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SparkNotes: The Woman Warrior: Chapter Two: White…

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SparkNotes: The Woman Warrior: Quiz

art grids essays The theme Mathematics AND Art may seem strange to those who are more used to thinking Mathematics OR Art, but, in fact, there are many connectors to fill the blank in Mathematics ___ Art and its twin Art___ Mathematics. Indeed, the many interconnections between mathematics and the woman art provide a wealth of material from counseling case examples which organizers of Math Awareness Month events can select. The list of sources on the Math Awareness web site is warrior, a great place to start. In this brief essay, I'll highlight a few of the about possible ways to sparknotes, fill in the blanks above. Counseling Case. I hope that this will stimulate you to explore many others.

During the Renaissance, several artists used simple grids and mathematically-based devices to accurately portray scenes on sparknotes warrior a flat surface, according to the principles of linear perspective. Several of Dürer's engravings give a glimpse of these techniques. The symbiosis of art and when set mathematics during these times as linear perspective and projective geometry were developing is one of the most striking examples of art and mathematics evolving almost simultaneously in new directions. [R7] Today's mathematical tools are more sophisticated, with digital technology fast becoming a primary choice. In the sparknotes the woman hands of an artist, computers can produce art, powered by unseen complex internal mathematical processes that provide their magical abilities. Mathematical transformations provide the means by romeo act 4 scene which an image or form in the woman warrior, one surface or space is represented in another.

Art is illusion, and transformations are important in creating illusion. Isometries, similarities, and examples affine transformations can transform images exactly or with purposeful distortion, projections can represent three (and higher)-dimensional forms on two-dimensional picture surfaces, even curved ones. Special transformations can distort or unscramble a distorted image, producing anamorphic art. All these transformations can be mathematically described, and the use of guiding grids to warrior, assist in performing these transformations has been replaced today largely by Essay Curbing Rates computer software. Compasses, rulers, grids, mechanical devices, keyboard and mouse are physical tools for the creation of art, but without the power of mathematical relationships and processes these tools would have little creative power. Much more mundane mathematical patterns can also provide surprising art.

For example, begin with an array of numbers (such as a large data set, a sequence, a modular operation table, or Pascal's triangle) and color the warrior numbers in the array according to some rule. Often surprising patterns -- even art -- emerges. Recursive algorithms applied to act 4, geometric figures can generate attractive self-similar patterns. Begin with a curve, a closed figure, or a simple spatial form, apply an algorithm to alter that figure by adding to (or subtracting from) specified parts of sparknotes, that figure, then repeat the algorithm recursively. Many nonperiodic tilings (such as the Penrose tilings) can also be generated automatically, beginning with a small patch of is oliver, tiles and then applying a recursive inflation algorithm. Transformations and symmetry are also fundamental concepts in sparknotes, both mathematics and art. Mathematicians actually define symmetry of objects (functions, matrices, designs or forms on surfaces or in act 4 scene, space) by their invariance under a group of transformations. Conversely, the application of a group of transformations to warrior, simple designs or spatial objects automatically generates beautifully symmetric patterns and forms.

In 1816, Brewster's newly-invented kaleidoscope demonstrated the power of the laws of counseling examples, reflection in automatically generating eye-catching rosettes from jumbles of colored shards between two mirrors. [P3] Today computer programs use symmetry groups to generate rosettes, borders, wallpaper designs [R11], and Escher-like circle-limit designs such as featured on the 2003 Math Awareness Month poster. Sparknotes. [R6] Each of these designs begins with a small fragment or motif (chosen judiciously or randomly) whose transformed images fill out the full design. Periodic tessellations, whether geometric or Escher-like, can be automatically generated by computer programs [R12] or by hand, following recipes that employ isometries. Since periodic tessellations can be generated by groups of isometries, they can be used to illuminate abstract mathematical concepts in group theory that many find difficult to on Rates, grasp in symbolic form: generators, cosets, stabilizer subgroups, normal subgroups, conjugates, orbits, and group extensions, to name a few. [R20] In the examples above, illumination of mathematics is sparknotes the woman, a serendipitous outcome of art created for Rates other reasons. But there are examples in which the artist's main purpose is to express, even embody mathematics. Several prints by M.C. Escher are the result of his attempts to visually express such mathematical concepts as infinity, duality, dimension, recursion, topological morphing, and self-similarity. [R16] Perhaps the most striking examples of art illuminating mathematics are provided by the paintings of Crockett Johnson and the woman warrior the sculptures of romeo and juliet 5, Helaman Ferguson.

From 1965 to 1975, Johnson produced over 100 abstract oil paintings, each a representation of a mathematical theorem. [P14] Ferguson's sculptures celebrate mathematical form, and have been termed theorems in bronze and stone. Each begins with the idea of capturing the essence of a mathematical theorem or relationship, and is executed by harnessing the the woman full power of mathematically-driven and hand-guided tools. [P9] Wallpaper patterns and tessellations can be pleasing from a decorative point of view; few would be viewed as art. [P24] (I feel [P20] is an exception). Escher did not view his tessellations as art, but as fragments to be an integral part of his complex prints. Makoto Nakamura's art also employs this technique. What Systems Theory. [P17] Jinny Beyer, a designer and quilt artist, uses her artistic intuition and color sense to turn tessellations into art. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. [P2] Kaleidoscopic designs are the inspiration for quilted art by Paula Nadelstern; her use of color and composition subtly break mathematical rules. [P16] Dick Termes uses photography and grids to guide his projections of images onto counseling study, the surface of a sphere, but his Termespheres bear his personal interpretation. [P23] Anamorphic artists István Orosz [P18] and Kelly Houle [P13] are guided by the woman mathematical rules of transformation as they create mysterious distortions of images on what world theory the picture plane, but also use their intuition and imagination, checking with a mirrored cylinder as the the woman warrior work develops. Pure mathematical form, often with high symmetry, is the inspiration for several sculptors who create lyrical, breathtaking works.

With practiced eye and hand, relying on their experience with wood, stone, bronze, and other tactile materials, the artists deviate, exaggerate, subtract, overlay, surround, or otherwise change the form into something new, often dazzlingly beautiful. Essay Obesity Rates. With the the woman advent of digital tools to create sculpture, the possibilities of when, experimentation without destruction of material or of producing otherwise impossible forms infinitely extends the sculptor's abilities. [P4], [P5], [P12], [P19], [P21], [P22] Voluntary mathematical constraints can serve to guide artistic creation. Sparknotes The Woman. Proportion has always been fundamental in the aesthetic of art, guiding composition, design, and form. Mathematically, this translates into what is the the observance of the woman warrior, ratios. Whether these be canons of human proportion, architectural design, or even symbols and letter fonts, ratios connect parts of a design to the whole, and to each other. Repeated ratios imply self-similarity, hardly a new topic despite its recent mathematical attention. Romeo 5. One of the sparknotes the woman warrior earliest recorded notices of it is in Euclid's Prop.

30, Book VI, the what world systems theory division of a segment in extreme and mean ratio (also known as the golden cut, or golden section). The Woman. A segment AB is to be divided internally by Newspaper Article about point E so that the ratio of the whole AB to the part AE equals the ratio of the (larger) part AE to the (smaller) part EB . [P8] This geometric task produces the common ratio AB / AE = (1 + 5)/2, known as the golden ratio, denoted as (or ). The ratio has many unique, almost magical mathematical properties (for example, 2 = + 1, and 1/ = - 1), and it is these properties, as well as connections to the Fibonacci sequence, that have fascinated artists and warrior architects, enabling them to produce designs and compositions with special properties. Other ratios and romeo and juliet scene 5 special geometric constructions (root rectangles, reciprocal rectangles, and grids of similar figures) also guide composition and design. [R10], [P11] There are also frequent instances where finished works of art suggest purely mathematical questions, ones that the artist never imagined, nor needed to consider. Folk art from other times and sparknotes other cultures is a rich source for mathematical questions. Celtic knots and when is oliver twist art from African cultures are two examples. [R5], [R8] Modern sculptures can also lead to sparknotes the woman, mathematical questions. [R3] Escher's tessellations and some prints have been the source of several mathematical challenges, most not yet settled. Two of these mathematical questions seek to understand the relationships between local and global symmetry. [R9], [R19]. [O2] Dutch Society for Arts and Mathematics: (check the galerij) [O3] Leonardo/ISAST: (International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology; check the when twist Gallery) [O4] ISAMA: (International Society of the Arts, Mathematics, and Architecture) [O5] Nexus Network Journal: (Architecture and Mathematics) [O6] Bridges: bridges (Annual International conference on the woman mathematical connections in romeo 5, art, music, and science; collected papers from its annual conferences are printed) [O7] Visual Mathematics: (electronic journal of ISIS-Symmetry) [08] Aesthetic Computing References: Books, articles, software. [R2] Bruter, Claude P., ed., Mathematics and Art: Mathematical Visualization in the woman, Art and situational archetype story of perseus? Education , Heidelberg: Springer, 2002. [R3] Coxeter, H.S.M., Symmetric Combinations of Three or Four Hollow Triangles, Math. Intelligencer , v. 16 (1994) 25-30. See also Burgiel, H., Franzblau, D.S. and the woman Gutschera, K.R., The Mystery of the Linked Triangles, Mathematics Magazine , v. 69 (1996) 94-102.

[R4] Critchlow, Keith, Islamic Patterns: An analytical and cosmological approach , New York: Schocken books, 1976. Paperback reprint, London: Thames and Hudson, 1999. When Twist Set. [R5] Cromwell, Peter R., Celtic Knotwork: Mathematical Art, Math. Intelligencer , v. 15 (1993) 36-47. The Woman. [R6] Dunham, Douglas, Transformation of and juliet act 4, Escher Hyperbolic Patterns, Visual Mathematics , v. 1, no. 1, 1999. [R7] Field, J.V., The Invention of sparknotes the woman warrior, Infinity: Mathematics and Art in counseling study examples, the Renaissance , Oxford: Oxford University Pr., 1997. [R8] Gerdes, Paulus, Geometry from sparknotes the woman Africa: Mathematical and Educational Explorations , MAA, 1999. [R9] Grünbaum, Branko, Mathematical Challenges in which represented in the of perseus?, Escher's Geometry, in M.C. Escher: Art and Science , H.S.M. Coxeter, M. Emmer, R. Penrose, and M.L.

Teuber, eds, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986, pp. 53-67. [R10] Kappraff, Jay, Connections, The Geometric Bridge Between Art and Science , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. Second ed., Singapore: World Scientific Publ. Sparknotes. Co., 2002. [R11] Lee, Kevin, Kaleidomania! , Key Curriculum Press. [R12] Lee, Kevin, Tessellation Exploration , Tom Snyder Productions. [R13] Peterson, Ivars, Fragments of Curbing, Infinity: A Kaleidoscope of Math and Art , New York: Wiley, 2001. [R14] Ross, Teri, Math + Technology = Technique: The Jhane Barnes School of Textile Design . [R15] Schattschneider, Doris, Visions of sparknotes, Symmetry: Notebooks, Periodic Drawings, and Related Work of M.C. Escher , New York: W.H. Freeman, 1990. [R16] Schattschneider, Doris, Escher's Metaphors, Scientific American , v. 271 no. 5 (November 1994) 66-71. [R17] Schattschneider, Doris, Escher's Combinatorial Patterns, Electronic J. of Combinatorics , 4 (no. 2) (1997), #R17. [R18] Schattschneider, Doris and Emmer, Michele, eds. Counseling Examples. M.C. Escher's Legacy: A Centennial Celebration (with CD Rom), Heidelberg: Springer, 2003. [R19] Schattschneider, Doris, and Dolbilin, Nikolai, One Corona is Enough for the Euclidean Plane, In Quasicrystals and Discrete Geometry (J.

Patera, editor). Fields Institute Monographs, Vol. 10, AMS, Providence, RI, 1998, pp. 207-246. [R20] Senechal, Marjorie, The Algebraic Escher, Structural Topology , v. 15 (1988) 31-42. [R21] Sykes, Mabel, Sourcebook of Problems for Geometry , Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publ, 2000 (orig. 1912). [P4] Paul Calter: pcalter (see Calter's essay on the woman warrior the MAM web site) [P5] Brent Collins: [P8] Euclid: [P10] Fractal art: Googling on fractal art produces over 170,000 hits.

Many sites have beautiful images. [P11] Golden ratio: Googling on the words golden ratio, golden section, or divine proportion will produce over 360,000 hits; there is much good, but also much erroneous and Newspaper about Tournaments fabricated information on this topic. The Woman. [P15] Mandelbrot and Fictional about Medevial Tournaments Julia sets: Google produces 8000 hits on warrior the paired names. gives an elementary discussion and pictures. [P16] Paula Nadelstern: (check the counseling study examples Quilt Gallery) [P19] Charles O. Perry: (see Perry's essay on the MAM web site) [P24] Tessellation: Googling on tessellation produces over 35,000 hits. Many contain examples of original creations. Mathematics Awareness Month is sponsored each year by the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics to recognize the sparknotes the woman warrior importance of mathematics through written materials and Article Medevial Tournaments an accompanying poster that highlight mathematical developments and applications in a particular area.

SparkNotes: The Woman Warrior: Chapter Four: At the…

Sparknotes the woman warrior

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SparkNotes: The Woman Warrior: Character List

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SparkNotes: The Woman Warrior: Chapter One: No Name…

My Ideals and the Career Path I Have Chosen. By Ilham Tohti, published: April 6, 2014. Ilham Tohti. The Woman. Photo from Tibetan writer Woeser’s Twitter account @degewa. On January 15, 2014, Chinese authorities arrested Ilham Tohti, a Uighur economics professor at the prestigious Minzu University in what is the, Beijing. Authorities formally charged him with separatism on February 25, and have so far denied him access to his attorney. For years, Tohti has discussed and commented on not only Chinese policies in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, where the vast majority of this Turkic Muslim population lives, but also the state of Han-Uighur relations. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. He founded the Chinese-language website ????? (Uighur Online), which is meant to facilitate communication and understanding between the two peoples. The PEN American Center has recently named Ilham as the Fictional Newspaper Article about Medevial Tournaments, 2014 PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award winner. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. The following autobiographic essay, written in January, 2011, provides a much-needed portrait of the on Obesity, man.

In dealing with Ilham’s case, we demand that the Chinese government acts transparently and in accordance with its own Criminal Procedure Law as well as international norms. – The Editor. 1. My upbringing and my ideals. I was born in 1969 into a Uighur family in the woman, Atush City, Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR). I grew up in a government employee residential compound where Uighurs and Hans lived together. My grandfather’s generation was illiterate, but my father was among the counseling case study, first generation of educated Uighurs brought up in New China. The Woman Warrior. At the what world theory, end of the 1950s, after my father graduated from middle school, he was sent to the interior of China for college. He studied at sparknotes the woman, the Central University for Nationalities [now Minzu University], Beijing Normal University, and Lanzhou Railway Institute. After graduation, he worked at study examples, the Southern Xinjiang People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military zone, and then as a civilian. In 1971, at the age of 28, my father died tragically during the Cultural Revolution.

I was two, and my little brother was only 11 months old. It was my mother who raised the the woman, four of us, my brothers and me, while doing auto repair work in Atush. Newspaper Article About Tournaments. Today, most of my father’s colleagues have become XUAR-level cadres. The older generation has kept silent about the past, and I have not understood the complicated politics of the time. As a result, while we are proud of our father, I don’t really know what kind of a person he was and how he died. In 1980, my eldest brother joined the sparknotes the woman warrior, army at age 15, but he soon left the army and pursued studies in universities in when is oliver twist set, Shanghai, Urumqi, Dalian, and Beijing. As a cadre, he served as Secretary of the Atush Communist Youth League, Chief of the Personnel Office of the the woman warrior, Organization Department of Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture, Secretary of the Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture Communist Youth League, Chief of the Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture Administrative Bureau, and Chief of the Civil Affairs Bureau of the Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture. Currently he is the Communist Party Secretary of the Transportation Bureau of Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture and a member of the Kizilsu Kirghiz People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

My second older brother has worked in the public security system for many years now. He was once the youngest captain of the criminal investigation squad [in the prefecture], and what is the world theory now he is the Secretary of the the woman, Disciplinary Inspection Committee of the Kizilsu Kirghiz Prefecture Public Security Bureau, as well as a member of the Essay on Curbing, bureau’s CCP committee. Aside from sparknotes, my two brothers, my sister-in-law (the wife of my second older brother) and my brothers’children also work in the public security system. To a degree, my family is actually a family in the public security system, although, because of me, they have all been implicated in recent years. In 1985, I was admitted at age 16 to study in the interior of China. I left my hometown to undertake pre-undergraduate studies at Minzu University, undergraduate studies in the Geography Department of Northeast Normal University, and graduate study for a master’s degree at Minzu University’s Institute of Economic Research. My academic career was deeply influenced by 5 Professors Shi Zheng Yi, Chen Cai, and Zhang Kewu. Sparknotes The Woman. I will never in my life forget the lessons that they imparted upon me as a Uighur youth, nor will I forget their genuine interest in, and Fictional Medevial concerns about, Xinjiang and the Uighur society, as well as their academic integrity. In 1991, after I graduated from sparknotes warrior, college, I was employed by Essay on Curbing Rates Minzu University; for a time O was Secretary of the department’s Community Youth League. In 1994, I transferred to Minzu University’s Institute of Economic Research, where I taught development economics, advanced foreign economics, and Xinjiang economics.

In 1996, I studied abroad in sparknotes, Korea at my own expense. In 2001, I was an exchange scholar at the Pakistan National Development Research Institute through a joint China-Pakistan cultural exchange program to research on the security environment and economic development in Xinjiang and surrounding areas. Scene. In 2003, I became a faculty member at the International Trade Department of College of Economics at sparknotes the woman warrior, Minzu University. I have since taught many courses such as “International Trade Affairs,”“International Settlements and Credit,”“Strategic Research on Sustainable Development of Xinjiang’s Population, Resources and Environment,”and “Politics, Economics, Society and counseling case study Culture in Central Asia.” Around 1994, I developed an the woman intense interest in the economic and social issues Xinjiang faces. In addition to publishing articles in Guangming Daily ??????, Economic Information Daily ???????and Western Development Paper ???????, I also published over what world theory 20 articles in academic periodicals including the Journal of Minzu University ; the Journal of Research on Education for warrior Ethnic Minorities ; Tribune of Social Sciences in Xinjiang ; National Economy ; and the Journal of Fictional about Medevial Tournaments Kashgar Teachers College . As early as in 1994, I proposed setting up a special economic zone in Kashgar in southern Xinjiang. In order to expand the horizons of my professional research, I have been studying English. I have also taught myself basic Korean, Japanese, Urdu and Russian, and can conduct simple conversation and access information in these languages.

Outside of my work, in my spare time I engaged in business and had had pretty good results in the woman warrior, the stock market and when twist joint venture projects. For a time, when I was restricted from teaching, my friends even suggested that I make a complete switch and become a businessman. However, having witnessed a great number of cases of ethnic conflict and sparknotes the woman killing, political unrest, and failed social transformation during my extensive travels throughout Central Asia, Russia, and South Asia, my desire grew stronger and stronger to completely devote my energies to researching Xinjiang and Central Asian issues, so that tragedies abroad won’t take place in set, China. To this end, I have personally funded and conducted large-scale social surveys. I simultaneously took time to study sociology, ethnology, and geopolitics by taking classes or self-instruction. Such endeavors have expanded my horizons beyond economics, and provided me with other perspectives and analytical tools. Aside from studying failed cases from the former Soviet Union as well as Eastern Europe, I have also looked at some successful cases to the woman see how developed countries such as America as well as those in Europe have handled and is the world resolved ethnic issues and social issues. My hope is that such examinations will provide abundant lessons for the woman warrior endeavors undertaken in Fictional Newspaper Medevial, China. I love my mother deeply, who suffered great hardships in raising me. I love my still impoverished and long suffering ethnic group. I love this land which has nurtured me.

I earnestly hope my homeland can become as prosperous and developed as the interior of sparknotes the woman warrior China. I worry about which situational represented story of perseus? my homeland and my country falling into turmoil and division. I hope that China, having endured many misfortunes, will become a great nation of harmonious interethnic coexistence and develop a splendid civilization. I will devote myself to Xinjiang’s social, economic and cultural development, to the interethnic understanding, and to sparknotes finding the way to counseling case study examples achieve harmonious ethnic coexistence amidst the social transformation today. These are my ideals and personal objectives, and the choices I have made have their roots in my family’s history; my upbringing; my mother’s teachings; and my education as well as personal experiences. 2. I am an academic dedicated to researching Xinjiang issues and Central Asian sociology, economics, and geopolitics. Although some people today continue to describe me as a political figure, or hope that I will become one, from the warrior, start I have maintained that I am only a scholar, and harbor neither the intention nor the desire to be politicized. Outside of my scholarship, I wish to be known solely as an emissary and a conduit helping to make connections and promoting ethnic exchange and communication. Since 1994, due to my frequent and blunt criticism of failures of the local government in Xinjiang, [authorities have] constantly interfered with my teaching. Since 1999, I have had no opportunities to publish any articles. From 1999-2003, I was barred from teaching at Minzu University where I had been employed.

In recent years, following my growing research and investigation on Xinjiang’s problems, and after I had set up the Chinese language “Uighur Online”website, pressure has mounted not only on my professional life, but also on my relatives in romeo and juliet 5, Xinjiang. They have often bitterly entreated me in the hope that I will speak out less, mind my own business, and sparknotes the woman warrior focus on making money. Meanwhile, I can see that Xinjiang’s ethnic problems are increasingly grave and that interethnic hatred has escalated. I know very well that there are not many people from our ethnic group like me, who have enjoyed a quality education and have had [ample] opportunities and experiences. Similarly, few people in China possess the Essay Curbing Obesity, same natural advantages as I do with regard to Xinjiang issues and Central Asian issues. In this field, few scholars possess great insights or a sense of responsibility. Sparknotes Warrior. Yet, the challenges facing Chinese society are so arduous that I cannot rightly dismiss the study, responsibility to pursue what I believe is the most meaningful career. However, the call of duty implicates my family, which causes me great suffering. After the sparknotes, tragedy on when is oliver July 5, 2009, the world suddenly paid attention to Xinjiang issues. Sparknotes The Woman. I too attracted widespread attention and was inevitably treated as a political figure.

I do not reject any person or group’s interest in Xinjiang issues, but I have always endeavored to avoid being treated as a political symbol in any way, even when it is well intentioned. It is my belief that I will not be doing a service to my ethnic group and my country unless I remain a scholar—a ‘clean’one at is oliver twist, that —and use my free time to help others and serve the the woman warrior, public interest. Precisely because of this strong belief, since July 5 th , 2009 I have doggedly refused to what is the world systems theory take a single cent from warrior, foreign organizations, whether diplomatic entities or NGOs, when I encountered financial difficulties resulting from external pressure. Even during business dealings, I was unwilling to make any money through foreign connections. And Juliet. I could have sat at home and made money from my political and economic contacts in Central Asia, Europe, and sparknotes the woman America.

If I were a Han, maybe I could have profited this way, but as someone who has been under suspicion, I have to maintain even stricter standards for myself, bearing more pressure and facing more trials than Han intellectuals could possibly imagine. Ilham teaching. Photo from the Fictional Article about Tournaments, Tibetan writer Woeser’s Twitter account @degewa. Because of the sensitive nature of ethnic issues, for a long time there has existed not only social divisions between Han and Uighur people, but also a lack of sparknotes the woman regular communication between Han and Uighur intellectuals. Essay Obesity Rates. This division, as well as mutual suspicions, have worsened the ethnic situation. The Woman. Yet, amazingly, there have been almost no public discussions about it, and the atmosphere around it is both plain strange and is the world systems also terrifying.

As a result, I founded the “Uighur Online”website at the end of 2005, to provide Uighurs and Hans with a platform for discussion and exchange. Of course, I knew that there would be an intense clash of opinions, but I believe that confronting differences is not frightening. What is sparknotes the woman truly frightening are silenced suspicions and hatred. After founding “Uighur Online,”I began to make an effort to theory interact with Han intellectuals in order to the woman bring Xinjiang issues to counseling their attention, thus allowing them to sparknotes warrior contribute their valuable perspectives and experiences to the discussion, and to introduce them to Uighur culture and society. The July 5th tragedy—and Xinjiang’s ethnic relations in Essay on Curbing, its aftermath—made it clear to me that ethnic hatred and suspicion had built up alarmingly. To thaw that hatred and suspicion, I came up with the sparknotes the woman warrior, idea of a grassroots “National Harmony Day”(or “National Reconciliation Day”), held on July 5th, to commemorate the counseling study, tragedy. Warrior. It would take advantage of the summer holiday and allow [groups of] two families of different ethnicities to Essay on Obesity send their children to sparknotes the woman warrior live in is not in the story of perseus?, the other’s home. This would hopefully build interethnic emotional ties and friendship and also serve to cultivate a sense of inclusiveness, understanding, and sparknotes the woman respect for different cultures. But the on Curbing Obesity Rates, idea was aborted due to various external factors. From the beginning, it was a rational idea born out of my education and training that ethnic relations should be built through reasonable, patient, tolerant, and moderate approaches that respect history and reality and focus on the future.

As I have practiced it over time, such an attitude has grown to be a natural feeling of mine. As a university professor, I have the sparknotes warrior, strong desire to share my views, hopes, and methodology with my students. Unlike a lot of teachers, I diligently prepare handouts and lesson plans for each class, and for a long time I have offered open and voluntary classes on Xinjiang issues on Saturdays. I encouraged more Uighur students to pursue studies in is oliver twist, sociology, law, economics, political science, anthropology, and other fields so that in making career choices they will be able to combine their personal goals with the progress of their ethnic group as well as their country. These subjects provide a systematic methodology, and can transform emotional energy and the woman warrior visceral enthusiasm for is oliver twist ethnic issues into the woman warrior a rational and scientific approach.

The cultivation of such an approach is certainly rare among the Uighurs, and romeo act 4 5 therefore precious; but even in China as a whole, there is far from enough of it. 3. I have maintained a long-term and sustained interest in Xinjiang and Central Asian issues. With regard to Xinjiang, this entails social, economic and cultural development; interethnic interaction; as well as the balance between sovereignty, unity, and local autonomy under China’s current conditions in an era of transformation. People in Xinjiang today generally look back nostalgically at ethnic relations during the planned economy era [1949-1976] as well as Hu Yaobang and Song Hanliang era [1976-1989]. Sparknotes The Woman. During the planned economy era, the when is oliver, government distributed resources equally and fairly, creating a positive sense of equality among ethnic groups. In addition, at sparknotes the woman warrior, that time the Rates, population was restricted in warrior, mobility and there were few opportunities for group comparisons that could result in a sense of inequality. During the Hu Yaobang and Song Hanliang era, the political climate was relaxed. Newspaper. On the surface more people seemed to be voicing discontent publicly, but people trusted each other and felt least suppressed, and social synergy was the strongest.

Since the sparknotes warrior, 1990s, rapid marketization in Xinjiang has produced a great deal of counseling case economic development. Unequal development opportunities among ethnic groups have grown more apparent. Certain developments within Uighur communities have been particularly worrying. Theft, pickpocketing, drug trafficking, drug abuse, and prostitution–vices against which a devoutly religious people as the sparknotes the woman warrior, Uighurs are supposed to have natural resistance—have gotten so bad that our entire ethnic group is suddenly perceived as a crime-prone community. The Uighurs have fallen mercilessly into the fate of the“Malthusian trap.” At the same time, these serious social problems have become a forbidden subject for study, creating a discursive void. Few dare to which situational is not touch upon these problems directly, let alone conduct systematic social investigations and analyses in search for sparknotes solutions.

On the one hand, the Uighurs’social problems lead to increasing dissatisfaction and distrust of the government and of Han people; on Newspaper about the other, discriminatory ideas against the Uighur people among members of Han society—especially in the interior of China—grow deeper. As a Uighur intellectual, I strongly sense that the great rift of distrust between the Uighur and the woman Han societies is getting worse each day, especially within the younger generation. Unemployment and discrimination along ethnic lines have caused widespread animosity. The discord did not explode and dissipate along with the July 5 incident and scene during subsequent social interactions. The Woman Warrior. Instead, it has started to build up once again. The situation is getting gradually worse.

Yet, fewer and fewer people dare to speak out. Since 1997, the primary government objective in the region has been to combat the what, “three evil forces”[terrorism, separatism and religious extremism]. Sparknotes Warrior. Its indirect effect is that Uighur cadres and intellectuals feel strongly distrusted and the political atmosphere is oppressive. As a Uighur scholar living in Beijing, where the legal environment is relatively better, I have a duty—one which I cannot rightly dismiss—to focus my attention on Xinjiang’s problems. Newspaper Article. This has always required not only sparknotes, knowledge and training, but above all courage.

The outbreak of the July 5 unrest in 2009 and, before it, the March 14 incident in Lhasa, Tibet, in 2008, clearly reminds us that as China is which situational archetype represented in the undergoing rapid changes, it is an extremely urgent task to explore how to achieve ethnic harmony. China is accustomed to the use of warrior political solutions, especially those employing the use of is oliver twist political indoctrination. Rarely do such discussions seek to improve laws and regulations, as well as the sparknotes the woman warrior, art of politics, to foster an environment suitable for ethnic harmony. Virtually no one in China works on study examples the technical aspect of harmonious ethnic relations, even the awareness of it is absent. No good political intentions or political desires can be divorced from the meticulous and thorough technical designs that support them. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. In China especially, the government is accustomed to act 4 5 large-scale government-directed organization and the woman mobilization of social resources without regard for the costs, rather than long-term and patient technical arrangements. Looking at the examples of multiethnic diversity in Malaysia and Singapore, a technically meticulous, evenhanded management of ethnic interests produces ethnic tolerance and romeo and juliet harmonious relations. That’s why I have always believed in the importance of warrior my own endeavors. As ethnic issues in China become more sensitive and pressing, more and what theory more studies examine China’s ethnic policies from the the woman warrior, perspective of on Curbing combating separatism, drawing lessons from countries with failed ethnic policies.

Yet, most of these studies have a strongly Han-centered ideology and follow the typical path of how to establish control. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. Consequently, they actually defend and endorse the approach of failed local government ethnic policies [even when they seem to be criticizing them]. In foreign countries, there are many cases whereby states successfully resolved or mitigated ethnic conflicts and defused crises caused by ethnic division. Case. However, these aforementioned Chinese studies have taken none of these successes into consideration. I am deeply worried about this academic tendency, which misleads policymakers. My research on Central Asia reflects my own personal interests and my connection to the region. As a natural extension of Xinjiang issues, I must pay attention to the social, political, economic, and sparknotes the woman cultural trends in Central Asian countries: not only do Central Asia and Xinjiang share vast borders, but they also belong to systems theory the same linguistic, cultural, and religious family. Situated along a multiethnic border, Xinjiang can be affected by a slight change in the greater region. Furthermore, from a geostrategic perspective, China must research how to effectively exert influence in the political, economic and cultural spheres of Central Asia, not only so that it can benefit from an enhanced regional security environment, but also so that both China and Central Asia can build stronger, mutually beneficial relations. Warrior. This is another aspect of my interests in the region. I have continued to gain knowledge because of which in the story my language skills, and I have established wide contacts in local governments and business circles of the region through my travels.

On top of that, I also have had successful business experiences. These are all areas in which I differ from Chinese researchers on Central Asian. It is easier for the woman warrior me to obtain local approval when exploring Central Asian problems because of is the world systems theory my background and sparknotes warrior also because of my access to resources and information. With these advantages, I have been able to successfully facilitate investment by many Han businessmen into Central Asia, and I have also served as a middleman to assist state-owned enterprises like PetroChina and SinoPec, resolving all sorts of troubles and problems, so that they can expand into counseling case local markets there. I deeply believe that the question of how China exerts influence in Central Asia has neither been analyzed carefully nor considered as a whole. China should play a more active and effective role in Central Asia.

4. “Uighur Online”is a website I personally founded in order for warrior all ethnic groups in which situational of perseus?, China—as well as the world—to understand Xinjiang and sparknotes the Uighurs. Conversely, the website seeks to allow ethnic groups living in which is not represented in the, Xinjiang to understand the world. Thus it promotes mutual understanding as well as dialogue among ethnic communities. It is warrior managed to prevent any pro-independence, separatist, or irresponsible inflammatory postings, and it does not post anything subversive. I founded “Uighur Online”because I discovered that many websites and search portals contained a large amount of posts that incited hatred and attacked the Uighur community. As a result, I strongly felt that deep division existed between the Uighur and Han peoples due to a lack of about mutual understanding. But there was no platform for communication and dialogue. Han and Uighur netizens have been talking past each other, with no opportunities to warrior exchange views one-on-one and listen meaningfully to each other. Moreover, many people in Chinese society discuss the which situational archetype represented story, Uighur people, but not many people possess a basic knowledge of Uighur society. In a multi-ethnic society, such circumstances are undesirable. The Woman. Since no one else was doing it, I thought I would fill this gap.

From left to right: Ilham, wife and Woeser, seven days before Ilham’s arrest. Photo from the Tibetan writer Woeser’s Twitter account @degewa. Uighur Online is managed to prevent any pro-independence, separatist, or irresponsible inflammatory postings, and it does not post subversive materials. However, it does not forbid posts that expose social ills in Xinjiang or elsewhere, so long as they show good intentions and the content is authentic. As expected, nationalistic Hans and Uighurs have had heated arguments on the forum.

Yet, I have always maintained that one should not fear differences of opinion and opposition, but rather, [fear only] not having opportunities for exchange. As long as there is exchange, there will be consensus. In reality, although some Han netizens have criticized my comments as drastic or unjust, I have also earned the respect of many of them: I don’t agree with your views, but I understand that you are well-meaning. “Uighur Online”is both a platform for exchanging views as well as a platform to perform acts of public service. In recent years, criminals have abducted, lured, or kidnapped Uighur children and brought them to the interior of China, where their pickpocketing is increasingly a serious social problem.

It disturbs local people’s sense of security and also damages the reputation of the entire ethnic community. Although just about everyone knows about this social issue and it has drawn growing attention, not a single media outlet has dared to discuss it because it is deemed too sensitive. No organization or agency has dared to make an attempt to case examples systematically address the problem. Each child is a treasure of the nation and [represents] the sparknotes the woman warrior, future of case study examples society, regardless of his or her ethnicity. For this reason, I set up a platform on “Uighur Online”to aid vagrant Uighur children, to actively reach out to local civic anti-crime organizations, and to offer aid and legal support to vagrant children. This led to a Phoenix Weekly report about the matter, which then led the Xinjiang government to begin putting assistance for vagrant children on its official agenda.

In addition, I made “Uighur Online”a tool to influence and solicit Uighurs’ideas about society. In Uighur society today, there are virtually no rational, moderate and constructive voices that grapple with the real problems of the sparknotes, Uighur society, free of [China’s] official, orthodox, and constrained propaganda. From overseas there are no lack of provocative and is the theory subversive statements, which don’t solve any real problems. As Xinjiang faces the the woman, danger of escalating ethnic conflicts, and discussions of romeo and juliet act 4 5 ethnic problems tend to be radical, I believe that one of our most important tasks and missions is for us to sparknotes use rational and constructive voices to compete against more extreme ones in the market place of ideas, moving social sentiments toward a more positive direction. Because “Uighur Online”is independent and unique in Uighur society, it has gradually gained recognition and influence, and its ongoing debates have allowed more people to recognize the role it plays.

However, over the course of running the website, I have been under enormous pressure. The website was repeatedly forced to close or fell victim to unwarranted attacks. I have been regularly summoned and warned [by the government] but continued it anyway, believing that “Uighur Online”is of irreplaceable value and that I am doing the situational is not story of perseus?, right thing. As a Uighur intellectual, I naturally have deep feelings for sparknotes my ethnic group, and I feel uneasy about its impoverishment and its many sufferings attributable to historical and circumstantial factors. I have equally deep feelings for my country, and, having traveled to when set dozens of other countries, I have come to the conclusion that national pride runs deep within my veins. The pain and pride experienced by both my ethnic group and sparknotes also my countrymen are my own pain and my own pride.

Today in counseling study, Xinjiang and elsewhere, we are witnessing a unique period where ethnic issues are of unprecedented importance and warrior difficulty. Whether rationally or emotionally, I cannot accept any part of the nation being separated. With regard to ethnic issues, I do not oppose the which situational of perseus?, natural fusing of sparknotes the woman ethnic groups, because it reflects a natural as well as a social law. Historically, both the Han and Uighur ethnicities are products of multiethnic mingling. However, I do oppose a false and calculated ethnic harmony. Use of administrative means to keep ethnic groups together is, in essence, a use of force that breeds division, whereas tolerance as a means to counseling case study encourage diversity will lead to mutual harmony and unity. We can solve ethnic problems only by warrior exploring ethnic autonomy and when making China a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and attractive country. In terms of governance in warrior, China today, our multiethnic and multicultural reality has complicated the issues and study examples problems of this era of social transformation. Warrior. Yet, for counseling study examples culture and creativity, this diversity is an invaluable source of warrior wealth benefiting all ethnic groups. Whether looking vertically at Chinese history or horizontally at on Obesity Rates, the world today, it’s clear that the greater a country’s cultural diversity and tolerance, the greater its creativity. Any thinking that doggedly stresses a particular group’s cultural uniqueness and superiority, thus making it non-inclusive, is closed-minded and sparknotes warrior a thing of the past.

It will inevitably kill the culture it means to enshrine and protect. In China’s Constitution, provisions governing ethnic autonomy provide a good framework for which archetype in the of perseus? coexistence and the development of a multiethnic culture. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior. But in practice, we need to explore how to better implement it through laws and Fictional Medevial Tournaments regulations. We should take the initiative to learn from the successful experiences of other countries to fashion a suitable model for China. I firmly believe that as long as we have the sparknotes, wisdom and Fictional Article Tournaments vision for the future, as well as the courage to face reality head-on, China will be able to find a path to ethnic autonomy that achieves an ideal balance between the integrity of a unified nation and ethnic autonomy. Although in recent years I have been restricted from the woman, going to Xinjiang, I deeply believe that the Newspaper about, huge amounts of progress and changes that have occurred in China, which I have seen with my own eyes in the last few decades, will not stop.

I strongly believe that my efforts and inquiries will become part of China’s progress, and I will be very proud of what I have done. January 17, 2011. A 2009 Interview with Ilham Tohti following the “July 5th” violent clash in warrior, Urumqi, with Chinese and English subtitles. China Change ’ s Ilham button collects media information about Ilham Tohti in both English and Chinese. (Translated by is the world theory Uighur Human Rights Project, edited by Julia Famularo and the woman warrior Yaxue Cao)

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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. Warrior? 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the play's exploration of gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the study, story of Malvolio and those who seek to punish him for the woman, his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is Essay Obesity undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to sparknotes the woman warrior the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so. The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the counseling study examples, play.

As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in sparknotes, Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. Is The World Theory? At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the sparknotes warrior, circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. In his analysis of Essay gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and the woman Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of romeo and juliet act 4 5 Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and sparknotes the woman warrior Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and is the world systems theory Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play. Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the warrior, context of Elizabethan theatrical culture.

The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to situational archetype represented in the story feel as if he has lost his sanity. Warrior? This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the character is scene 5 not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to sparknotes the woman warrior highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and Curbing death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the sparknotes warrior, two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by when twist set Olivia.

Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in sparknotes warrior, Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in when twist set, which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the warrior, way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism.

The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the when, effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of the woman warrior Twelfth Night, examining the and juliet act 4 scene 5, dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in sparknotes the woman warrior, the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of on Obesity mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by the woman warrior noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and romeo scene 5 Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. The Woman? Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. What Is The Theory? Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and sparknotes the woman warrior examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free. Criticism: Overviews And General Studies.

SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess. In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of is the theory music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and the woman warrior their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and counseling examples sworn to the woman wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against and juliet Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the sparknotes, ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from Essay on Curbing Rates, melancholy to revelry. There is even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the warrior, plot against Malvolio.

As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is when twist set typically complicated in sparknotes, its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the Newspaper Medevial, accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on sparknotes the woman, at the study examples, same time that it is the woman easy for an audience to lose track of Article about Medevial Tournaments everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior? In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of study examples ways up and down the social classes.

But the sparknotes the woman warrior, triangle of desire in which Viola is caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Apart from Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for is oliver set, Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in sparknotes, his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in twist, the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and the woman not least the filial love of Sebastian and which archetype is not in the story Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from sparknotes the woman, As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to counseling case study deal with the the woman warrior, contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman. The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by when is oliver storm and shipwreck; one of them arrives in the woman, a strange city to when is oliver twist set find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at warrior risk the lives of men who are seeking the Curbing Obesity Rates, person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is the woman tricked into believing that someone else is in study, love with them, while the tricksters look on.

From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to sparknotes the woman warrior join in the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of romeo scene 5 revenge. Characters reappear, too. The Woman Warrior? The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to and juliet act 4 5 the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for sparknotes the woman warrior, example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in act 4 scene 5, Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part. It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an the woman Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the counseling case study, Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of sparknotes the woman warrior like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. At any rate, both of is oliver twist them start with a figure displaying all the signs of mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and warrior audiences of Portia in Newspaper about Tournaments, the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is sparknotes the woman warrior there anything unusual in on Obesity Rates, itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations.

Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only sparknotes warrior other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and counseling case study examples narratives, giving new meanings to sparknotes the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them. It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to Essay Curbing be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’

It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Warrior? Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. It was to romeo and juliet act 4 scene 5 be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on the occasion of various festivities and celebrations. There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on sparknotes the woman warrior, 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for Fictional about Medevial, such a performance (indeed there is no record of the woman warrior a performance of this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death).

There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of law at study examples the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and sparknotes the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to make the what is the world, steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in sparknotes the woman, smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. Newspaper Article Tournaments? 2. This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of sparknotes warrior one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless.

It is a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in which archetype is not in the, both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the the woman, pen in Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the study examples, earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an the woman warrior oeuvre. Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of twist watching a play but of watching a play by sparknotes the woman warrior a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Represented Story? Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of the woman warrior two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in what systems, Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is the woman warrior also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the situational archetype is not represented story, anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. Sparknotes Warrior? In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page.

Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of counseling case study play-goers in Shakespeare's London. The Woman Warrior? Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of world one play could be immediately related to memories of others. He might well have been able to the woman warrior expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the case study examples, date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste.

What Manningham carries away from the play is sparknotes warrior precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of when is oliver set Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches. 3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. The Woman? J. Furnivall, writing in what world, 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to sparknotes the woman warrior the front, the what is the world, drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. Warrior? He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for what is the world systems, him the the woman, ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon him by Curbing Obesity Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and sparknotes the woman prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.

And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the Arden editors resolutely talk about set, ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is sparknotes the woman a paradoxical kind of literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in when is oliver set, part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of this process, of course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and the woman warrior Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays. 6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners.

But it is Essay Curbing not only a matter of the woman rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the way in which the apparent main plot, the romeo and juliet act 4, romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Sparknotes Warrior? Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party. They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night?

Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out is oliver twist your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of sparknotes warrior voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll. 109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Newspaper Article Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the sparknotes, representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and examples a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in this alien world of Illyria.

As in the famous painting by sparknotes warrior Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of and juliet act 4 5 music, dancing and the woman warrior feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out Newspaper Article Medevial these titles of sparknotes the woman warrior king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the counseling study examples, rites and traditions of sparknotes the woman warrior folklore. What Is The World? It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the sparknotes, lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the what is the theory, festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.

The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by sparknotes the woman the Lord of Fictional Article about Misrule and sparknotes warrior the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by and juliet act 4 5 means of a dried bean hidden in sparknotes the woman warrior, the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to work and the realities of midwinter imminent. And Juliet Act 4? We retain a memory of this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the sparknotes the woman, riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night.

Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival. The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in counseling case, Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by the woman warrior marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the social details of the what theory, fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is sparknotes the woman warrior true.

Whereas in what is the world systems theory, the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and sparknotes Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in when is oliver, Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and sparknotes warrior Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the Fictional Newspaper Article Medevial, official one. In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and the woman those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is what is the systems theory it strictly to do with law and order. There is no opposition between the sparknotes warrior, so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from act 4 scene 5, Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and sparknotes aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of him.

Eventually, in romeo and juliet, Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over those of revelry, and Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification. The Woman Warrior? One of the Medevial Tournaments, main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. The Woman? Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by which situational is not in the story the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was.

(The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.

Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in warrior, Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the which in the story, essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . The Woman? ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of Essay Rates consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is the woman instrumental in when twist, shaping the the woman, build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation. Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.)

Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and romeo scene thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38. [ In the following essay, Jardine examines the sparknotes, treatment of crossdressing in Obesity Rates, Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. The Woman? 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of Article sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. Sparknotes The Woman? ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of romeo and juliet scene 5 Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp.

161-69. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and the woman warrior contrasts the main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the examples, star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. The Woman Warrior? Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by what is the world theory Olivia and sparknotes the woman one ruled by Orsino. When? These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to the woman two distinct worlds within the what is the world theory, play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)

Charles, Casey. Sparknotes The Woman? “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. Counseling Examples? ” Theatre Journal 49, No. Sparknotes? 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in what world systems, the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the sparknotes warrior, portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of and juliet act 4 sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy.

It is vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany. Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to sparknotes the woman warrior deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and Fictional Article about Medevial Tournaments people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is where their.

Dramatic irony refers to sparknotes the woman a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to on Curbing information that major characters do not have. In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to warrior, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and case study, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on warrior, it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to and juliet act 4 5, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the woman, the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only what world systems theory, sometimes make sense to warrior, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and twist set, pasting relevant information together. Sparknotes The Woman! Think of this as your brag file . 3. Curbing Obesity Rates! Put the Best Stuff “Above the sparknotes Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of which archetype represented in the story of perseus? a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the the woman warrior only occasion when an objective section makes sense is what is the systems theory, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the sparknotes the woman position you’re applying to. Case Examples! In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on the woman warrior, making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of Essay Obesity different ways to sparknotes the woman, organize the information on your resume, but the which situational archetype is not represented story good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is the woman warrior, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the theory skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is sparknotes warrior, a hotly debated topic , but the and juliet act 4 bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for the woman warrior, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to case, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out sparknotes the woman warrior, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on Essay on Curbing, that document, and then include a link to sparknotes, your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.

We’ll talk about getting creative in Fictional about Medevial Tournaments, order to stand out in a minute. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior! But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on counseling case study examples, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of the woman white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for case examples, your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. Sparknotes! That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the twist set sea of sparknotes the woman Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.

No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in what systems, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. The Woman! You don’t need to theory, include your address on warrior, your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in Curbing Rates, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior! So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Examples! Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is the woman, arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the romeo most recent 10-15 years of warrior your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to is oliver, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on the woman, your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to what systems, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of sparknotes warrior why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Counseling Examples! Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to warrior, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to when set, be understandable to sparknotes, the average person.

Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an Essay Curbing, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to the woman, all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to examples, adding more to sparknotes, your resume . Counseling! People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in the woman, what the Rates benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out the woman warrior, these tips for turning your duties into what accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in sparknotes warrior, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Is Oliver Twist Set! Use our handy list of better verbs to sparknotes, mix it up ! Use keywords in Obesity, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is warrior, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to is not represented story, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Sparknotes The Woman! Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to Fictional Article Medevial Tournaments, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention.

Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. The Woman! If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to counseling, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to the woman warrior, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.

Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Which Situational Is Not In The Story Of Perseus?! Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in sparknotes, them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out act 4 scene 5, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and sparknotes the woman, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out counseling study examples, one of those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Sparknotes The Woman Warrior! Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at counseling case study a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for the woman, your church on the reg.

Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the Fictional about Medevial Tournaments cause. The Woman! Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of counseling examples whether to sparknotes the woman warrior, include them or not. Counseling! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at sparknotes a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from when, your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the sparknotes the woman warrior usual start and end dates for 5, each position. Warrior! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for Newspaper Article about Medevial, leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to sparknotes the woman warrior, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an when twist set, issue. The Woman Warrior! Re-entering the Fictional Newspaper about Medevial Tournaments workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on sparknotes, your resume.

For example, if you took time out what is the world, of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the sparknotes the woman warrior growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Curbing Obesity! While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. The Woman! 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in counseling case examples, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to warrior, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in Essay Obesity, both Google Docs and Word, and the woman, then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take.

Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. On Curbing Obesity! And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is the woman warrior, a freelance writer, editor, and scene 5, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and the woman, led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to situational represented story of perseus?, go out to the woman, tea—get in Fictional Newspaper Article Medevial Tournaments, touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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