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SparkNotes: The Good Earth: Plot Overview

The good earth sparknotes

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SparkNotes: The Good Earth

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SparkNotes: The Good Earth: Chapter 1

Mes trucs et astuces pour apprendre lallemand. J'ai toujours eu une relation plutot difficile avec la langue allemande, et ce pendant toute ma scolarite. The Good! Pourtant, je vis maintenant a Vienne et je peux dire sans rougir que je. Les gens qui me connaissent bien vous le diront: Je netais pas predestine a apprendre lallemand !. Retreatism! Et cest le moins que lon puisse dire car ma relation avec la langue de Goethe etait plutot partie sur des bases difficiles.

Cest pourtant pas faute davoir essaye car comme cest la langue la plus parlee de Suisse (mouais les gens parlent plutot suisse-allemand mais cest encore une autre histoire), jai ete bassine toute ma scolarite avec la Grammatik et le Wortschatz Imaginez-vous, en Suisse-romande, on the good earth sparknotes commence a apprendre lallemand en 4eme primaire (9-10 ans). Ozone! On continue ensuite a vous torturer dannee en annee et ce jusqua la fin de votre scolarite (que vous choisissiez ou non de faire des etudes) lhorreur pour moi ! Jai dailleurs toujours ete de loin le cancre de la classe en allemand, et ca dannee en annee! Ca aurait meme pu me couter ma maturite (le bac pour les francais)! Bref, vous laurez compris, ce nest ni mon travail scolaire acharne #128521; et encore moins mon talent naturel pour les langues qui mont amene la ou jen suis maintenant. The Good Sparknotes! Avec le recul, je pense meme pouvoir vous dire quil ya des choses qui fonctionnent mieux que dautres (car non, je nai pas fais tout juste du premier coup). Reconstructionism! Je vais donc essayer, dans les lignes qui suivent, de vous expliquer les etapes qui ont ete importantes dans mon cas pour apprendre lallemand . Alors jai beau avoir fait tout mon possible pour ne rien apprendre (en allemand) durant ma scolarite obligatoire, force est de constater que quelques mots de Wortschatz sont quand meme rentres! Alors je remercie a posteriori mes differents professeurs de setre battu avec moi pour me forcer a apprendre les pages du livre de vocabulaire allemand car cest la base indispensable pour debuter. Le vocabulaire vous permet de mettre un sens sur les mots que vous entendrez par la suite et sans ca, cest difficile de progresser. Sparknotes! La grammaire est selon moi secondaire (meme si cest bien davoir une petite idee) et viendra naturellement par la suite. The Inefficiency Of Airline Security Essay! Si vous navez pas de bases, cest a ce moment quil faut penser a prendre quelques cours dallemand ou a vous acheter un livre de vocabulaire allemand pratique (genre vocabulaire de tous les jours). Pour apprendre le vocabulaire et la grammaire en independant un bon moyen est de passer par une plateforme dapprentissage en ligne.

Un excellent exemple en la matiere serait Mosalingua. The Good! (On donne davantages de details sur la plateforme plus loin dans cet article). Simmerger dans un milieu germanophone. Selon moi, ca ne sert a rien de samuser avec le vocabulaire (et eventuellement un peu de grammaire) pendant plus que quelques mois. Retreatism! Apres il faut se lancer et partir a la rencontre de nos amis germanophones. Sparknotes! Immergez vous dans un milieu ou vous serez le plus possible coupe de votre langue maternelle quest le francais et ou vous serez oblige de parler lallemand tous les jours . Pour ma part, javais pris la decision de faire mon Master dans la ville de Zurich ou les cours etaient soit en allemand soit en anglais et ou les gens parlent le magnifique suisse-allemand. Jane Essay! En y repensant, ce netais peut-etre pas le meilleurs choix pour apprendre lallemand a proprement parler mais javais plutot choisi en fonction de luniversite. Earth! Par contre si le suisse allemand vous intrigue, je vous recommande ce bouquin que Fabienne mavait offert avant quon arrive a Zurich: le manuel de survie du suisse allemand . Si cetait a refaire, voici les points auxquels je ferais attention: Choisir une ville dans laquelle on of nuclear war parle un allemand propre . Earth Sparknotes! Par propre, jentend un allemand academique pas comme Zurich ou on in education parle le Schwiiiitzertudtsch ! Choisissez plutot une ville comme Berlin ou Hambourg (le nord de lAllemagne), ca devrait etre plus facile. Earth Sparknotes! Remarquez que Vienne cest sympa aussi #128521; (meme si le vocabulaire autrichien peut se reveler un peu particulier).

De plus, dans la plupart des grandes villes germanophones, il existe dexcellentes possibilites de faire des sejours linguistiques, en suivant par exemple des cours dans une ecole de langue. Avoir des colocataires germanophones . And Global! Quand jetais a Zurich, javais un colocataire allemand (et pas suisse-allemand) et ca ma bien aide au debut. The Good Earth Sparknotes! Ce qui est bien avec les colocs, cest quon peut exercer son allemand dans un cadre un peu plus decontracte quau boulot ou a luni En plus, ca permet souvent de rencontrer des gens et de se faire des amis. Eyre! Ne pas rentrer tous les w-e chez soi . The Good Earth Sparknotes! Cest malheureusement ce que jai fait quand jetais a Zurich a cause de la proximite avec ma region dorigine (a peine 3h de train). The Inefficiency Of Airline Security! Jai de ce fait perdu dexcellentes occasions de faire des activites sympas avec des personnes germanophones. Sparknotes! Maintenant que jhabite a Vienne, je sors souvent le weekend avec des amis dici et cela ma beaucoup aide dans mon apprentissage de la langue. Ca peut paraitre evident, mais pour progresser, il faut parler, parler et encore parler . Of Airline Security Essay! Je me rend bien compte quau debut cest assez difficile mais vous verrez que les gens a qui vous adresserez la parole ne vous trouveront que rarement stupide et essaieront en general de vous aider.

Jai eu personnellement beaucoup de peine a franchir ce cap au debut. Earth Sparknotes! Je me contentais simplement daller en cours et de faire de mon mieux pour comprendre le professeur (avec mon fameux vocabulaire de base lol) mais jinteragissais peu avec les autres eleves. Pourtant, si javais eu les c de le faire plus tot, jaurais certainement appris lallemand beaucoup plus vite . Jane Eyre Bronte Essay! (et les autres mauraient certainement aide pour les cours;-) ) Pourtant, meme si jai mis du temps a my mettre, jai reussi a my astreindre. The Good Sparknotes! Et cest la que jai reellement commence a faire de gros progres. Fear Of Nuclear War! Jai ete etonne de voir que les gens faisaient beaucoup defforts pour communiquer avec moi et mintegrer aux discussions. Du coup, je me suis mis a parler beaucoup plus, a rencontrer plus de gens, a avoir toujours plus dopportunites de discuter Donc si vous voulez vite apprendre lallemand, ne faites pas comme moi. The Good! Nattendez pas un an in education avant de vous ouvrir aux autres (cest clair que cest pas a eux de faire le premier pas) et foncez Vous verrez quune langue peut venir tres vite. Astuces en vrac pour apprendre lallemand plus vite. Acquerir ou solidifier ses bases en ligne. Selon nous rien ne remplacera jamais une immersion totale dans un milieu germanophone, mais bien evidemment on the good na pas toujours loccasion de partir faire un sejour linguistique. The Inefficiency Of Airline Security! Dans ce cas, un excellent moyen de continuer son apprentissage et de voir de reels progres cest de suivre un cursus de cours en ligne.

Nous avons decouvert et utilise Mosalingua il y a quelques mois de ca et on the good doit dire que si on ozone and global warming est motive les progres sont reellement au rendez-vous (on a teste pour lallemand mais egalement pour lespagnol) #128521; La Methode se base sur le concept de la repetition espacee qui est vraiment le meilleur moyen dapprendre et de retenir son vocabulaire. The Good! La plateforme est payante, mais pour moins de 5 par mois on Jane Eyre Bronte a acces a des milliers de cartes de vocabulaire, des livres et des livres audio, des videos en VO didactiques, et bien plus. Earth! Notez quil est possible de tester la plateforme gratuitement pendant 15 jours ce qui est plutot pas mal)! Inscrivez vous dans un club pour pratiquer votre hobby. Je fais pour ma part beaucoup de tennis de table. Retreatism Example! Donc des mon arrivee a Zurich, je me suis inscris dans un club afin de mentrainer.

Ce fut un experience geniale et jy ai rencontre beaucoup dautres joueurs. The Good Sparknotes! Et il faut bien avouer quil est toujours plus facile de parler dun sujet qui nous passionne Le sujet de discussion est tout trouve et la conversation est souvent plus facile a entretenir. Layer Warming! Pour moi, ce fut en tout cas une experience tres positive dans mon apprentissage de lallemand. Cest quelque chose que je nai jamais fait mais qui doit fonctionner a merveille. The Good! Le principe est simple: Vous vous mettez daccord avec un allemand qui veut apprendre le francais et vous vous rencontrez pour discuter quelques heures par semaine. In Education! A tour de role, vous changez de langue afin que chacun y trouve son compte.

Cest gratuit, ca se fait souvent autour dun verre (ou plusieurs) et ca vous donne loccasion de parler! Je dirais encore une fois quun minimum de vocabulaire est necessaire avant de se lancer pour allimenter la conversation. Je sais, je me repete mais cest peut-etre le plus important au final. Sparknotes! Nayez pas peur, parlez, plantez vous, faites des fautes (on nous apprend plein de trucs a lecole mais pas a parler sans complexe!) Cest comme ca quon apprend! Et vous verrez que ca vous fera des souvenirs a raconter. In Education! Par exemple, jetais a lechauffement avant un match de tennis de table avec mes coequipier de Vienne et ils me demandent: Bist du bereit. The Good! (est-ce que tu es pret. Jane By Charlotte Bronte! ) Moi je metais bien echauffe alors je leur repond Ich bin total warm . The Good Sparknotes! en pensant que je leur disait que jetais echauffe. Reconstructionism In Education! Eux ils etaient plies en quatre car je venais de leur dire que jetais completement gay ouuupppsss! Bref, des histoires comme ca jen ai dautres et ca reste des chouettes souvenirs

Au final, je pense sincerement que si jai reussi a apprendre lallemand, ca veut dire que tout le monde peut le faire. The Good! (Demandez a mes profs dallemand ce quils en pensent #128521; ). The Man Twelfth Night! Je pense meme que jaurais pu lapprendre beaucoup plus rapidement en sortant plus vite de ma zone de confort Disons que cest pas naturel pour tous le monde mais cest un passage oblige pour apprendre une langue! Alors quattendez-vous? Foncez apprendre quelques bases de voc et lancez-vous (Avec Fabienne on earth sparknotes demarre avec lespagnol cet ete #128521; ) Une bonne ressource pour apprendre lallemand rapidement, en complement des points mentionnes ci-dessus seraient probablement dacquerir un bon vocabulaire de base. By Charlotte Bronte! Un livre sympa et bien fait est celui qui sappelle Lallemand en 5 minutes par jour. Bon ne prenez pas le titre comme mot comptant hein Il faudra un peu plus de 5 minutes pour maitriser la langue de Goethe, mais cest un bon debut! #128578; Et vous, des astuces pour apprendre plus facilement une langue . NB: Veuillez noter que cet articles contient des liens affilies vers des sites partenaires. The Good! Si vous achetez un produit sur lun de leur site vous ne paierez pas plus cher mais nous toucherons une petite commission; ce qui nous aidera a faire vivre ce site Merci! #x1f642; 4.6 (92.9%) 31 votes. Recois les dernieres nouvelles du blog directement dans ta boite mail ! Garanti 100% Voyage et 0% Spam #128578; Il est clair que quelle que soit la langue, il ny a rien de mieux que la pratique et limmersion. Bon premierement maahhh cest quoi ce costume ? ahah.

Et derriere toi on The Inefficiency Essay dirait un Navi de Pandora ? En fait le fut de biere cest ton costume davatar germanique ? Plus serieusement, je te rejoins totalement sur le fait quil faille se faire un peu violence et parler sans trop se poser de questions lapprentissage se fera vite et beaucoup plus naturellement ! Tout a fait daccord avec tout ce que tu as dit, la pratique il ny a que ca. The Good Earth Sparknotes! Lallemand cest ma grande frustration: 10 ans a lapprendre et il ne reste pas grand chose, il faudrait un sejour la-bas ce serait le plus efficace! Cest un costume que jai ramene de Berlin ca colle tres bien avec la culture allemande (et autrichienne aussi #128521; )! Je fais des efforts pour mimmerger Non mais je lutilise quand je fais Carnaval dans mon valais natal! Du reste le truc bleu derriere moi cest un pote deguise en avatar ;-) ca me fait penser quil faut que jecrive un truc sur le carnaval de ma region #128521; Pour en revenir a lallemand, cest clair quil faut se faire violence! Je regrette juste un peu davoir attendu si longtemps avant de me forcer Avant de partir faire mon Master a Zurich, javais aussi 10 ans dallemand derriere moi et je ne pouvais meme pas alligner deux mots dans une conversation (triste constat).

Le seul truc reellement utile que javais ammasse (sans le savoir #128521; ) cetait le vocabulaire de base Bref, il faudrait mieux quils nous envoient tous 6 mois dans une region germanophone pendant notre scolarite obligatoire Je pense que ca vaudrait largement les 10 ans de courslol. Snif, lallemand, cest mon mouton noir Je lai etudie des annees, jusqua luniversite pourtant! je ne suis pas capable de faire une phrase autre que Olga ist in ozone and global warming, der Kuche et encore, suis pas sure des declinaisons. Sparknotes! Cest tellement barbare comme langues, typiquement une de celles quon apprend certainement mieux en immersion totale en effet! Bon, apres je dois dire que ca ma pas manque. Of Nuclear! Pendant mon voyage, jaurai prefere connaitre lespagnol, bien plus represente #128578; ahahah comme moi! Jetais incapable dalligner deux mots jusqua mon master #128521; Lespagnol cest le defi de lete avec Fabienne On verra ce quon a le temps dapprendre avant de partir Jespere que cest plus facile que lallemand #128521; (cest quand meme plus proche du francais) Jen ai tellement bave avec lallemand que jai decide de monter toute une strategie familiale pour que mes enfants apprennent lallemand avec aisance. Et cela marche, vous pouvez voir le resultat sur le blog de ma fille ainee Ahh lallemand Je me rappellerai toujours de la remarque de ma prof dallemand a la fin du lycee, dernier trimestre avant le bac : Eleve tres sympathique mais niveau tres faible. The Good! A lepoque ou jetais a lecole primaire, on of Airline Essay ne faisait pas de langue du tout, mais vu que je suis ne en Alsace, on the good faisait de lallemand des le CP. Ozone Layer And Global! Jai tout connu pour apprendre lallemand: le trousseau de clefs pour la structure des phrases, les marionnettes pour apprendre en samusant, les tableaux en tissu avec des velcros Bizarrement, sorti du lycee je me suis mis a aimer lallemand.

Je suis daccord avec toi, il faut foncer. Earth! Je suis aussi daccord avec Cyrille, il faut apprendre lAllemand en priorite aux enfants, pour les familiariser le plus tot. Retreatism Example! Langlais est tellement plus simple, ils se debrouilleront avec ! Quand jetais a Geneve au debut de mes etudes universitaires, on the good sparknotes a eu une fois un alsacien a lappart Jouvre les rideaux le matin apres une soiree arosee (ahhh lamere biere #128521; ) pour le reveiller et le gars se cache le figure et hurle: Naaaaa, nicht lumiere direkt. The Inefficiency Of Airline Security! Cest la que je me suis rappele que lAlsace cetait pas loins de lAlemagne ;-) Ah lAmer biere Ah oui quand meme, le vrai de vrai ! Le dialecte alsacien est a peine plus charmant que le Schwyizerdutsch ! Cest dire Aaaah lAllemand ! Jai fais pres de 5 ans dallemand pendant mon cursus scolaire et il ne men reste pratiquement rien. Earth Sparknotes! Cest une langue plutot dure a apprendre par rapport a langlais ou lespagnol par exemple. Ton billet me donne aussi envie dapprendre lallemand ^^ ! Evidemment, il ny a pas mieux que de pratiquer pour apprendre une langue tres rapidement, autrement on retreatism example risque de perdre du temps pour rien ! Cest bien pour cette raison que le systeme de fille-dictionnaire (bien que je naime pas trop le concept) a ete invente a une certaine epoque ! Lallemand je ne comprends strictement rien a lallemand ! Dans le Sud cest bien loin de nous, dommage. The Good Sparknotes! Jaimerai bien acquerir les bases ! Ca serait ma cinquieme langue #128578; @ Benjamin et Nadege: Je vous rejoins assez cest pas une langue facile a apprendre en comparaison avec langlais!

Faut etre motive et pas se decourager! Et oui, toutes ces annees de cours dallemand ne nous apporte malheureusement pas grand chose #128577; @Paul: Cest quoi exactement le systeme de fille-dictionnaire. Jane By Charlotte Bronte Essay! ca minteresselol. Jai rencontre un belge qui expliquait tres bien comment fonctionne lallemand. Si la racine carree du determinant est superieure a Pi, alors tu dois mettre un e a tel endroit. Sparknotes! Sinon tu mets un n, mais sauf les exceptions ! Bref, il faut grandir avec ou se plonger dans une methode directe car les tables de loi, cest pour les ordinateurs. Pour moi aussi les accords cest un peu au hasard Il faut dire que cest vraiment pas facile et ton ami belge resume bien la situation;-) Mais bon, cest pas parcequon fait des fautes daccord quon arrive pas a se faire comprendre;-) En fait, je crois quil ny a pas dautre solution que de les rendre naturels. Retreatism! On grandit avec ou on the good les entends tellement de fois quon finit par les utiliser sans reflechir.

Je suis en train de constater cela chez ma fille, qui blogue sur alors que moi, jarrive a faire une erreur de grammaire par mot ! En trucs et astuces, je suis sur que manger du pain depice, ca doit aider. Ca nest que mon avis #128521; Certainement pas. Fear Of Nuclear War! Jai grandi en face de lusine a Gertwiller et cela ne ma pas aide dans lapprentissage de lallemand. Merci pour cet article. The Good! Je minteresse beaucoup a la thematique de lapprentissage des langues. Eyre By Charlotte Bronte! Pour linstant japprends lespagnol. Sinon, je vais justement en Allemagne la semaine prochaine, pour revoir encore et encore cette magnifique ville quest Berlin.

Sinscrire a un club local cest une tres bonne idee quand on earth sparknotes sexpatrie pour au moins un semestre. Example! Si un jour je pars minstaller dans un pays non-francophone je le ferai sans hesiter. Le Japon en PVT, ca nous tenterait bien avec Delphine #128578; Cest un des trucs qui ma permis de vraiment ameliore mon allemand tout en ayant un max de plaisir #128521; PVT au Japon ca serait vraiment top Jadore la culture japonaise ;-) Malheureusement cest pas donne comme pays alors on the good earth la pas mis dans notre voyage. Fear War! ca sera pour une autre fois #128521;

Super article ! je suis a la recherche dun bouquin qui puisse maider a approfondir ma grammaire Cest vraiment le plus difficile a mon sens. The Good! Si des fois vous avez de nouvelles pistes, nhesitez pas ! Cela doit etre bien de pouvoir simmerger comme tu as pu le faire Benoit. Night! Vous avez tous la chance detre entoure par de nombreux pays et par le fait-meme, de langues tres differentes. Earth! Ici au Quebec, nous avons le reste du Canada qui est TRES majoritairement anglophone ainsi que les Etats-Unis qui est, lui aussi, TRES majoritairement anglophone suivi de tres pres par lespagnol et devinez quoi, je ne suis meme pas parfaitement bilingue. Of Airline! Je me disais que lAllemagne pour ma retraite serait peut-etre une eventualite !? Javais deja pense a lesperanto mais je crois que je nirai pas loin avec cette langue qui est quand meme, fonctionnelle. The Good! Quand on retreatism example y est pas habitue, les langues de lEurope font parfois grincer les oreilles par le son et les yeux par lorthographe tels le hongrois, le russe, le hollandais, le suedois mais cela reste que la langue dun peuple est beau et riche malgre, souvent, par sa complexite mais quand on sparknotes veut, on The Inefficiency Essay PEUT! auf Wiedersehen und frohe Weihnachten 2013! merci Larousse #128521; Merci pour tes conseils Moi je fais allemand au college, je suis une assez meme bonne eleve dans cette matiere (alors que japprend tres peu mes cours, vas comprendre) mais mon seul probleme cest que je deteste cette langue, trop dur oralement pour moi

Mais sinon moi je dis bonne chance a ceux qui veulent lapprendre, vraiment cest juste du travail, pas plus #128521; La formation a une langue etrangere demande beaucoup dattention et de pratique pour que ce soit bien assimilee,comme les natifs le font. effectivement apres il ny a pas besoin de maitriser une langue comme les natifs pour pouvoir communiquer correctement #128521; Merci pour ce precieuses astuces ! Je pars a Berlin pour 6 semaines en decembre pour apprendre lallemand je prends des cours dallemand depuis Aout 2012 et jespere vraiment un jour pouvoir parler cette belle langue couramment ! Meme si jai une facilite avec les langues (je suis Bresilienne et je parle Francais, Portugais, Espagnol et Anglais), je suis un peu retissante avec lAllemand car parmi toutes les langues que jappris, lallemand reste mon plus gros challenge! Et je ne sais pas si 6 semaines a Berlin vont etre suffisantes pour arriver a un niveau B1/B2.

Pour moi, le plus difficile reste accorder akkusativ, dativ, genitif et etc Mais avec beaucoup de patience et travail dur, jespere y arriver #128578; Merci pour vos conseil. Je suis en train d?apprendrefrancais. Earth Sparknotes! #128578; je suis mexicaine et je crois que ton article est tres bon. Reconstructionism! L?espagnol est plus facile que l?allemand. The Good Earth! C?est un peu similiare a le francais. Reconstructionism In Education! Bonne chance! #128512; Mon mel est si tu veux practiquer, le espagnol est ma langue maternelle. Comme beaucoup, jai etudie lallemand pendant de nombreuses annees sans pouvoir aligner une phrase simple, a part les classiques Wo ist der Ball? Der Ball ist weg. Pourtant quand jentendais/ecoutais de lallemand, je comprenais quasiment tout. Sparknotes! Javais garde une tres bonne base de vocabulaire.

Les annees passant, je me suis marie a une allemande, mais on Jane Bronte a commence a parler en francais au depart: Erreur fatale (pour moi et lallemand). Malgre plusieurs tentatives de passer du francais a lallemand, pour nos discussion, on sparknotes revenait toujours au francais. Finalement, apres plusieurs sejours en Allemagne, dans le Niedersachsen, je me suis force a parler lallemand avec tout le monde. Reconstructionism! Ma derniere immersion dun mois, a ete la plus significative et ma vraiment permis de progresser. The Good Sparknotes! Jecoutais un maximum la radio dinformation quand je conduisais, le journal TV et discutais un maximum avec nimporte qui (lors des courses par exemple). Ozone! Dorenavant, je ne converse quen allemand avec mon epouse. Mon niveau nest pas encore extraordinaire, il me reste des progres a faire surtout en grammaire, conjugaison et declinaison, mais la difference est sans appel. The Good Earth! Je nai plus peur de parler allemand et japprends de plus en plus. Je recommande egalement une immersion en milieu germanophone et ne pas parler sa langue maternelle pendant ces immersions. Ozone And Global Warming! Ne pas avoir peur des erreurs, de plus les allemands apprecient les efforts que lon fait pour parler leur langue.

Bon apprentissage a tous #128521; ben vous avez d la chance vous tous,moi je suis marocaine,jai apris larabe et le francais des mon jeune age puis encore langlais.A vrai dire jaurais preffere apprendre lallemand au lieu de larabe mais comme vous voyez y a pas moyens de le faire. Maintenant que jai 14 ans je nen peux plus #128577; je veus apprendre cette langue a tout pris,mais ya aucun centre ou lon puisse apprendre appart les centres dete.Alors je veux demander conseils:comment apprendre reelement lallemand alors quon na comme vocabulaire que le mothaloet comment lammeliorer(il est vide dailleurs)? clin d oeil de fille. Boof boof tes conseils . Salut pour une methode complete pour apprendre lallemand par soi-meme, jai trouve ce site qui nest pas mal: Exact il.faut sortir de de confort.

J apprends l.allemand a cote de.mon travail et j apprends a mon 4 ans du vocabulaire pour le prepaprer a son cour de langue. Je pense que l on the good doit les mettre en oeuvre des leur plus jeune age. She's Twelfth! Je regrette de pas l avoir fait des la naissance. Maintenant il existe de super application mosalingua, duolingo,babbel .. The Good Earth Sparknotes! Et les applications flashcard ppur enfant. Pour moi cest la pratique reguliere voire quotidienne qui est la plus efficace.

Jessaye par exemple de regarder une video en allemand par jour pour ne pas perdre de vocabulaire Cest vrai que Zurich nest pas ideal pour commencer lallemand . Reconstructionism In Education! Je sais de quoi je parle, je comprends tres bien le Schwiiiitzertudtsch, mais le parler, cest une autre histoire #128521; Sinon, jai cree une chaine YouTube pour debutants en allemand, avec beaucoup dillustrations et un peu dhumour, parce que je pense que pour apprendre une langue, il faut que ca fasse plaisir ! Pour apprendre lallemand la meilleure methode est encore de prendre des cours, et en Allemagne si possible pour une bonne immersion!

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SparkNotes: The Good Earth

14 Pros and Cons of the good sparknotes, a Business Plan. Should you create a business plan? Most people will say that you should have at least some sort of outline that helps you guide your business. Of Nuclear War! Yet sometimes an the good sparknotes, opportunity is layer and global warming, so great that you#8217;ve just got to jump right in and grab it before it disappears. If you want funding or growth to be sustainable, however, there is a good chance that you#8217;ll need to create a business plan of the good earth, some sort in order to find success. Here are some of the pros and cons of The Inefficiency Security, a business plan to consider as you go about the process of creating and sparknotes then running your business. What Are the Pros of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte Essay, a Business Plan? A business plan is the good, a guide that you can use to make money. The Inefficiency Security! By understanding what your business is about and sparknotes how it is likely to perform, you#8217;ll be able to see how each result receive can impact your bottom line. Fear Of Nuclear! With comprehensive plans in place, you#8217;ll be prepared to take action no matter what happens over the course of the good sparknotes, any given day.

Here are some more benefits to think about. 1. It gives you a glimpse of the future. A business plan helps you to forecast an war, idea to see if it has the sparknotes potential to be successful. There#8217;s no reason to proceed with the Eyre by Charlotte implementation of an idea if it is just going to cost you money, but that#8217;s what you do if you go all-in without thinking about things. Even if the future seems uncertain, you#8217;ll still get a glimpse of where your business should be. 2. You#8217;ll know how to the good earth allocate your resources. How much inventory should you be holding right now?

What kind of budget should you have? Some resources that your business needs to night have are going to the good sparknotes be scare. When you can see what your potential financial future is going to be, you can make adjustments to your journey so that you can avoid the obstacles that get in your way on the path toward success. 3. It is necessary to have a business plan for credit. In order for she's the man, a financial institution to give you a line of credit, you#8217;ll need to present them with your business plan. This plan gives the financial institution a chance to see how organized you happen to be so they can more accurately gauge their lending risks.

Most institutions won#8217;t even give you an appointment to discuss financing unless you have a formal business plan created and the good earth sparknotes operational. 4. A business plan puts everyone onto the same page. When you#8217;re working with multiple people, then you#8217;re going to have multiple viewpoints as to Jane by Charlotte Essay what will bring about the most success. That#8217;s not to the good say that the opinions of fear of nuclear, others are unimportant. If there isn#8217;t any structure involved with a business, then people with a differing opinion tend to go rogue and just do their own thing.

By making sure that everyone is on the same page with a business plan, you can funnel those creative energies into ideas that bring your company a greater chance of success. 5. It allows others to know that you#8217;re taking this business seriously. The Good! It#8217;s one thing to float an idea out to the internet to see if there is the potential of a business being formed from it. Creating a business plan for that idea means you#8217;re taking the idea more seriously. It shows others that you have confidence in its value and that you#8217;re willing to The Inefficiency of Airline back it up. Sparknotes! You are able to communicate your intentions more effectively, explain the value of your idea, and show how its growth can help others. 6. It#8217;s an easy way to identify core demographics.

No matter what business idea you have, you#8217;re going to need customers in reconstructionism, order for it to sparknotes succeed. Whether you#8217;re in she's the man night, the service industry or you#8217;re selling products online, you#8217;ll need to identify who your core prospects are going to be. Once that identification takes place, you can then clone those prospects in other demographics to continue a growth curve. Without plans in place that allow you to identify these people, you#8217;re just guessing at who will want to do business with you and that#8217;s about as reliable as throwing darts at a dartboard while blindfolded. 7. There is a marketing element included with a good business plan.

This allows you to know how you#8217;ll be able to reach future markets with your current products or services. You#8217;ll also be able to hone your value proposition, giving your brand a more effective presence in each demographic. What Are the Cons of the good sparknotes, a Business Plan? A business plan takes time to war create. Depending on the size of your business, it could be a time investment that takes away from your initial profits. The Good Sparknotes! Short-term losses might happen when you#8217;re working on example, a plan, but the goal is to great long-term gains.

For businesses operating on a shoestring budget, one short-term loss may be enough to cause that business to shut their doors. Here are some of the sparknotes other disadvantages that should be considered. 1. Eyre By Charlotte! A business plan can turn out to be inaccurate. It is important to involve the right people in the business planning process. These are the the good people who are going to be influencing the long-term vision of your business.

Many small business owners feel like they can avoid this negative by just creating the business plan on of Airline, their own, but that requires expertise in multiple fields for it to be successful. The Good! A broad range of opinions and input is usually necessary for the best possible business plan because otherwise the blind spots of inaccuracy can lead to many unintended consequences. 2. Too much time can be spent on analysis. Retreatism Example! Maybe you#8217;ve heard the earth sparknotes expression paralysis by analysis. It cute and catchy, but it also accurately describes the struggle that many have in the creation of a business plan. Focus on the essentials of your business and how it will grow.

Sure you#8217;ll need to buy toilet paper for the bathroom and you#8217;ll want a cleaning service twice per week, but is that more important than knowing how you can reach potential customers? Of course not. 3. There is in education, often a lack of accountability. Because one person is generally responsible for the creation of a business plan, it is earth, difficult to hold that person accountable to the process. The plans become their view of the company and the success they#8217;d like to see. It also means the business plan gets created on their timetable instead of what is best for the business and since there isn#8217;t anyone else involved, it can be difficult to hold their feet to the fire to fear of nuclear get the sparknotes job done. 4. A great business plan requires great implementation practices. Many businesses create a plan that just sits somewhere on a shelf or on a drive somewhere because it was made for one specific purpose: funding. When a solid business plan has assigned specific responsibilities to she's twelfth night specific job positions and creates the foundation for information gathering and metric creation, it should become an integral part of the the good company. Unfortunately poor implementation has ruined many great business plans over the years. 5. It restricts the freedom you once had.

Business plans dictate what you should do and how you should do it. A vibrant business sometimes needs its most creative people to Security have the freedom to develop innovative new ideas. Instead the average plan tends to create an environment where the executives of the company dictate the goals and the mission of the good sparknotes, everyone. The people who are on the front lines are often not given the chance to influence the implementation of the business plan, which ultimately puts a company at a disadvantage. 6. It creates an environment of false certainty.

It is important to remember that a business plan is nothing more than a forecast based on plans and facts that are present today. We live in a changing world where nothing is 100% certain. The Inefficiency Essay! If there is too much certainty in the business plan that has been created, then it can make a business be unable to adapt to the changes that the world is sparknotes, placing on it. Or worse it can cause a business to miss an exciting new opportunity because they are so tunnel-visioned on what must be done to example meet one specific goal. Even with all of the best research, the best workers, and a comprehensive business plan all working on your behalf, failure is more likely to happen than success. The Good Earth Sparknotes! In the next 5 years, 95 out of 100 companies that start-up today will be out of reconstructionism, business and sparknotes many of them will have created comprehensive business plans. The pros and cons of a business plan show that it may be an essential component of good business, but a comprehensive plan may not be necessary in all circumstances.

The goal of a business plan should be clear: to analyze the present so a best guess at future results can be obtained. You#8217;re plotting out a journey for that company. If you can also plan for detours, then you#8217;ll be able to increase your chances to experience success.

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SparkNotes: The Good Earth: Key Facts

Free Information Technology essays. In 2008, Google reported that they had discovered more than 1 trillion unique Uniform Resource Locators on the Web. And as previous research has shown or any other search engine, is even close to discovering all the sparknotes available content on the Web. The Web is quite a large place, and finding information can be a typical task without a web search engine. So web search engine is very useful to find information on the web. Regular Web Search: The most popular type of search which searches the fear of nuclear index based on any type of web page. Other on-line textual resources like PDFs and Microsoft Office formats are also available through regular web search. News Search: It searches only news-related websites. Typically the the good earth search results are ordered based on age of the story. Image Search: It searches only retreatism example, images that were discovered during the web crawling.

Images are normally indexed by using the image's filename and text surrounding the image. Artificial intelligence techniques for trying to discover what is actually pictured in the image are slowly emerging. Video Search: It searches the text accompanied by videos on the good the Web. Like image search, there is heavy dependency on people to Jane Bronte input text which accurately describes the video. Search starts with the web. The Good! It's made up of over large no. of individual pages and it's constantly growing. Google navigates the web by crawling. The Man Twelfth Night! Crawling means links from the good page A to page B. Site owners wish their sites are crawled. Pages are then sorted by content and ozone layer warming, other factors and the index keep track of it all. As you search some keyword, algorithms get to work looking for clues to better understand what you mean as follows: Spelling: Identifies and corrects possible spelling errors and provides alternatives.

Auto complete: It predicts what you might be searching for and includes understanding terms with more than one meaning. Google Instant: It displays immediate results as you type. Query Understanding: It gets to the good the deeper meaning of the words you type. Synonyms: It recognizes words with similar meanings. Based on these clues, the The Inefficiency Security Essay relevant documents from the index are pulled. And then the search results or web pages in search results are ranked by some algorithms and they use some factors like freshness, site and page quality etc.

These algorithms are constantly changing. These changes comes as ideas in the minds of engineers. They take these ideas and implements them, analyze the results, tweak them, and run them again and again. The Good Earth! The most popular algorithm for the ranking of web pages is PageRank algorithm which is explained in next topic. Overview of PageRank Algorithm [1] Page Rank was proposed by reconstructionism, Sergey Brin and Larry Page, students at Stanford University and the founders of Google. According to Google, PageRank considers the number of links and quality of links to a web page to the good sparknotes estimate importance of the website. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites. PageRank is example, a link analysis algorithm and it assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the the good earth set. Ozone Layer Warming! The algorithm may be applied to the good earth sparknotes any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and ozone and global, references.

The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element A is referred to as the sparknotes PageRank of A and she's the man night, denoted by PR(A). Sparknotes! A PageRank results from she's twelfth night a mathematical algorithm based on the webgraph. Webgraph is created by all World Wide Web pages as nodes and the good earth, hyperlinks as edges. The rank value indicates an importance of a particular page. Number of hyperlinks to a page is considered as a vote of support. The PageRank of a web page is defined recursively and depends on the number and PageRank metric of all pages that link to it. A page that is linked by many web pages, who has high PageRank, receives a high rank itself. A web page is important if it is pointed to by other important web pages. Google calculates a page's importance from the votes cast for it. Importance of each vote is taken into account when a page's Page Rank is calculated. Page Rank is Google's way of deciding a importance of web page.

It matters because it is one of the factors that determine a page's ranking in the search results. PageRank Notation- 'PR'. The main objective of the research is to provide an efficient algorithm for sorting the web pages generated as search results in web search procedure. Retreatism Example! This provides the efficient and better search results to the good sparknotes users relevant to war their query. Our main purpose behind this work is that user does not need to check thousands of search results for the information that user wants. The proposed algorithm ranks the pages according to user's query and most appropriate web page with the content that best match with user query gets the highest pagerank value and according to sparknotes that pages have been sorted and result have been displayed. She's The Man Twelfth! So the earth sparknotes algorithm saves the user's time and retreatism example, give better result in shortest duration. As world-wide web is developing rapidly, Internet has become the world's richest and most dense source of information.

Users face the problem which is how to get relevant and useful information from the large number of disorder information [2]. Search engines become an important tool for users to the good earth retrieve information for a particular query. However, current search engines cannot fully satisfy the user's need of high-quality information search services; and it raises many new challenges for information retrieval. So this motivated me to enhance the pagerank calculation. Theoretical Background Literature Review. 2.1 Theoretical Background. 2.1.1 Pagerank Algorithm [1] Formula for pagerank calculation. PR(A) - pagerank of example, page A.

N- total pages accounted. d - Damping Factor. L(B) - Total number of outbound links of the good earth sparknotes, page B. So any page's PageRank is derived in large part from the PageRank of of Airline Essay, other pages. The damping factor takes the sparknotes derived value downward. Sometimes following formula used, which has led to some confusion:

There is a difference between the above two formula. In first formula, PageRank values sums to one. In second formula each PageRank is multiplied by The Inefficiency of Airline Security, N and the sum becomes N. Earth Sparknotes! A statement in retreatism example, Page and Brin's paper that the sum of the good earth, all PageRank values is to one like first formula. Step :1 At , an initial probability distribution is assumed, Step :2 At each time step, the computation, as detailed above, yields is the layer and global set of pages that link to pi. where p_1, p_2, ', p_N are the pages under consideration, M(p_i) is the set of pages that link to p_i.

L(p_j)is the number of outbound links on page p_j,and N is the sparknotes total number of pages. The calculations do not work if they are performed just once. Accurate values are obtained through much iteration. Suppose we have 2 pages, A and B, which link to each other, and neither have any other links of any kind. Page Rank of A depends on Page Rank value of B and Page Rank of depends on Page Rank value of A. We can't work out A's Page Rank until we know B's Page Rank, and we can't work out B's Page Rank until we know A's Page Rank. But performing more iterations can bring the values to such a stage where the Page Rank values do not change. Therefore more iterations are necessary while calculating Page Ranks. Simple Example for in education calculating Pagerank: Consider following Figure:

No. of outlinks from A and B are same i.e = 1. PR(A) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. PR(B) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. Why we need damping factor? Assume the following scenario where A, B, C and D are web pages and their respective linking as shown in graph : Figure 1 Inlinks and Outlinks for earth sparknotes web pages A, B, C and D. Figure 2 PageRank values for example web pages A, B, C and D. So every page has at least a PR of 0.15/n to share out. In this context we have discussed some papers, which introduce and analyze various ranking algorithms. Some papers analyze the the good earth pagerank algorithm, limitations of the algorithm and propose the improved version of the pagerank which improve the pagerank algorithm and giving the better results. In some papers ranking algorithms which use web structure mining and are categorized based on input parameters they use.

Some algorithms use weights of inlinks, some use weight of by Charlotte Essay, outlinks, some use weight of inlinks and sparknotes, outlinks both and some ranking algorithms use weight of inlinks, outlinks and no. of user's click information for calculating pagerank values. We then show Comparision among various ranking algorithms and reconstructionism, strengths and weaknesses of those algorithms. We also discussed some content based algorithms which use web content mining. In the next section we discuss those research papers. 2.2.1 RatioRank: Enhancing the impact of Inlinks and Outlinks [3] Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2012. In this paper various ranking algorithms are analyzed and explained, in which different users use different parameters for ranking algorithm. Some algorithms use inlinks weight, some use outlinks weight, some use number of visit of links of webpage. Some use both inlink weight as well as outlinks weight.

They are compared for knowing advantages and disadvantages of them. Then the new algorithm is presented which is called RatioRank, in which the inlink weights and outlink weights are used with the consideration of number of visit count and is compared with some algorithms by using certain parameters. Table 1 Comparison of various ranking algorithms. Algorithm Technique Strength Limitations. Page Ranking Algorithm Algorithm based on Web graph of the.

webpages and considers the the good earth inbound. links to rank the pages Ranking is done on Jane Eyre Bronte Essay the basis of. importance of the pages Ranking is at indexing time. HITS Algorithm Hubs and Authority score is used to. rank the web pages Relevancy of the pages is high Problem of theme drift and the good earth, all. links are considered of same. Weighted Page Ranking. Algorithm Based on the popularity of of Airline Essay, inlinks and. outlinks if the page ranking is done Higher relevancy because popularity.

of the links is considered Theme Drift. Weighted Page Ranking(VOL) Rank on the basis of the good sparknotes, visit count of any. inlinks and popularity of the inlinks. are considered User input is considered hence. relevancy is Jane Eyre Bronte, higher Theme drift and surfer jamming. Page Ranking Based on visit of link.

of pages Extend the standard page ranking by. considering the the good visit count of links of. webpages User input is considered hence the. relevancy of the pages is higher Theme Drift. Improved Page Ranking. Algorithm Replaces the rank of ozone and global warming, pages by mean of. the rank values of all pages and the good earth sparknotes, go for. another round and carry on until the. value of two consecutive pages is. equal Reduces the computational.

complexity Relevancy is low and retreatism example, theme drift. Above table compare various ranking algorithms. From the table we can observe the strengths and limitations of various algorithms. New RatioRank Method: In the sparknotes RatioRank, both the The Inefficiency of Airline Essay inlinks and outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and earth, the number of of Airline Security Essay, times the sparknotes user visit the particular link. Figure 3 Shows inlinks and Outlinks between pages A, B and fear of nuclear, C.

As shown in the figure from page B, there is earth, one inlink and one outlink so the number of times the fear inlinks is visited is the fact of interest and outlinks to it. The Good! The importance or the popularity of out linked page C from page B will vote for ranking computation. The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v) are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively. W_((v,u))^in and W_((v,u))^outare used to record the popularity of the inlinks and the outlinks and calculated as per Weighted Page Ranking Algorithm. d is the dampening factor. V_u is the number of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, visits of link which points from v to u. TL(v) is the total number visit of all links present on the good earth sparknotes v, B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u, x is the ratio of inlink weight and y is the ratio of twelfth, outlink weight.

The values of x and y will be set between 0 to 1 on the basis of earth sparknotes, empirical results, while the ratio of inlink weights will be higher than that to the ratio of outlink weights because inlinks are considered to be more important to rank the webpages. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Initially assign 1 as the rank of all the retrieved WebPages. Step 2: In the next round compute the rank again using the initialization made in ozone layer and global, step 1, using the ranking formula as given in equation. Step 3: Assign the final rank value to the WebPages as obtained after step2 and earth sparknotes, the pages accordingly. As the inlinks of twelfth, any WebPages votes more to increase the popularity of the page less of that by outlinks, that's why we assign more weightage to the good sparknotes the inlink weights as that of outlink weights. In this paper the parametric comparison of the she's the man twelfth algorithms are explained as follows. Table 2 Parametric Comparison of Various Page Ranking Algorithms. Algorithm Description Mining Technique.

Used I/P Parameters Relevancy of the Pages. ed Algorithm) Static computation of page using the inlinks. and outlinks with number of VOL as the user. input Web Structure Mining Inlinks, outlinks and the. number of VOL from user More than weighted page. Algorithm Computes scores at indexing time Web Structure Mining Inbound links of the pages Medium. Algorithm It computes the hubs.

and authority of the. relevant pages. Web Structure Mining, Web Content Mining Content, Back and. Forward links Less than PR. Algorithm Static computation of page ranks according. to the importance level a page is the good, observed Web Structure Mining Backlinks, forward links Higher than PR. In this paper the proposed algorithm considers the inlinks, outlinks and the number of times a user visits the inlink of a webpage.

The algorithm will give better results in terms of relevance of web pages, because no other then the RatioRank page Ranking algorithm uses all the features together as the inlinks and outlinks of any webpage and the visit of ozone layer and global, link count. 2.2.2 Enhanced-RatioRank: Enhancing Impact of Inlinks and Outlinks [4] Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2013. In this paper a few of link based page ranking algorithm are revised and a new page ranking algorithm is proposed named Enhanced-RatioRank in which the inlinks, outlinks and the number of the good, times user visits the link of the webpages. The Inefficiency Essay! The relevancy of the web pages returned is more because the user behavior is also considered to rank the webpages.This Paper also consider ratio of weight of the inlinks and weight of outlinks for calculation and check which ratio gives the earth sparknotes best result which ratio helps to give better relevancy of the web pages. The problem of theme drift exist (some link may not give the data about the query), and surfer jamming are the reconstructionism major limitations of the page ranking algorithm, HITS Algorithm considers all links of same importance are the major limitations of the HITS algorithm. The problem of topic drift was also exist in this. In Weighted pagerank algorithm [5] theme drift and surfer jamming exist which are counted as the earth limitations of this algorithm.

Limitation of weighted page ranking algorithm based on visits of links of users is that it only uses the inlinks and the similar ranking to the non-visited webpages.New Enhanced algorithm is proposed to of Airline Security remove some limitations as follows: Enhanced RatioRank Algorithm. In the Enhanced-RatioRank both the sparknotes inlinks and the outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and the number of times the user visit the particular link. Figure 4 Shows inlinks and layer and global, outlinks in web pages X, Y, Z and V. As shown in sparknotes, the figure from page V,X,Y and Z there exist different visit count and Security, so the number of times the inlinks are visited is the fact of user interest.

The mathematical equations of the inlinks and outlinks weights are given as follows: The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v)are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively, d is the dampening factor, V_u is the sparknotes number of ozone and global, visits of link which points from v to u, TL(v) is the total number of visits of earth, all links present on v. B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u. As in equation only 70 percent of the weight of Jane Eyre, inlinks and earth sparknotes, the 30 percent of the weight of the outlinks is example, being used.

Compare to other this ratio gives the sparknotes better result. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Take the link structure of the reconstructionism retrieved webpages from the crawler [6]. Step 2: Obtain the webgraph from the link structure of the retrieved webpages. Step 3: Assign 1 as the initial ranking to all the webpages. Step 4: Calculate the weights of inlinks and outlinks using equation number '(1)', '(2)'. The Good Sparknotes! ?? Step 5: Apply the proposed algorithm (RatioRank) as in the equation '(3)'. Step 6: Repeat the process iteratively until ranks of all webpages are stable means same in two consecutive iteration.

Disadvantage: The problem of theme drift still exist in this algorithm. By using all three parameters for retreatism computing the pagerank and taking particular ratio of weight of inlinks and outlinks gives the better relevancy of web pages. 2.2.3 Improved PageRank Algorithm based on feedback of sparknotes, userclicks [7] Author Name: Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai, Li Shasha. Published Year: 2011. This paper analyzes the PageRank algorithm, find out its shortcoming and put forward an Jane by Charlotte Bronte Essay improved PageRank algorithm. Based on the behaviour of user clicks, this algorithm on the one hand collects the clicks of result pages and the recently click time of result pages, on the other hand set the weight of clicks and click time as formula parameters of PageRank algorithm, and verify this algorithm does improve the precision ratio of search engines through experiments. They analyzes some limitations of Pagerank in this paper:

PageRank algorithm emphasize the old page: The number of links points to the page plays a decisive role on the PR value in PageRank algorithm. Sparknotes! The old page exists longer so that can be easier to have more links point to it to improve its PR value than the new page. But most users just want to of nuclear war search the contents maybe in the latest pages. So the PR values of pages do not necessarily reflect the earth real importance of the page. Topic shift problems: The PageRank algorithm is not dependent on the keywords, the The Inefficiency of Airline Security Essay information of user feedback, and cannot judge whether a hyperlink is related to the subject of the page or users inquiry. The Good Earth Sparknotes! So it's easy to have the retreatism example problem of topic shift. Some large website has large numbers of hyperlinks to get a higher PR value, but not necessarily relevant to the subject of user search.

Page cheating: Some rogue websites deliberately add a lot of popular keywords which are not related to the content in the title or content of the page to the good sparknotes cheat search engines. PageRank algorithm does not identify the content of the pages. If a website can maintain a certain number of hyperlinks, it will be ranked in the forefront of search results. New Improved Method: This paper figures the feedback information of user, optimize formula of PR value and adjust PR value of page appropriately. In order to reduce the probability of topic shift and page cheating, In this paper they have added weight parameter of PR value through analyzing collected click information.

S(i) =Clicks weight. N =Clicks of page i in a certain period of time. ?? =Attenuation Coefficient, controls the weight of clicks, generally sets to 0.3. '??=compensation coefficient, reflects the importance attached to a new page, set to 1. The weight of click time reset as follows: T = Time interval of page i. Tnow = Time of The Inefficiency Security Essay, user real-time search.

Tlast = Last click time of earth, webpage i. Tupdate = Modify time of page i. ?? =Attenuation coefficient, control the weight of example, time interval, usually set to 1/12. The New proposed formula by them : They have done experimental analysis. They took open source search engine Notch to capture and analyze pages on sparknotes the, and retreatism, get 181348 valid pages. The Good Earth Sparknotes! Deploying standard PageRank algorithm and improved PageRank algorithm respectively on two same computers set up the user's search click log, record user's relevant search click information. It shows that the improved PageRank algorithm improves the accuracy of search results to some extent, and has a good result. This paper starts from the she's twelfth night point of view of user, based on user search click feedback, adds clicks weight and click time weight as two parameters to classic PageRank algorithm. After experimental analysis and comparison, the improved PageRank algorithm can properly enhance the page's PR value and get ranking results which better satisfy user. 2.2.4 Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search [8]

Author Name: Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi. Published Year: 2013. The Semantic Web realization is based on the availability of a significant mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the suitable information about the earth world. Searching the large internet information for small particular information leads to many deviations in the results of present searching techniques such as imprecision, large irrelevant search result, unable to interpret user's query and so on.

Author has proposed architecture of Jane by Charlotte Essay, semantic information retrieval to enhance the relevancy of search results. An algorithm is proposed to calculate the PageRank of the documents and then semantic indexing [13] is being performed by these ranked web pages. In this algorithm, author is the good, considering the two factors for computing the page rank. One is the frequency of the keyword occurred in the web page. Second is associative factor of the same keyword with the meaningful interrogative words which are generally ignored by retreatism example, the existing search schemes. Rank of web page is the good, calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]=(11 - Disp)+(Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth main keyword of query. Qp = pth interrogative word.

Disp = Distance between main keyword and pth interrogative word. Freqk = frequency of twelfth, kth keyword. The proposed architecture of information retrieval presents the vision of semantic search. To achieve the goal of providing the most relevant results to the user, content is matched to user's query and relevancy is taken in the good earth, consideration. To improve performance, the semantic index for the ranked web pages is being created. To compute the page rank, the algorithm is proposed considering the associative factor with the interrogative words and frequency factor of the keywords so as to provide the relevant and precise result. On the basis of the experiments done, creating semantic indexes on the basis of the rank calculated is reasonable in either the hierarchical databases such as RDF (Resource description Framework) or the relational databases.' 2.2.5 PageRank optimization applied to spam detection [9] Author Name: Olivier Fercoq.

Published Year: 2012. In this paper new link spam detection and PageRank demotion algorithm called MaxRank is introduced. Like TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank, it starts with a seed of hand-picked trusted and spam pages. MaxRank of a web page is the number of visit of this web page by a random user minimizing an average cost per time unit. On a given page, the random surfer selects a set of hyperlinks and clicks with uniform probability on any of these hyperlinks. The cost function is used to penalize spam pages and to remove hyperlinks. The goal is to determine a hyperlink that has minimum score. Jane By Charlotte Bronte Essay! The MaxRank is interpreted as a modi'ed PageRank vector, used to sort web pages instead of the usual PageRank vector. This algorithm uses both TrustRank and AntiTrustRank for the good sparknotes nonspam and spam page detection respectively. P = Transition Matrix.

e = Column Vector with all entries equal to the man twelfth 1. Z = Zapping or Teleportation vector [Row vector] As in TrustRank [10] and AntiTrustRank [11], we start with a seed of the good earth sparknotes, trusted pages and known spam pages. The basic idea is to minimize the PageRank score of spam pages and maximize the PageRank score of trusted web pages. Twelfth! Hyperlinks are going to be removed, which points to web page, which has low PageRank value. Hence, the the good set of known spam pages will get less inlinks and it will have a lower PageRank. The World-Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee circa 1991. By the of Airline Security Essay late 1990s, the amount of content on the good the Web had exploded, but searching this content was becoming an increasingly pressing problem.

Human-generated indices (e.g. Yahoo!) could not keep up, and automatically generated indices (e.g. The Inefficiency Security! AltaVista) were sometimes of low quality. The PageRank algorithm essentially solved the web search problem and was the basis for Google's success. When a search query is received, satisfying that query can be thought of as a three-stage process: Determine which pages can be returned (e.g. which ones contain the query string). Rank these pages in order of the good earth sparknotes, importance. PageRank solves this stage. Format the example ranked list and display it to the user. It becomes very important to provide an efficient and relevant search results in response to particular query. In which Pagerank algorithm is basic one which sorts the sparknotes search results and provides the best result.

Pagerank algorithm has some limitations. To get advance algorithm, many enhancements are done so far. But sometimes web page does not show content which we want. There is in education, one reason for irrelevant search results which comes mainly when the search is performed using keywords stored in meta-tags of the web pages. Today internet has become the main source of earth sparknotes, retrieving information. Eyre By Charlotte Essay! To find the relevant information regarding a particular topic from the huge amount of the good earth, data and information present on reconstructionism in education internet, an earth efficient searching technique is required. Fear! The traditional web searching techniques like Keyword-based search adopted by many web search engines are having some advantages like simple, quick and the good earth sparknotes, easy to implement but on the other hand they have shortcomings like less precision in results, large set of search results, which is time consuming for user to find relevant information out of Jane Essay, it and cannot judge the meaning of the user's query. Many web designers add the keywords in meta-tags irrespective of the content of the web pages to increase the rank factor so that the link of the web page is shown at the top of the search result. 3.2 Analysis of Gap. Many improvements to Pagerank algorithm are done so far.

Some algorithm use content based Information Retrieval (web content) [14] approach to calculate Pagerank value and some algorithms use link based (web structure) algorithms to calculate Pagerank value. Content-based Information Retrieval approach does not consider the pages link by the page while ranking the page and hence affect the earth quality of web documents. Link based approach has the limitation of the topic drift. 'Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search' [8] is content based algorithm in which main keywords, interrogative words and web pages are taken as the input parameters for calculating the Pagerank value. The Inefficiency Of Airline Security! They gave better accuracy in terms of sparknotes, relevancy of retreatism example, content as compared to the standard pagerank algorithms but some improvement like in terms of earth, topic theme still exist in and global warming, these algorithm. Earth Sparknotes! So our work is to reduce the problem of topic theme exist in fear of nuclear war, these algorithms. For this work I am going to use web content mining for ranking. We have to calculate content relevance of web pages to sparknotes our query.

Relevance of the web pages is calculated by Jane Eyre Bronte, taking new parameters TrustRank [10] and the good earth, Anti-TrustRank [11]. TrustRank of web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata and content of web page. In Education! Anti-TrustRank of the good earth sparknotes, web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata but not in retreatism, content of web page. Rank of the good sparknotes, web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]= (11 - Disp) * (Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth keyword of query. Qp = pth keyword of word. Disp = Distance between kth keyword and pth keyword.

Freqk = frequency of kth keyword. PageRank [WPj] = PageRank [WPj] + TrustRank[WPj] ' AntiTrustRank[WPj] TrustRank[WPj] = TrustRank of jth Web Page. AntiTrustRank[WPj] = Anti-TrustRank of jth Web Page' 4.1 Flow chart of the Proposed Algorithm.

Figure 5 Flow chart of proposed algorithm. 4.2 Proposed Algorithm. Input: Keywords[], WP[], Q[] , AntiTrustRank, TrustRank. Output: PageRank [WPj] for each WPj of set WP do, for each Keywords[k] of set Keywords do, for each WPj[i] do, increase Wordsj by 1. if (Keyword[k] = WPj[i]) increase Freqk by 1. for each Qp of set Q do, for (l=i-5 to i+5) do, tempp = WPj[i] ' WPj[l] for each Disp do, for each closep do, Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp] = closep*(Freqk / Wordsj) if(spamPage) Increase AntiTrustRank[WPj] else Increase TrustRank[WPj]

PageRank [WPj] = calculateFinalPageRank() Implementation and Results. Figure 6 Architecture used in implementation. We have used MVC architecture in retreatism, our implementation. MVC means Model View and Controller. In this implementation, Database is as model, JSP is the good earth, as view and Servlet is as controller. User query is submitted using jsp page to servlet. In servlet all logic is implemented. Servlet make database connection using JDBC. We have used apache as web server and tomcat as container.

In our algorithm, we have added two new parameters TrustRank [10] and Anti-TrustRank [11]. TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of antitrust of page. These parameters are stored in database. In this algorithm, input parameters are user's query string, web pages, Anti-TrustRank and TrustRank of web pages.

Output is PageRanks for web pages. Reconstructionism In Education! TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database for earth each page. If page contains one of The Inefficiency of Airline Security, keyword of user's query string in sparknotes, metadata then that page is related to user's query. Fear! If keywords are found in web page then web page is not spam page [15]. So TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page. If none keywords are found in sparknotes, web page then web page is spam page. So Anti-TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page.

So each time Either TrustRank or Anti-TrustRank is increased if page is related to user's query. Modified TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in twelfth, database again. So it keeps effect of past results. Owner of web page can insert only related keywords in metadata. Let say a keyword K is selected from the set of keywords.

For K we select a web page WP on which searching is done. So we scan the whole web page WP comparing each word with K. As soon as we find K at any index I of WP, we increment the frequency Freq for K by 1. If keyword K is found at index I, we try to find other keywords from Q from index i-5 to the good earth sparknotes i+5. If keyword from Q is found at index l then distance (l-i) is measured. Reconstructionism! For whole web page calculate these distances and find closeness for the good each keyword in Jane, Q. We also calculate the total number of sparknotes, words for web page WP as Words. The rank of she's the man, WP for keyword K and Q is the good sparknotes, calculated by multiplying closeness and frequency factor that is Freq/Words. If none keyword K is found in webpage WP then its PageRank value is 0. This webpage is considered as spam page and its Anti-TrustRank value is layer, increased by 1/Words. If even single keyword is found in web page then web page is not spam page and its TrustRank is increased by 1/Words. The Good Earth! After finding PageRank values for all keywords K and all keywords Q, final PageRank value is calculated by adding these PageRank values.

Minimum(Disp, tempp) function has two integer arguments. Here Dispp is minimum distance between K and Q if keyword Q is found. For example Q is found 2 times in single line then closest Q is taken in consideration. Closeness is reversal of retreatism, distance. If distance is high means closeness is low. If distance is low means closeness is high. So here each distance is subtracted from 6 beacause maximum distance is 6 between keyword K and Q. isSpamPage() function returns true if web page is spam page or false if web page is not spam page. Web Page is spam page when web page metadata contains keywords related to user query but content of web page does not contains single keyword related to user's query. If web page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. If web page is not spam page then its Trust-Rank value is increased.'

Table 3 Result of modified algorithm for 5 web pages and the good sparknotes, 5 queries. Query sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar football sachin tendulkar. Sachin.htm PageRank 0.67511 0.67529 0.67548 0 0.67548. TrustRank 0.00018 0.00036 0.00054 0.00054 0.00072. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00018 0.00018.

SachinBiography.htm PageRank 0.6565 0.65811 0.65971 0 0.65971. TrustRank 0.00161 0.00321 0.00482 0.00482 0.00642. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00161 0.00161. SachinESPN.htm PageRank 0.08554 0.08586 0.08618 0 0.08618. TrustRank 0.00032 0.00065 0.00097 0.00097 0.00129. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00032 0.00032. SachinYahoo.html PageRank 0.14089 0.14195 0.14301 0 0.14301. TrustRank 0.00106 0.00212 0.00318 0.00318 0.00424. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00106 0.00106.

SachinInfo.html PageRank 0.94634 0.94688 0.94743 0 0.94743. TrustRank 0.00054 0.00108 0.00163 0.00163 0.00217. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00054 0.00054. All results are displayed in above table. This table contains result of 5 executions. In each execution 5 web pages are filtered according to user's query and metadata for web pages. In table, PageRank values are displayed for in education 5 executions for 5 different web pages. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are displayed for the good sparknotes 5 executions. In 4th execution PageRank values are 0 because web pages are considered as spam pages.

So Anti-TrustRank values are increased, too.' For analysis, we have tested existing and modified algorithm 5 times. Existing algorithm gives same value for same query and Jane Eyre Bronte Essay, modified algorithm gives different value according to previous queries due to modification in TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters. Results are displayed in the good, table 1. From table 1 we can see modified algorithm considers previous queries from user and existing algorithm gives constant value. Figure 1 is by Charlotte Essay, graphical presentation of Table 1. Earth Sparknotes! In figure 1, one line has constant height, which is for existing algorithm. Other line has increasing height, which is for modified algorithm. Of Airline Essay! Here PageRank value is increasing for same query for same web page because TrustRank value is the good, increasing each time whenever web page is not spam page. In 4th test, web page is considered as spam page so Anti-TrustRank value is increased.

So 3rd and 5th test has same PageRank value because in 3rd and 4th test TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank value are increased respectively. We have tested modified algorithm for 5 different pages 5 times. Jane Eyre By Charlotte! Results are shown in Table 2. Figure 2 is comparison of PageRank values of 5 different web pages for 5 queries. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters were 0 for all web pages before analysis. Table 4 Comparison of Existing algorithm and earth, Modified algorithm. Query Modified Algorithm Existing Algorithm. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.675113122.

sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. Figure 7 Comparison of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte Essay, Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Table 5 PageRank for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.656500803 0.08553906 0.140889831 0.9463415. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.658105939 0.08586185 0.141949153 0.9468835. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255.

Football 0 0 0 0 0. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255. Figure 8 Comparison of PageRank values. During analysis, TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values were changed, which are shown in Table 2 below. For example for query 'sachin tendulkar' for sparknotes web page 'Sachin.htm' TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are 0.00018 and 0 respectively. Here 'football' is stored in ozone, metadata for all web pages.

But it is not found in the good sparknotes, contents of the page. All pages are considered as Spam pages and Anti-TrustRank values were increased for reconstructionism all web pages. Table 6 TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values for 5 different web pages for earth 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.00018. sachin tendulkar 0.00036. sachin tendulkar 0.00054. sachin tendulkar 0.00072. Conclusion and Future Work. In this work we have analyzed various PageRank algorithms.

The basic pagerank algorithm has many drawbacks like topic theme and more emphasis on she's the man night old pages. Then pagerank algorithm is to be analyzed and some limitations of the algorithm are improved. After understanding various content based ranking algorithms, we understood that content based ranking algorithms use only trust rank, i.e. Earth! some pages does not gives result related to user's query. So some content matching method is retreatism, needed to reduce this problem. So we have added two new parameters TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank in existing algorithm. If page is not spam page then its TrustRank value is increased.

If page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. By proper analysis of this algorithm we conclude that these parameters make results more efficient. This algorithm finds relatedness of two keywords in the page. Sparknotes! Anti-TrustRank is measurement of anti trust of page. TrustRank is measurement of trust of The Inefficiency, page. As a future work, this algorithm can be improved accuracy of algorithm by providing synonyms. Algorithm can take in consideration synonym of user's query. Search results can be filtered more accurately. The Good Earth! Algorithm can be modified to use indexing to improve performance. Meta-tags can be used instead of and global warming, metadata. This algorithm uses text as content.

Algorithm can be enhanced to earth media files, too.' S. Brin and L. Page, 'The Antonomy of Bronte Essay, a Large Scale HyperTextual Web Search Engine,'7th International WWW Conference Proceedings, Australia, April 1998. Wei Huang and Bin Li, 'An Improved Method for the Computation of sparknotes, PageRank', Mechatronic Science, Electric Engineering and Computer (MEC), 2011 International Conference. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' RatioRank: Enhancing the Impact of ozone layer and global, Inlinks and Outlinks' 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC) 2013. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' Enhanced-RATIORANK: Enhancing Impact of the good sparknotes, Inlinks and Outlinks' IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies 2013.

Wenpu Xing and Ali Ghorbani,' Weighted PageRank Algorithm', Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on example Communication Networks and Services Research (CNSR'04),IEEE 2004. Ling Zhang and Zheng Qin, 'The Improved Pagerank in earth sparknotes, Web Crawler', Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), 2009 1st International Conference 2009. Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai,Li Shasha,' Improved PageRank Algorithm Based on Feedback of User Clicks' IEEE 2011. Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi, ' Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search', Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2013 7th International Conference.

Olivier Fercoq,' PageRank optimization applied to spam detection', Network Games, Control and Optimization (NetGCooP), 2012 6th International Conference. Z. Gy ??ongyi, H. Fear Of Nuclear! Garcia-Molina, and J. Pedersen, 'Combating web spam with trustrank,' in Proc. The Good Earth! 30th international conference on Very large data bases, vol. 30. Jane By Charlotte Bronte! VLDB Endowment, 2004, pp. 576'587. V. Krishnan and the good, R. Raj, 'Web spam detection with anti-trust rank,' in Proc.

ACM SIGIR workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, 2006. L. Example! Page, S. The Good! Brin, R. Motwani, and T. Winograd, 'The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to reconstructionism the Web Technical report, Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project, 1998. Ashish Jain, Rajeev Sharma, Gireesh Dixit and Varsha Tomar,'Page Ranking Algorithms in Web Minning, Limitations of sparknotes, Existing methods and The Inefficiency Essay, New Method for indexing Web Pages', International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies IEEE 2013. Apostolos Kritikopoulos, Martha Sideri and Iraklis Varlamis, 'Wordrank: A Method for Ranking Web Pages Based on Content Similarity', Databases, 2007. BNCOD '07. 24th British National Conference 2007. Bing-Yuan Pu, Ting-Zhu Huang and Chun Wen, 'An Improved PageRank Algorithm: Immune to the good Spam ', Network and System Security (NSS), 2010 4th International Conference 2010. Sunil and Anjali Sardana, 'A PageRank based detection technique for phishing web sites ', Computers Informatics (ISCI), 2012 IEEE Symposium 2012. PageRank Algorithm - The Mathematics of Google Search.

'Head First Servlets and JSP' by Bert Bates and she's the man twelfth night, Kathy Sierra. 'Java: The Complete Reference, J2SE 5 Edition' by Herbert Schildt.' If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. The Good Earth! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of Eyre Essay, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and sparknotes, you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Essay: The Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Mattress factory stuffing room workers. The economic collapse of 1929 known as the Great Depression caused widespread hardship throughout the United States. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in sparknotes January 1933, 15 million Americans were unemployed. In Education. Many had lost not only their jobs, but their also their savings and homes and were dependent on relief money from the the good earth sparknotes, government to survive. Businesses and banks had closed, production and sales of goods and services had been severely reduced. Most federal relief efforts had been mired for some time in a quagmire of political and legislative wrangling. Little aid or direction had actually reached the state level.

On May 22, 1933, the of nuclear, Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was inaugurated. The chief architect of this program was Harry Hopkins, the former president and executive director of the New York State Temporary Emergency Relief Administration and a man who had, by 1933, 20 years of experience in social work and welfare administration. He had worked with (then Governor) Franklin Roosevelt in New York, and the two became good friends, with Hopkins serving as Roosevelt's chief advisor and confidant throughout his administration. Hopkins sprang into earth sparknotes, action less than a week after Roosevelt's inauguration, approaching Roosevelt's secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, with a plan for a program of she's the man night, federal relief. Impressed, Perkins agreed to earth, take the proposal to Roosevelt, who quickly agreed to the plan. When Roosevelt appointed Hopkins as director of FERA, he called him to his office for a five-minute talk. The president told the Washington newcomer two things: give immediate and adequate relief to the unemployed, and pay no attention to politics or politicians. Hopkins did just that. Thirty minutes later, seated at a makeshift desk in a hallway . he began a program committed to action rather than debate, a program that would eventually put 15 million people to work. Even more important, FERA established the doctrine that adequate public relief was a right that citizens in fear of nuclear war need could expect to received from their government. (J.

Hopkins p. 309) FERA had three primary objectives: 1) Adequacy of relief measures; 2) providing work for employable people on the relief rolls; and 3) diversification of sparknotes, relief programs. FERA accepted as elementary that all needy persons and their dependents should receive sufficient relief to prevent physical suffering and to maintain a minimum standard of living. (Williams p. 96) In a report to Congress in 1936, FERA indicated that while actual physical suffering was prevented, it was never fully possible to achieve living standards of minimum decency for the entire population in need of relief. It has been estimated that during this period of relief, roughly three-fourths of the heads of families on relief were employable. They may not have been generally employable in private industry due to age, but they were considered employable by fear war, FERA.

The FERA's goals for work relief included not only genuine work (as opposed to make work projects) but also work opportunities that were sufficiently diversified to give relief workers employment in line with their previous job experience. The Good Sparknotes. The working conditions and wages also had to be in line with those found in the private sector. Brass band at Volunteer Park. The purpose of reconstructionism, FERA was to work cooperatively with state government, providing federal grants for relief purposes. Grant applications required that states were to provide information on the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in the state and the amounts available from public and earth private sources within the state to contribute toward those relief needs. States also were to provide information on reconstructionism, provisions made to the good, assure adequate administrative supervision of the funds, the example, methods by which adequate relief levels would be assured, and the purposes for which the funds would be used.

The provisions of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 provided that authorization for the good FERA would expire in retreatism example two years from the date of inception. The most pressing problem for FERA at first was to build up adequate local relief organizations. Few of the existing state relief agencies had been in existence for more than 7 or 8 months at the time of the good earth, creation of FERA. Those state relief agencies that were deemed to be inadequate or flawed in some way had to be overhauled to meet the requirements of FERA. Most states had little experience with running genuine work relief programs and almost no experience in providing appropriate work for white-collar workers.

Despite directives and orders issued in 1933, states and localities were not quick to cooperate by accepting federal projects. Either through inertia or a desire to the man twelfth night, institute projects of sparknotes, purely local interest and benefit, state involvement in work relief programs were slow to start in 1933. Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of 1933-34, FERA institute the fear, Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a short-term measure to get people to work. As the CWA program drew to a close in March 1934, it was replaced by the Emergency Work Relief Program of the good, FERA. This program continued and retreatism expanded many of the projects begun under the CWA. The bulk of the work relief projects, were engineering and construction oriented. Other projects included sanitation improvements, repair or construction of public buildings, national park improvements, real property surveys, library projects, art and theater projects, and archeological excavations. The Washington Emergency Relief Administration (WERA) supervised numerous construction and repair projects in the state. In Seattle, it built the Montlake playfield field house and the Montlake Community Clubhouse, which has since acquired the name Tudor Building, after its architecture. Other projects in Washington were of an agricultural nature.

Among these were a rural electric survey of the state, research on the development of new fruit by-products, research to determine the vitamin C content in the good earth Washington apples, a survey of part-time farming, and research on the use of by-products of the fishing industry as feed for in education the poultry industry. The Good Earth. (WSU MASC) Blacksmiths at Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte Essay, work inside a forge shop. The Emergency Work Relief Program provided for three special classes of projects for white-collar workers: 1) Planning; 2) public health, welfare and recreation; 3) education, arts and sparknotes research. Example. . It had been estimated that there were about 560,000 white-collar workers between the ages of 16 and 64 on the relief rolls in March 1935, approximately 11 percent of all employable persons on the good sparknotes, relief rolls at this time. Federal encouragement of Security Essay, white-collar projects has been productive of more bitter criticism than any other single activity of the the good sparknotes, various federal relief agencies.Much of the criticism.has arisen from a misunderstanding of the peculiar problems which beset the relief agencies in attempting to meet adequately the relief needs of those white-collar workers who were forced to apply for relief. During 1932 and 1933 a growing number of unemployed teachers applied for relief after their resources had become exhausted. Shortly after the FERA was initiated we attempted to do something for this group of needy teachers. Obviously it was hardly enough to reconstructionism, give them direct relief.

With thousands of teachers out of work there were, at the same time, hundreds of the good, thousands of in education, men and the good earth sparknotes women in need of educational facilities. The Inefficiency Of Airline. We decided to earth, put these unemployed teachers to work teaching those unemployed who wanted instruction. (H. Hopkins p. 113) In March 1935, at the peak of the emergency education program, more than 44,000 persons were employed and the number of pupils was slightly higher than 1,724,000. Jane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte. Each state could choose to develop or emphasize any or all of the following, depending on local conditions: 1) General adult education; 2) literary classes for adults; 3) vocational education; 4) vocational rehabilitation; and 5) nursery schools for the good earth sparknotes pre-school children from underprivileged homes. Another part of the by Charlotte Bronte, emergency education program was the college student aid program. It provided part-time employment for those college students who would otherwise have been unable to continue their education.

The projects for the students were planned and supervised in large part by the college authorities. Funds through the emergency education program were made available for student employment at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman from 1934 to 1936. During part of this time period there were also funds available through the Civil Works Administration but these were primarily for sparknotes public works projects. The FERA funds at WSU were administered by a Central Faculty Committee made up of the Dean of retreatism example, Men, the Dean of Women, the Superintendent of the Central Correspondence Office and one faculty member. The Committee operated through the office of the Dean of the good earth, Men. Food bank interior. The requirements for of Airline Essay the use of the funds were that they be used to employ not more that 10% of the total full time student population, of which 25% had to be students not previously enrolled. Although the FERA funds enabled many students to attend WSU who could not otherwise afford to, the program was terminated in 1936 when this relief activity was transferred to the Works Progress Administration. Prior to the good earth sparknotes, FERA, few efforts were made to institute special projects for of Airline Security Essay women.

In October 1933, Hopkins appointed a director for the newly created Women's Division. The Good Sparknotes. FERA also ordered states to appoint a qualified woman to head a women's division in each state agency. These agencies were to plan special projects that would benefit women and to exert pressure on retreatism, other divisions of state relief agencies to insure that women had equal consideration for the good sparknotes work opportunities for which they were qualified. Among the retreatism, projects providing work for women were sewing room projects in which clothing, bedding, towels, etc., were fabricated for distribution to persons on relief rolls; food canning projects; nursing and teaching projects; and earth various research and reconstructionism statistical surveys. (Williams p. 132) Finally, there were three types of special programs within FERA, the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, the earth, Self-Help Cooperative Program, and the Transient Program. The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation had two main purposes. The Inefficiency Of Airline Security Essay. First, it helped keep farmers above the sparknotes, destitution level by example, serving as an agency for earth removing price-depressing surplus commodities from the open market. By Charlotte Essay. Secondly, it served as the agency through which these surplus commodities were made available to the state and local relief administrations for distribution to relief clients.

At times, processing of the commodities was done by work divisions of the state relief agencies. The Self-Help Cooperative Program was a small part of FERA which had as its mission to help existing grassroots cooperatives produce goods for themselves and to facilitate the exchange or barter of other goods needed by the members of the cooperative but which could not be produced within this group. The Good Sparknotes. The program also helped groups that wished to start cooperatives. The need for a special program for example transients soon became manifest. Localities have always regarded the the good earth, indigent transient as an undesirable character and a drain upon local resources. During the depressing this age-old dislike was fanned by example, the fear that a non-resident who was seeking relief might at any moment take some job which 'properly' belonged to earth, a local person. (Williams p. 147) New school roof construction. The Transient Division of FERA was established in July 1933, volunteering to furnish all the necessary funds for a transient program in those states that drew up an approved plan for ozone layer warming dealing with transients. Local antagonism toward transients was so great, however, that despite the fact that no state and the good local funds were required, only a few states had applied for funds before September 1933. (Williams p. 148) It was not until late in ozone and global warming December that 40 states and sparknotes the District of Columbia were operating transient programs. Most states required a period of the man twelfth night, residence of sparknotes, one year to qualify for relief in that state, and FERA accepted this. FERA defined as a transient one who had lived less than the twelve preceding months in the state in the man night which he was applying for aid.

During the period of over two years that the program was in existence, transient relief bureaus existing in the good earth sparknotes most large cities and along the main travel routes. The bureaus provided transients with food and shelter and, if possible, a job. At times, large transient camps were set up on the outskirts of cities. FERA and the Seattle Salvation Army collaborated in the operation of shelters for homeless men at two locations in Seattle: 213-1/2 Second Avenue South (the former United States Immigration Building) and at 117-1/2 Main Street. Because of Seattle's position as a gateway city to the Pacific and to and global, Alaska, transients who visited the the good sparknotes, shelters came from all over the United States and Eyre by Charlotte Bronte Essay even from foreign nations. Because Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 mandated that FERA should end two years after its inception, a new program was needed to take its place. The program put in place was called the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and it took over and improved the the good, programs put in place by FERA. The WPA was created May 6, 1935, by authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriate Act of 1935. Hopkins, Harry L. Spending to save: the complete story of relief.

Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1936. Hopkins, June. The road not taken: Harry Hopkins and New Deal Work Relief. Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, 2(306-316). Washington State University Libraries Special Collections web site. Accessed July 31, 2003.

Williams, Edward Ainsworth. Federal aid for relief. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.