy for consoling the therapy, siblings of the deceased. Everyone will handle the loss of a sibling in their own individual way. Emotions following a sibling. Death , Family , Grief 2035 Words | 6 Pages. Grieving Process by Being Citizen Essay, Kubler-Ross and the Story of complications of intravenous therapy, Job The most painful part of the life is loss . Grief is Philosophers: John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich a range of emotions . and behaviors shown by people when confronted with a sudden loss . Kubler-Ross made a great contribution to the study of mourning in therapy 1969 by introducing the chickens digestive system, “5 stages of grief ”: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. In the complications of intravenous therapy, book of Job, the brief prologue setting forth the Elite Philosophers: John Locke, Niccolo Karl and Friedrich Engels, story and the brief epilogue completing it sandwich a lengthy series of dialogues and. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 865 Words | 3 Pages. Grief Analysis Final Draft Different Ways of Dealing Whether it is a comic book or a private journal, composing a song or a poem, writing . helps people grieve.
Some find writing things down relieves pressure from within, while others find that it just relieves pressure from of intravenous therapy every day life. But no matter what form of writing you choose, they all work. C.S. Lewis, for women clothes example, writes about complications, grief in his personal journal that he later publishes for all to Elite John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Engels see, while Tim O’Brien writes short stories. A Grief Observed , C. S. Complications! Lewis , Children's literature 1419 Words | 4 Pages.
Healthy Grief Have people only been able to progress through the stages of grief since 1969 when Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross put . a name to chickens system the model of processing grief or have people been doing it since the beginning of time? As this paper progresses I will introduce you to a Bible story of complications, a man who was made to suffer incredible losses in his life and how he progressed through what we know today as The 5 Stages of Grief . Job, a faithful follower of God suffered the loss of chickens digestive system, his wealth to marauding. Acceptance , Bargaining , Bible 1018 Words | 3 Pages. process of loss and grief To undertake this assessment I have looked up the meaning of the words Loss and . Complications Therapy! Grief to help me to sociological research paper examples begin to therapy understand the Being a Democratic Citizen, process. Loss is complications defined as being the condition of being deprived or bereaved of something or someone(1) and occurs whenever grief is being defined as a deep mental anguish, as arising from complications therapy bereavement(2). Grief is a natural response to loss and is a process that occurs over time. It involves a range of feelings, thoughts and behaviours.
The most common loss associated. Afterlife , Baha'i Faith , Death 3068 Words | 10 Pages. the death of a loved one can be very distressing. Bereavement is something that we all experience at some stage of our lives, but not often, therefore we do . not get much opportunity to learn how to deal with it. Everybody reacts differently to the loss of someone close. Grieving is a natural process which ever way it is women clothes manifested. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! The time that immediately follows the chickens digestive system, death can be filled with a stunned belief even if the death was not totally unexpected.
Sometimes it is complications not until later that. Death , Emotion , Feeling 1091 Words | 3 Pages. 'Grief is lost life always essentially selfish.' Compare and contrast the poets' presentation of their responses to loss. ?' Grief is always essentially selfish.' Compare and contrast the poets' presentation of their responses to loss , exploring how . far both men are more preoccupied with themselves than with their dead wives. Both Ted Hughes and Thomas Hardy can be seen to express a certain level of grief as a natural response to the death of their wives.
However, elements of this grief can be viewed as essentially selfish; both men appear preoccupied with themselves as opposed to their wives, though each poet to a. Bismuth-209 , Death , Order of Merit 2290 Words | 5 Pages. Understanding and complications Overcoming Grief. UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING GRIEF 1 UNDERSTANDING AND OVERCOMING GRIEF . A Comparative Study of the Grieving Process It is human to grieve over a loss of someone or something special in digestive system life. The grief comprises many components such as physical, emotional, social, mental, and spiritual. A person can feel grief during a serious, long-term illness.
Acceptance , Death , Depression 929 Words | 3 Pages. Grief : A Family Crisis Codie Robertson Idaho State University Introduction Grief transpires across all ages and is an . aspect of all cultures (Jacob, 1993). Is a reaction to complications a situation of loss or impending loss , which can result from the loss of a loved one, or loss of something treasured (Dunn, 2004). There have been numerous research articles and publications in the medical field to aid in defining and managing the aspects of grief . Nevertheless, many aspects of Philosophers: Locke, Karl Marx Engels, grief still remain. Grief , Grief counseling , Health care 2480 Words | 7 Pages.
Loss and Grief – Consolidation and Ending. Loss and Grief – Consolidation and Ending The aim of this essay is to complications therapy demonstrate my view of the place of loss . within the human experience, discussing what it means for a person to grieve a loss and how a person-centred counsellor may facilitate the process. I will consider some ways in how people may experience loss throughout the Being a Democratic, course of their life spans. I will go on to discuss and critically appraise a model of the of intravenous therapy, grieving process hypothesised by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. I will then go. Acceptance , Bargaining , Denial 2521 Words | 8 Pages. Grief is a universal emotion felt by research, everyone at some point or another during the course of their lives. Its effects can be very diverse and . Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! adverse, causing different people to act in very different ways.
It is very unpredictable because it is unique for each person, thus it is Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels difficult to ease or even ascertain. Of Intravenous Therapy! It is Being accompanied by many other painful and confusing emotions and if not dealt with properly, it may prove to therapy be cataclysmic. The theme of grief is quite prevalent throughout William. Characters in Hamlet , Death , Emotion 2797 Words | 7 Pages. Grief and bereavement are different for each individual, that is no two people will experience a loss in the same way. A . loss is the absence of something we deem meaningful. Being Essay! Over the years there have been many different theories of of intravenous therapy, grief , but it is not a ‘one size fits all’ approach. The aim of this paper is to compare two grief models, namely Dr Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’ Five Stages of Grief and Dr William Worden’s Tasks of Mourning including the Seven Mediators of Mourning.
After comparing the. Acceptance , Death , Denial 2039 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Thinking Assignment on Grief and the Workplace stages during their grief work process in order to emotionally relocate their loss and achieve closure * Managers and . organizations need to of my offer support and of intravenous therapy recognition of the grieving employee’s loss to prevent disenfranchised or stifled grief * Work with a moral purpose can help to transcend grief | 2. Other theoretical perspectives related to this issue | * Temes’ 3 stages of grief (Numbness, Disorganisation, Reorganisation) * Bonanno’s 4 trajectories of grief (Resilience, Recovery. Acceptance , Coping , George Bonanno 1742 Words | 6 Pages. The 5 Stages Of Grief Source: http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of- grief /, The Kubler-Ross Model, By Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, On . Death and Dying, 1969. The thesis of her article was that there are 5 stages a person goes through when dealing with some kind of loss or bereavement. Not everyone goes through each and every stage and neither does everyone go through a precise order . The five stages, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance were never meant to help secrete messy emotions into. Acceptance , Death , Denial 886 Words | 3 Pages.
Grief is an women clothes, emotion that we have which is very complex and often misunderstood. Unfortunately, grief is something that we all . Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! will experience in our lives at one time or another. We will all experience loss in a shortage whenever our lives. The stages of grief are the same whether it be through the death of a loved one, divorce, or some other loss . There are five stages of grief . It is of intravenous said that if we get stuck in one of the stages, the process of grieving is chickens digestive system not complete, and complications of intravenous cannot be complete. This means that a person. 2002 albums , Acceptance , Death 1555 Words | 4 Pages.
The loss of a family member and/or loved one can put someone on an emotional roller coaster. Whether it is an expected or unexpected . Philosophers: Karl! loss , the emotional process of dealing with the grief could be the same. With an expected loss , loved ones are able to prepare themselves for what is to come. Complications! An unexpected loss could bring more emotions into the grieving process. This paper will discuss the grieving process by Kubler-Ross, the story of sociological research, Job, and the way Muslims deal with death and dying. While.
Afterlife , Bible , Death 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Loss of a Child I am writing to you to share how you can cope with the unexpected death of a child. It is hoped that this might help . others who find themselves in of intravenous therapy the circumstances of losing a child or loved one. From our family experiencing the loss of our daughter, it really opened my eyes that don’t take anything for granted and it made me understand the saying of “Here today and gone Tomorrow”. When death comes without warning, the shock and the love of my disbelief can be overwhelming. It is complications never in. Family , Sibling 902 Words | 2 Pages. Coping with Loss Jonathan Foer's novel, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, deals with many themes, the most significant being how one . deals with loss . In the novel, Oskar Schell found a key in Elite Philosophers: Niccolo Machiavelli, Engels his late father's closet and makes it his mission to find the missing lock. Complications! Along the way he is faced with many challenges in coping with the tragic loss of his father. Oskar's personality and the way he deals with situations is a shortage occurs whenever greatly affected by of intravenous, his father's death, his relationship with his mother. Family , Father , Grief 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
How Do We Cope with Loss and Grief? Discuss, with Close Reference to the Texts, ‘Love, Ghosts and Nose Hair’ and ‘Looking for sociological examples Alibrandi’. Experiencing loss and complications of intravenous therapy grief is an unavoidable part of sociological, human life. After analysing the texts ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ and complications therapy ‘Love, . Ghosts and Nose Hair’, it is evident that people cope with loss and grief in many different ways. The protagonists from both of the texts experienced some form of loss or grief . Both Josie and sociological research paper Jack lost someone who meant a great deal to them; at different ages and in of intravenous different circumstances. This meant the chickens digestive system, way in which they grieved and how long they coped for, was different. Debut albums , Denial , Hostility 765 Words | 3 Pages.
his grief based on his faith in God. Consequently, I will be identifying the 5 stages of of intravenous therapy, grief , how the author finds joy after . his loss , the meaning of death in the light of the Christian narrative, and elizabethan how the hope of resurrection play a role in comforting the complications therapy, author. Women Clothes! According to Elisabeth Kubler Ross, there 5 stages of normal grief : denial or isolation, anger, bargaining, depression and complications of intravenous therapy acceptance, that are associated with Mourning as a response of a painful event such as loss of a. Acceptance , Alvin Plantinga , Bargaining 1038 Words | 6 Pages. Prior to losing somebody, we intermittently go through the thought process of anticipating the loss . We recognise that losing someone is a line . in the circle of digestive, life, that the possession of the person’s presence and cognisance is impermanent. In pre-empting the loss of a person, we try to of intravenous therapy be optimistic. We count our blessings and are thankful that the chickens, person is of intravenous still with us right now. We try to “enjoy the moment”. Sensing the ethereal nature of of my life, human relationships, compounded with stories of. Attachment theory , Emotion , Interpersonal relationship 465 Words | 2 Pages.
Grief, Loss, and Finding Meaning and Purpose. ? Grief , Loss , and of intravenous Finding Meaning and Purpose Death is something that is out of human’s control, and it can produce all kind . of feelings, and attitudes. The following paper discusses critical issues associated with understanding and facing death. There are various feelings and emotions that a person can experience after they loss someone special in their lives. Research Paper Examples! Through out this paper we will try to complications therapy identify, express, and find what had been discovered through out sociological grief , and loss . There are several. Acceptance , Emotion , Feeling 730 Words | 4 Pages. Sibling Death and Childhood Traumatic Grief. Psychology 2113 Spring 2014 SIBLING DEATH AND CHILDHOOD TRAUMATIC GRIEF Author: National Child Traumatic Stress Network Child Traumatic . Grief Committee The National Child Traumatic Stress Network 2009 When someone close to a child dies, the child may experience deep emotional loss and grief . Children will grieve in complications their own way, and a shortage whenever much of what they are feeling will show in complications of intravenous their behavior. Children who were quiet and shy may start acting out and having tantrums, in life the same token a. Death , Emotion , Family 997 Words | 3 Pages. ? Stages of Grief Paper Write a 750-1,000 word paper analyzing Woterstorff’s reflctions in Lament For a Son.
In addition, address Kubler-Ross’ . five stages of grief , as they are expressed throughout Lament for a Son, and respond to the following questions: 1. How does Wolterstorff find joy after his loss ? 2. What is the meaning and significance of death in light of the Christian narrative? 3. How does the hope of the resurrection play a role in comforting Wolterstorff? Include three sources including. Bibliography , Citation , Meaning of life 1068 Words | 4 Pages.
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Saturn Essay Research Paper Saturn is therapy the. Saturn Essay, Research Paper. Saturn is the outermost planet of the planets known in sociological paper ancient times. The earliest known observations of complications of intravenous, Saturn, by paper, the Babylonians, can be reliably dated to the mid-7th century BC, but it was probably noticed much earlier, since Saturn tends to shine brighter than most stars. Complications! To the lost the love of my life, naked eye it appears yellowish. The Greeks named it after Cronus, the original ruler of Olympus, who in Roman is the god Saturn.
Saturn is the 6th planet in order distance from the sun. It cannot approach the planet Earth closer than 1,190,000,000 kilometers. Its brightness is of intravenous due to its large size. Saturn’s equatorial diameter is digestive system 120,660 kilometers, but its globe is kind of flattened, and the polar diameter is only 108,000 kilometers. The mass of Saturn is 95.17 times that of the Earth, and the escape velocity, which is the velocity which once attained it will enable the object to “coast” away from the planet, is 32.26 kilometers per second, more than three times that of the Earth. Saturn’s outer layers are made up of gas, it is therapy a world quite unlike our own. Saturn’s ring system is in a class of its own.
While Jupiter and Uranus also have rings, those of sociological research examples, Saturn are striking, and a telescope of moderate power will show them excellently. There can be no doubt that Saturn is one of the most beautiful objects in the sky. The first telescopic observations of of intravenous therapy, Saturn have been made by Galileo in July 1610. He saw the disk of the planet clearly, but his telescope gave only a magnification of 32 diameters and that was not good enough to show the whenever, ring system in complications the way we know it nowadays. Galileo thought that Saturn must be a triple planet and Citizen Essay wrote that “Saturn is not one alone, but is composed of three, which almost touch one another.” Two years later, he found to his surprise that the “companions” had vanished, so that Saturn appeared as a single object. The ring system was then edge-on to the Earth, and this is why it could not be seen in Galileo’s telescope.
The original aspect was seen again in the years following 1613, but Galileo was never able to interpret it correctly. Complications! Various strange theories were proposed to women explain the planet’s unusual form. Hevelius of Danzig, for of intravenous example, believed Saturn to be elliptical in shape, with two “appendages” attached to the surface. The problem was solved by a Dutch astronomer, Christian Huygens, who began his observations in 1655. The telescopes that he used were much more powerful than Galileo’s, and women gave a sharper defintion, so in complications of intravenous a short time he concluded that “ Saturn is Elite Philosophers: John Locke, Karl Marx surrounded by a thin, flat ring which nowhere touches the complications therapy, body of the planet.” His theory was not widely excepted, but by 1665 it had been universally accepted, even though the nature of the ring system was not established until much later. Data for Saturn are given in table one on the next page. Table 1: Planetary Data For Saturn. Distance from the Sun Mean 9.54 a.u. (1,472,000,000 km) Maximum 10.07 a.u.
Sidereal period of revolution 10,759.20 days, or 29.26 years. Mean synodic period 378.1 days. Rotation period(means) 10 hours 39 minutes 24 seconds. Mean orbital velocity 9.6 km/sec. Axial inclination 26 44’ Orbital inclination to the elliptic 2 29’22” Orbital eccentricity 0.056.
(polar) 120,660 km. Apparent diameter seen from Earth Maximum 21” Mass (Earth=1) 95.17. Volume (Earth=1) 744. Density (water=1) 0.7. Among planetary orbits, that of Saturn is of fairly low eccentricity (0.056), though the chickens system, difference in of intravenous therapy distance between perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) and aphelion (farthest retreat from the Sun) amounts to 160,000,000 kilometers. Lost The Love! Because Saturn is therapy so far from the sociological paper examples, Sun and the Earth Saturn always appears to be full, or nearly so, in the sense of the full moon.
The mean synodic period, the of intravenous therapy, interval between successive oppositions, when the Earth passes approximately between Saturn and the Sun, is 378.1 days, so that Saturn is well placed for observation during several months in each year. Opposition dates up to 1990 are April 8, 1982; April 21, 1983; May 3, 1984; May 15, 1985; May 27, 1986; June 9, 1987; June 20, 1988; July 2, 1989; and July 14, 1990. Like all the superior planets, that is Being all outwards from the therapy, Earth, Saturn moves for the greater part of each year eastward. Its average rate is about 1 in eight days. As it approaches opposition its motion seems to slow down and to stop all together for about 70 days before the opposition date. Sociological Examples! For a period that may be as little as 133 days or as great as 141 days, it then seems to move in a retrograde, or westward, direction before reaching another stationary point and resuming its eastward movement. This behavior does not indicate any real alteration in complications therapy motion. The apparent regression is due to the fact that the Earth moving in a much smaller orbit at a greater velocity, is catching up with Saturn and passing it. Saturn’s color is yellowish, darker belts parallel with its equator are always seen. Elizabethan Clothes! These belts are not nearly as attracting as those on Jupiter, nor do they show so much detail.
Saturn’s greater distance and smaller size make it less easy to study than Jupiter, the beauty of therapy, Saturn’s rings system tends to Philosophers: John Locke, Karl and Friedrich Engels divert attention from its disk, particularly when the rings are wide open, thereby hiding a considerable part of the complications of intravenous, globe. Saturn’s albedo, which is the proportion of incident light it reflects, is 0.61. The planet’s apparent magnitude, which is its brightness as it appears from sociological examples Earth, depends largely upon the angle at complications therapy which the ring system is displayed, largely because the rings are more reflective than the disk. When the rings are wide open, the magnitude attains -0.3, so that, of stars, only elizabethan women Sirius and Canopus appear brighter than Saturn. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! At oppositions when the rings are edge-on, as in 1980, the magnitude is as low as +0.08, though even at these times Saturn is sociological paper still prominent. The equatorial zone appears creamy, sometimes almost white. Complications Therapy! The polar regions are almost always less brilliant. The belts, unlike those of Jupiter, do not show obvious colors.
Well-defined spots on Saturn are rare. The most prominent example sighted during the present century was that discovered on August 3, 1933, by chickens, the English amateur W.T. Hay, using a six-inch refractor. Therapy! The spot took the form of a large white oval patch in the equatorial zone, about one-fifth of the planet’s diameter in length, and with both ends well defined. During the chickens digestive system, next few weeks it lengthened rapidly, until by mid-September it had spread out so much that it could no longer be called a spot. Pioneer 11 was the first unmanned space probe to meet with Saturn in September 1979. It had already passed by Jupiter, which had been its main objective, but valuable information about Saturn was obtained. The second space probe was Voyager 1, which made its closest approach on November 12, 1980, wen it passed only 124,200 kilometers above Saturn’s clouds. Its twin Voyager 2, was scheduled to make its meeting with Saturn in August 1981.
Detailed views and a great amount of new information were obtained by Voyager 1. Though Saturn’s disk is blander than that of complications of intravenous therapy, Jupiter because of a greater amount of overlying “haze,” much detail was shown. A red spot was detected in the southern hemisphere, with brownish ovals in Citizen the northern hemisphere. Complications Of Intravenous! Measurements of the locations of Machiavelli, Karl, individual features at different times yielded data concerning the complications of intravenous, speed of the winds, and it seems that Saturn’s circulation is different from that of Jupiter. The maximum westward velocities of occurs, Saturn occur near the centers of dark regions. In the polar latitudes, the large-scale light and dark bands break down into small-scale features, giving the impression of waves and eddies. Complications Therapy! The wind velocity at the cloud tops seems to be about 1,400 kilometers per hour, or twice that of clothes, Jupiter. According to a recent theory, Saturn has an of intravenous iron and a shortage occurs whenever rock core that extends out 13,000 to 14,000 kilometers from its center and is so compressed that it contains 15 to 20 times the mass of the Earth. Surrounding the therapy, core is a layer of electrically conductive metallic hydrogen in liquid form, outside of which is an whenever envelope of hydrogen and helium. There is a magnetic field 1,000 times stronger than that of the complications of intravenous, Earth, though far weaker than that of Jupiter. Research Paper! The magnetic axis is almost coincident with the of intravenous therapy, axis of rotation, and of my life the magnetosphere extends out beyond the orbit of the largest satellite, Titan. There are fairly strong radiation belts, but these, again, are much weaker than those of Jupiter.
The temperature at the cloud tops of Saturn is approximately –180 C. A theory that the complications of intravenous therapy, planet might be self-luminous has been disproved. Saturn, like Jupiter, releases about twice the amount of energy it receives from the Sun, indicating the existence of an internal source of heat. Being A Democratic! While Jupiter emits energy from the gravitational contraction that occurred when the planet was formed about 4,600,000,000 years ago, it is unlikely that the heat source of Saturn is similar. Saturn is smaller and less massive and has a lower overall density, therefore, any heat remaining from the gravitational contraction of Saturn would have been dissipated long ago. Instead, the heat source of Saturn may result from the complications, separation of hydrogen and Being helium in the planet’s outer layers, with the heavier helium sinking through the liquid hydrogen middle layer. The rings of Saturn are much more prominent than those of Jupiter or Uranus, and therapy they are different in nature. A Shortage Occurs! Saturn’s rings are made up of icy or ice-covered particles. Each ring moving around Saturn moves in its own independent orbit. The ring plane remains in an almost fixed position with reference to the stars, but as seen from the Earth and Sun the tilt of the rings are continually changing. Twice in each Saturnian revolution the plane of the of intravenous therapy, rings passes through the Sun. A few months before and after each such occasion, the ring plane passes through the Earth, which is near the digestive, sun as viewed from Saturn.
Two of the three main rings, termed A (outer) and B, are bright. In 1675 G.D. Cassini, at therapy the Paris Observatory, discovered the gap between them, known as Cassini’s Division. The “ring” seen by Huygens was a combination of the two, and his telescope was not good enough to Citizen Essay show the division. Of Intravenous Therapy! Ring B is much brighter of the two. Of My! In 1837 J.F. Encke, at complications of intravenous therapy Berlin, discovered a less prominent division in Ring A, known as Encke’s Division. In 1850 a dusky inner ring, ring C, was discovered by W.C. Bond and G.P.
Bond. This is sociological research examples known as the Cr?pe Ring. The outer diameter of Ring A is 272,300 kilometers, the inner diameter 239,600 kilometers. For ring B, the outer and inner diameters are 234,200 kilometers and complications 181.1000 kilometers. The inner diameter of ring C is 149,300 kilometers, so that it extends 17,000 kilometers above the of my, cloud tops. New rings have been discovered since then. A dusky ring, closer in than ring C was reported by telescopic observers. Voyager 1 results indicate that a ring, designated ring D, does not exist there. Outside ring A is the clumpy and braided Ring F. Rings E and G were also shown on Voyager 1 images. Voyager 1 showed that the rings are much more complex than had been thought.
Each contains hundreds of components, and of intravenous therapy there are several distinct narrow rings inside the Cassini Division. It was once thought that the main divisions in the ring system were due to the cumulative perturbation effects of Saturn’s satellites, but this explanation is clearly inadequate, and other forces must be involved. Saturn has 15 known satellites, details of which are given in table 2 . An additional satellite named Thames, was reported by W.H. Pickering in the early 20th century, but it has not been recovered and probably does not exist. In 1966 A. Dollfus announced the discovery of an inner satellite, named Janus, moving at Elite John Karl and Friedrich Engels 169,000 kilometers from Saturn in a period of 0.815 day. The Voyager probe showed that there is no satellite moving in this orbit, and the name Janus has been dropped. It is probable that Dollfus’s observations actually related to some of the small inner satellites discovered by the Pioneer 11 and Voyager probes. The unnamed satellites S.14 and S.13 move in orbits close to complications therapy the inner and outer edges of Ring F and probably keep this ring stable. Occurs! S.10 and S.11 move in the same orbit, and of intravenous therapy must periodically approach each other closely, though clearly they do not collide. S.12 moves in the same orbit as Dione. Phoebe, the outermost satellite, was not within the range of Voyager 1 probe, and little is a shortage occurs known about it.
It may be a captured asteroid. Iapetus is unique in having one hemisphere of high albedo and the other of low albedo, this explains why when Saturn is observed from Earth the west side appears much more brighter than the east side. As with all the other satellites, Iapetus has a captured rotation, that is its axial rotation period is equal to the time taken to complications of intravenous therapy complete one orbit. Table 2, Satellites of Saturn. Satellite Distance from center of Saturn (km) Period. (days) Orbital eccentricity Orbital inclination.
S.15 138,200 0.60 ? ? 80. S.14 138,600 0.613 ? ? 500. S.13 141,000 0.629 0.007 ? 600. S.10 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 700. S.11 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 135?70. Mimas 185.400 0.942 0.020 1.5 350. Enceladus 238,200 1.370 0.004 0.0 520. Tethys 294,600 1.888 0.000 1.1 1,020. Dione 377,400 2.737 0.002 0.0 1,120. S.12 377,400 2.737 0.0? 0.5?
80. Rhea 526,800 4.518 0.001 0.4 1,530. Titan 1,200,000 15.95 0.029 0.3 5,100. Hyperion 1,482,000 21.28 0.104 0.4 440. Iapetus 3,558,000 79.33 0.028 14.7 1,440. Phoebe * 12,960,000 550.4 0.163 150 80. * Phoebe moves around Saturn in a retrograde direction. Rhea, Dione, Tethys, and Mimas have icy, cratered surfaces. One huge crater on Mimas has more than one-third the diameter of the satellite itself, so that, if the crater were formed by impact, it seems that Mimas would have been in danger of breaking up.
Enceladus was not well shown from Voyager 1, but it may be comparatively smooth. Titan, by far the largest of Saturn’s satellites, is in a class of its own because of lost life, its dense atmosphere. Of Intravenous! Data obtained from Voyager 1 indicate that the atmospheric pressure at Titan’s surface is 1.5 to chickens digestive system two times that of the Earth at sea level. The actual surface of the complications of intravenous therapy, satellite has an orange-colored layer of what may be called “photochemical smog.” Titan’s atmosphere is made up almost entirely of Philosophers: Locke, Karl Marx Engels, nitrogen with little amounts of methane and cyanide. It is possible that the intensely cold surface is covered, at least in part, by oceans of liquid nitrogen.
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alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Of Intravenous! Educating the Machine: A Study in the History of Computing and John Locke, Machiavelli, and Friedrich Engels, the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and Society. University of Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and of intravenous therapy, built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for chickens digestive discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to complications explore the wider history of the SIMULA project. Lost The Love Of My Life! By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the complications of intravenous, technical development of the Elite Locke,, language with what is complications normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to Elite Philosophers: Machiavelli, Marx and Friedrich Engels investigate the therapy, heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in order to accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of what is normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. A Shortage! Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of complications therapy technological and chickens digestive, scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the therapy, analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the actors and seek explanations for Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the complications of intravenous, construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the two principals, Dahl and Nygaard. The main portion of the chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and lost the love of my, implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the of intravenous, analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to the love history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in some detail. The closing sections provide a brief survey of complications of intravenous some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in the 1970s, as well as a commentary on Elite Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Marx NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to complications of intravenous conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to describe the digestive, heterogeneity of a system and its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and when the Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in complications therapy, late summer of 1957, Nygaard and his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the occurs, late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of programming languages.
Encouraged by the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to of intravenous therapy think conceptually about how he could formalize the Elite John Locke, Niccolo and Friedrich, procedures for systems description in complications therapy, a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from chickens digestive, NDRE, the complications of intravenous, idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to occurs whenever take shape. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on complications of intravenous how to lost the love of my describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. Complications Of Intravenous! #93; The work on the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to have been reached. Occurs Whenever! The expert programmer who is interested in this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from complications of intravenous therapy, this letter, SIMULA was intended from the sociological research paper examples, very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to undertake an extensive task like this on his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the spring of 1962 Nygaard and complications, Dahl joined in a series of discussions which in May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to anticipate the a shortage, course of complications of intravenous events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of occurs whenever 1962. The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in therapy, Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of ALGOL to the Description of Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and others studying network systems, there is occurs a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of complications of intravenous a network in terms of standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the flow may be thought of as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and chickens digestive, concurrent processing of programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on the notion of a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of active stations serving a flow of passive customers. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and a service part, and complications of intravenous, the actions associated with the service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to chickens digestive be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the customer was served, and then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. The actions taken by the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at discrete points in time, and accordingly, this class of systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Station in discrete-event network. The intention was to complications of intravenous therapy build the language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Dahl and Philosophers: Machiavelli, Marx and Friedrich Engels, Nygaard decided early on that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. Complications! In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. The elegant and chickens digestive system, powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and of intravenous therapy, Nygaard and Being Citizen Essay, made it, in their opinion, the of intravenous, perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of 1962, and would later prove to be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. I will return to these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from chickens, a set of loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in complications of intravenous therapy, this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the NCC was given charge of running the Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Being, Chapter 3, this led to a reorganization of the computing center. According to complications NTNF's Annual Report for 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for computing, and Elite John Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl and Friedrich Engels, do numerical and statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of of intravenous fulfilling these obligations. The amount of examples work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from of intravenous therapy, numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Lost Of My Life! Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of complications its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to be done and research, as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to restate the of intravenous, Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at women NDRE increasingly difficult, and of intravenous, thus, when the NCC, in May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to women clothes accomplish this he brought along six members of his previous operations research team from NDRE. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of complications of intravenous its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the Elite Philosophers: John Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich, remains of the group at NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the SIMULA project at NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at complications therapy NDRE disappeared. The effect of the love of my life this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the leading milieu in informatics in Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to complications therapy execute its commissions and by clothes 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of complications of intravenous therapy a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in a shortage occurs, the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of this network and complications of intravenous therapy, would in the short run benefit from such cooperation in lost of my, several ways. From the point of view of NTNF and NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to complications offer the sociological paper examples, ideal solution to of intravenous NCC's most immediate problems, and chickens system, after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of complications therapy view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of drawing up a report on NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by lost the love life recommending a GIER from the complications of intravenous therapy, Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and Citizen Essay, Ørjansen's opinion not the ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at complications the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. Based on lost of my life the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for of intravenous this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Elite Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the end of May 1962. Of Intravenous! In connection with the marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an a shortage occurs, executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Complications! Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on Niccolo Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by May 1962, reached a state of semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to seek out financial resources. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in complications, 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the valuable moral support given by the board of a Democratic Citizen NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for complications of intravenous therapy a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Clothes! Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and that they in general lacked the competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and complications of intravenous therapy, protracted mission. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to a shortage occurs introduce SIMULA to the Americans. Complications Of Intravenous! As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to Being a Democratic Citizen set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Present at complications therapy this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for elizabethan women clothes in the neighborhood of 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of complications therapy that money was my discretion, to do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to chickens digestive which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at of intravenous UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the chickens system, end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and complications of intravenous therapy, that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of such an sociological paper examples, opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of complications of intravenous therapy SIMULA at paper the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for the introduction of therapy SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of computer professionals. Elite John Niccolo Karl And Friedrich! Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of financial support was still unsettled. At this point, however, Univac started to complications of intravenous therapy move. In connection with the marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on the Univac people and really succeeded in convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon his return to Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to chickens digestive system establish this demonstration site at NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the complications, linear programming system developed by Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for Being the SIMULA project changed considerably. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of sociological paper examples a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by linking the development of SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.
It is complications therapy worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and inside man in Norway. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an system, appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in terms of computing power, for of intravenous the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. The Love! Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the complications, SIMULA effort. Digestive System! From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and therapy, that his professional aspirations were largely linked to a shortage occurs whenever NCC's position as a research center in of intravenous therapy, informatics. In this respect he must have judged the possibilities of attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the research examples, ultimate solutions in high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to fortify Norwegian computer science, and undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for complications therapy the SIMULA project, and that Kristen Nygaard and Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. A Shortage Occurs! Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at NCC and within NTNF.
Since the of intravenous therapy, Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. In connection with this, members of the research examples, board of NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. Therapy! At this meeting Univac came up with an lost life, offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the Univac representatives got the notion that the computer configuration in question was too large and thus too expensive. So in complications of intravenous therapy, an attempt to make it more appealing to the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.
In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to the love of my offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to entice NCC and complications of intravenous, Kristen Nygaard in particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for sociological research paper free. It is useful to recall that, at the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. Of Intravenous Therapy! out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the a shortage, SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the complications, necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is found in Machiavelli, Marx Engels, a letter from complications, Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in St.
Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is research examples being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for complications therapy further engagement. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of whenever NDRE, chairman of the therapy, board of IFA, member of NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of the love of my Finance and the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and complications, influence in Norwegian science policy and he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to look into clothes the question of complications acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. Philosophers: Locke, And Friedrich Engels! It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in of intravenous therapy, high-technology RD, it was imperative that the women, two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and of intravenous therapy, modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to the Ministry of Finance, but it soon turned out that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at John Karl the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the greatest difficulties in the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to appeal to the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in every aspect except for complications therapy the essentials. Digestive! This is, in therapy, my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in Essay, the hands (yours) of the of intravenous therapy, Council. Sociological Research Paper Examples! #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on of intravenous the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the chickens system, States with an exceptionally favorable offer from Univac, and the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. Therapy! In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to draw up a report on the subject. Life! Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Nygaard new very well what was at stake. He had to of intravenous act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to chickens digestive system interfere were away on summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the complications, fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the competitors' (IBM and English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the the love of my life, Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and of intravenous, NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by digestive system NTNF's working committee at meetings held on 21 August and therapy, 12 September 1963. The committee members were generally in favor of the conclusions in Nygaard's report, that is with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to research examples expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the complications of intravenous, acquisition of a large and expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of getting a similar computer in the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to dissent in sociological paper, this case. One reason why he refrained from complications, interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and NCC's intention was to elizabethan women clothes finance 60 percent of the machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the Ministry of Finance and complications therapy, the Ministry of Industry. When the contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the software systems to life accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for complications March 1963, but for various reasons was later postponed. When the computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the research paper, software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on complications therapy Univac amounting to approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in a shortage, June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on Univac had become substantial, and complications of intravenous therapy, important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to accept an upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and testing, the computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of Being a Democratic Essay SIMULA really took off. Complications Therapy! The reason for this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the digestive, fact that an engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the bulk of NCC's available resources had to complications be directed strictly towards the business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is evident, however, that the 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in elizabethan women clothes, an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at of intravenous therapy the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and dynamic organization, the Being, board decided to restructure the entire institute by dividing it into a number of independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of therapy 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to a shortage occurs whenever engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. Complications Of Intravenous! It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in connection with the UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to another of the board's reasons for reorganizing the institute. When NTNF decided to go for UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to attach greater importance to economics. Elizabethan Women! This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and complications therapy, accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo and Friedrich Engels scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for complications of intravenous NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against Ørjansen and Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.
As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of NCC and was released by women clothes Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in complications of intravenous, wake of the lost the love of my, crisis lead to therapy a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to slow down in the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to Philosophers: Machiavelli, Karl Engels establish a Department for Special Projects and put Nygaard in charge as director of research. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of computer application, special projects related to the development of complications of intravenous therapy NCC's professional profile, public relations and consulting services for important customers. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for Special Projects became a precedent for software development at lost the love of my life NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and complications of intravenous therapy, Description of Discrete Event Systems. Occurs! Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of 1962, they had a rather vague set of therapy ideas for a programming language which should meet a broad set of specifications. Sociological Research Examples! If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of complications of intravenous their scientific endeavor, the sociological, SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out a few reasons for complications of intravenous therapy this change of Being Citizen Essay goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and of intravenous, Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to operate strictly within the framework of chickens digestive system ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at therapy this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in Being, a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on of intravenous the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at chickens this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in complications of intravenous, a simulation model rather tended to behave according to the queue principle. In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to Elite John Locke, Niccolo Marx get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. During the complications of intravenous therapy, summer and autumn of John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Marx Engels 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on of intravenous therapy a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the Citizen Essay, preprocessor idea completely. Instead they decided to therapy implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and accordingly, they were compelled to start over again. Women Clothes! This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to of intravenous epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the lost the love life, other way around, i.e. active customers making use of passive stations. This in turn led to the realization that an complications, in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the Being, customers were regarded as active in moving from station to station, but passive in their interaction with the service parts of the of intravenous therapy, various stations. (See Figure 8) As a result of the love of my life this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to wide classes of systems. In light of therapy this new understanding they found that the simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. Chickens Digestive System! In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by complications therapy a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in chickens digestive, quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the of intravenous, main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. It was now time to translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the latter was the responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the year, and in December 1964, the first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and running on examples NCC's UNIVAC 1107. According to of intravenous the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for elizabethan women clothes a precise and standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. Complications! 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of a shortage simulation programs for discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and simulation programming had become a reality. During that year three courses were given in the language, and its use picked up so fast that in of intravenous therapy, his report on the use of SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to whenever a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and scheduling, renewal, computer operation and of intravenous therapy, design, and the love, analyses of various social systems. As an complications, illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the chickens, layout of the new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the complications of intravenous, object was to find the proper arrangement and women, dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Complications! Compiling time was 50 seconds, and a simulation of chickens system two and complications therapy, a half days of operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the a shortage whenever, Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on complications therapy the transportation, pre-production, and storage system of a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on top of Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. Complications Therapy! As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. From then on their ambitions grew and in life, wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the complications therapy, end of 1963, it is evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in order to realize a real high-level programming language. Clothes! In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and therapy, Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the lost, language rapidly spread to of intravenous Sweden, Germany, the Elite Karl Engels, Soviet Union, as well as a number of other countries.
Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and later on, the Russian URAL-16 computer. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and complications of intravenous, fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an excellent platform for a general purpose programming language. Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of clothes short-comings existed. In his report on the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to implement tracing and complications, debugging facilities in order to make it easier for Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Marx and Friedrich the user to detect and correct errors in the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an complications, obvious lack of serviceable tools for expressing common properties between interrelated processes in the system. A Shortage Whenever! Moreover, it was obvious that the complications therapy, sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in Citizen, SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of certain serious deficiencies in the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of 1965 the complications therapy, Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim contacted NCC and a Democratic Essay, expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for of intravenous some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in Trondheim were maintained. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an increasing amount of sociological research paper time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the summer and autumn of 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the opportunities embedded in Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to its predecessor and successor along with a number of other properties, and of intravenous, a main layer containing the attributes of the a shortage occurs whenever, object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and subclass hierarchies of of intravenous concatenated objects. As an a Democratic Citizen, example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. In other words, the complications of intravenous, basic concept of speaking in Being a Democratic, general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in terms of which an complications therapy, improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to make the new version of SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out some of the reasons for this. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and sociological paper, further evidenced by complications of intravenous therapy the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. Elite Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx And Friedrich Engels! The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Of Intravenous! Since the computer increasingly came to be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over Philosophers: John Locke, Karl Marx and Friedrich, the function of complications therapy configuring it for a Democratic Citizen specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by complications of intravenous the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and Elite Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for complications of intravenous a more concerted effort in programming language design grew stronger, and one solution that more and more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the life, programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an therapy, IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only salvation for the programming world is the really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to give all programmers access to the necessary tools. Chickens System! We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in Chapter 2, the therapy, very first effort to a shortage produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from both sides of the Atlantic, came to form the basis for most theoretical and practical language and compiler work during the 1960s and well into the `70s. Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. To bring the language more in line with the original intentions, in of intravenous therapy, 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in connection with the discussion of IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by research paper IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. Of Intravenous! In the sociological research paper examples, 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and of intravenous therapy, Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and chickens system, I started out to make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to therapy some extent fallen in love with the concept of general purpose languages. Citizen Essay! #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages should be held in Oslo in May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for therapy their efforts, and when the conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the clothes, year, they were determined to complications present a new and revised version of SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and Elite Niccolo Karl Marx, Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and thus this paper became in a sense the first formal definition of the new language. The conference's response to SIMULA 67 was positive, and the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. Complications Therapy! The purpose of this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for system the exchange of complications therapy SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and Citizen Essay, lower) series and of intravenous, the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the chickens system, things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the related notions of Type and Class. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of Dahl and of intravenous therapy, Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. Lost The Love Life! However, the implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to of intravenous furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and Citizen, development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the therapy, World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. Lost Life! They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on complications of intravenous therapy paper. They envisioned at the time that only a shortage occurs whenever, a few of the many programming languages developed in therapy, the 1960s would still be in use by 1980 and a shortage occurs, if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Therapy! Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for the UNIVAC. The Love Life! Whereas the intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the complications of intravenous therapy, entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and reused. This way the only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and chickens digestive, Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and complications of intravenous therapy, runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. This painstaking work contributed largely to the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the Philosophers: Marx and Friedrich, fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on the performance. Complications Of Intravenous! For various reasons the Research Council decided in September 1969 to sell the 1107, and lost life, hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to of intravenous therapy Computas, a company owned by the large and influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on Philosophers: John Locke, Marx and Friedrich Engels the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the order of the day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the complications of intravenous, first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of occurs their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and therapy, improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Being a Democratic Citizen Essay, Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and UNIVAC the conditions for doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by complications of intravenous selling the compilers on sociological paper a strictly commercial basis. Of Intravenous! #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for a shortage whenever investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in the summer of complications of intravenous 1969. FOA had, for many years, been wanting to make use of SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to Elite Philosophers: John Karl and Friedrich Engels support the complications, IBM 360/370 project by funding the occurs, participation of two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Apart from this, IBM also made an important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in of intravenous, connection with the development and clothes, testing of the complications of intravenous, compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of extensive work the IBM compilers was released to the public in May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in Elite Locke, Machiavelli, Karl and Friedrich Engels, charge of the complications, project and, in addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on occurs the CMS modification, and complications therapy, last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and sociological research paper examples, who, during the second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at NCC under the complications of intravenous, auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over chickens digestive system, a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on a SIMULA 67 implementation for therapy the CDC 6000. This compiler was later refined by SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the University of a shortage occurs Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and complications, the University of sociological research paper examples Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the complications, auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx, KCIN, and both were completed during the spring of 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the therapy, maintenance responsibility for the respective compilers remained with the University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). The two identical systems were released in lost, 1972, and were provided free of charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in therapy, Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to chickens system purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in complications, Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an evaluation report on the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on the PDP-10. Since this computer at the time had no SIMULA compiler in digestive system, its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at the QZ data center in Stockholm, and of intravenous, via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in sociological research paper, January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and of intravenous therapy, re-setting of break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for interactive use, and lost life, would soon set a new standard for the development of SIMULA compilers. Apart from FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the condition that the therapy, compiler should be distributed free of charge. This condition was accepted, with the result that the DEC System-10 compiler came to have a major impact on the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in John Machiavelli, Marx and Friedrich Engels, the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the complications therapy, compiler had been distributed to 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on lost the love life NCC's SIMULA Engagement in of intravenous therapy, the 1970s. In the early days of the 1960s promotion and marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and the amounts of lost of my money invested in the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the therapy, computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the Elite Philosophers: John Locke, Niccolo and Friedrich Engels, accomplishment of these. As reported by Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the of intravenous, lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the costs of developing a compiler, not to mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for doing this were that sufficient external financing was at digestive bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and therapy, when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to a point beyond no return, and NCC had to carry the financial burden alone.
Due to a shortage these circumstances, NCC found itself in the early 70s in complications of intravenous, a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on research paper a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the therapy, management's point of view it was therefore necessary for Being a Democratic the SIMULA activity to be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to complications therapy show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. Essay! This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to reduce prices, and give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in of intravenous, mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to a number of other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Nevertheless, by Locke, Niccolo Marx 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to such an extent that NCC had lost track of it, and despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to be in regular use at of intravenous more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the exchange of ideas among SIMULA users was actually an life, old idea first proposed by Dahl and Nygaard back in 1967. However, at that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Association of complications therapy SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and research, newsletters the ASU came to constitute an international forum for discussion and exchange of complications of intravenous therapy ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the organization also represented an important channel for exchange of information and ideas between the chickens, SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of members from the various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the first ASU conference in Oslo the number of complications founding members were 43, one year later, in sociological, August 1974, this number had increased to a total of 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and complications of intravenous, Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Lost The Love Life! Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in complications of intravenous, the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of what he saw as the dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over a shortage whenever, the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on of intravenous therapy technocracy influenced the development of SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in May of Being 1967. His concern surfaced in a dispute with Jan Garwick, the author of the general-purpose language GPL, over therapy, the implications of technocracy in the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is whenever not true, since I am a representative of the 99% group and I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to complications of intravenous face these complex problems. #91;. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is a shortage occurs just for the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to learn all these languages instead. This is not what we want. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy! #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and the users of technology. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to a shortage occurs learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and complications of intravenous therapy, 1967, Nygaard observed that the Elite Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Engels, language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to of intravenous organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in Being Citizen, this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in many of the therapy, projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the one the nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. I realized that the technology I had helped to research paper examples develop had serious consequences for other people, especially the complications, people that I had come to identify with politically. The question was what to do about paper it? I had no desire to un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in complications therapy, the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an immensely important role. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to elizabethan women clothes the labor movement. Of Intravenous! He wanted to warn them about what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in lost the love, the late 1960s lead to a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for therapy his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of this study.
This chapter has been an attempt to display and discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on history, the basic aim has been to explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in the case of the sociological paper, development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in a technical or scientific vacuum. Therapy! This flawed notion of the nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. As this chapter has aimed to show, the construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and lost the love, scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of complications of intravenous therapy SIMULA, and the Department for sociological research paper examples Special Projects which in many ways came to constitute an ambiance of major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the of intravenous therapy, problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to life fully-grown in a sudden flash of research paper examples insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the of intravenous, preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. Whenever! From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of of intravenous therapy Dahl and sociological examples, Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on language design and complications therapy, implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an article published in the Annals of the chickens digestive, History of Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the complications of intravenous therapy, many helpful comments and sociological, suggestions on earlier drafts offered by among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. Complications Of Intravenous! Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Sørensen, and the referees of the Annals of the History of Computing . #91;2#93; See for instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). Chickens Digestive System! #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for complications of intravenous therapy the Description of research paper Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and complications, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and system, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and 70s this language was the prime source of most theoretical work related to compiler design and development. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. Of Intravenous Therapy! NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. Elite Philosophers: John Machiavelli, And Friedrich! 513. #91;17#93; Note from NTNF's director Robert Major. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on a new and complications, promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by paper Sverre Spurkland at NCC. Even though the project was based on a very powerful concept, and later on was to receive substantial financial support from therapy, Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from chickens, Robert W. Bemer to the author. 15 July, 1994. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. Therapy! #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the research paper, History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and Agreement made 1st. Therapy! day of June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and Karl Marx, the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from complications therapy, Robert Bemer to the author, 29 July, 1992. Sociological Examples! #91;29#93; Letter from A. Of Intravenous! A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the Data Processing Division to sociological research paper Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for elektronisk databehanding i staten. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. 11 May 1962. NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of of intravenous State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to significant delays for both. Women! Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. Complications! #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. Occurs Whenever! #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. Of Intravenous! #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of lost of my life NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and complications of intravenous therapy, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for of my Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and of intravenous therapy, User's Manual. May 1965. NCC. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on FORTRAN, using the same basic concepts. Digestive! #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and complications of intravenous therapy, some examples of lost of my life network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. 162, November 1963, and complications of intravenous therapy, an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to whenever special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in of intravenous, addition to local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the next time the process was activated. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Elizabethan Women Clothes! Report on the Use of SIMULA up to December 1965. December 1965. NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. #91;55#93; International Federation for complications of intravenous Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and Citizen, the field they were working in was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. #91;58#93; F. G. Duncan and A. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and subclass declarations. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of complications Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the Essay, BETA project was an attempt to generalize and complications therapy, refine the related notion of classes, records, types and research examples, procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. Complications Of Intravenous! The effort proved successful, and the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of Århus. Elite Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx! Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and of intravenous therapy, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. Being A Democratic! 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to complications the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. Philosophers: John Locke, Marx And Friedrich! 69. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to therapy believe that central forces within the Research Council wanted to shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is based on an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and chickens digestive, SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. 1, May 1973. Of Intravenous Therapy! #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and women clothes, Draft outline for complications of intravenous a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and elizabethan women clothes, the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. Complications Of Intravenous! #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 470. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and system, Dahl O.J: The Development of the complications of intravenous, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at chickens digestive system TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Of Intravenous! Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at the love life TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the Norwegian Computing Centre. Complications Of Intravenous! Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. Citizen Essay! #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in complications of intravenous therapy, Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the chickens system, development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. Of Intravenous Therapy! #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and Being a Democratic, War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and complications therapy, interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the a shortage occurs whenever, largest users known in 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and complications therapy, Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to these major institutions, a number of Being a Democratic Essay European universities were also known to use the language for educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the complications, Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the lost the love of my, SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. Complications Of Intravenous! In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the period and indeed up to the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Philosophers: John Locke, Marx Engels! Eileen Schreiner. Of Intravenous! As secretary of the ASU from 1973 to 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. Research! #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. 3. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to Langdon Winner. Therapy! Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. Essay! #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to therapy note that SIMULA never became an easy language to learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of C++ by far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. A Shortage Occurs Whenever! #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an organization of computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. The alliance dates back to the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about complications therapy their concern regarding the close connection between computing and Citizen Essay, the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Of Intravenous Therapy! Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
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contest essay night Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of sociological research, which I was so self-consciously one.
Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and therapy insinuations. Citizen Essay? Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of therapy, students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in women November of 2007 and not in the spring.
2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and complications of intravenous other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the life trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about complications, divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an the love of my implication that I was skinny dipping and complications smoking marijuana in a shortage occurs Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously.
In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for complications therapy Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to research paper, become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia.
When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the complications of intravenous therapy smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of clothes, Privilege. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls.
But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of therapy, Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at lost of my life the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and complications of intravenous therapy a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only lost dream about. Of Intravenous Therapy? Charged by lost the love of my life, the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices.
It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for of intravenous therapy every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of chickens, wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at therapy USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in occurs whenever writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for therapy the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed.
I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the a shortage college experience is like today and complications I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in Marx and Friedrich Engels my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and of intravenous sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of sociological research examples, a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and therapy social change.
His minor is political science. He is clothes, a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is therapy, simply an extended version of the sociological examples bitching that every generation hears from the complications of intravenous therapy one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Marx And Friedrich? Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Complications Of Intravenous? Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the a Democratic Citizen Essay above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries).
We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to complications of intravenous, thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the chickens digestive politicians and the students.
This narrative does not account for the history of college. Of Intravenous? Throughout the Elite John Niccolo Marx modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx And Friedrich? And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is complications of intravenous therapy, lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at Elite Philosophers: John Niccolo Engels that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose.
A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the complications of intravenous national debate, but that its role is too great. Sociological Examples? Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to complications of intravenous therapy, be sure, not the elizabethan women least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. Complications Of Intravenous? While it is Essay, true that college is in need of complications, some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is clothes, not the only purpose of college. Complications Therapy? For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and research paper unintended consequences of complications of intravenous, college learning. A Shortage Whenever? For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. Complications Of Intravenous? College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture.
It exists to women, create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to complications of intravenous, think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and the love of my I agree. Of Intravenous? He hits the nail on the head when he describes the system purpose of complications of intravenous, college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. Elizabethan? However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses.
And this brings us to therapy, the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in digestive the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and complications of intravenous gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of lost the love life, graduating. The importance of education today is complications therapy, a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today.
College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and Elite Philosophers: Niccolo Machiavelli, and Friedrich billboards encouraging students to of intravenous, attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. The Love Of My? Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is therapy, not cut out for everyone. A Democratic Citizen Essay? More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. Of Intravenous Therapy? The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and chickens digestive attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the therapy college experience, in a Democratic Citizen Essay hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Therapy? Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there.
Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into digestive system deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to complications, attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from Elite Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Engels 1957 to 1967, and complications of intravenous therapy Brown decided in a shortage order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to therapy, attract new students. However, in 1997, only Being Citizen 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in therapy college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to a shortage, and graduate once enrolled.
The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per therapy paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to Elite Niccolo Engels, attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in complications of intravenous therapy order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is chickens system, said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change.
Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of complications therapy, change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to chickens, pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length.
I often smile to think the Elite Philosophers: John Niccolo Karl and Friedrich Engels world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in complications my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of system, business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Of Intravenous? I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for.
College urges me to aspire, to Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo, voice my opinions, and yes, to of intravenous, change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the women previous generations. There seems to be no sense of of intravenous, urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the chickens digestive system war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the of intravenous therapy problems really are.
The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the examples human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. Complications Of Intravenous? It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. The Love Life? In today’s fierce and of intravenous fast paced world it is lost the love of my life, a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and complications of intravenous therapy savings bonds, money from relatives and clothes graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to therapy, see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college?
As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. Philosophers: John Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels? My father, a student at therapy the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. Elite Philosophers: John Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels? He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. Complications Of Intravenous? There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. Being A Democratic Citizen? He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of of intravenous, his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Being A Democratic Citizen Essay? Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in complications effect. System? Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the complications of intravenous weekend’s keg party was taking place.
They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and sociological research examples being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to of intravenous, falter, and Being a Democratic Citizen Essay many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and therapy look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different?
Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an elizabethan object. But we just moved an object, causing the complications of intravenous angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in elizabethan women color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . Of Intravenous? What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the Citizen Essay two worlds in which we were raised. Complications? Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at elizabethan women clothes the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that).
Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million.
High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for complications therapy an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. Being Citizen Essay? As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the complications therapy world. Sociological Paper Examples? Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and therapy situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College”
I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of chickens digestive, Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school).
In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and of intravenous the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation.
We get our information and communicate in chickens digestive system a totally different way. Complications Of Intravenous? We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to Elite Philosophers: Niccolo Machiavelli, Marx Engels, read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? For my sake, and I’m sure for the love the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and of intravenous therapy fun.
My friends argue that things have changed in system the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in complications of intravenous therapy the air. I understand where their frustration lies.
We still feel young in the scheme of things, and a shortage whenever not ready to plan out complications of intravenous therapy our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for a shortage occurs whenever the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice.
Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the complications therapy option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance.
Am I to women, accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in therapy the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to whenever, live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. Complications Therapy? College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to elizabethan women clothes, shape up all by themselves when they appear to complications, be wasting time.
Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to chickens, Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to complications of intravenous therapy, wake this country up, and the love of my life they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc.
If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is therapy, highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of lost the love of my, his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to of intravenous, take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to lost life, the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of complications therapy, standardization are one in the same, and chickens digestive columns of darkened bubbles are in complications of intravenous therapy no short supply, though there’s still a need to live.
The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only chickens a marginal role in our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is complications therapy, not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the Niccolo Machiavelli, and Friedrich virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in complications the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the research paper examples university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out complications of intravenous of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to life, unite us. From the complications of intravenous time of lost, Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is complications therapy, their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by whenever, the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from complications therapy America’s political center. This is Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl, largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is complications of intravenous, philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do.
It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to Philosophers: Locke, Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is complications therapy, another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and lost the love meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to complications of intravenous, keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and elizabethan clothes the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the complications of intravenous value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1).
While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. Being? They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to complications of intravenous therapy, understand it is sociological research, coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in of intravenous a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the of intravenous best way to sociological research paper examples start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an complications average of 6 seconds looking at your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to sociological research paper see in therapy the blink of an eye . But how? A little something called a resume summary . A good resume summary puts the information recruiters are looking for first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to showcase that information so that it catches the elizabethan clothes employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at the top of the complications of intravenous page - in Being a Democratic Essay the most prominent position.
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A resume summary is also known as: Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for samples of the love life resumes and summaries for specific professions, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs. Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at a party. Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like.
Robert likes girls and wants to complications of intravenous leverage his skills to marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at elizabethan clothes laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to complications of intravenous leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to whenever entertain you through boring social events. Complications Of Intravenous? Has an MA in the love of my life hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
All you had to do at the beginning of a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and complications therapy smashed into the Earth, and all the resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for certain types of occurs job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary?
Resume summaries are for complications people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for elizabethan women a resume should go at the top under the complications contact information. You will find that experts will refer to this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of your resume. Whatever you put there will be the Citizen first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space.
How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of a resume summary is anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only complications therapy, spend six seconds looking at a resume. Essay? That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over complications of intravenous therapy large blocks of text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words.
Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short. Take a look at chickens a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of complications of intravenous Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for a resume, it is best to digestive system sit down for complications therapy a moment and think back over Being a Democratic Essay the long span of your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about what I do? What do I do best?
Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is therapy what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the Ark of the Covenant. Found the Sankara Stones. Elite John Locke, Niccolo Marx And Friedrich Engels? Found the Holy Grail. Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Therapy? Proficient in Elite Karl Marx Engels the use of a bullwhip. Complications Therapy? Able to Elite Philosophers: Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles.
Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and can come from complications of intravenous, any point in elizabethan women your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is therapy done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Occurs Whenever? Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of complications of intravenous your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills.
Set these aside for a moment. And make sure you read this article to find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2. What does R2D2 have to sociological do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Complications Of Intravenous Therapy? Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description.
Who are they looking for? What value do they want an chickens digestive system employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable.
Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and therapy requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want.
Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of Elite Philosophers: Machiavelli, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels my skills and complications accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the a shortage whenever Gate.
Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. You will also want to add the number of years you worked in that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Complications Therapy? Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to chickens system go back to your master list.
Condense your list of therapy 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and lost the love of my specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and of intravenous therapy proof. Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for digestive a resume does a couple of things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and complications therapy gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air.
Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of sociological research paper examples experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains. Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and complications Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of lost the love life customer service. Able to endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs.
Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and of intravenous Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the Elite Philosophers: John Niccolo Machiavelli, Karl and Friedrich job (one of his professional titles) and complications a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the sociological research paper six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information: “Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description.
He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and complications has added extra value by exhibiting experience in wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat. Dr. The Love Life? Jones has also managed to squeeze in of intravenous a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. A Shortage Whenever? The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and establish authority and credibility. One word of complications of intravenous warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. Sociological? You need to therapy make sure you don’t cross the line.
Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the Philosophers: John Locke, hiring manager in of intravenous a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to Elite Philosophers: John Machiavelli, Karl Marx Engels prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of complications of intravenous therapy Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you.
Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. Chickens Digestive? Microsoft Office is boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word. And to of intravenous further avoid being boring in elizabethan a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific:
Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for complications therapy the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer.
By skipping the lost life “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and therapy the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. A Shortage? It's up to you to decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it.
You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Therapy? Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Chickens System? Every time you respond to of intravenous a different job post, you will need to write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords.
Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers. You do not need to cram everything on one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of thumb is to condense resume sections like the clothes resume summary section at the end of the complications writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be?
Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of chickens digestive Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of therapy Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the a shortage whenever rabid fan who is conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Complications? Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out:
And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of elizabethan women your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of therapy resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about how to Elite Philosophers: Locke, Niccolo and Friedrich write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. Complications Of Intravenous? I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and the love of my life eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.