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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Wife Carol. Just as there are noteworthy examples of Paper Reduction, excellent college essays that admissions offices like to publish, so are there cringe-worthy examples of terrible college essays that end up being described by the devils wife anonymous admissions officers on Reddit discussion boards. While I won’t guarantee that your essay will end up in earnshaw, the first category, I will say that you follow my advice in this article, your essay most assuredly won’t end up in the second. How do you avoid writing a bad admissions essay? Read on the devils wife carol ann duffy to find out what makes an essay bad and to catherine earnshaw learn which college essay topics to avoid. I'll also explain how to the devils carol ann duffy recognize bad college essays – and what to do to if you end up creating one by accident. What Makes Bad College Essays Bad. Demeter. What exactly happens to turn a college essay terrible?
Just as great personal statements combine an unexpected topic with superb execution, flawed personal statements compound problematic subject matter with poor execution. The primary way to screw up a college essay is to flub what the essay is about or how you’ve decided to wife discuss a particular experience. Badly chosen essay content can easily create an essay that is off-putting in act 2 2, one of a number of ways I’ll discuss in the next section. The essay is the place to let the admissions office of your target college get to know your personality, character, and the talents and ann duffy skills that aren’t on your transcript. Paper Reduction. So if you start with a terrible topic, not only will you end up with a bad essay, but you risk ruining the wife, good impression that the rest of your application makes. Some bad topics show admissions officers that you don’t have a good sense of judgment or maturity , which is a problem since they are building a class of college students who have to be able to handle independent life on campus.
Other bad topics suggest that you are a boring person , or someone who doesn’t process your experience in a colorful or lively way, which is a problem since colleges want to create a dynamic and engaged cohort of students. Still other bad topics indicate that you're unaware of or disconnected from the outside world and focused only on yourself , which is a problem since part of the point of college is to engage with new people and new ideas, and admissions officers are looking for people who can do that. Sometimes, even if the demeter, experiences you discuss could be the foundation of a great personal statement, the way you’ve structured and put together your essay sends up warning flags. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy. This is because the admissions essay is also a place to show the admissions team the maturity and clarity of your writing style. One way to get this part wrong is to catherine exhibit very faulty writing mechanics , like unclear syntax or incorrectly used punctuation. This is a problem since college-ready writing is wife one of the things that’s expected from a high school graduate. Another way to mess this up is to ignore prompt instructions either for creative or careless reasons. This can show admissions officers that you're either someone who simply blows off directions and instructions or someone who can't understand how to definiton follow them . Neither is a good thing, since they are looking for wife ann duffy, people who are open to receiving new information from professors and not just deciding they know everything already.
Ignoring directions to demeter god of harvest this degree is wife carol not creative, just annoying. Want to Paper Reduction know why you're often advised to write about something mundane and everyday for your college essay? That's because the more out-there your topic, the carol, more likely it is to earnshaw stumble into one of carol, these trouble categories. The problem with the overly personal essay topic is that revealing something very private can show that you don’t really understand boundaries . And knowing where appropriate boundaries are will be key for living on your own with a bunch of people not related to you. Unfortunately, stumbling into the TMI zone of catherine, essay topics is more common than you think. One quick test for checking your privacy-breaking level: if it’s not something you’d tell a friendly stranger sitting next to you on the plane, maybe don’t tell it to the admissions office. Describing losing your virginity, or anything about your sex life really. Wife Carol Ann Duffy. This doesn’t mean you can’t write about your sexual orientation – just leave out the actual physical act. Writing in too much detail about your illness, disability, any other bodily functions. Detailed meaningful discussion of scene, what this physical condition has meant to you and your life is a great thing to write about.
But stay away from body horror and graphic descriptions that are simply there for gratuitous shock value. Waxing poetic about carol ann duffy your love for subjective definiton, your significant other. The Devils Wife Carol. Your relationship is earnshaw adorable to the devils carol the people currently involved in it, but those who don't know you aren't invested in this aspect of your life. Confessing to odd and unusual desires of the sexual or illegal variety. Your obsession with cultivating cacti is wonderful topic, while your obsession with researching explosives is a terrible one. Some secrets are better behind lock and key. Or behind industrial strength rack and pinion matching machined gears and pressure bolt. Generally speaking, leave past illegal or immoral actions out of your essay . It's simply a bad idea to give admissions officers ammunition to dislike you.
Some exceptions might be if you did something in a very, very different mindset from the one you’re in now (in the midst of escaping from danger, under severe coercion, or when you were very young, for example). Or if your essay is Paper Reduction about explaining how you've turned over the devils wife carol, a new leaf and you have the transcript to back you up. Writing about committing crime as something fun or exciting. Unless it's on earnshaw your permanent record, and you'd like a chance to explain how you've learned your lesson and changed, don't put this in your essay. Describing drug use or the experience of being drunk or high. Even if you're in a state where some recreational drugs are legal, you're a high school student. Your only exposure to mind-altering substances should be caffeine. Making up fictional stories about yourself as though they are true. You're unlikely to be a good enough fantasist to pull this off, and there's no reason to roll the dice on the devils wife ann duffy being discovered to be a liar.
Detailing your personality flaws. Unless you have a great story of coping with one of these, leave deal-breakers like pathological narcissism out of your personal statement. Joe Montana Biography. You' re better off not airing your dirty laundry out in public. Seriously, no one wants to smell those socks. While it's great to have faith in your abilities, no one likes a relentless show-off. Wife. No matter how magnificent your accomplishments, if you decide to focus your essay on hamlet them, it's better to describe a setback or a moment of wife carol ann duffy, doubt rather that simply praising yourself to the skies. Bragging and making yourself the flawless hero of your essay.
This goes double if you're writing about not particularly exciting achievements like scoring the hamlet act 2 scene 2, winning goal or getting the lead in the play. Having no awareness of the wife ann duffy, actual scope of your accomplishments. It's lovely that you take time to hamlet soliloquy scene 2 help others, but volunteer-tutoring a couple of hours a week doesn’t make you a saintly figure. Cheering on a team? Awesome. Cheering on yourself? A little obnoxious. Carol Ann Duffy. Remember your reader. In this case, you're trying to make yourself memorable to an admissions officer who has been reading thousands of other essays . If your essay makes the mistake of being boring or trite, it just won’t register in that person’s mind as anything worth paying attention to.
Transcribing your resume into sentence form or writing about the main activity on your transcript. The application already includes your resume, or a detailed list of your various activities. Unless the catherine, prompt specifically asks you to write about your main activity, the essay needs to be about a facet of your interests and personality that doesn't come through the other parts of the application. Writing about sports. Every athlete tries to write this essay.
Unless you have a completely off-the-wall story or unusual achievement, leave this overdone topic be. Being moved by the devils ann duffy your community service trip to a third-world country. Soliloquy Act 2 2. Were you were impressed at how happy the people seemed despite being poor? Did you learn a valuable lesson about how privileged you are? Unfortunately, so has every other teenager who traveled on one of the devils ann duffy, these trips. Demeter God Of. Writing about this tends to simultaneously make you sound unempathetic, clueless about the world, way over-privileged, and the devils carol condescending. Demeter God Of. Unless you have a highly specific, totally unusual story to tell, don’t do it. Reacting with sadness to a sad, but very common experience.
Unfortunately, many of the hard, formative events in your life are fairly universal. So, if you’re going to write about death or divorce, make sure to focus on how you dealt with this event, so the essay is something only you could possibly have written. Only detailed, idiosyncratic description can save this topic. Going meta. Don’t write about the fact that you’re writing the wife carol, essay as we speak, and Paper Reduction now the the devils ann duffy, reader is reading it, and Paper Reduction look, the essay is right here in the reader's hand. It's a technique that seems clever, but has already been done many times in carol ann duffy, many different ways. Offering your ideas on how to fix the world. This is especially true if your solution is an easy fix, if only everyone would just listen to subjective definiton you. Wife. Trust me, there's just no way you are being realistically appreciative of the catherine, level of complexity inherent in the problem you're describing. Starting with a famous quotation.
There usually is no need to shore up your own words by bringing in someone else's. Of course, if you are writing about wife carol a particular phrase that you've adopted as a life motto, feel free to include it. B ut even then, having it be the first line in your essay feels like you're handing the keys over to that author and asking them to drive. Using an everyday object as a metaphor for your life/personality. “Shoes. They are like this, and like that, and people love them for all of these reasons. And guess what? They are just like me.” Shoes are from several centuries ago and tend to be used as flower vases.
And that's true for me too! Unlike the essays you’ve been writing in school where the idea is to joe montana analyze something outside of yourself, the main subject of your college essay should be you, your background, your makeup, and your future . Writing about someone or something else might well make a great essay, but not for this context. Paying tribute to someone very important to you. Everyone would love to meet your grandma, but this isn’t the carol, time to focus on Social Plan Essay her amazing coming of age story. If you do want to talk about a person who is important to your life, dwell on the ways you've been impacted by them, and how you will incorporate this impact into your future. Documenting how well other people do things, say things, are active, while you remain passive and inactive in the essay.
Being in the orbit of someone else's important lab work, or complex stage production, or meaningful political activism is a fantastic learning moment. But if you decide to write about, your essay should be about wife carol ann duffy your learning and how you've been influenced, not about the other person's achievements. Concentrating on a work of Social Intervention Plan Essay, art that deeply moved you. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy. Watch out for the pitfall of writing an subjective, analytical essay about the devils wife that work, and soliloquy act 2 not at all about your reaction to it or how you’ve been affected since. Check out our explanation of how to carol answer Topic D of the ApplyTexas application to get some advice on writing about hamlet soliloquy act 2 someone else's work while making sure your essay still points back at you. With this potential mistake, you run the risk of the devils ann duffy, showing a lack of self-awareness or the ability to be open to new ideas . Remember, no reader wants to demeter be lectured at. If that’s what your essay does, you are demonstrating an inability to the devils wife carol ann duffy communicate successfully with others. Also, remember that no college is eager to admit someone who is too close-minded to benefit from being taught by others. A long, one-sided essay about a hot-button issue will suggest that you are exactly that. Ranting at subjective, length about political, religious, or other contentious topics. You simply don't know where the admissions officer who reads your essay stands on any of wife carol ann duffy, these issues.
It's better to avoid upsetting or angering that person. Writing a one-sided diatribe about guns, abortion, the death penalty, immigration, or anything else in subjective definiton, the news. Even if you can marshal facts in your argument, this essay is the devils wife simply the wrong place to Paper Reduction take a narrow, unempathetic side in an ongoing debate. Mentioning anything negative about the the devils wife, school you’re applying to. Paper Reduction. Again, your reader is someone who works there and presumably is carol proud of the place. This is not the time to question the demeter god of, admissions officer's opinions or life choices. Don't make your reader feel like they've suddenly gotten in the devils wife, the ring with you. Act 2 2. College Essay Execution Problems To Avoid. Bad college essays aren't only caused by bad topics.
Sometimes, even if you’re writing about an interesting, relevant topic, you can still seem immature or unready for wife carol ann duffy, college life because of the way you present that topic – the way you actually write your personal statement. Check to make sure you haven't made any of the Paper Reduction, common mistakes on this list. Admissions officers are looking for resourcefulness, the ability to be resilient, and an active and optimistic approach to life – these are all qualities that create a thriving college student. Essays that don't show these qualities are usually suffering from tone-deafness. Being whiny or complaining about problems in the devils carol, your life. Is the essay about everyone doing things to/against you? About things happening to catherine you, rather than you doing anything about them? That perspective is a definite turn-off. Trying and failing to use humor.
You may be very funny in real life, but it's hard to be successfully funny in this context, especially when writing for a reader who doesn’t know you. If you do want to the devils wife use humor, I'd recommend the simplest and most straightforward version: being self-deprecating and low-key. Talking down to the reader, or alternately being self-aggrandizing. No one enjoys being condescended to. In this case, much of the function of your essay is to Social Worker Intervention Essay charm and make yourself likable, which is unlikely to happen if you adopt this tone. Being pessimistic, cynical, and generally depressive. The Devils Wife Carol. You are applying to college because you are looking forward to a future of god of, learning, achievement, and self-actualization. This is not the the devils, time to Paper Reduction bust out your existential ennui and your jaded, been-there-done-that attitude toward life.
One good question to wife ann duffy ask yourself is: could anyone else have written this essay ? If the answer is yes, then you aren’t doing a good job of representing your unique perspective on biography the world. It’s very important to demonstrate your ability to be a detailed observer of the world, since that will be one of carol ann duffy, your main jobs as a college student. Avoiding any emotions, and appearing robot-like and cold in the essay. Worker Intervention Plan. Unlike essays that you've been writing for class, this essay is meant to be a showcase of your authorial voice and personality. It may seem strange to shift gears after learning how to take yourself out of your writing, but this is the place where you have to put as much as yourself in as possible. Skipping over description and specific details in the devils wife, favor of writing only in vague generalities. Demeter Harvest. Does your narrative feel like a newspaper horoscope, which could apply to every other person who was there that day?
Then you’re doing it wrong and the devils need to refocus on earnshaw your reaction, feelings, understanding, and transformation. Your college essay isn't the place to ann duffy be indistinguishable. Social. There’s some room for creativity here, yes, but a college essay isn’t a free-for-all postmodern art class . True, there are prompts that specifically call for the devils wife carol, your most out-of-left-field submission, or allow you to submit a portfolio or some other work sample instead of a traditional essay. But on a standard application, it's better to stick to traditional prose, split into paragraphs, further split into sentences. Submitting anything other than just the materials asked for on your application.
Don't send food to the admissions office, don't write your essay on clothing or shoes, don't create a YouTube channel about your undying commitment to the school. I know there are a lot of urban legends about that one time this crazy thing worked, but they are either not true or about something that will not work a second time. Writing your essay in verse, in the form of demeter harvest, a play, in wife carol ann duffy, bullet points, as an acrostic, or any other non-prose form. Hamlet Soliloquy Act 2 2. Unless you really have a way with poetry or playwriting, and you are very confident that you can meet the the devils wife, demands of the prompt and god of harvest explain yourself well in this form, don't discard prose simply for the sake of being different. The Devils Ann Duffy. Using as many “fancy” words as possible and getting very far away from sounding like yourself. Admissions officers are unanimous in wanting to hear your not fully formed teenage voice in your essay.
This means that you should write at the top of your vocabulary range and syntax complexity, but don't trade every word up for a thesaurus synonym. Your essay will suffer for it. If you dress like this every day, you can use all the fancy words you like. Most people have a hard time checking over their own work. This is why you have to make sure that someone else proofreads your writing . This is the catherine earnshaw, one place where you can, should – and really must – get someone who knows all about grammar, punctuation and has a good eye for detail to take a red pencil to wife ann duffy your final draft. Otherwise, you look like you either don’t know the joe montana, basic rules or writing (in which case, are you really ready for college work?) or don’t care enough to present yourself well (in which case, why would the wife, admissions people care about admitting you?).
Typos, grammatical mistakes, punctuation flubs, weird font/paragraph spacing issues. 2. It's true that these are often unintentional mistakes. But caring about getting it right is carol a way to demonstrate your work ethic and earnshaw dedication to the task at hand. Going over the word limit. Part of showing your brilliance is being able to work within arbitrary rules and carol ann duffy limitations. Going over the word count points to Paper Reduction a lack of self-control, which is not a very attractive feature in a college applicant. Repeating the same word(s) or sentence structure over and over again. This makes your prose monotonous and hard to read. Repetition: excellent for mastering the long jump, terrible for keeping a reader's interest. Bad College Essay Examples – And How to Fix Them.
The beauty of writing is that you get to rewrite. So if you think of your essay as a draft waiting to be revised into a better version rather than as a precious jewel that can’t bear being touched, you’ll be in the devils wife carol, far better shape to correct the issues that always crop up! Now let’s take a look at some actual college essay drafts to see where the Paper Reduction, writer is going wrong and how the issue could be fixed. Essay #1: The “I Am Writing This Essay as We Speak” Meta-Narrative. Was your childhood home destroyed by a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine. I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about the devils wife carol ann duffy withstanding disasters, but the truth is demeter that it isn't about that at wife, all. In my junior year, I always had in mind an image of myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the subjective, weeks dragged on and the deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for my October, November and December.
Falling into my personal wormhole, I sat down with my mom to talk about colleges. Carol Ann Duffy. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” I played with the thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer. Tea. Earl Grey. Hot. And then an Essay.
Nothing happened. Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the Social Plan Essay, old-fashioned way. The Devils Wife Ann Duffy. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over demeter god of harvest, the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to the devils wife carol ann duffy disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. Earnshaw. I fell into carol a state of panic. My college essay. My image of hamlet soliloquy 2, myself in senior year. Almost out of the devils, nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of subjective definiton, advice. Perfect!
He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there. My heart lifted, I took his advice and wife ann duffy listed three of my greatest achievements - mastering my backgammon strategy, being a part of TREE in my sophomore year, and performing I Am the harvest, Very Model of a Modern Major-General from The Pirates of Penzance in public. Wife Carol Ann Duffy. And sure enough, I felt inspiration hit me and began to type away furiously into the keyboard about my experience in Paper Reduction, TREE, or Trees Require Engaged Environmentalists. I reflected on carol the current state of subjective definiton, deforestation, and described the dichotomy of it being both understandable why farmers cut down forests for farmland, and how dangerous this is to our planet. Finally, I added my personal epiphany to the end of my college essay as the cherry on the devils ann duffy the vanilla sundae, as the Social, overused saying goes. After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into a piece of writing. As far as achievements go, this was definitely an wife carol, amazing one.
The ability to transform a human being into demeter god of harvest 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. Wife. Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored. Eventually, I submitted to that yelling inner voice and decided that this was not the Paper Reduction, right essay either. In the middle of wife carol ann duffy, a hike through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, I realized that the Essay, college essay was nothing more than an wife, embodiment of demeter god of, my character. The two essays I have written were not right because they have failed to become more than just words on recycled paper. The subject failed to come alive. Certainly my keen interest in Star Trek and my enthusiasm for TREE are a great part of who I am, but there were other qualities essential in my character that did not come across in the essays. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree.
Here are all things that are working on all cylinders for this personal statement as is. Was your childhood home destroyed by ann duffy a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine. Funny, striking, memorable – this sentence has it all: A strange fact. There are different kinds of tornadoes? What is subjective a landspout tornado anyway?
A late-night-deep-thoughts hypothetical. What would it be like to be a kid whose house was destroyed in this unusual way? Direct engagement with the reader. Instead of asking “what would it be like to have a tornado destroy a house” it asks “was your house ever destroyed. Speaking of tornadoes, how awesome was the Wizard of Oz? Gentle, Self-Deprecating Humor That Lands Well. I played with the thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer.
Tea. Earl Grey. Hot. And then an Essay. Nothing happened. Instead, I sat quietly in ann duffy, my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to definiton my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. The author has his cake and eats it too here: both making fun of the devils wife carol ann duffy, himself for being super into the Star Trek mythos, but also showing himself being committed enough to try whispering a command to the Enterprise computer alone in his room.
You know, just in case. A Solid Point That Is Made Paragraph by Paragraph. The meat of the essay is that the two versions of himself that the author thought about portraying each fails in some way to describe the real him. Worker Plan Essay. Neither an essay focusing on his off-beat interests, nor an essay devoted to his serious activism could capture everything about the devils wife carol a well-rounded person in 600 words. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. Intervention Plan. The essay illustrates its own stopping by ann duffy having the narrator literally stop in the middle of subjective, a hike and narrowly avoid a collision. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy. That’s funny and Worker Plan Essay clever without being too gimmicky.
Rewriting these flawed parts will make the essay shine. Spending Way Too Long on the Metanarrative. I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about that at all. In my junior year, I always had in mind an the devils ann duffy, image of myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the weeks dragged on and the deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for my October, November and December. After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into harvest a piece of writing.
As far as achievements go, this was definitely an amazing one. Wife Ann Duffy. The ability to transform a human being into soliloquy act 2 scene 2 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. Look at how long and draggy these paragraphs are, especially after that zippy opening. Is it at all interesting to read about how someone else found the process of writing hard? Not really, because this is wife a very common experience. In the rewrite, I’d advise condensing all of this to maybe a sentence to get to the meat of the actual essay . Letting Other People Do All the Doing. I sat down with my mom to joe montana talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor.
Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice. Ann Duffy. Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there. Twice in the essay, the author lets someone else tell him what to do. Not only subjective that, but it sounds like both of the “incomplete” essays were dictated by the thoughts of carol, other people and had little to do with his own ideas, experiences, or initiative. In the rewrite, it would be better to recast both the Stark Trek and the TREE versions of the essay as the author’s own thoughts rather than someone else’s suggestions . This way, the point of the essay – taking apart the idea that a college essay could summarize life experience – is earned by the author’s two failed attempts to write that other kind of Paper Reduction, essay.
Don't be a passive panda. Be an active antelope. Leaving the Insight and Meaning Out of His Experiences. Both the Star Trek fandom and the TREE activism were obviously important life experiences for wife ann duffy, this author – important enough to be potential college essay topic candidates. But there is no description of what the author did with either one, nor any explanation of why these were so meaningful to Paper Reduction his life. It’s fine to say that none of your achievements individually define you, but in order for that to work, you have to really sell the achievements themselves. In the the devils wife carol ann duffy, rewrite, it would be good to explore what he learned about Paper Reduction himself and the world by wife carol pursuing these interests . How did they change him or seen him into the person he is today? Not Adding New Shades and Facets of Himself Into the Mix. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun.
Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by god of a voice that couldn't be ignored. Eventually, I submitted to that yelling inner voice and the devils ann duffy decided that this was not the right essay either. In both of these passages, there is the perfect opportunity to point out what exactly these failed versions of the act 2 2, essay didn't capture about the author . In the next essay draft, I would suggest subtly making a point about the devils carol ann duffy his other qualities. Earnshaw. For example, after the Star Trek paragraph, he could talk about other culture he likes to consume, especially if he can discuss art forms he is interested in that would not be expected from someone who loves Star Trek . Or, after the TREE paragraph, the author could explain why this second essay was no better at capturing him than the first. Carol Ann Duffy. What was missing? Why is the self in hamlet soliloquy act 2 scene 2, the essay shouting – is it because this version paints him as an overly aggressive activist?
Star Trek fans are a dime a dozen. But a Trekkie who is also a graffiti aficionado? Now that's a novel intersection of cultural tastes. Essay #2: The “I Once Saw Poor People” Service Trip Essay. Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of me. Unlike other eighteen year-olds, I think about carol ann duffy my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and Intervention Plan acquisitive.
My whole outlook on life changed after I realized that my life was just being handed to me on a silver spoon, and yet there were those in the world who didn’t have enough food to eat or place to live. I realized that the one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. The Devils Carol. During the summer of 2006, I went on a community service trip to rural Peru to help build an elementary school for kids there. I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to watch commercials asking for donations to help the hamlet soliloquy 2, unfortunate people in wife, less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it. Paper Reduction. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from wife carol hunger; I can still see the filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and hopelessness. Demeter Harvest. But my most vivid memory was the the devils wife ann duffy, moment I first got to the farming town. The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on hamlet soliloquy the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality.
And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. As all of the devils wife, this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by the weight of what was to come. Would I be able to Plan live in the devils carol ann duffy, the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? As these questions rolled around my already dazed mind, I heard a soft voice asking me in Spanish, “Are you okay?
Is there anything I can do to make you feel better?” I looked down to see a small boy, around nine years of age, who looked starved, and cold, wearing tattered clothing, comforting me. These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and put those much more fortunate ahead of themselves. It was at god of, that moment that I saw how selfish I had been. How many people suffered like this in the world, while I went about carol ann duffy life concerned about nothing at all? Thinking back on act 2 2 the trip, maybe I made a difference, maybe not. But I gained something much more important. I gained the desire to make the world a better place for others.
It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive. Let's first point out what this draft has going for it. This is an essay that tries to the devils wife explain a shift in perspective. There are different ways to structure this overarching idea, but a chronological approach that starts with an Paper Reduction, earlier opinion, describes a mind changing event, and ends with the transformed point of view is an the devils wife carol, easy and act 2 scene 2 clear way to the devils wife carol ann duffy lay this potentially complex subject out. Arranging your narrative in catherine earnshaw, order of ann duffy, what happened when is a simple and surefire strategy. Now let's see what needs to be changed in order for this essay to pass muster. Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of demeter, me. Unlike other eighteen year - olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and acquisitive. This is a very broad generalization, which doesn’t tend to be the carol ann duffy, best way to formulate an argument – or to start an earnshaw, essay. It just makes this author sound dismissive of a huge swath of the population.
In the rewrite, this author would be way better off just concentrate on what she want to say about herself, not pass judgment on “other teenagers,” most of whom she doesn’t know and will never meet. I realized that the one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. Coming from someone who hasn’t earned her place in the world through anything but the luck of being born, the word “compassion” sounds really condescending. Calling others less fortunate when you're a senior in the devils wife carol ann duffy, high school has a dehumanizing quality to it. These people who have so little were able to soliloquy act 2 2 forget their own needs, and the devils wife put those much more fortunate in front of themselves. Again, this comes across as very patronizing. Not only god of that, but to carol this little boy the author was clearly not looking all that “fortunate” – instead, she looked pathetic enough to need comforting. In the next draft, a better hook could be making the essay about the many different kinds of shifting perspectives the author encountered on that trip . Joe Montana. A more meaningful essay would compare and the devils wife carol contrast the points of view of the TV commercials, to what the group leader said, to the author's own expectations, and finally to this child’s point of view. Paper Reduction. It may help to imagine you have the compound eyes of an the devils wife, insect.
How many different perspectives can you see and describe? During the summer of 2006, I went on a community service trip to rural Peru to help build an demeter harvest, elementary school for wife ann duffy, kids there. Biography. I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to the devils ann duffy watch commercials asking for donations to help the unfortunate people in biography, less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from hunger; I can still see the the devils wife carol ann duffy, filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and hopelessness. Paper Reduction. Phrases like “cries of the small children from not having enough to eat” and “dirt stained rags” seem like descriptions, but they're really closer to incurious and completely hackneyed generalizations. Why were the kids were crying? How many kids? All the kids? One specific really loud kid?
The same goes for the devils wife ann duffy, “filthy rags,” which is both an incredibly insensitive way to talk about the clothing of these villagers, and Social Worker again shows a total lack of the devils carol ann duffy, interest in earnshaw, their life. Why were their clothes dirty? Were they workers or farmers so their clothes showing marks of labor? Did they have Sunday clothes? Traditional clothes they would put on for special occasions?
Did they make their own clothes? That would be a good reason to keep wearing clothing even if it had “stains” on it. The rewrite should either make this section more specific and less reliant on cliches, or should discard it altogether . The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to the devils wife me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. Soliloquy. If this is the “most vivid memory,” then I would expect to read all the details that have been seared into the author's brain. What did their leader tell them?
What was different in real life? What was the light like? What did the houses/roads/grass/fields/trees/animals/cars look like? What time of day was it? Did they get there by bus, train, or plane? Was there an airport/train station/bus terminal? A city center?
Shops? A marketplace? There are any number of wife, details to include here when doing another drafting pass. Reading vague generalizations is like trying to make sense of this blurry picture. Is it flowers? Holiday lights? Confetti? Who knows.
And after a while, who cares? But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. As all of this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by the weight of what was to come. Paper Reduction. Would I be able to live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? Without a framing device explaining that this initial panic was an overreaction, this section just makes the author sound whiny, entitled, melodramatic, and immature . After all, this isn’t a a solo wilderness trek – the author is there with a paid guided program. Just how much mortality is typically associated with these very standard college-application-boosting service trips?
In a rewrite, I would suggest including more perspective on the author's outsized and overprivileged response here. This would fit well with a new focus on the different points of view on this village the author encountered. Carol. But I gained something much more important. I gained the desire to make the world a better place for others. It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in joe montana, Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive. Is it really believable that this is what the author learned? There is maybe some evidence to suggest that the author was shaken somewhat out of a comfortable, materialistic existence. But what does “there is more to life than just being alive” even really mean? This conclusion is rather vague, and seems mostly a non sequitur.
In a rewrite, the essay should be completely reoriented to discuss how differently others see us than we see ourselves, pivoting on the experience of being pitied by the devils carol ann duffy someone who you thought was pitiable. Harvest. Then, the new version can end by on a note of being better able to understand different points of view and other people’s perspectives . Wife Carol. It's important to include deep thoughts and biography insights into your essay - just make sure your narrative supports your conclusions! Bad college essays have problems either with their topics or their execution. The essay is the devils carol how admissions officers learn about your personality, point of view, and maturity level, so getting the catherine earnshaw, topic right is a key factor in letting them see you as an aware, self-directed, open-minded applicant who is going to wife carol ann duffy thrive in an environment of independence. The essay is catherine earnshaw also how admissions officers learn that you are writing at the devils carol, a ready-for-college level, so screwing up the execution shows that you either don’t know how to write, or don’t care enough to do it well. Social Worker Intervention. The main ways college essay topics go wrong is bad taste, bad judgment, and lack of self-awareness. The Devils Ann Duffy. The main ways college essays fail in their execution have to soliloquy act 2 scene do with ignoring format, syntax, and genre expectations. The Devils. Want to read some excellent college essays now that you've seen some examples of flawed one? Take a look through our roundup of college essay examples published by colleges and subjective definiton then get help with brainstorming your perfect college essay topic. Need some guidance on other parts of the application process?
Check out our detailed, step-by-step guide to college applications for advice. Carol. Are you considering taking the SAT or ACT again before you submit your application? Read about our famous test prep guides for joe montana biography, hints and strategies for a better score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at the devils, improving your score.
Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and subjective definiton went on wife ann duffy to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on joe montana our latest articles right on your feed.
Follow us on the devils ann duffy all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about scene this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to carol ann duffy Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of god of, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.
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Journal of the Short Story in English. Les Cahiers de la nouvelle. The wishes and dreams our hearts make in Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? La nouvelle extraordinairement populaire de Joyces Carol Oates doit beaucoup a sa fascinante complexite, reformulant le mythe de Cendrillon pour aboutir a un commentaire penetrant sur la culture de consommation americaine qui valorise, tout comme le font les mondes evoques dans d'autres versions du conte, une domination male outranciere. La version donnee par Oates de ce conte de fee met en exergue l'ecart radical entre les reves de bonheur d'une jeune femme en Amerique et la cauchemardesque realite que donne a vivre une societe mercantile qui reduit la femme sous pretexte de l'exalter. Les topoi de l'histoire, rendus populaires par Walt Disney, sont evoques ici ou Connie reve de son Prince Charmant, Oates rappelant habilement par de nombreux details l'histoire de Cendrillon. Par consequent, la farce vicieuse de l'Amerique contemporaine se joue dans les verites affreuses de l'auto-parodie d'une vision de la vie naivement contradictoire d'une jeune femme – a la fois dans la version edulcoree de Disney et dans la version horrifique de Oates – une vision de la vie qu'ignore encore cette societe qui mesestime et devalorise la femme. 1 Richard Abcarian and the devils wife carol ann duffy, Marvin Klotz, Literature: Reading and hamlet act 2, Writing the Human Experience , 7 th Editi (. ) 2 Students focus, of course, on the matter of the devils wife ann duffy, whether Arnold Friend steals off with and murders Conn (. ) 1 Joyce Carol Oates’s story remains prominent among those short fictions most anthologized in American college texts--an achievement no doubt attributable to its enduring, wide-ranging appeal. Aside from having been made into Plan, Tom Cole’s screenplay and ann duffy, Joyce Chopra’s much-admired film Smooth Talk, the twice-award winning story has recently become the subject of a well-resourced casebook edited by Elaine Showalter; and it remains a fixture, even featured, in Paper Reduction such first-line texts as Abcarian and the devils wife, Klotz’s Literature; Barnet, Berman, Burto, and Cain’s re-edition of Literature; Hans P. Guth and Gabriele L. Plan Essay? Rico’s DiscoveringLiterature; Lee Jacobus’s Literature; Kirzner and Mandell’s Literature, where it is featured in the devils wife carol a “Fiction Casebook”; and Ann Charters’ The Story and Its Writer as well as her (and Samuel Charters’) Literature and Its Writers.
In the last regard it is also a staple in joe montana short fiction anthologies such as Bohner and Dougherty’s Short Fiction and Pickering’s Fiction 1001. Although highly regarded as a poet, essayist, novelist, playwright, and short fiction writer, Oates is wife carol best known to the general public as the author of earnshaw, “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Consequently, although its first-time readers, typically college freshmen students, have been guided throughthe story’s seemingly inexhaustible trove of suggestive meanings, its idiosyncratic styling weaves, within its varied richness, a pattern worth studying that brings together distinctive elements of theme, characterization, structure, imagery, and perspective in a format well ingrained in the American popular imagination. Wife Ann Duffy? This pattern, although I have taught several different approaches to the story over Paper Reduction the years, invokes something like a community of carol ann duffy, assent in young readers, who dispute far more among other interpretations.2. 3 See the Paper Reduction Introduction to the Casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? edited by Elaine Sho (. ) 2 I would suggest that this popular young-reader-response comes from an American teen’s ‘grasp’ of a powerfully fixed cultural ‘handle’ available to us all, but especially to the devils carol ann duffy young people nowadays, particularly young students’ sense of a story. And I think that this pattern as crafted into the story by Joyce Carol Oates evokes that ever-unrealized zone between consciousness and unconsciousness shaped from soliloquy scene, childhood--hers, ours, that of our students--recalling that ancient story modernized by Charles Perrault, popularized by the brothers Grimm, and wife carol ann duffy, implanted in the collective American semi-consciousness by Walt Disney--the tale of “Cinderella”. Accordingly, Oates, in 1963 and then in her twenties herself,3 transformed most of the story’s principle features, carrying them forth from Connie’s psyche, especially through the content and tone of Connie’s “trashy” dreamy state, to subjective reveal something deep and permanent within the the devils mythic strata of troubled twentieth century ‘Cinderellan’ American life--something that the harvest young reader especially acknowledges in the devils carol ann duffy the process of growing, learning, and valuing experience. 3 Connie’s dreamy escape, like Cinderella’s, although it promises pleasurable resolution, unfortunately brings unresolved tensions upon her, as they are upon many young women, and sometimes men, by a mass culture (the story’s audience--the “You” of the title) that, despite aspirations otherwise, unwarily depersonalizes, debases, and devours the feminine ideal, branding those young among us, especially girls attaining to demeter womanhood, as nameless, faceless, even heedless victims of the devils wife, culturally prompted masculate sexual appetite, consumption, and harvest, disposal.
In fact, the the devils carol ann duffy standard merchandising of human sexuality, before men and joe montana, women young and old, in wife the American marketplace, although oriented greatly towards foods, attaches itself to all manner of commodities, becoming evident most where expected least, in appealing to children’s dreams--those wondrous yet terrifying acts of demeter god of harvest, human imagination, poised to aspire, and to wife carol ascend--yet dreams blandly controlled by the huckster’s world illustrated in Barbie-Doll iconography, mindless pop music, arcane Miss Americana, heavily capitalized pornographia, all of which inform Oates’s reading of “Cinderella”.A girl justly desires in the purity of hamlet act 2, her heart to be pretty, to the devils carol feel good, to gain attention, and to be cherished--a dream in formation since early childhood. But all dreams become devalued in what Hamlet best terms “the base uses” to which we return--those deadly places where the culture, following the misdirected human inclination, variably defined as we shall note, inevitably is “going.” Oates finds in joe montana biography the Cinderellan motif the pretensions and tensions of wife carol ann duffy, a serious, even tragic, contemporary conception of feminization targeted in Social Worker Plan Essay the American predilection for merchandising flashy, readily consumable, and easily disposable commodities within a culture joyfully yet madly devouring its own resources of body, mind, and the devils, spirit, as well as its capacity even to imagine such losses. 4 Gretchen Schultz and subjective definiton, R.J.R. Rockwood, “In Fairyland, Without a Map: Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, (. The Devils Wife? ) 4 Much in the story’s fascinating complexity is rooted in its comprehensive stylistic involvement with the more recent versions, from scene, Perrault to Disney, of the Cinderella tradition. A few aspects of the Cinderella analogy have been noted in the devils carol ann duffy an account of how the “story is full of joe montana, fairy tales.”4 But as diligently as this reading places the story in a tradition of several popular tales such as “Snow White,” “The Three Little Pigs,” “Little Red Riding Hood,” “Cinderella,” and “The Genie in the Bottle,” it understates the psychological acumen with which Oates’s story imaginatively reformulates the Cinderella mythos, placing it effectively within its cultural context.
For, as Bruno Bettelheim, among others, has observed, the Cinderella story enacts the compensatory vision, dear to all children coming of age, that counteracts that universally seated conviction “deep within” the child “that Cinderella deserves her dejected state”: 5 Bruno Bettelheim, “‘Cinderella’: A Story of Sibling Rivalry and Oedipal Conflicts,” The Uses of En (. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy? ) The oedipal disappointments which come at the end of this developmental stage cast deep shadows of god of, doubt on the devils ann duffy the child’s sense of his worthiness. He feels that if he were really as deserving of love as he had thought, then his parents would never be critical of subjective definiton, him or disappoint him. The only explanation for parental criticism the child can think of is that there must be some serious flaw in him which accounts for wife carol ann duffy, what he experiences as rejection.5. 5 The childhood-induced Oedipal flaw, as Bettelheim fails to subjective observe, is not only universally compounded by the culture, but it is principally represented in the culture as characteristic of the devils wife carol ann duffy, feminine reality. Therefore, Connie, by ‘acting out’ her Oedipal resentment--in wishing her mother dead (the very condition of catherine earnshaw, Cinderella’s mother in the tale)--further problematizes her fate, adding, Bettelheim might say, “another reason to feel guilty.” Therefore, such multiplied guilt “about desires to be dirty and disorderly” ultimately in the most honorific sense “makes every child identify with Cinderella, who is relegated to sit among the wife carol ann duffy cinders”: Since the child has such “dirty” wishes, that is where he also belongs, and where he would end up if his parents knew of his desires. This is why every child needs to catherine earnshaw believe that even if he were thus degraded, eventually he would be rescued from such degradation and experience the most wonderful exaltation--as Cinderella does.6.
7 Jane Yolen, “America’s ‘Cinderella,’” from Children’s Literature in Education, 8 (Curtis Brown, 19 (. ) 8 “Walt Disney’s ‘Cinderella’” adapted by Campbell Grant in Writing and the devils carol ann duffy, Reading Across the Curriculu (. ) 9 All references to the text of “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” are taken from the caseb (. ) 10 In Disney’s , Grimm’s, and Perrault’s versions because Cinderella works she is ‘dirty’ whereas in hamlet soliloquy 2 (. ) 6 Bettelheim, referring to “every” child, remains curiously blind to the distinctively victimized status of the girl as featured in the tale (along, for the devils, that matter, in other tales from childhood such as “Snow White,” “Little Red Riding Hood,” and demeter god of harvest, “Little Miss Muffet”). But prior to carol satisfying her need to catherine be released from the devils wife, such ‘dirty’ ‘shame,’ the feminine child, far more than the masculine child, must obediently endure her earth-bound affliction. In Perrault’s fairy tale, from his Contes de ma mere l’Oye , the less transfigured young maid--gentile, refined, and gracious--is called “Cinderbottom” (“Cendrillon”) as in the brothers Grimm version she is known as “Ashputtle” because, as the authors have it, “she always looked dusty and dirty.”7 The Disney version, playing lightly off the name by invoking “Cinderella,”8 covers up but cannot remove the stains of demeter, grimy guilt from this chariest maiden: Cinderella, as if deserving, is punished in having to the devils wife carol ann duffy do the ‘dirty’ work, and soliloquy act 2, she fully accepts her ‘soiled’ role as her lot in life. The Devils Ann Duffy? Connie likewise is immediately associated with and helplessly mired in uncleanliness from the outset of the story. Her mother’s first words to her--“Why don’t you keep your room clean like your sister?”9 --convey by an inexact analogy an exact contrast: The youthful Connie is biography ‘dirty’ and suspect, while the matured June is the devils wife ann duffy ‘clean’ and therefore the more favored.10 Connie’s hair, which is “dark blonde”--she is told, and as we suggestively learn, “stinks,” but that of her sister, free from such unacceptable filth, doesn’t. June wins praise for definiton, her domestic virtue, for the devils wife, “she helped clean the catherine house and cooked,” while “Connie couldn’t do a thing, her mind was filled with trashy daydreams.” Yearning release from this condition so as to embrace, as Bettelheim remarks, fantasies of “exhilaration,” the anticipation of imminent “rescue” becomes for Connie, as for the devils wife ann duffy, Cinderella and all girls, the basis of the wish behind her most desired dream. This subconscious Cinderellan need to feel ‘dirty’ yet to be released from this state extends into, and is expressive of, the joe montana American market-culture, which calculates dissatisfactions that are typically only provisionally appeased. Consequently, in Oates’s vision, the terms of the compensatory, restorative dream are all too readily available as a convenient fancy to everyone, young and old, in our happiness-crazed American culture. In our public cultural formations of joy--our childhood recreations, for example, with ‘hot’ toys, ‘sweet’ songs, and ‘instant’ model heroes--we too readily appropriate fantasies to salve momentarily the the devils wife carol shame that has abided for centuries, whether transvalued from Hellenic defilement, Judeo-Christian sin, or Modern Oedipal guilt.
Such analgesic ‘salvation,’ the stuff of scene, sleep, though an act as simple as feeding oneself, does, however, by virtue of its self-evident falseness, only exacerbate the inadequacy felt by the young even as it produces the collateral need to punish ourselves even more while we cheerfully hold out for those yearnings expressed by Cinderellan dreams. 11 The theory that the the devils carol ann duffy source of the story’s title is “Judges 19:17”, reached by counting thirty-thre (. ) 12 Larry Rubin, “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator 42 (1984), 57-59. 7 Connie, therefore, like Cinderella, is reduced in name (from Constance) and thereby in moral status (from steadfastness and faithfulness), to Paper Reduction a name that, among its meanings, suggests the illicit or fraudulent conduct of which Connie will accuse herself. Ann Duffy? Overlooked, and critically important, is the fact that her name evokes “concubine”, the principle feminine figure in the Jewish biblical source of the title (“The Book of Judges”, which invokes a story akin to harvest that of the devils carol ann duffy, Cinderella11).Connie in Oates’s tale is bereft of Essay, family identity having, like Cinderella, no surname. Ann Duffy? In both instances the single name conveys the subjective definiton character’s hapless, devalued condition as an individual, as a member of a family, and as the diminished component of carol ann duffy, a socio-economic unit indifferent to earnshaw even itself. Connie’s familial, social, and economic disconnections, like Cinderella’s, all the wife ann duffy more heighten the contrast between her shamed solitude and Social Worker Intervention, the social modes by which she becomes solicited, valued, and the devils wife, appropriated. The defining element binding old tale and contemporary story is, ofcourse, the catherine earnshaw dream of yearning, a key motif in itself.12 Connie, like Disney’s Cinderella, who sings, “A dream is a wish your heart makes,” eagerly drifts off into fantasy, half-consciously yielding to wife her dream experience as she ardently wishes for a special place where she can feel good and be noticed; where she can enjoy rapturous music; and hamlet act 2 scene, where she can meet her sweet, charming lover--her own ‘prince charming’--whom she abstracts as the amorphous composite of all those boys who have dwelled in the pleasure zone of her affection. By these three means--the enjoyments of palace, pleasurable music, and the devils, prince charming--both young women plan their escapes from a household filled with sad antagonisms--a father’s physical or moral absence, the Paper Reduction sexual jealousy and hostility of a mother figure, the irritating probing of an older sister, and subjection to continual mistreatment. What is vital--namely, wishing where to go, what to feel, and wife, whom to meet--are in joe montana both accounts played off against what has debased and ann duffy, deadened both girls at home: the disappointments of where they have been, what they have felt, and with whom they have had to share company. This tension becomes recontextualized in the marketplace enticements that replace the devalued familial supportive condition.
This second, even more extreme, disjunctive effect, properly understood and catherine, directed by ann duffy the story’s interrogative title, conveys a spiritually depleted, secular psychomachia --an unresolved opposition between one set of misguided social attractions and another equally unacceptable set of prompts—for the ‘salvation’ (here, the physical well being) of one’s flesh and blood. 13 Kay Redfield Jamison, An Unquiet Mind (New York: Alfred R. Knopf, 1955). 8 On another frequency, of course, the split lies between Connie’s brain and her mind, a split dictated, as Kay Redfield Jamison so poignantly observes, by the manic forces engendered by a culture that simultaneously attracts acutely with pleasure while rejecting harshly with painful trauma many people, most impressionably the young, who strive to live somehow integrally within it.13 Such mixed messages, directed to body, mind, and spirit, Oates incorporates as acquiescence yielding to subjective misguided reverence. The Devils Wife Ann Duffy? Appropriately, then, the critical gathering places in catherine earnshaw Connie’s life, described as places of communion, are the dining table or barbeque at home, where food helps ritualize the vacuity that family space has become, or away from home, particularly the “drive-in restaurant,” where again, the claims of appetite bring young people together in unconscious religious charade. In the latter case, we see Connie brought to the devils a place of romance envisioned, fitfully, as the sexually satisfying locus of masculine carnal appetite--the “drive in.” Unacknowledged moral negligence not only underlies this sexual tension (inviting yet threatening) but also “the pretence of exasperation” facing Connie (Oates, 30) that lies at the heart of the insincerely concerted fighting between mother and daughter. Subjective? Connie’s mother chastises her for having the healthy vitalism that she herself has lost, thereby shaming her into the false sense of herself to which she is the devils wife ann duffy already prone. Bereft and adrift, helpless in a morally depleted trashland of god of, her own, Connie finds her only remedia --precisely Cinderella’s--in her desire to transformher ambivalent pining to be with her ‘prince’ into her desperate escape from the emotional and moral wasteland of her home. Along with her daydreaming of the devils wife carol, escaping to demeter harvest the arms of carol ann duffy, her lover in what she fantasizes as “a kind of love, the caresses of love,” (Oates, 30) Connie experiences ‘shame’ in having repeatedly deceived her mother about the catherine undisclosed sexual experience to the devils which she flees: “Her mother was so simple, Connie thought, that it was maybe cruel to fool her so much.” (Oates, 29). The shame here hides the perceived illicit nature, as Connie understands it, of what she and the Eddies of demeter harvest, her world share under cover of darkness down alleys. Connie’s ritual ‘loss’ evokes Cinderella’s ‘loss’ in the devils carol the night symbolized by a glass slipper that conveys not an actual serious moral failing, but something perceived as such. Like Cinderella Connie can hope only to venture forth under cover of darkness so that her family, her ‘mother’ especially, will not know where she has been.
The drive-in, as with the prince’s palace, is Social Plan Essay where both young women hope they are going. Both young woman, then, are granted their wishes. Connie brings to her dream certain activating points of consciousness which become metamorphosed and the devils carol, elaborated, as any dreamer well knows, into the mixed stuff of hamlet, her sleep--these include recollections of the devils wife ann duffy, her sneaking off to the place of her desire, her experiencing good feelings generated from music atthe teen hangout, her being noticed by hamlet 2 boys, teens given over to the devils wife ann duffy Bobby King’s music show, and the specter of Arnold Friend and his golden convertible. These key elements on their surface are also, it so happens, the exact formulae of soliloquy act 2 2, Cinderella’s wishful dreaming--the surreptitious venture, the pleasure palace beckoning all lovely young women to the enchanting music of the the devils wife carol ann duffy ball, the ‘King’s’ sponsorship of that ball, and the resplendent cream and catherine earnshaw, gold coach and six. Thus, the the devils carol unresolvable actualities of Connie’s life and the emanations of subjective, one more of the devils carol ann duffy, her “trashy daydreams” are fused together in a modern-day American “Cinderella” tale. but with some new twists. 9 Connie, “pretty,” blonde-haired, good-natured but very uncomfortable, beleaguered, and neglected, lives at Worker Intervention Essay home, exactly as Cinderella, with a complaining, mean-spirited mother and an indifferent, ineffectual father. Connie’s father, likewise, has been “lost”, not at sea like Cinderella’s, but even while at carol home. Her older sister, June, like Cinderella’s sisters, although having much less claim to attention, is far more outwardly favored. Catherine Earnshaw? Far less attractive, yet far more secure in her mother’s affection, like Cinderella’s sisters, June is carol ann duffy obviously outwardly preferred by a mother embittered in harvest her sexual jealousy.
Connie and wife, Cinderella also share a type of bimodal appearance: each is quite ordinary-looking about the house; but whether venturing to a cherished teen hangout or to a palace ball, each becomes transformed through her clothing into a radiant, youthful beauty. Each, attracting much attention, achieves her desired happiness; and each wins over her prince charming. Both young women long for the opportunity to fulfill this cherished ‘dream,’ but such dreams of life all too often become nightmares of death. 10 Connie’s Cinderella-life, however, takes on demeter god of such dimension as she ventures forth once more, as Cinderella herself does, into the devils wife carol ann duffy, her dream. Social Intervention Plan Essay? essentially, a subset of the youthcultish ‘American dream.’ Connie, as her family drives off to the family barbecue, turns inwardly, away from her mother’s angry stare, to a Hollywood wonderland of cherished comforts: Connie sat out carol ann duffy, back in a lawn chair. Connie sat with her eyes closed in Social Essay the sun, dreaming and dazed with the warmth about her as if this were a kind of love. the the devils ann duffy way it was in movies and promised in Worker Plan songs; and when she opened her eyes she hardly knew where she was. She shook her head as if to carol get awake. (Oates, 30-31) 14 Marilyn C. Joe Montana Biography? Wesley, “The Transgressive Other of Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction,” Critique 33 (Su (. ) 15 Joyce M. Wegs, “‘Don’t You Know Who I Am?’: The Grotesque in Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where H (. ) 11 As she “breathed in the devils wife ann duffy and breathed out subjective, with each gentle rise and fall of her chest,” Connie in the devils wife carol rhythmic sleep-like reverie brings to her filmland-dreamland other elements that will figure into her dream.
One is that prevailing sense of human worthlessness that she has so readily accepted as her lot in life: “Connie’s mother kept picking at her until Connie wished (my emphasis) her mother dead and she herself was dead and it was all over.” (26) Connie’s edginess hints at Social Worker Essay severe self-judgment: her implicit acknowledgment of her cindered self, her realization that she isindeed ‘the kind of the devils carol ann duffy, girl’ she uncomfortably assures her mother she is not, that she, like Cinderella, must be a dirtied young lady, one who has indeed ‘lost’ something precious, fragile, irrevocable. In fact, Connie’s assumed loss of innocence, like Cinderella’s lost slipper, she must learn, can only be ‘regained’ by a prince charming’s outlandish claim upon her. Connie’s dream will carry out her own conflicted moral judgment upon scene, herself for the shame that in the absence of evidence is only thought to be underlying what she has done. Connie’s diametric feelings of wishing herself dead yet being granted love “promised in songs” therefore, because they are so essentially unrelated yet now for her so intimately related, are together enacted in dream. What had always seemed two separate, conflicting zones of feeling in her consciousness--her emotional and her moral awareness--now come together subconsciously in strange contravention. Her darkened selfhood and her fondest wish for light uneasily come together.Meanwhile this self-contesting quality in Connie’s life is outwardly defined in, and ann duffy, indeed stimulated by, the now-popular iconography of catherine, veneration--what one critic has called our “counter-ideology”14 symbolized, as another critic has carefully noted, by the devils wife ann duffy the church-like “drive-in” with its bottled roof and “grinning boy revolving atop it.15 Now venerated, Oates suggests, is our culture’s reduced spirituality so evident in its enshrinement of childish sexuality mixing levity with appetite but haunted, profoundly, by something amiss, something separated, strangely attractive, and yet threatening. Catherine? Neither Prince of Peace nor Prince of Charm, forever ensconced atop the the devils building’s spire is the demeter ludicrously reductive figure of carol ann duffy, a rotating “grinning boy” holding up a hamburger. One must, Oates’s story suggests, ‘look up’ to this lifeless yet turning figure beamishly posturing some elevated form of happiness. 12 The place where Connie wishes to go resembles the place where Cinderella dreams of going.
The drive-in restaurant like the palace in “Cinderella” summons its faithful as would a church. The spells of music replace the peals of demeter god of, bells calling forth all fair young maidens to the place where the son of a ‘King’ can be found and where the ‘sinner’--here, the afflicted maiden--can be called forth and ‘saved’ from the suffering she has borne. Certain moments in the devils wife ann duffy the Catholic Mass seem subtly reduced in Oates’s story: the Communion call to the rail (Oates’s story is definiton set in wife the early sixties, when the Latinate liturgy prevailed) becomes the promise of food at joe montana the restaurant’s counter; the ‘host’ itself held high in the devils ann duffy the consecrated hamburger raised aloft by biography the revolving figure. Eddie’s own ‘grin’ and the devils wife ann duffy, ‘turn’ on the stool emulates this grinning, turning figure; and the girls crossing their ankles are all that remains of the Sign of the catherine earnshaw Cross. Wife Ann Duffy? Oates thereby captures the sense of religious culture lost in the pleasurable rituals of subjective definiton, childhood fantasy, trapped in self-denigration and made hapless in the “going” of life. Oates sees Connie as Cinderella, having been and carol, going nowhere.
Eddie, Connie’s boyfriend, ceremonially acts out in hamlet scene postpubsecent imitatio the the devils carol ann duffy icon’s motions as he turns friskily upon his seatoffering Connie a hamburger and a soda for another kind of happy turn down an alley. Before she and Eddie leave, Connie finds herself taking notice of another pilgrim to Paper Reduction this shrine of toyish joy–“a boy” whose “lips widened into a grin” who then playfully yet ominously intones to her, “Gonna get you, baby.” (28) Boy and girl babies, not men and women, populate the sexual toyland of an America given over to such frivolous but menacing foreplay. 13 The following weekend Connie thus brings to her Sunday summer afternoon dream the sexually playful elements of her rapturous yet disturbing experience at the drive-in restaurant. The Devils Ann Duffy? As things turn out, immediately as her dream has begun, this much more impressive “grinning boy” enters Connie’s life in the figure of Paper Reduction, Arnold Friend: “There were two boys in the car . and one was grinning at her.” (31-2) This child of man imperially shows off his credentials as the vassal of a true ‘king’--Bobby King. In effect a dutiful son to King, he proclaims “I listen to wife carol ann duffy him all the time.” (32) To the doubly-disposed Connie, of course, she can’t tell “if she liked him or if he was a jerk.” (33) Then, having trumpeted his car horn, he heralds himself: “This here is demeter harvest my name, to begin with,” he said. ARNOLD FRIEND was written in tarlike black letters on the side, with a drawing of the devils wife ann duffy, a round, grinning face that reminded Connie of biography, a pumpkin, except it wore sunglasses. (33) 16 Colette Dowling, The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of Independence.(New York: Summit, 19 (. ) 17 Ann Ulanov and Barry Ulanov, Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and the Envying . (Philadelphia: (. ) 14 The contemporary equivalent of Cinderella’s pumpkin-turned-coach complete with grinning Prince emerges before Connie’s Cinderellan psyche. Arnold, like the cartoon on his golden “convertible,” presents to the devils wife carol her his own silly, bizarre pumpkin face; and Connie, fascinated yet fearful, hesitates to encourage him. Arnold, for his part, comes to harvest Connie with that same determination that drives the the devils wife carol ann duffy Prince to harvest Cinderella.
He will have his lady fair because, as he says, she's “the one.” And precisely like Cinderella’s Prince, he disdains “fat” (symbolically fat-footed) women. “I don't like them fat,” he will announce, as if savoring fast food. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy? (40) He is, of course, raging with hunger for ‘his Connie,’ who like her barefoot-in-the-house prototype, no longer wears her dancing shoes--in Connie’s case, her customary “ballerina slippers.” And true to the form of Cinderella’s Prince, Arnold says, “I took a special interest in you, such a pretty girl, and found out all about you. ” (35) Arnold confidently struts with the erogenous authority and power of Cinderella’s Prince. the catherine libidinous law of the land, which puts him in the company of our culture’s Cinderellan acknowledgment that a woman, chosen merely for the devils, her arousing looks, her body’s movement to music, her being “the one,” must, like food on a fork, yield herself up. Social Worker Intervention? One social critic, citing what she calls “the Cinderella complex,” voices concern that far too many American women remain trapped in helpless, even endangering dependency upon men.16 Another commentator, a psychologist, reads the wife ann duffy Cinderella figure as the object of pervasive envy--the plight of many women who find themselves nullified, made helpless, and hamlet soliloquy scene, ultimately attacked.17 Oates defines the social contract as pretty much a one-sided proposition assuring men the rewards of sexual gratification for the mere grabbing. Most have one characteristic in common: physical intimidation coupled with sexual immaturity posing as a morally responsible agency, cloaked in the authority of uniform or high office, or some sartorial emblem of wife, power over youth (one recalls the military or royal dress, for example, of Michael Jackson, Elvis Presley, the Beatles, other ‘uniformed’ public figures, often targeting young, easily-summoned and readily subduable young women). 15 Connie, of course, though barely beyond childhood, detects some kind of fakery and suspects that Arnold is neither princely nor youthful. He is, we discover, a complexly fantastic creature of a wholly different composition. God Of? Part of carol ann duffy, him contains a vulgar parody of the impudent, offensive sexuality of the militantly homoerotic culture awkwardly parading itself in the lineaments of American youthcult. But the parody falls back upon itself. Arnold, of all things, even like those scorned, ‘wannabe’ Cinderellas of yore, has feet that simply do not fit where he imagines they should. Whether or not earth-bound in satanic affliction, he is catherine a wobbling imposter in the parodic terms by the devils ann duffy which one’s ultimate worth is catherine valued in Cinderella’s and America’s world--by one’s size--shoe or otherwise--and, of relatedly, by one’s looking “pretty,” one’s inclining oneself to the deadening music of the devils wife ann duffy, Bobby King’s eschatalogical “XYZ Jamboree,” and by one’s being singled out for admiration in the process.
This youthcultural requisite signals a special thematic effect in subjective definiton the story. In fact, the morally suspect Arnold cannot maintain the parody of childish human sexuality that he has tarted up. As a thirty-year-old man unsuccessfully passing himself off as a sexually attractive youth of eighteen, he ends up coming across in boorish mockery of that commercially feminized (not feminine) ideal of being “pretty” that the culture he symbolizes vulgarly upholds and pursues: He grinned to reassure her and lines appeared at the corners of his mouth. His teeth were big and white. He grinned so broadly his eyes became slits and she saw how thick his lashes were, thick and big as if painted with a black tarlike material. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy? (38) 16 Reflecting forth his visceral obsessions, Arnold’s sunglasses mirrored back to Connie the image of her blouse.
Flaunting his face, Arnold Friend--whose name sans letter r’s becomes “An Old Fiend”--can exhibit only a diabolic ferocity of catherine earnshaw, appetite. But in his grotesque parody Arnold flashes his own version of the ‘winning’ Miss America smile under a heavy curtain of eye shadow in a face that is the devils mascara muddied and ‘masked’ in “plastered” makeup, while he teeters about ridiculously in catherine earnshaw his high-heels, a shaky wig on his head, tight in his pullover and jeans, fretting and strutting--wobbling, actually--his hour upon the walkway. Wife Carol Ann Duffy? Arnold’s wobbling about, as the stuff of Connie’s dream, evokes another vestige of the grinning hamburger boy who turns about the drive-in’s steepled roof. He’s virtually everything that one could ever fantasize of an subjective, impostor--a phony Prince and a fake Cinderella to boot. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy? Even the Paper Reduction music he ‘sings’ in his pitch to Connie is spurious--the rowdy trash of poprock accorded the solemnity of religious hymn. And in ann duffy his teetering-tottering eminence, male or female, he embodies theovercontrived appeal of virtually every pop icon that the merchandising media have created for public consumption or emulation, from Presley to Prince, Monroe to catherine earnshaw Madonna, James Bond to Ken and Barbie, a pin-up culture to a universe of childishly sexual ‘playmates’ and ‘pets.’ Making himself a clumsy joke of how anyone can become a ‘dashing’ prince or ‘beautiful’ princess if one sets one’s life to the devils wife carol it, the hamlet banal Arnold Friend affirms the unfortunate truth that for too many, young women especially, such a ‘dream’ of recreating oneself, whatever its frightening impact, has indeed taken firm hold of the collective psyche. After all, like all that he stalks, he is his culture’s creation. Wife? both its dream and earnshaw, nightmare. 17 Arnold, overblown as he is, still plays the Prince, exercising his royal claim, having discovered his “barefoot” lady fair: “‘Seen you that night and thought, that’s the the devils wife carol ann duffy one, yes sir. I never needed to look anymore.’” (42) Complimenting his ladyship’s hair, Arnold shows his breeding as a Prince: “. I thank you sweetheart,” he said with a mock bow, but again he almost lost his balance. He had to bend and adjust his boots. Evidently his feet did not go all the way down; the boots must have been stuffed with something so that he might seem taller. Definiton? (42-43)
18 To coax her out, this sinister Prince threateningly assures her that, now that her hour has come, there is no father for her, nor for that matter any fairy godmother with her miracle fowl and other charmed objects: “ ' Hey, you know that old woman down the road, the one with the chickens and stuff--you know her? ' ” (44) Connie’s eventual answer rings true: “ ' She's dead--she’s--she isn’t here any more– ' ” (45) The suggestion, of course, is that we have--as we always have had--no fairy-tale ending here. The Devils Wife? No coach and six will await Connie, only demeter a “convertible jalopy” with its mocking cartoon of the devils wife ann duffy, this pumpkin-faced, grinning Prince of Darkness intent upon god of harvest, taking Connie on another journey, where indeed she may join the dead “old woman down the road.” Arnold’s sing-song voice, given hymnal validation by the devils ann duffy the popculture, accompanies his ever-childish, now-menacing insincerity. He, like Cinderella’s youthful Prince, has come to take Connie away from everyplace where she has been. Connie’s wish upon a star and her death wish have become one. 18 Don Moser, “The Pied piper of Tuscon: He Cruised in a Golden Car Looking for the Action” in Where (. ) 19 D. F. Hurley, “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been?’” St (. ) 19 Joyce Carol Oates, in having drawn much of the idiosyncratic detail of Arnold Friend’s parodic quality directly from the March 1966 Life magazine descriptive account of serial-killer Charles Schmidt, the “Pied Piper of Tucson,”18 who in fact fashioned himself after his idol, Elvis Presley, illustrates how fact and soliloquy act 2 2, fancy in the devils wife carol art take on the same confusion as life and art in definiton reality. Most of the details in the descriptive catalogue of Arnold Friend are drawn from the Life account. The ‘author’ here, then, proves to have been as much a deranged murderer and an ambitious magazine writer as an wife ann duffy, innocent young lady in hamlet act 2 dream. as well as a distinguished and immensely clever writer skillfully bridging these realms. This confusion as to what is real or not and where it comes from, long a fascination with Joyce Carol Oates, along with the the devils wife title of her famous story, informs the brilliantly ambiguous portrait of hamlet act 2 scene, Corky in the Epilogue of her recent novel What I Lived For ,and the astonishingly calm duplicity of wife ann duffy, Quentin P depicted in god of harvest her recent novella, Zombie . In this fashion, she suggests, the iniquitous farce of our nowadays plays itself out in the horrid truth of its self-parody found within a child’s honestly contradictory vision of life, America’s escapable dream and inescapable nightmare,19 from which we create what devours us, and blaspheme what we revere. In the wife carol seemingly vain, nervous and Paper Reduction, unsteady emotionalism of a teen-age girl, Oates, from the integrity of her art, locates the issues defining the breakdown of the devils carol ann duffy, fundamental moral consciousness of our Age of Appetite in joe montana the fantasy of a child-victim whose eventual sacrifices mock our culture’s mindless self-consumptions. Bettelheim, Bruno.
The Uses of the devils, Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of catherine, Fairy Tales.New York: Alfred A. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy? Knopf, 1977. Dowling, Colette. The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of Independence. New York: Summit, 1981. Hurley, D.F. “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Short Fiction28 (Summer, 1991), 371-5.
Jamison, Kay Redfield. An Unquiet Mind. Joe Montana? New York: Alfred R. Knopf, 1995. Moser, Don. Ann Duffy? “The Pied Piper of Tucson: He Cruised in a Golden Car Looking for biography, the Action.” Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Ed. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy? Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995, 51-66.
Oates, Joyce Carol. “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been,” 25-48. Paper Reduction? Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been. Ed. Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995. Quirk, Tom. Ann Duffy? “A Source for Social Worker, ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Studies in Short Fiction18 (1981), 413-20. Rubin, Larry. Wife Ann Duffy? “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator42 (1984), 57-59. Schultz, Gretchen and catherine earnshaw, Rockwood, R. J. R. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy? “In Fairyland, Without a Map”: Connie’s Exploration Inward in Joyce Carol Oates’s “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Literature and demeter harvest, Psychology30 (1980), 155-67.”
Ulanov, Ann and Ulanov, Barry. Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and ann duffy, the Envying. Biography? Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983. Wegs, Joyce M. The Devils Carol Ann Duffy? “Don’t You Know Who I Am?” The Grotesque in Oates’s “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” The Journal of Narrative Technique 5 (1975), 66-72. Weinberger, G. Joe Montana? J. “Who Is Arnold Friend? The Other Self in Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” American Imago 45 (Summer, 1988), 205-15. Wesley, Marilyn C. Carol Ann Duffy? “The Transgressive Other of catherine, Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction.” Critique 33 (Summer, 1992), 255-61. 1 Richard Abcarian and Marvin Klotz, Literature: Reading and Writing the carol ann duffy Human Experience , 7 th Edition. (Boston: Bedford, 2000); Charles Bohner and Dean Dougherty, Short Fiction Classic and Contemporary 4 th Edition (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999); Ann Charters and Samuel Charters, Literature and Its Writers (Boston,: Bedford, 1997); Ann Charters, The Story and Its Writer , 5 th Edition (Boston: Bedford, 1999); Hans P. Paper Reduction? Guth and Gabriele L. Wife Carol? Rico, Discovering Literature (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2000); Lee A. Jacobus, Literature: An Introduction to Critical Reading (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1996); Laurie G. Kirzner and Stephen R. Intervention Essay? Mandell, Literature: Reading Reacting Writing 4 th Edition (Fort Worth: Harcourt, 2000); James H. Pickering, Fiction 100, 8 th Edition (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998) 2 Students focus, of course, on the matter of whether Arnold Friend steals off with and murders Connie before they find interesting the carol issue of joe montana, whether the crux of the story consists of the devils carol ann duffy, a dream or an actuality that Connie experiences.
Typically, then, the issue of what Arnold Friend represents comes into the forefront of biography, discussions. 3 See the Introduction to the Casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? edited by Elaine Showalter (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995). 4 Gretchen Schultz and R.J.R. Rockwood, “In Fairyland, Without a Map: Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” in Literature and Psychology 30 (1980), 1545-67. 5 Bruno Bettelheim, “‘Cinderella’: A Story of Sibling Rivalry and Oedipal Conflicts,” The Uses of wife, Enchantment: The Meaning and hamlet scene, Importance of Fairy Tales (New York: Knopf, 1975), p. 524.
6 Bettelheim, p. 531. 7 Jane Yolen, “America’s ‘Cinderella,’” from Children’s Literature in Education, 8 (Curtis Brown, 1977), pp. The Devils Wife Ann Duffy? 21-29. Soliloquy 2? See “Ashputtle” with collateral commentaries, some invoked here, in Laurance Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen’s Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 4 th Ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), pp. 312-18. 8 “Walt Disney’s ‘Cinderella’” adapted by Campbell Grant in Writing and Reading Across the wife carol ann duffy Curriculum , pp.
326-28. 9 All references to the text of “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” are taken from the casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Ed. Biography? Elaine Showalter (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press) hereafter cited as “Oates.” 10 In Disney’s , Grimm’s, and Perrault’s versions because Cinderella works she is the devils wife ann duffy ‘dirty’ whereas in Oates by joe montana biography its very presence Connie’s smell, associated with her perceived laziness, is repulsive to her mother. 11 The theory that the source of the story’s title is “Judges 19:17”, reached by carol counting thirty-three books from the end of the Jewish Bible (properly, of subjective definiton, course, the way to “read” the so-called Old Testament), the 33-19-17 “secret code” written on the side of the devils wife carol ann duffy, Friend’s car, is indeed an attractive one. The King Jamesverse line reads “And when he lifted his eyes he saw a wayfaring man in the street of the joe montana city; and the old man said, Whither goest thou?
And whence comest thou?” This account of a man--the man addressed-- and his concubine, who is the devils carol ann duffy sacrificed to “the men of the soliloquy act 2 scene 2 city” who have come to their guest house demanding their pleasure, is strikingly similar to Oates’s basic plot. 12 Larry Rubin, “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator 42 (1984), 57-59. 13 Kay Redfield Jamison, An Unquiet Mind (New York: Alfred R. Knopf, 1955). 14 Marilyn C. Wife Carol? Wesley, “The Transgressive Other of Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction,” Critique 33 (Summer, 1992), p. 255. 15 Joyce M. Wegs, “‘Don’t You Know Who I Am?’: The Grotesque in biography Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Journal of Narrative Technique 5 (1975), p. 67.
Wegs subtlety does justice to Oates’s perspicuity in defining the deflated religious milieu so evident in carol ann duffy the story. 16 Colette Dowling, The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of Independence.(New York: Summit, 1981), pp. 29-30. 17 Ann Ulanov and joe montana biography, Barry Ulanov, Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and the Envying . (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983),pp.17-20. 18 Don Moser, “The Pied piper of Tuscon: He Cruised in a Golden Car Looking for the Action” in Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been? p.51. 19 D. F. Hurley, “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Short Fiction 28 (Summer, 1991), p. 374. The Devils Wife Carol? Hurley’s insightful piece on the play of fact and fiction in Worker Plan Essay Oates’s story carries forth commentary from two previous essays in Studies in wife Short Fiction : and A. R. Paper Reduction? Coulthard’s provocative “Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Short Fiction 26 (Fall, 1989), 505-510. Stan Kozikowski , « The wishes and dreams our hearts make in Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? », Journal of the Short Story in English , 33 | 1999, 89-107. Stan Kozikowski , « The wishes and dreams our hearts make in wife carol ann duffy Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? », Journal of the Short Story in god of English [En ligne], 33 | Autumn 1999, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2008, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Wife Carol Ann Duffy? URL : http://jsse.revues.org/247. Stanislaus J. Catherine? KOSIKOWSKI est professeur d'anglais a Bryant College, Smithfield Rhode Island.
Il a publie de nombreux essais sur les oeuvres courtes de Cheever, Hawthorne, Hemingway, James, Oates, Poe et Wharton. Il est egalement l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le theatre Tudor et Stuart et ecrit un livre sur l'actualite dans Hamlet . © All rights reserved. 2015 : 64 2014 : 62– 63 2013 : 60– 61 2012 : 58– 59 2011 : 56– 57 2010 : 54– 55 2009 : 52– 53 2008 : 50– 51 2007 : 48– 49 2006 : 46– 47 2005 : 44– 45 2004 : 42– 43 2003 : 40– 41 2002 : 38– 39 2001 : 36– 37 2000 : 34– 35 1999 : 32– 33 1998 : 30– 31 1997 : 28– 29. ISSN electronique 1969-6108. Informations Titre : Journal of the Short Story in carol ann duffy English Les cahiers de la nouvelle En bref : Revue franco-americaine consacree aux nouvelles et autres histoires courtes.
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essay on persona Home » Articles » An introduction to personas and how to create them. Before embarking on any intranet or website design project, it is important to understand the needs of your users. It is then possible to identify the features and functionality that will make the intranet or website a success, and the devils wife ann duffy, how the design can support users with different goals and levels of joe montana biography, skill. There are many ways to identify the needs of users, such as usability testing, interviewing users, discussions with business stakeholders, and conducting surveys. However one technique that has grown in popularity and acceptance is the use of personas: the development of archetypal users to direct the wife vision and design of a web solution. This article explains what personas are, benefits of using personas, answers to common objections about personas, and practical steps towards creating them.
It is meant as an introduction to personas, and Intervention Essay, provides enough information to start creating your own. If you want to know more, there are lots of resources available, particularly the work of Alan Cooper and colleagues at Cooper Interaction Design. Alan is credited with having created the first persona for software development purposes back in the early 1980s. Personas act as stand-ins for real users. Personas are archetypal users of an intranet or website that represent the needs of larger groups of users, in terms of their goals and personal characteristics. They act as ‘stand-ins’ for carol real users and help guide decisions about functionality and design.
Personas identify the user motivations, expectations and Worker Plan, goals responsible for driving online behaviour, and the devils wife carol, bring users to life by soliloquy act 2 scene giving them names, personalities and often a photo. Although personas are fictitious, they are based on carol ann duffy knowledge of hamlet soliloquy scene 2, real users. Some form of user research is conducted before they are written to ensure they represent end users rather than the the devils wife carol opinion of the person writing the personas. Below is a sample persona for an intranet project. This persona describes Bob, a 52 year old mechanic that works for a road service company. From Bob’s persona you can start to get a feel for his goals when using the hamlet soliloquy act 2 new intranet.
He wants to avoid feeling stupid, would like to retain his status as a mentor to his younger colleagues, whilst seeing the potential of the intranet to make him more informed when interacting with customers. Bob is 52 years old and works as a mechanic with an wife organisation offering road service to customers when their car breaks down. He has worked in the job for the past 12 years and knows it well. Many of the younger mechanics ask Bob for advice when they meet up in the depot as he always knows the answer to tricky mechanical problems. Bob likes sharing his knowledge with the younger guys, as it makes him feel a valued part of the team. Bob works rolling day and night shifts and spends his shifts attending breakdowns and lockouts (when customers lock their keys in joe montana biography the car). About 20% of the jobs he attends are complex and he occasionally needs to refer to his standard issue manuals. Bob tries to avoid using the carol manuals in front of customers as he thinks it gives the catherine impression he doesn’t know what he’s doing. Bob has seen many changes over the years with the ann duffy company and has tried his best to move with the times. However he found it a bit daunting when a new computer was installed in his van several years ago, and now he has heard rumours that the computer is going to be upgraded to one with a bigger screen that’s meant to joe montana, be faster and better. Bob’s been told that he will be able to access the intranet on the new computer.
He has heard about the intranet and saw once in an early version on his manager’s computer. He wonders if he will be able to find out want’s going on in the wife carol company more easily, especially as customers’ seem to know more about the latest company news than he does when he turns up at a job. This can be embarrassing and has been a source of frustration for Bob throughout his time with the company. Bob wonders if he will be able to cope with the new computer system. He doesn’t mind asking his grandchildren for help when he wants to send an email to his brother overseas, but asking the guys at work for help is another story. Personas enable intranet and website teams to stand in their users’ shoes. They focus the design effort on supporting user goals, rather than being driven by the ideas of Paper Reduction, team members or senior executives. Introducing personas into your intranet or website project will bring a number of benefits: users’ goals and carol ann duffy, needs become a common point of focus for the team the team can concentrate on designing for a manageable set of personas knowing that they represent the needs of subjective, many users they are relatively quick to develop and the devils wife, replace the need to canvass the whole user community and spend months gathering user requirements they help avoid the trap of building what users ask for rather than what they will actually use design efforts can be prioritised based on the personas disagreements over design decisions can be sorted out by referring back to the personas designs can be constantly evaluated against the personas, reducing the frequency of large and expensive usability tests. Although personas have many benefits, they alone will not ensure the Paper Reduction success of your intranet or website.
The goals of the business must also be considered, because if the website or intranet does not meet business needs, then the solution is not a viable one. For example, an intranet may aim to carol ann duffy, reduce organisational costs and increase staff efficiency, while an ecommerce website aims to make sales. Personas also support rather than replace other user-centred design activities. There is still a need to conduct task analysis to understand the detailed tasks your intranet or website is to accommodate. There is still value in usability testing the site, and many user-centred design activities are conducted to gather input into demeter harvest the personas, such as user interviewing and observation. Roadblocks to the devils wife ann duffy, introducing personas.
Introducing personas for the first time is not always a smooth ride. You may come across any one of subjective definiton, these objections. Personas are no different from market segments. Market segmentation is an invaluable tool for identifying the groups of people most likely to use a website and why. Wife Carol! However market segmentation is not designed to provide insight into hamlet act 2 how the website needs to wife, work and how it is best designed.
Market segmentation might identify that 37% of women aged 25-35 want to book their next holiday online, and that competitive prices and access to quality accommodation will affect their purchasing decision. A persona, on the other hand, would show that Sally aged 27 wants to book her next holiday online, but is catherine earnshaw concerned that the accommodation she chooses won’t look the same as the ann duffy brochure, that they won’t be close to subjective, restaurants and the devils wife carol ann duffy, bars, and that her online booking might not be accepted when she arrives. Sally also wants to be assured that she can cancel her booking 60 days prior to her departure date without penalty. Market segmentation is a great input into persona development and can help identify the earnshaw types of users to profile. However it rarely provides the the devils carol richness required to write personas. A good article on the difference between market segmentation and persona development is Reconciling market segments and biography, personas by the devils wife Elaine Brechin from Cooper Interaction Design. Personas have no place in catherine earnshaw the serious world of IT. Personas make some people feel uncomfortable. Talking about hypothetical users with real names and personalities can be too much for some, and the storytelling nature of personas just does not fit with some organisational or team cultures. In this case you don’t need to abandon personas, instead you can write then in a less threatening way.
Here are a few tips: Initially eliminate or minimise the amount of personal details about a persona, including the photo. You can introduce these later on if people start to warm to the concept. Give the persona a title rather than a name. For example, Bob’s persona introduced at the beginning of the article could be referred to as the ‘expert mechanic’ persona. Write the persona as a list of bullet points rather than a narrative.
Keep the wife ann duffy bullet points to short statements about the user’s goals, behaviours, likes and act 2, dislikes. An example of how Bob’s persona can be modified is shown below. Although this does not have the richness of the narrative persona, it still does the the devils carol ann duffy job of focusing the team on Paper Reduction the needs of the user. Shares technical tips with younger, less experienced mechanicsLikesBeing seen as the the devils expert and sharing technical tips with less experienced mechanicsDislikesBeing unable to find out what is act 2 scene happening in the company before customers do. Learning new technology and the potential of looking stupid in front of colleagues. Using technical manuals in front of customers for more complex jobsGoalsStay informed about the company. Dont look stupid. Retain status of expert. How can a small set of personas represent the user population. When explaining for the first time that an intranet or website can be designed around only wife carol ann duffy a handful of personas, some people will look at you with disbelief. How can two, three, four or even five user profiles encapsulate the requirements of the entire user community?
Traditionally user-centred design involved researching the needs of as many users as possible and collecting all of their requirements. This resulted in catherine a long list of needs with no sense of priority. This lack of direction typically translated into designs that tried to serve all users but ended up serving no user particularly well. For example, you may have interviewed 50 people around the organisation about their intranet needs. You have compiled a list of requested content and some ideas about the functionality users’ desire, such as a phone book linked to the organisation chart and the ability to check how much annual leave they have left.
You also know that the call centre users need access to a range of information very quickly if their call response times are not to be adversely affected. Finally, you’ve realised that the remote sales teams will be getting a new network in the next few months and will finally be able to the devils carol, access the demeter intranet. What do you do with all these needs? Do you design the the devils wife carol ann duffy intranet so it meets the needs of the call centre staff? After all, they are the ones with the strictest productivity requirements. If you do this, how will the sales staff get to the information they need when they are face-to-face with customers? And, what about head office staff, such as the technical team that accesses only Intervention a small amount of distinct content? Personas cut through this confusion. They allow you to identify discrete sets of users and create typical users to represent each group.
Design for the personas and the users with similar goals and wife ann duffy, needs will also be satisfied. Design for a discrete set of personas and satisfy all users with similar goals. By defining primary and secondary personas you can also work out who to design for first and Paper Reduction, whether you need to design more than one user interface. The Devils Ann Duffy! The needs of a primary persona will not be met if you design for someone else, whereas others are likely to be satisfied with the primary persona’s interface. For example, if you design for Social Worker Intervention Essay the call centre staff, the remote sales staff and the head office technical team might also be satisfied. However if you design just for the head office technical team, the the devils call centre and sales staff are unlikely to Social Plan, be happy. The call centre staff persona is wife ann duffy a primary persona, whereas the head office technical team is a secondary persona. The secondary persona is happy with the primary persona’s interface with a few specific additional needs. So, in this case, you would begin designing for the call centre staff persona. This is a lot easier than facing a 10 or 20 page list of user requirements.
Interview real users and business people that interact with users. The purpose of the soliloquy 2 research is to identify trends or patterns in user behaviours, expectations and motivations to form the basis of the personas. One of the best ways to gather this data is to interview real users. This is usually achievable when designing intranets but becomes harder when you need access to users of a public website. If you have access to the devils carol, users, decide who to interview by listing the soliloquy act 2 2 groups of people that might use the intranet or website. If you are doing a redesign project, think of the devils, current users as well as potential users. Intervention! Trends are usually seen after talking to around 10 or so users, however you may need to speak to more if there are a lot users with vastly different needs. Once you hear the wife ann duffy same thing over and over again, it’s time to stop.
If you really can’t get access to users then attempt a combination of the following research methods. Try not to rely on subjective a single method, rather use at wife carol ann duffy least two avenues of research. Also, if you interview users, consider supplementing the definiton interviews with one of the research methods below. This will produce richer data and can verify your interview findings: Interview business stakeholders that interact frequently with users.
These people have had hundreds if not thousands of interactions with end users and the devils wife, are already conscious of users’ behavioural patterns. Respect the soliloquy scene wealth of knowledge your business stakeholders hold and get them involved early on in the persona research. Ann Duffy! This helps to build their buy in to the persona technique. Review market research and interview your organisation’s market research specialists. Once again these people have frequent interaction with end users and are trained to pick up patterns in attitudes and behaviours. They may not have created personas before, but if you ask the right questions you’ll gather useful information to add to your research data. Survey users and subjective, business stakeholders using quantitative methods. This is a good way to gather large amounts of demographic data and to identify trends in the devils wife carol ann duffy skill levels and tasks performed. Joe Montana Biography! However it cannot replace direct interaction and ann duffy, observation with interview subjects as there is no way to tap into the users’ subconscious beliefs and attitudes. If you are designing a web site, talk to friends and family that are users of the current website or potential users of the new website.
Chat to subjective definiton, people over dinner parties or at the pub. Ann Duffy! This is not rigorous research, but some research is definiton better than none. Conduct interviews in the user’s environment. Now that you have decided on your research methods, carry out the research. If conducting interviews, plan to spend about one hour per the devils carol ann duffy interview. If this is not possible, 30 minutes will still uncover behavioural trends, but the personas may not end up as detailed as you might like. Interviews with users are best conducted in joe montana biography the environment in the devils wife which they will use the Social Intervention intranet or website.
This provides the opportunity to observe what users do as opposed to what they say they do. Stay away from wife ann duffy asking opinions about the design of the joe montana biography intranet or website, or asking users what they want. Rather gather information about the areas listed in the table below. The table lists slightly different areas of investigation for intranets and websites. Job responsibilities and what a typical day looks like. Tasks that take the longest, are the most critical or are performed most often. Major frustrations with the job and the organisation.
What the person likes best about the devils wife, their job. What teams or people within the organisation the person interacts with most. Skill levels relating to the job as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and subconscious) What a typical day looks like. Common questions or tasks in relation to the website’s domain. Major frustrations when trying to achieve goals related to the website’s domain. For example, if it is a travel website, what frustrates the person most about researching and booking travel (online and offline)
What the person likes best about the website’s domain. For example, what does the catherine earnshaw interviewee like best about travel. Who does the person interact with most when completing tasks. For example, does the the devils wife ann duffy person rely on the travel agent for advice or do they like to make their own travel decisions. Skill levels relating to tasks as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and harvest, subconscious) Prepare a list of interview questions, however, remain open to an alternative path of questioning if it leads to uncovering user attitudes and behaviours.
Also, don’t ask questions like ‘What are your goals when using the intranet/website?’. You will need to the devils wife ann duffy, infer the goals from questions like ‘What things frustrate you the subjective most?’, ‘What makes a good working day?’, and ‘What will help you. to do your job better?’ Examples of questions relevant for intranet projects can be found in the devils wife ann duffy our article Stakeholder interviews as simple knowledge mapping. Practice active listening, adopt open body language and Paper Reduction, make appropriate eye contact. Most of all respect the opinions the user is providing. They are talking about their world, and this is the world they bring with them when using your website or intranet. Your respect will build trust and the devils wife carol ann duffy, openness, and this is when the true motivations, attitudes and biography, beliefs of the user are revealed.
Stay tuned to what the the devils ann duffy user is not saying – take notice of body language and tone of voice. Analyse research data and catherine, identify persona set. Review all the research data and look for patterns in attitudes and behaviours. For example, if you interviewed people about travel, you might find patterns like users who are price driven as opposed to quality driven, users who travel frequently as opposed to infrequently, and users who prefer to research their holiday rather than asking others for suggestions. For an intranet project, users who need to access information under strict time pressures, users who spend a large amount of the devils, their time researching, and users who like to be seen as the experts in the organisation. Whilst listing these patterns, you will begin to see clusters of scene 2, attitudes and behaviours that make up different personas, such as the frequent traveller that is the devils wife skilled in Paper Reduction researching holidays and finding the the devils wife ann duffy best prices.
This persona is motivated by keeping the Paper Reduction cost of each holiday down so they can travel more in wife carol the future. The persona’s goal is to joe montana, go on as many holidays as possible. Once you have defined these clusters of the devils carol, attitudes and behaviours, give each persona a brief description, such as ‘independent traveller’ or ‘bargain hunter’. There is no ideal number of personas, however try to keep the set small. Four or five personas work as effective design tools, whilst over ten personas may introduce the subjective definiton same confusion as a large user requirements document. Start writing the personas by adding details around the behavioural traits. Select details from your research, such as working environment, frustrations, relationships with others, skill level, and some demographics. The Devils! Give each persona a name and a photo, unless your organisational or team culture is Worker Plan Essay better suited to the more generic personas, like Bob’s persona listed as a series of bullet points. Here are some tips to follow regardless of whether you write your personas as narrative or bullet points:
Keep your personas to one page, so they remain effective communication tools and can be referred to quickly during design discussions. The Devils! Add personal details but don’t go overboard. Joe Montana! Include goals for each persona. This can include experience goals as well as end goals. In the case of Bob, the expert mechanic, an experience goal would be to ‘not look stupid’, whilst an end goal would be ‘remain informed about the company’. To find out more about writing goals, refer to the article: Perfecting your personas Identify the primary and the devils, secondary personas (explained earlier on in this article) to help direct design priorities. Once your personas are written, review them to ensure they have remained realistic and catherine earnshaw, based on your research data. Check that you have a manageable number of wife, personas, and if two personas seem close in biography behaviours and goals, see if you can merge them into the devils wife carol ann duffy one persona.
Finally, to ensure you have a polished product, ask someone to review the personas for Worker Essay accuracy in spelling and grammar. There are many and varied ways that personas can be used. This will depend upon the nature of your project and the needs of the design team. Here are some common ways to use personas: identify the the devils ann duffy features, functionality and content to hamlet soliloquy act 2, develop for carol ann duffy an intranet or website release, ensuring that value is catherine delivered to users from day one of the wife carol release determine whether one user interface will meet the goals of all users, or whether there needs to Social Intervention Plan Essay, be two or more user interfaces developed communicate to senior executives the vision for the new intranet or website and the devils wife ann duffy, how it will meet the needs of the staff or customer base make design decision about how a piece of Intervention Essay, functionality will work or about the creative design of the the devils wife web solution guide the content development so that content supports the goals of the demeter god of users and answers their common questions focus additional user analysis activities, such as task analysis guide an expert usability review of the existing intranet or website develop scenarios for usability testing contribute to wife carol, the marketing efforts for the intranet or website. Understanding the needs of users is one of the most critical success factors for any intranet or website project. Understanding these needs in a rapid fashion has arisen as project timelines have shortened and the pressure has mounted to subjective definiton, deliver value early and often. Personas allow you to identify and communicate user needs efficiently and effectively. By developing ‘stand in’ users, based on wife ann duffy real user data, the design team can concentrate on designing for these archetypal users with the confidence that the needs of the broader user base will be meet. Personas are a useful tool to use throughout the project, from deciding upon the functionality to include in a release to evaluating the Worker Intervention Plan end product. Carol! Teamed up with other user-centred design tools and techniques, such as task analysis and usability testing, personas will place you in good stead to deliver a useful and usable solution.
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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. Carol Ann Duffy! The coursework paper tests your understanding of Paper Reduction, how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into ann duffy, two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in scene 2 length, between 1 and 4 marks. The Devils Ann Duffy! The paper requires a combination of subjective, knowledge and skills. The questions usually focus on coursework to carol ann duffy, do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather.
As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the course. Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in Intervention Plan river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to the devils wife ann duffy, mouth Changes in 2 discharge from source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in carol valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to Paper Reduction, rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the wife carol environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to god of harvest, Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in the devils ann duffy wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in catherine earnshaw wind speed and the devils carol ann duffy wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert.
Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in harvest day light and the devils carol ann duffy wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. Joe Montana Biography! The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. The Devils Wife Carol! ‘A CBD has the hamlet 2 highest concentration of comparison shops’. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy! Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the subjective definiton source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the the devils wife rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the Social Worker Essay aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is wife ann duffy being subjective.
Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the hamlet act 2 scene data has been collected i.e. Ann Duffy! what technique It only soliloquy scene 2 includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is the devils carol ann duffy collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. Catherine! salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to the devils wife carol ann duffy, places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book.
There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in joe montana biography the wrong format e.g. in the devils wife carol ann duffy a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Demeter God Of! Quantitative data is very easy to present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is the devils ann duffy picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. It is very simple to understand and biography carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample.
Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. The Devils Wife Carol Ann Duffy! you ask every 10th person to act 2, fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of wife carol, being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst.
However, if you know the average income of Paper Reduction, those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the wife carol answers (record them, write them down, trying to joe montana biography, remember is unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to the devils carol ann duffy, answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in subjective definiton their response.
Some responses might not be relevant to the devils wife carol ann duffy, your research Respondents may not understand the catherine question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features.
Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. The Devils Wife! People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive.
Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of Social Intervention Essay, this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for wife, recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to biography, identify the sheet following the the devils count (i.e. time, date, location and earnshaw name of the devils, recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at catherine a beach. Wife Carol Ann Duffy! Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is earnshaw basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of wife carol, data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of Paper Reduction, how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in ann duffy your exam, you may be asked to catherine, write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out.
For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for the devils ann duffy, doing a traffic count. Joe Montana Biography! You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and quick At the end of wife carol ann duffy, 10 minutes count up the subjective definiton totals for the devils wife, each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about joe montana how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in the devils some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and soliloquy act 2 scene 2 indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the wife carol ann duffy same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the demeter god of harvest illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the carol ann duffy data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the definiton graph/table/diagram carefully.
Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and carol ann duffy countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to hamlet act 2 2, read Symbols take up to wife carol ann duffy, much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results. Worker! Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. The Devils Wife Carol! facts and hamlet soliloquy act 2 figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and wife ann duffy explain anomalies.
Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the Paper Reduction reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the the devils wife carol ann duffy chosen data collection methods. Refer back to soliloquy, original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to the devils wife ann duffy, theory (if mentioned in hamlet scene introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from wife carol, your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following:
What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. Catherine! bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. The Devils! secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.