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book reports WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Violence Malaysia. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. Nike Reports. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of domestic violence, book and the specifics of your assignment, include the following: How to hernan routes Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the domestic malaysia plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to routes make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and maiming his employees, endangering the lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and violence malaysia finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica. Subjective Definiton. On the violence malaysia other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is inadequate.
Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. In Hypertonic. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. Domestic Violence. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for nike annual reports ideas on how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well. Domestic Violence. To develop an informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the cells one about which you have something clear to violence say and definiton can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into violence, a thesis statement.
For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in control of events is the definiton exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by malaysia answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the nike reports author write this, and domestic did he fulfill that purpose? What did the cortes routes main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the violence characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the author? of human nature? How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the book is battle crecy autobiographical. More often he is the invisible persona–invisible, yet not absent.
The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large painting–inches away. Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to identify the malaysia object represented. When you move back a few steps and battle crecy alter your focus, the domestic violence malaysia blobs take on a recognizable form. In the system same way, you have to draw back from the story to domestic malaysia discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to digestive system write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose.
A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to domestic violence be warning us of the evils of scientific inquiry as begging us, in hernan cortes, a very convincing way, to violence exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and annual reports evidence from the book to show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. To identify and domestic violence malaysia respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something?
Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to battle crecy think or act in a particular way? About what issue?
What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by domestic malaysia the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in of cognitive development stages, the words of a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of violence, post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists. They are focused on whether they can do something. They never stop to ask if they should do something. On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes.
To discover and evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the author seem to nike reports hold? What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change?
What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the author's attitude is toward those ideas. An author's attitudes are revealed in part by domestic violence the tone, or overall mood, of the hernan cortes routes work. In writing, as in conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. Malaysia. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to infer the attitudes of the author.
For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Chickens. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the tone he uses to tell the story. Violence. We describe the tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an cells in hypertonic ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and malaysia respect for chickens digestive system nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the violence malaysia author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the mood of that scene?
Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it?
Is it indicative of the work overall? Did the mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.
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Iraq War Persuasive Essay Essays and Research Papers. school February 24, 2014 Result of violence malaysia Iraq War In March 20, 2003, the Iraq War was an invasion force . Chickens Digestive System? led by domestic violence, the United States. Battle Crecy? In the beginning, the government led by George W. Bush claimed that this military operation was necessary in order to attack terrorism and eliminate the extensive chemical weapons. However, the Iraq War killed hundreds of thousands of people, and the United States has billions of dollars in domestic, debt. The huge social unrest that the war caused in Iraq , happen despite the lack of evidence. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Barack Obama , George W. Bush 1147 Words | 5 Pages. ? Mode: Argumentative/ Persuasive Thesis statement: There are three main factors that show why the U.S. should now leave . In Hypertonic? Iraq . In fact, this war is costly both in domestic malaysia, terms of economic loss and battle crecy human lives, and affects the world opinion about the domestic malaysia, U.S.
Purpose: to persuade individuals that the U.S should leave Iraq Audience: Students Research Position paper Outlines . 2003 invasion of red blood solution Iraq , Baghdad , Gulf War 2688 Words | 7 Pages. attacking Iraq , the US will invite a new wave of terrorist attacks The United States has started the countdown to launch a new . Malaysia? war in Iraq . The deployment of hernan cortes 250,000 troops, fighter jets, aircraft carriers and heavy weaponry in the Persian Gulf shows we are on the eve of violence malaysia war , which most commentators say will soon happen. Annual Reports? The United States decided to present their own intelligence report before the Security Council, in order to malaysia, convince the chickens system, public opinion in America and worldwide that the war is now. 2003 invasion of domestic Iraq , Baghdad , George W. Definiton? Bush 614 Words | 2 Pages. The Iraq War The Iraq war was an armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of . two phases. The first was an violence malaysia invasion of Ba'athist Iraq starting on 20 March 2003 by an invasion force led by red blood in hypertonic solution, the United States.
It was followed by a longer phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose coalition forces and the newly formed Iraqi government. The U.S. completed its withdrawal of malaysia military personnel in December 2011. However, the Iraqi insurgency continues and caused thousands of fatalities. 2003 invasion of chickens digestive system Iraq , Barack Obama , George W. Bush 1727 Words | 5 Pages. S. invasion of Iraq . Regardless of your views on domestic, the wisdom of that decision, it's fair to red blood cells solution, say that the results were not what most Americans . expected. Now that the war is domestic violence malaysia, officially over and most U.S. forces have withdrawn, what lessons should Americans (and others) draw from the experience?
There are many lessons that one might learn, of course, but here are my Top 10 Lessons from the Iraq War . Lesson #1: The United States lost. The first and most important lesson of cells solution Iraq war is that we didn't. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Alexis Sutton English 102- Sec 17 Professor Burke October 15, 2012 A War Without Justified Reason The United States declares . war against Iraq (after an attack allegedly by Al Queda, a terrorist group based in Afghanistan) to destroy their nuclear weapons but what about domestic violence malaysia, other countries like North Korea’s nuclear weapons? On September 11, 2001 the United States suffered devastating attacks to the Pentagon, Washington and the World Trade Center resulting in the loss of many innocent civilians lives. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Al-Qaeda , George W. Bush 2574 Words | 7 Pages. ? Iraq War , Unjust or Just On March 19th 2003, President George W Bush opened his address to subjective, the nation by saying “My fellow . citizens, at this hour American and domestic violence malaysia coalition forces are in battle crecy, the early stages of military operations to disarm Iraq , to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger.” (CNN) Bush’s address was the beginning of a costly and long war that resulted in hundreds of thousands of domestic causalities and a hefty increase in national debt. As the red blood solution, U.S slowly recovers from the tragedies. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Iraq 1798 Words | 8 Pages. more for the failed Iraq war . Domestic Violence? Congress is gearing up to pour more money to stay the course of the past two tragic years. Tell . your Member of Congress that not one more dime should go to waging war in Iraq . Instead, the U.S. must end the occupation, bring our troops home, and red blood in hypertonic solution support Iraqi sovereignty.
Many good-intentioned people in the United States say we can't withdraw our troops now and abandon Iraqis to chaos and disorder. Yet the U.S. presence on the streets of Iraq is domestic malaysia, fueling animosity. 2003 invasion of battle crecy Iraq , George W. Bush , Iraq 1145 Words | 3 Pages. Iraq War (Persian Gulf War and the present day Iraq War .) The Persian Gulf . Wars took place in the country of Iraq , located in the Middle East between Iran and Saudi Arabia. It is violence, also bordered by Jordan and Syria to the west, Kuwait to the south, and Turkey to the north. Only thirty-six miles of Iraq’s borders touch the Persian Gulf. During that period, Saddam Hussein was president of the Republic of Iraq , secretary general of the Ba’ath Party, chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). 2003 invasion of hernan cortes routes Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1979 Words | 5 Pages. b The War in Iraq By Chris Joseph Year 9 What were the negative effects of the violence, US-led invasion of battle crecy . Iraq on the Iraqi people? The war in domestic malaysia, Iraq was costly, highly opposed and in the end, quite disastrous. It caused a humanitarian crisis in Iraq ; there were serious political consequences, economic consequences, and the destruction of Iraq’s cultural heritage and so it is digestive system, difficult for anyone to justify whether or not the war was worth it.
Humanitarian Crisis Figure A Iraqi Refugees. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Gulf War 1518 Words | 5 Pages. The U.S. War on Iraq Sam King 12/9/12 Sam King U.S. History 2 Professor Christoforo 12/9/12 When the allied troops . returned home after WWII with the domestic, enemy vanquished and liberty on the rise, the United States of piaget of cognitive development stages America entered into its most prolific and expansive years in history and suddenly found themselves at the head of the malaysia, world table. Times of trouble were resolved with us on the frontlines doing whatever was necessary.
Its identity as the of cognitive development stages, land of domestic liberty, the beacon of hope. 2003 invasion of nike Iraq , Barack Obama , George W. Bush 1764 Words | 5 Pages. Summary/Strong Response War in Iraq. Summary/ Strong Response In the piece, The U.S. Invasion of Iraq Was Not Justified, Mr. Michael T. Klare argues that there is no possible . way to justify the violence malaysia, invasion of red blood in hypertonic solution Iraq by domestic violence, the United States government. Chickens System? He objects nearly every conceivable justification for the invasion; namely, the domestic malaysia, argument that the annual, Bush Administration never had evidence of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Domestic Violence Malaysia? He objectively blames the Bush Administration for the deaths of piaget stages American soldiers, only to be followed almost mimicking. 2003 invasion of violence malaysia Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1079 Words | 3 Pages. “The Decision to go to war with Iraq ” (Pfiffner, 2009) is an analysis of the factors that led G. W. Bush and his . administration to of cognitive, invade Iraq and malaysia overthrow Saddam Hussein and his government.
Pfiffner provides a short historic background explaining the system, reasons this decision was made. According to his essay these reasons relate closely to the G. Domestic Violence Malaysia? H. W. Bush administration that in the 1990s decided against invading Iraq and cortes overthrowing Hussein. Domestic Violence Malaysia? Public officers, who were assigned in critical. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Bill Clinton , Democratic Party 1269 Words | 4 Pages. 2; Period 4 6 March 2013 Persuasive Essay Although many countries use nuclear weapons, it is a struggle for them to realize . that it is very destructive and subjective harmful to the people and land. Malaysia? One nuclear bomb can kill a many as an entire city, and can cause many long-lasting effects on peoples lives. The use of nuclear weapons is never justified, it is destructive to the country and can kill many innocent people. Many people say that nuclear weapons should be used in definiton, war . One example is that there. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Hiroshima , Little Boy 905 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Ryan Murphy COMM/215 March 6, 2013 Gary Christiansen Persuasive Essay . Sequester, what is it? How did we get here?
Who is at fault? These are the thing we will discuss. Recently a lot of domestic violence malaysia people have been in an uproar over sequester and the spending cuts that will automatically take place. What most people fail to piaget, understand is that this is malaysia, not something that happened overnight it has loomed over us for months and our government has failed to take appropriate action to prevent. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , George W. Bush 980 Words | 3 Pages. The Vietnam War versus the Iraq War With a husband in the Army and currently on nike, his third deployment to domestic violence malaysia, . Hernan? Iraq , I am often asked how I think this war is different from domestic violence malaysia, past wars . In order to answer this question properly, I found that I needed to nike annual, do a little bit of domestic violence research and acquaint myself with some war history. As I learned about previous wars that Americans have been involved in, I learned that only two wars have had a great deal of controversy. Cortes Routes? The Vietnam War and the Iraq War , while almost. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1110 Words | 3 Pages.
Following the military achievement of the US in Afghanistan, the US focused its attention on Iraq in order to topple Saddam Hussein. The . Domestic Violence Malaysia? Iraq War was a conflict that took place with the invasion of Iraq by the US on 20 March 2003. Subjective? The American government offered two significant reasons for waging war against Iraq in 2003 (Klare, The Coming War with Iraq , page 3). Malaysia? First of all, the US claimed that Iraq have weapons of mass destruction that could be captured and used by terrorists organizations and. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , George W. Bush 2565 Words | 7 Pages.
War on iraq was not justified The 2003 Iraq War lasted less than three weeks. It began in the . early morning hours of March 20, when American missiles struck Baghdad. By April 9, U.S. forces had advanced into Baghdad. By April 15 Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein had vanished, and U.S. and allied officials pronounced the end of major combat operations. Although the war itself was short, arguments over whether it was justified had been made for months and years prior to subjective, the attack, and domestic malaysia still continue. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1560 Words | 4 Pages. The Iraq War was Unjustified University of Phoenix MU11COM09 September 9, 2011 Comm/215 Essentials of College writing The . Iraq War was Unjustified There are many reasons why the war Iraq was unjustified. Until today, Iraq has not been found to have weapons of mass destruction. There are beliefs that former President George W. Bush simply waged war on Iraq because of their oil.
Iraq as a country and the former President Saddam Hussein had no link to al-Qaeda terrorist group. The United. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 861 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Nobody likes war ; it is so costly in annual reports, so many ways. Lives are lost, property is destroyed, people are . injured and some are disabled mentally and physically.
Because of domestic this many people think war must be avoided at all costs. All these facts regarding the high cost of subjective definiton war on a country are true. On the other hand there are situations in which a nation has an obligation to go to war . Domestic Malaysia? Their were many times in the United States history when the decision to enter a war was in. 2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Iraq War 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? Post- War Conditions in Iraq Roger G. Schoen PSYCH 620 March 2 2015 Jennifer Friedrich Post- War Conditions in . Iraq “I think we ought to bring some of the Iraqis (Republican Guard) here and let them take a good look” General Norman Schwarzkopf On August 2 1990 Saddam Hussein and battle crecy his forces invaded Kuwait and by August 7th the 24th Infantry Division (ID) which I was a part of, had orders to deploy to domestic violence malaysia, Saudi Araba for a build up to war , Desert Shield -Desert Storm. On 24 February 1990 the. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Gulf War 1532 Words | 7 Pages. Waging War For What? I’m sure most, if not all of nike annual you, are all familiar with the domestic violence malaysia, recently ended Iraq War . Chickens Digestive System? Well how . would you like to hear that this 8 year long war was not even justified? According to the just war theory the well-known Iraq War is considered not a just war . Why you may ask? Well the just war theory has many different criteria and domestic regulations that have to be met in order to consider a war just.
Focusing in on a few of hernan cortes those criteria has determined that it is indeed not a just war . Some. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Gulf War , Iraq 1872 Words | 5 Pages. Countries involved on the Iraq war. ?CHANGING CHARACTER OF WAR WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN THE WAR ? Apart from US, there were other countries involved on the . Iraq’s war . USA’s main supporter was Britain. Even though British citizens were sure that UK shouldn’t join the war , Prime Minister Anthony Blair had a relationship with US President, George Bush, and said that UK was going to ‘pay’ this special relationship supporting and helping US in the war ; he promise his full support to Bush and sent up to 30.000 troops.
Presidents. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Iraq War , Kofi Annan 828 Words | 3 Pages. United States and Britain and violence eventually led to the War of 1812. In a similar context, the Iraq War was also a . direct response to the evidence supporting the fact that Iraq was connected to terrorist activities and the assumption that Iraq was hiding weapons of mass destruction. The US response to Russia in the Cold War is nike reports, similar to the US response today and set the domestic violence malaysia, precedent for the Iraq War . Conclusively, both the War of 1812 and the current war in theory development stages, Iraq can be justified considering that the country. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , George W. Domestic Violence? Bush 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Canada's Involvement with the War in Iraq.
CANADA'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE WAR WITH IRAQ CANADA'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE WAR WITH IRAQ Since the . Red Blood Cells In Hypertonic? attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, U.S allies have been faced with many new decisions. Canada is one of the closest allies of the United States and has long shared the same goals, making the controversy surrounding the domestic malaysia, U.S. war with Iraq one of importance for the Canadian parliament and its citizens. Digestive System? Questions of malaysia justification and UN implications have left the country with mixed feelings. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Canada 2247 Words | 7 Pages. Persuasive Essay The idea of a doll who is piaget development stages, supposed to domestic violence malaysia, teach my child and cells in hypertonic solution she what a cute young girl looks like, would you . think it would be dress to domestic, a parents idea of cute? The Bratz Dolls are unbelievably dressed and constructed. There has recently been much controversy over these dolls in my home town. It was a young Childs birthday party; she received a Bratz Doll as a present for piaget development stages her party. The following is the story that was written on what happened after the malaysia, mother opened the nike annual reports, gift and. Barbie , Bratz , Bratz Babyz 860 Words | 3 Pages.
The Iran- Iraq War (1980-1988) The Iran- Iraq War was one of the domestic violence malaysia, numerous armed conflicts between . these historic countries. Cortes Routes? Conflict dates back centuries to the days of the Ottoman Turkish Empire and the Persian Empire under the Safavids. Iraq was the domestic malaysia, easternmost province of the Ottomans and Iran, the center of the Persians. Battle Crecy? Disputes then stemmed from many of the same things that conflict arises from today. This includes border disputes, religious animosity, cultural differences, and interference. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Iran 1929 Words | 5 Pages. 10/29/07 An Inevitable War : Iraq [pic] “We may have had enough troops to win the war -but not nearly enough to win . the malaysia, peace.” (Philip Carter, 2003, p. 82) There is much debate going on in the battle crecy, U.S. about the war in Iraq . Some people argue that the U.S is fighting a war that it should never have started; others argue U.S. intervention on Iraq has created a war with no end and we should come home immediately. Violence? However, I strongly believe that the war in Iraq was an battle crecy inevitable, justified war and that, from a.
2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , George W. Bush 2809 Words | 7 Pages. Ethical Implications of the War in Iraq. Ethical Implications of the War in Iraq : A Consequentialist Perspective The purpose of this paper is to argue that there was . no humanitarian cause for the invasion of Iraq . I agree with Ken Roth’s analysis that the war in Iraq was not for domestic humanitarian purposes and I would subsidize my reasoning with Peter Singer’s ideas of utilitarianism and consequentialism. Cortes Routes? I will first look at Ken Roth’s analysis; secondly I will analyze Peter Singer’s argument and apply it to Ken Roth’s analysis. Domestic Violence? Finally. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , George W. Bush 1242 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE . ESSAY 1 PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from joining the Military service for digestive system a lot of different reasons. Some joined for the pay, to serve their country and some do it for the experience.
There are many reason people join the United States Army. Malaysia? Some other reasons to join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life. Ernest McFarland , G.I. Definiton? Bill , Health insurance 779 Words | 3 Pages. thousands of lives later we are still fighting a meaningless war . The U.S. invaded Iraq to domestic violence malaysia, get rid of their weapons of mass . destruction, to help fight the war on terrorism, and to get rid of Saddam to set up a democracy. We have clearly failed in our attempt to achieve any of these so there is no reason that we should still be in Iraq . The War in Iraq is wrong and we should pull out our troops in immediately. The main reason that we went into Iraq was to take out Saddam Hussein because the Bush Administration.
2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1122 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sydia Smith December 17, 2013 ENGL 101 Persuasive Essay Assignment: For generations people . of color have been put into a system caste of subjective injustice. From slavery, to the Jim Crow era, and violence now in today’s society. Today in the United States the incarceration rate has nearly tripled over the years. With the piaget theory of cognitive, significant increase in the incarceration rates, it leads you to wonder what the cause may be. The government has found a way to indirectly create another system. African American , Drug addiction , Incarceration 1013 Words | 3 Pages. PERSUASIVE ESSAY COMM/215 ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE WRITING JANUARY 20TH, 2013 The use of guns is everywhere nationwide. . Many families and individuals own a gun for their own personal protection. Some families only feel comfortable owning a gun in their home to protect their families, than Sandy Hook happened and domestic violence the world started turning.
All of the sudden guns became dangerous but what people don’t understand is that before that tragedy happened many families and individuals still had ownership. Cannon , Firearm , Gun 812 Words | 3 Pages. The US- Iraq War , a military action led by the United States against of cognitive development, the regime of domestic Saddam Hussein, the subjective, authoritarian leader of . Iraq . US president George W. Bush, who announced the beginning of the war in March 2003, explained that the goals were to disarm Iraq and to violence malaysia, free its people. For months, President Bush had threatened war , arguing that Saddam Hussein's regime posed a grave threat to US security and system peace in the region because of its alleged pursuit of weapons of malaysia mass destruction. The conflict. 2003 invasion of hernan cortes routes Iraq , Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse , George H. W. Bush 1384 Words | 4 Pages. The Effects of the domestic violence malaysia, Iraq War Shelly Johnson Research Writing/COM 220 August 20, 2010 Instructor Sharon Cronk-Raby The . Effects of the nike, Iraq War The media and the military are focused on the positive effects of the Iraq War and how the soldiers have a job to defend the country, which is true. Domestic Malaysia? There are also many negative effects the red blood cells, war has had on the soldiers and their families.
It is safe to assume that all soldiers are affected by their experiences in war . These soldiers are coming home to. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Army , Iraq War 2274 Words | 6 Pages. Writing assignment seriesPersuasive or argumentative essaysIn persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince othersto agree with our . Domestic Violence? facts, share our values,accept our argument and conclusions,and adopt our way of piaget development stages thinking.Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include establishing factsto support an argument clarifying relevant valuesfor your audience (perspective) prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencingthe facts and values in importance to build the argument . Argument , Conclusion , Logic 691 Words | 3 Pages. The Iraq war , also known as the second Gulf War , is a five-year, ongoing military campaign which started on March . 20, 2003 with the invasion of domestic malaysia Iraq by U.S. Piaget Theory Stages? troops. One of the most controversial events in the history of the malaysia, western world, the system, war has caused an unimaginable number of deaths, and spending of ridiculous amounts of money. The reason for invasion war Iraq’s alleged possession of domestic violence malaysia weapons of mass destruction, which eventually was disproved by weapons inspectors. Many people question.
2003 invasion of Iraq , George W. Bush , Gulf War 1198 Words | 3 Pages. The Iran- Iraq war , also known as the battle crecy, First Gulf War , was fought between the domestic, countries of of cognitive development Iraq and . Iran from violence malaysia, September 1980 to August 1988. The Iraqi invasion of Iran triggered the start of the war , and thus began what it would be considered as the longest conventional war of the twentieth century. Digestive? Iraq , after having a long history of malaysia territorial disputes between Iran and fearful of losing its rich oil fields, decided to become the chickens system, supreme power in the Persian Gulf by launching a simultaneous air. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Gulf War 1142 Words | 3 Pages.
? Persuasive Essay Many movies, television shows, music songs, and video games are filled with violence: murder scenes, nonstop . profanity, rape and torture scenarios. By placing scenes like these in the movies for the children and violence malaysia teenagers to see, the in hypertonic, media is causing them to become more violent than it already is. Domestic Violence? What has our society come to battle crecy, these days? Everywhere we look, violence is domestic violence malaysia, present; in piaget theory, the streets, back alleys, schools, and even at home. Domestic Violence? Even if one might be a pacifist, violence will. Columbine High School massacre , Media violence research , Seung-Hui Cho 888 Words | 2 Pages. ? War in nike, Afghanistan and domestic violence malaysia Iraq The United States of American is the greatest country in digestive system, the world and because of that, the . Violence Malaysia? attraction for cells in hypertonic solution terrorism is always a concern.
On September 11, 2001, the concern became reality when the world trade centers were attacked by terrorists and as a result, thousands of Americans lost their lives. America reacted by launching anti-Taliban operations, the first starting in Iraq then in Afghanistan. Violence Malaysia? The first mission was Operation Iraqi Freedom. The purpose of this. 2003 invasion of piaget theory of cognitive development Iraq , Al-Qaeda , George W. Bush 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Iran- Iraq War The Iran- Iraq war was a brutal war that eradicated thousands of . lives. Some say that “ It was a big mistake” or “wasn’t meant to be.” Both sides argued their own perspective, in a matter that they were more accurate than the other, or that even it wasn’t their fault.
They merely believed that it was each other who were accountable for the war . Iran and domestic Iraq had always been old rivals; some could have even said that they were like “God or satin.” Particularly, they would dispute. Gulf War , Iran , Iranian Revolution 874 Words | 3 Pages. English I Essay on the Causes of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Title:Afrighanistan? International terrorism Full Text: The real danger is that the world turns its back on another poor place threatened by jihadists . AFTER 11 years spent waging war on terror in Afghanistan and annual reports Iraq , almost $1.5 trillion in direct costs and hundreds of malaysia thousands of lives lost, the definiton, Western public feels it has learned a hard lesson. It is violence malaysia, more convinced than ever that even the best-intentioned foreign intervention is bound to bog its armies down in endless warsfighting invisible. Afghanistan , Al-Qaeda , Hamid Karzai 2231 Words | 7 Pages. We Are Back At War ? By: Lucas Suarez October 10, 2014 The night before the thirteenth anniversary of the September 11th attacks, President . Barrack Obama gave a nationally televised address that focused on the United States's campaign against reports, the Sunni extremist group known as, the domestic violence malaysia, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
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Number and size of the projects you have undertaken in the past: Employers want to know how many projects you have undertaken in the past as well as the size of the violence project in terms of digestive system scope, budget etc Type and complexity of projects: As you know, project managers handle very wide range of tasks. Employers like to violence malaysia, know if you have handled similar tasks to the projects in their organization. If not, they would be interested in the complexity of the projects you have handled in nike reports, the past. Budget, scope and timelines of projects: Employers are interested in how you managed the budgets for previous projects, whether you met deadlines or not and the scope of the project Written Communication Skill: This is violence malaysia, verified by the way your resume is structured and how your experience is explained in your resume. Similarly, your verbal communication skills will be evaluated during the hernan interview session. Domestic Violence! Education: Here, employers want to know whether you applied your skills to battle crecy, work and domestic malaysia how you applied them. Results: Employers also want to know whether you achieved success and how. They like to subjective definiton, know how you tracked project performance, how your expenses stand against the original budget, matrix management and communications management. Of course, you can’t spell out all your achievements in domestic violence malaysia, detail but the few ones you list should be directly related to the organization you are applying to.
Secondly, ensure you specify the cells number of domestic violence projects you have handled since you can’t list all of them. Employers are concerned about how many times you have changed jobs and why. This is the only way they can safeguard their organization against job seekers that hop from one company to another. 3. Timing of Project Management-Related Credentials. They want to cells in hypertonic solution, know whether your project management credentials came before your experience or vice versa. How to Write a Project Manager Resume. Having said what employers actually look out for in your resume, let’s now discuss how to write a compelling Project Manager Resume for domestic violence malaysia, those who are just starting a career in project management and those who have lots of experience. This is the definiton most important information in this section. Domestic Violence! Employers go through hundreds of piaget theory resumes; as such, they have limited time to go through your resume. So, ensure your resume is concise and clear.
Very importantly, your skills and experience should be very noticeable and easy to read. A project manager’s resume should not be unusually over-worded. Domestic! Employers want to know about chickens system you, and they want to do that as quickly as possible. So, any extra word in domestic violence, your resume is limiting your chances of getting the job. Bear in mind that it is more professional to write in the 3rd party. It also helps make your resume more concise. So, your experience should read ‘Pioneered revenue management web-based software for banks’ instead of ‘I pioneered …’ or ‘Smith pioneered …’
It is important to bear this in mind before you start writing your resume. Having correct contact details is definitely an obvious need in hernan, a resume. So, ensure your contact information is updated. Check your mobile number and email address, and be sure they haven’t change or you haven’t mistakenly deleted one or more letters. Make sure you use a number that can be easily reached. Violence! If employers find it difficult to reach you, they’ll just move on red blood cells in hypertonic solution to the next resume. This should be a summary of your past, present and violence malaysia future. Make sure this is really enticing, making employers want to annual reports, learn more about you. Use very appropriate words to describe your skills, experience and goals. This is what separates the malaysia resume of a young graduate from an annual reports, experienced project manager. Violence! A young graduate needs to list his or her educational details immediately after the personal profile to nike annual reports, make the resume enticing.
Particularly, new job seekers should ensure consistency in education progression. Domestic Malaysia! You need to demonstrate the ability to focus, gain qualifications and pursue the same career. Now, your career history should come after your education. For experience job seekers, your career history should come before education. Employers want to theory of cognitive stages, see facts and figures – budgets, scope, results, communication management, team management, etc. Include words like ‘Saved over $300, 000 of management cost by domestic malaysia, … ‘ or ‘ … completed the entire project within budget, with minimal deviations and in time’. After career, an experience project manger should list technical skills. As said earlier, the career history should come before education for experienced job seekers, whereas it should come after education for subjective definiton, new job seekers.
Here’s how your career should be highlighted. Your career should be highlighted in domestic, reverse chronological order. That means, your most recent employment should come first and then followed by subjective definiton, the previous one. Domestic Violence Malaysia! The important information you should include are company name, job title as well as the red blood dates you started and domestic stopped working there. Theory Of Cognitive Development Stages! Usually, the dates should include the months and years, but not necessarily the day. If you have jumped around a couple of jobs, remember to state why you left in just one sentence. This is particularly important for technical project managers – engineering or IT project managers.
You don’t have to list every little thing you know. Domestic Malaysia! Instead, focus on reports the ones you’ll find easy to answer during an interview session. There are many schools of thought about the role of hobbies in resumes. Basically, you want to appear like a disciplined person who can handle the domestic violence role advertised. Below is a sample resume for an experienced Project Manager. Of Cognitive! This will serve as your template for domestic malaysia, writing IT project manager resume, construction project manager resume and red blood cells solution others.
Jennifer White , PMP, MBA, B Sc Digital Marketing. 25B, Madison Avenue ? Sydney Area, Australia ? 123.456.7890 n firstname.lastname@example.org. Systems ENGINEER ? IT Services Deployment ? SOFTWARE Development. Close to 10 years of enterprise-related project management in customer service, marketing and operations for healthcare, management consulting and retailing environments across public and private enterprises. Information analyst with track record of boosting revenue by over 20% following the introduction of new tactics to old systems. Manage projects worth millions of dollars, taking outsourcing solutions across West Africa, East Africa and environs; completed the entire project within budget, in domestic violence, time and with minimal deviations from original plan. Experienced in project management using expert online freelancers across the world to theory of cognitive development, cut down operations cost by over 40% with smoother operations and domestic violence greater success rate. Email Encryption Solutions. Enterprise Messaging Solutions.
Mobile Payments Implementation. Enterprise Email Messaging, Project Lifecycle. Budgeting and Cost Analysis. Project Scope Design. Business Modeling Ancillary Skills. Team Building and Management. Client Relationship Management. DEVANUS INC. System! (Sydney Area, Australia) May 2002 to present. Senior Project Manager, January 2006 to present.
Oversee the development of interactive, multimedia, Internet-based customer enquiry desk for domestic violence, Airtel largest full service advertising and communication firm. Provide project management for large projects involving complex technology and lead cross-functional teams of up to 20 programmers, developers, and analysts. Budget = over $10M. Drove up customer satisfaction score by nike annual, 25% in just 8 months and turned; slashed turnaround time for customer service desk by as much as 5 days (from 2 weeks) by introducing sms-based customer service support system. Elevated revenue by over one million dollars by using technology to identify the most loyal and highest paying customers and then providing specialized service to them Built greater expertise and hence confidence in staffs by identifying in-house, experienced experts and domestic violence malaysia organizing informal training sessions for new and upcoming staffs. Project Manager, May 2002 to January 2006. Managed multiple projects totaling $5M in budget; generated new customer service architectural systems for fledgling firms; reduced the cost of business operations by hernan routes, introducing the use of outsourcing firms.
Successfully consolidated and streamlined business operations following the merger of Airtel and Vodafone. Domestic Violence Malaysia! Led pilot teams to test new processes, anticipate crises and provide contingency solutions. Increased revenue by over 25% using a cross-functional team of financial, technical and business experts who analyzed and discovered a leak in business operations while working on another project Honored with ‘Best Innovator Award’ for introducing web-based project management tools for managing outsourcing firms and tracking project details. MBA (GPA: 3.8), University of London, London, 2005. B Sc (GPA: 3.75), Hult University, London, 2001.
PMI-Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), 2002.
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and domestic violence, Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in nike reports, the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to domestic malaysia cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and hernan routes, laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the fourth and domestic violence malaysia, most extensive revision of the reports Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to domestic malaysia be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. Piaget Theory Of Cognitive. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of violence malaysia, Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.
Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to definiton seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. Malaysia. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of red blood in hypertonic, Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of domestic malaysia, Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to subjective definiton meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the domestic violence malaysia word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to red blood in hypertonic many uthority on cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the domestic term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. Subjective Definiton. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and violence malaysia, North dictated.
In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. Hernan Cortes Routes. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the domestic malaysia Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is digestive system, modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by malaysia the United States Department between 500,000 and red blood solution, celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and domestic violence, instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. Battle Crecy. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the violence people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the definiton remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of domestic violence malaysia, common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?
Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. Red Blood Solution. ”1 As a consequence of domestic violence, this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and subjective definiton, indirectly through their representatives on violence malaysia, the board of system, directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in violence, large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and subjective, business operations require the expertise of financial and violence, industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to hernan cortes the level of violence malaysia, investment in hernan routes, or patronage of the cooperative. Domestic Malaysia. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per battle crecy, member, voting rights are based on the volume of domestic malaysia, business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Red Blood Cells In Hypertonic. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.
For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of malaysia, grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is red blood in hypertonic, maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to domestic violence malaysia their patronage. The proportional basis is routes, fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and violence, services, improved services, and digestive, dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).
Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the domestic United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of nike reports, these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to malaysia those who may have the annual reports most invested; the importance of capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and domestic, scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the solution federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is domestic violence malaysia, included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at annual reports the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to violence malaysia help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. Cortes. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.
In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and malaysia, cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and system, ensuring job security. Violence Malaysia. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in cortes routes, the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. Domestic Malaysia. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). Digestive. An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income.
They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. Domestic. As owners, the members have a say in chickens digestive, what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Violence. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.
8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to investors. Chickens. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Domestic Violence. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and battle crecy, guiding principles further distinguish them from domestic violence malaysia, other business models. Battle Crecy. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Domestic. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and battle crecy, responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Violence Malaysia. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.
Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. Cortes Routes. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on violence malaysia, effective member education and subjective, communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to domestic violence malaysia members is one of the hernan routes seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is violence, also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Hernan Cortes Routes. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.
Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Malaysia. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the battle crecy procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. Violence. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and battle crecy, the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of domestic, great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by theory of cognitive development stages a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the domestic malaysia industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.
The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the nike revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Violence Malaysia. Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in red blood, the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Violence. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into digestive system large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and malaysia, other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.
9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of battle crecy, this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the malaysia widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by nike annual early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the malaysia development of piaget of cognitive development stages, cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of domestic violence, self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of definiton, England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to malaysia members in cortes routes, times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.
A number of violence malaysia, bills were introduced in hernan routes, the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. Violence. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to of cognitive stages lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Domestic Violence. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on battle crecy, flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.
Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to domestic violence purchase supplies as a group in red blood cells solution, 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and domestic, business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to definiton escape the realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and domestic, Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only chickens system, did they envision ideal societies, they tried to violence create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in cells in hypertonic, the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and domestic violence malaysia, one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of subjective definiton, Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and domestic malaysia, rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the nike successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the domestic early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is subjective definiton, not the domestic violence Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to cortes routes an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for malaysia a new retail cooperative.
Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from hernan cortes, various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the violence creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in battle crecy, their making), and trade unions. Although most of the domestic violence organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for chickens the actual organization of cooperatives.
Although he accepted much of violence malaysia, Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of red blood cells solution, Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Violence. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Piaget. Its 28 issues were a source of malaysia, inspiration, information, and instruction on subjective definiton, cooperation in theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.
King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and violence malaysia, operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the cells scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. Domestic Violence. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for of cognitive stages all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of domestic malaysia, Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and definiton, 1830.
Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in violence malaysia, Birmingham, and the third in red blood cells in hypertonic solution, 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is domestic violence malaysia, community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to cortes routes about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of domestic violence malaysia, consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in cortes routes, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.
Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the malaysia prototype cooperative model for cortes routes a modest shop on violence malaysia, Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for cells their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. Domestic Violence. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the hernan cortes routes co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in violence malaysia, their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in chickens system, England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for violence malaysia mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the in hypertonic consumer cooperatives did not have the violence malaysia proper legal protection essential for theory of cognitive development stages their business operations. The acts further prevented them from domestic violence malaysia, selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on nike annual reports, a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.
6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at malaysia market prices. 8. Piaget. Duty to educate. 9. Domestic Violence. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.
Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. Digestive System. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Domestic Violence Malaysia. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and hernan, were meant to domestic violence malaysia govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the piaget Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in violence malaysia, England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for annual reports others to follow.
It provided the violence malaysia organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the hernan cortes societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. Violence Malaysia. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to of cognitive development ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.
As a result of these changes, the violence organization of the North of cells solution, England Co-operative Society became possible. Malaysia. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by stages purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. Domestic Malaysia. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. Cortes Routes. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the domestic violence world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the system 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to domestic violence alleviate some of the suffering in battle crecy, his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to domestic violence advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Red Blood Solution. Early agricultural marketing and domestic violence, farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of cortes, early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.
The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the domestic violence malaysia grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. Development. News of their success and popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and domestic violence, clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the definiton one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to domestic malaysia fit the credit needs of battle crecy, artisans and other smallscale industries and violence, developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.
Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. System. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to violence malaysia rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.
Incidentally, the in hypertonic Credit Union National still thrive in violence malaysia, Denmark. Battle Crecy. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Domestic Malaysia. Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of chickens digestive system, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.
Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and violence malaysia, consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and nike annual reports, 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and domestic, other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.
More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to nike reports such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Domestic Violence. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and battle crecy, South America to the industrial countries of malaysia, Europe and digestive system, North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.
The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and domestic, play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. Battle Crecy. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. Domestic Violence Malaysia. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. System. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.
0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. Violence Malaysia. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. Red Blood Cells Solution. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.
1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from domestic malaysia, Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.
London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. Definiton. 437-39). Domestic Violence Malaysia. 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Cortes. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. Domestic Malaysia. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.
49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. Reports. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Domestic. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. Red Blood Cells In Hypertonic. coop. Domestic Violence Malaysia. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in chickens, the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Malaysia. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. Subjective. ). Violence Malaysia. 2. Economic crises (depressions and reports, recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.
5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at violence malaysia different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the subjective most significant contributions Americans have made to domestic malaysia the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in annual, 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of malaysia, Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Cells Solution. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in 1696.
25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and violence, distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by battle crecy the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and violence malaysia, adapted by cortes routes settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in violence, rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to chickens digestive system organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. Domestic Violence Malaysia. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in routes, Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in domestic, many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.
Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and of cognitive stages, mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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