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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay has changed drastically from what it looked like from March 2005-January 2016. On the plus side, youll now be asked to do the same task every time: read an argument meant to why is urban persuade a broad audience and discuss how well the author argues his or her point. Harold Pinter. On the minus side, you have to do reading and analysis in addition to writing a coherent and organized essay. In this article, weve compiled a list of the 11 real SAT essay prompts that the CollegeBoard has released (either in The Official SAT Study Guide or separately online) for the new SAT. This is the most comprehensive set of new SAT essay prompts online today. At the sprawl bad, end of this article, we'll also guide you through how to get the most out of these prompts and link to our expert resources on betrayal harold pinter analysis, acing the SAT essay.

Ill discuss how the SAT essay prompts are valuable not just because they give you a chance to write a practice essay, but because of what they reveal about the essay task itself. SAT essay prompts have always kept to sprawl the same basic format. With the new essay, however, not only is the prompt format consistent from test to test, but what youre actually asked to do (discuss how an author builds an argument) also remains the same across different test administrations. The College Boards predictability with SAT essay helps students focus on preparing for the actual analytical task, rather than having to think up stuff on their feet. Every time, before the passage, youll see the following: And after the passage, youll see this: Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] builds an argument to robert persuade [her/his] audience that [whatever the author is trying to argue for]. Why Is. In your essay, analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to droplet blood gem strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with [the author]s claims, but rather explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [her/his] audience. Now that you know the format, lets look at the SAT essay prompts list. The College Board has released a limited number of prompts to help students prep for the essay. We've gathered them for why is bad, you here, all in one place. Well be sure to update this article as more prompts are released for practice and/or as more tests are released.

SPOILER ALERT : Since these are the The iLearn, only essay prompts that have been released so far, you may want to sprawl bad be cautious about spoiling them for yourself, particularly if you are planning on taking practice tests under real conditions . This is why Ive organized the pinter analysis, prompts by the ones that are in the practice tests (so you can avoid them if need be), the one that is available online as a sample prompt, and why is bad the ones that are in the Official SAT Study Guide (Redesigned SAT), all online for free. These eight prompts are taken from the practice tests that the College Board has released. Write an droplet gem, essay in which you explain how Jimmy Carter builds an argument to persuade his audience that the why is urban, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for droplet gem, industry. Write an essay in which you explain how Martin Luther King Jr. Urban. builds an characteristics, argument to persuade his audience that American involvement in the Vietnam War is unjust. Write an sprawl bad, essay in which you explain how Eliana Dockterman builds an argument to persuade her audience that there are benefits to early exposure to technology. Write an droplet blood, essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. Why Is Urban. Write an essay in which you explain how Eric Klinenberg builds an harold pinter analysis, argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to greatly reduce their reliance on air-conditioning. Write an why is urban bad, essay in which you explain how Christopher Hitchens builds an argument to persuade his audience that the original Parthenon sculptures should be returned to Greece. Write an droplet gem, essay in which you explain how Zadie Smith builds an why is, argument to persuade her audience that public libraries are important and should remain open Write an essay in harold pinter analysis, which you explain how Bobby Braun builds an argument to persuade his audience that the US government must continue to invest in NASA. Special note: The prompt for Practice Test 4 is replicated as the first sample essay on the College Boards site for the new SAT.

If youve written a sample essay for practice test 4 and want to why is see what essays of different score levels look like for that particular prompt, you can go here and look at eight real student essays. This prompt comes from the CollegeBoard website for the new SAT. Write an essay in which you explain how Dana Gioia builds an argument to persuade his audience that the decline of reading in America will have a negative effect on society. The Official SAT Study Guide (for March 2016 and harold pinter beyond) The Official SAT Study Guide (editions published in 2015 and sprawl later, available online for why is sprawl bad, free) contains all eight of the previously mentioned practice tests at the end of the book. In the sprawl bad, section about the new SAT essay, however, there are two additional sample essay prompts. Write an architecture, essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an why is, argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. The College Board modified this article for the essay prompt passage in the book. The original passage (1528 words, vs the 733 it is on why is, the SAT) to urban which this prompt refers can also be found online (for free) here. Write an essay in which you explain how Adam B. Summers builds an argument to persuade his audience that plastic shopping bags should not be banned. There are still a couple of minor differences between the article as it appears in The Official SAT Study Guide as an harold pinter analysis, essay prompt compared to its original form, but its far less changed than the previous prompt. The original passage to urban sprawl which this prompt refers (764 words, vs the 743 in The Official SAT Study Guide) can also be found online (for free) here.

How Do You Get the Most Out of These Prompts? Now that you have all the prompts released by why is urban sprawl bad, the College Board, its important to know the why is sprawl bad, best way to use them. Make sure you have a good balance between quality and quantity, and betrayal harold analysis dont burn through all 11 of the real prompts in a row take the time to learn from your experiences writing the practice essays. Step By Step Guide on why is sprawl bad, How to Practice Using the Article. 3. Pre-plan a set of features youll look for in the SAT essay readings and practice writing about them fluidly. This doesn't just mean identifying a technique, like asking a rhetorical question, but explaining why it is persuasive and what effect it has on the reader in urban bad, the context of a particular topic.

We have more information on this step in our article about 6 SAT persuasive devices you can use. 4. Choose a prompt at random from above, or choose a topic that you think is going to be hard for you to detach from why is urban, (because youll want to write about the betrayal harold analysis, topic, rather than the argument) set timer to 50 minutes and write the sprawl bad, essay. No extra time allowed! 5. Grade the essay, using the essay rubric to book robert give yourself a score out of 8 in the reading, analysis, and writing sections (article coming soon!). 6. Repeat steps 4 and urban sprawl bad 5. Choose the consumer analysis, prompts you think will be the hardest for you so that you can so that youre prepared for why is sprawl bad, the worst when the test day comes. 7. Gem. If you run out of official prompts to practice with, use the official prompts as models to find examples of other articles you could write about urban sprawl bad . How? Start by looking for op-ed articles in consumer analysis, online news publications like The New York Times, The Atlantic, LA Times , and so on. For instance, the urban sprawl, passage about the plastic bag ban in California (sample essay prompt 2, above) has a counterpoint here - you could try analyzing and writing about that article as well. Any additional articles you use for practice on the SAT essay must match the following criteria: ideally 650-750 words , although itll be difficult to find an op-ed piece thats naturally that short. Try to of renaissance aim for why is, nothing longer than 2000 words, though, or the scope of the article is likely to be too wide for what youll encounter on the SAT. always argumentative/persuasive . The author (or authors) is trying to get readers to agree with a claim or idea being put forward. always intended for a wide audience . All the information you need to characteristics of renaissance architecture deconstruct the persuasiveness of the argument is in the passage. This means that articles with a lot of technical jargon that's not explained in the article are not realistic passage to practice with.

Weve written a ton of helpful resources on why is sprawl bad, the SAT essay. Make sure you check them out! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is robert, entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice SAT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from urban sprawl bad, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on betrayal pinter, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. Urban Bad. You should definitely follow us on social media. Bad. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on why is sprawl bad, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and blood we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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Why is urban sprawl bad

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Reflexivity: A Concept and urban sprawl bad its Meanings for Practitioners Working with Children and Families. Senior Lecturer in Social Work. School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Philip Gillingham, B.A. Of Renaissance Architecture? (Hons), M.S.W., CQSW. Lecturer in Social Work.

School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Bethany Community Support. North Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to working with uncertainty and why is urban sprawl as an important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice.

This article discusses how practitioners working in child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of larger, collaborative research project. This project was conducted through a series of workshops with practitioners. The overall research that aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice, included the concept of reflexivity as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations. This article discusses how the concept of reflexivity was explored in the research and how practitioners interpreted the concept for their practice. Developing The ILearn Program? We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for why is urban sprawl bad professional practice, we also recognise that individual practitioners interpret concepts (in ways that are both practically and contextually relevant), thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Reflexivity is a concept that is why is sprawl increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in why is urban sprawl bad relation to betrayal pinter working with uncertainty (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and as an important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice (Fook 1996, 1999; Taylor White, 2000). In an why is sprawl earlier article (D’Cruz, Gillingham Melendez, 2007), the authors critically reviewed the social work literature to explore the many meanings of the concept of reflexivity for social work theory, practice and research. In our previous article, we demonstrated how terms such as ‘reflexivity’, ‘reflectivity’ and harold pinter analysis ‘critical reflection’ are used by different authors to why is bad mean very different things (sometimes interchangeably) ( for example, Jessup Rogerson, 1999, p. 176; Leonard, 1999,p. vii; Pease Fook, 1999, pp. 13, 17, 231; Boud, 1999; Briggs, 1999; Rea, 2000; Mosca Yost, 2001).

We proposed that there were three main variations in the meaning of the concept, each of which had slightly different, though at times overlapping, consequences for social work practice. These variations are summarized below. In the first variation, reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context and is concerned with the droplet blood gem, ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004). In the second variation, reflexivity is why is sprawl bad defined as a social worker’s self-critical approach that questions how knowledge about heroes book cormier, clients is generated and, further, how relations of urban, power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor and White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000). In the third variation, reflexivity is urban bad concerned with the part that emotion plays in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). We surmised that the diversity of meanings that emerge from a critical analysis of terms such as ‘reflexivity’ and ‘reflection’ is indicative that such concepts are relatively new to why is urban sprawl social work and their meanings for the profession are still being debated. Further, that the diversity of analysis, meanings increases the possibilities for expanding practice repertoires and debate should be encouraged rather than some form of closure sought. In this article we discuss how practitioners working in child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of a larger, collaborative research project. Urban Bad? The overall research aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice through a range of concepts (D’Cruz, et al., 2004; D’Cruz and of renaissance Gillingham, 2005; D’Cruz et al., in press).

Reflexivity was one of these concepts, that we introduced to participants as an alternative or a complement to instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). As discussed further below (see also D’Cruz et al., in press) a theoretical aim of the research was to explore how a concept, such as reflexivity, drawn from a social constructionist paradigm could be combined with practice approaches dominated by instrumental accountability. The question of how practitioners might combine the two was central as, in theory, the approaches are considered to be incommensurable. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to urban bad formal theories for professional practice, it must also be recognised that individual practitioners interpret concepts, thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Professional practice in contemporary child and family welfare/protection organisations. From the why is urban sprawl, mid-1980s to the end of the why is urban, 1990s, child and family policy and practice in many western countries such as the UK, the characteristics of renaissance architecture, US and Australia became increasingly proceduralised and bureaucratised (Howe, 1992) following coronial and public inquiries into the deaths and serious injuries to children in the care of why is urban sprawl bad, their parents/caregivers.

Risk management through risk assessment checklists was the preferred approach that aimed to minimise “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993) seen as consequences of professional discretion and autonomy, and “subjective” decision making (Reder, Duncan Gray, 1993). Risk assessment criteria as prescriptive checklists represented rationality that could manage the uncertainty and unpredictability associated with ensuring the care and protection of robert cormier, children living with their parents (Parton, 1998), and thus minimise or eradicate “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993). Why Is Urban Sprawl Bad? Professionals including social workers were expected to adhere to procedures, with “substantive accountability” to clients (children and families) replaced by “instrumental accountability” to betrayal harold analysis the organisation (Bauman, 1987). The proliferation of research and literature critiquing these developments in child and family welfare/protection organisations has generated alternatives that recognise the necessity for professional discretion and participatory ethical practice with children and parents. These alternatives include the recognition of both the “dangers” and why is “opportunities” presented by protective practice (Ferguson, 1997), the importance of critically-reflective practice and “dialogue” (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a) between parents, children and harold analysis practitioners, and why is reflexive practice that foregrounds the connections between professional knowledge and professional power in analysis situated practice (Taylor White, 2000). The theoretical perspective informing many of these critiques and practice alternatives is social constructionism, that offers justification for urban bad re-introducing professional discretion and autonomy, on the grounds that all social practices including professional practice, involve people making meaning through social processes (Parton et al., 1997; D’Cruz, 2004). This perspective challenges the implicit assumption of instrumentalist risk assessment approaches that there is an objective truth about the care and protection of children that can be established if prescribed assessment procedures are followed. Consumer? In some contexts, such as in why is bad Britain, these critiques have influenced changes in child and family policy and practice so that instrumentalist forms of risk assessment have been replaced by broader family-focused approaches (Ferguson, 1997; Parton, 1997).

However, in the Australian context where the research discussed in this article was conducted, instrumentalist risk assessment approaches continue to dominate, as evidenced by the continued use and implementation of the Victorian Risk Framework (DHS, 1999) and Developing The iLearn Program ‘Structured Decision Making’ in South Australia (Hetherington, 1999) and Queensland (Leeks, 2006). A full discussion about why risk assessment approaches continue to dominate in Australia is, however, beyond the scope of this article. Exploring an expanded practice repertoire: a summary of the research. The research that is discussed in urban sprawl bad this article incorporates these approaches within a conceptual framework that explicitly recognises both risk assessment and social constructionism as important to professional practice. Blood? We have not dismissed the necessity for risk assessment in some form, nor do we believe it is productive to sprawl dismiss the organisational contexts in which practitioners work. Instead we have explored the possibilities of an approach that accepts the practical, ethical, professional and legal bases for risk assessment, and the opportunities for the space of practice that is silenced organisationally and for individuals namely, the discretionary aspects of practice. This research emerged from the first author’s PhD research, which explored how meanings and identities were constructed in urban bad child protection practice (D’Cruz, 1999; 2004), rather than being predictable outcomes as absolute ‘realities’ achieved by heavily proceduralised and instrumental practice informed by the risk paradigm (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). The approach taken that accommodates both perspectives ( D’Cruz, 1999; 2004, p. 255-261), described as “juxtaposing seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) in post-modern thought, explored the possibilities of putting together concepts or phenomena that might be considered as mutually exclusive or polarities (Hassard, 1993). For example, ideas of “realism” (as absolute, objective reality) and “relativism” (reality is why is bad relative, being constructed by participants) (Edwards, Ashmore Potter, 1995) are usually seen as mutually exclusive and oppositional concepts.

This approach is heroes robert cormier known as “dualism” (Heap, 1995), that accepts a physical reality that may generate a variety of plausible, and relative explanations and meanings depending on the situated positioning of participants (Reason and Bradbury, 2001, p. Sprawl? 6). For child welfare/protection, a dualist position allows for an acceptance of children’s lived experiences that include material disadvantage, oppression and trauma, and the necessity for ‘risk assessment’, while also acknowledging that these experiences may be explained and understood from many, competing perspectives (D’Cruz, 2004; D’Cruz et al., 2004). Child protection practitioners usually have to negotiate these multiple explanations in each case and decide which version is ‘truth’. The research that explored the possibilities of expanding the practice repertoire available to child protection practitioners incorporated three dimensions: theories of knowledge and power, related professional roles, and practice skills. The second and third dimension are beyond the consumer, scope of this article and here we focus on one part of the first dimension, the concept of urban bad, reflexivity. We briefly discuss below the five features of the first dimension, to contextualise how reflexivity was part of the overall research and especially of the first dimension.

The first dimension, theories of knowledge and power, draws on assumptions about knowledge and the practitioner’s relationship to knowledge represented as practice decisions informed by the risk paradigm and social constructionism. Betrayal Harold Pinter Analysis? This dimension begins from the position that the why is urban sprawl bad, risk paradigm and social constructionism are represented in theory as mutually exclusive, each with particular defining features. The proposed alternative conceptual approach moves from this position of mutually exclusive perspectives to explore whether features of each perspective may be combined in different ways in practice as a way of expanding professional knowledge and practice repertoires for practitioners (D’Cruz et al., in press). Overall, the heroes book, five features of the first dimension of the conceptual framework related to how theories of sprawl, knowledge and power may be represented in regard to views about ‘reality’, ‘truth’ and ‘knowledge’ and expertise and authority. For example, whether knowledge is harold analysis objective and absolute (real) or an outcome of alternative, contestable meanings (relative); and the relationship of knowledge to the speaker/author/knower (privilege/positioning). Instrumental rationality and reflexivity were the first feature of this dimension and, as explained below, reflexivity seemed to why is sprawl bad have the greatest resonance for the practitioners in terms of how they could relate it to their practice. To explore how practitioners might be able to expand their practice repertoires through the possibility of juxtaposing concepts like reflexivity and heroes book robert instrumental rationality that are regarded as polarised and mutually exclusive, a research project, ‘Developing a practice-generated approach to policy implementation’, was developed (D’Cruz et al., in press). Why Is Urban Bad? The aim was to develop an alternative approach for child protection practice that would account for ethical, legal and bureaucratic demands while providing “child centred, family focused” services (e.g.

Ferguson, 1997) beyond surveillance and monitoring that Donzelot (1980) refers to as “policing families”. Hence the research was designed to explore the assumptions about characteristics of renaissance, knowledge and power underlying the main contemporary theoretical approaches to why is urban sprawl bad child protection, namely, risk assessment and social constructionism, that as abstract theories are considered as “incommensurable” or mutually exclusive, yet might be combined in practice through the exercise of discretion. In this article, we focus specifically on how practitioners who were research participants were engaged in regard to the concept of reflexivity as either an alternative to or complement for The iLearn Essay instrumental rationality that was/is the norm in sprawl their organisational contexts. Generally, “incommensurability” is taken to mean that different paradigms cannot be compared as each has self-contained criteria that include what is relevant to the paradigm and simultaneously demarcates what is not (Feyerabend, 1975; Lee, 1994; Jacobs, 2002a; 2002b). Within this definition, the gem, risk paradigm and social constructionism cannot be compared as they are considered to be incommensurable, as each is a self-contained perspective. We believe they can be compared on the grounds that they offer different perspectives of social reality and professional practice.

From a post-modernist perspective that claims that one can “juxtapose seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) we have taken an urban approach that does not claim to combine entire self-contained paradigms. Instead, we have identified a few key features of each paradigm as being important for professional discretion and characteristics of renaissance architecture ethical practice and have incorporated these into our overall conceptual framework. This approach also draws from Feyerabend’s (1975) conceptualisation of the need for “pluralism” of why is bad, apparently conflicting theoretical perspectives so that theories can better explain/understand “realities” that may not be adequately addressed through single approaches . Reflexivity (and its conceptual opposite, instrumental rationality) are two such concepts that are identified here as representing how professionals are expected to work from The iLearn Essay, different paradigms or perspectives (in our research, social constructionism and the risk paradigm, respectively). We have aimed to explore whether reflexivity and instrumental rationality could be considered as two ‘ends’ of a continuum of possibilities that may generate countless variations to improve practice options. The idea of a conceptual continuum from a professional practice perspective, is bad similar to the “grey areas” of practice that are well known to practitioners, as the characteristics of renaissance architecture, vast majority of cases do not fit neatly within prescribed official categories and why is urban related theories (Parton, 1991). How do practitioners understand the sprawl, concept of why is sprawl, reflexivity and its relationship to instrumental rationality in harold pinter their practice? Research Participants and Procedures. The research was conducted in urban bad 2002 and 2003. There were ten participants in the first cohort, and characteristics of renaissance architecture seven in the second. The first group of participants involved senior practitioners and why is sprawl the second group involved relatively more recent graduates (primarily social workers).

The participants were employed at child welfare/child protection organisations in Victoria, Australia, namely, the Department of Developing, Human Services (Barwon South-Western Region), Glastonbury Child and why is bad Family Services, and MacKillop Family Services. Participants from each organisation were recruited by invitation using a plain language statement and participation required written consent. The research was facilitated by characteristics of renaissance, the first author who was also an active participant in the research process. In 2002, the second author was a senior child protection practitioner who participated in the research as a key informant and as research assistant. In 2003, the second author continued to participate as a key informant and the third author, who was a Bachelor of Social Work (Honours) student, was employed as a research assistant.

The particular challenges and opportunities of conducting collaborative research across a range of urban bad, agencies are discussed more fully in why is urban D’Cruz Gillingham (2005), as are the ethical and practical dilemmas of (and the particular insights gained from) the multiple roles occupied by the researchers. Key concerns in this process were how participants perceived the multiple roles of the researchers and how they themselves could step aside from their normal (and potentially oppositional purchaser/provider) roles. In order to address these concerns, rules about the confidentiality of comments made and written were clarified at the beginning and during the workshops. The participants were also drawn from an area where practitioners move from one employer to another and so have to accommodate the changing roles of colleagues. Comments from the participants indicated that they welcomed the opportunity to debate issues with each other in the workshop that they would not be able to discuss in why is urban sprawl bad their normal occupational roles. Participants in The iLearn Program Essay both cohorts attended five focus groups that covered the why is urban sprawl, three dimensions of the alternative approach. Urban? These were referred to as “workshops” in why is sprawl order to reflect the collaborative and dialogic nature of the Essay, research and the participation, rather than just facilitation, by the researchers in the sessions. The first workshop (half-day) introduced the research and explored participants’ perceptions of the context in which they worked, and the extent of discretion and professional power they believed they had (and sought to urban sprawl exercise) in their organisations and in relation to Developing The iLearn Essay clients. These perceptions were important as they suggested how each practitioner/participant might engage with abstract concepts to urban sprawl be addressed in the research, as opposed to prescribed procedures, in their work environment. Furthermore, perceptions about the extent of their discretion in their employing organisations might also influence how participants perceived the value of the research itself for its contributions to their practice.

At the The iLearn Program Essay, second workshop (full day), reflexivity (and instrumental rationality) were explored as part of the first dimension of the conceptual framework, theories of urban bad, knowledge and power. The third and fourth workshops (full days) the remaining dimensions of the alternative approach, namely, theories, professional roles and practice skills. At the end of the fourth workshop, participants were asked to apply any aspects of the approach to their practice and document it along with critical comments (Stringer, 1996; Reason Bradbury, 2001). Participants were alerted to the likelihood that they would not be able to apply the sprawl bad, entire conceptual approach in every case; nor were they expected to. This advice was given because the why is, facilitator recognised from robert, her own practice experience that specific cases do not fit tidily within the why is sprawl, generalities of formal theory hence the tensions between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ (Fook, 1996; 1999; Camilleri, 1996; 1999). At the betrayal pinter analysis, fifth and final workshop (half-day) participants discussed their examples of how they applied the approach to their practice and offered critical feedback.

Each workshop discussion relied on plain language definitions and sprawl bad semi-structured questions that had been mailed to participants prior to the workshop to facilitate their engagement with particular dimensions of the alternative approach. The conceptual features of consumer analysis, each dimension and their plain language definitions were refined in discussion between the Principal Researcher (also first author) and why is urban bad the second author who, at the initiation of the research, was employed as a senior child protection practitioner in a large statutory organisation. The definitions, questions and related readings were mailed to participants before each workshop to allow them time to consider and critically engage with the materials. Figure 1 sets out the plain language definitions and explanations of “instrumental rationality” and characteristics of renaissance “reflexivity” that were mailed to participants prior to their attendance at workshop two. Reflexivity (Hassard, 1993; Taylor White, 2000): An important practice skill and central to working ethically in uncertain contexts and unpredictable situations as opposed to instrumental accountability (following rules and procedures). Critical self-awareness by the practitioner, in how he or she understands and urban bad engages with social problems. Why Is Bad? Realisation that our assumptions about why is urban sprawl, social problems and the people who experience these problems have ethical and practical consequences. Questioning of personal practice, knowledge and assumptions. The following questions were provided to facilitate practitioners’ engagement with questioning their practice assumptions and their interpretation of the concept of reflexivity: How do I know what I think I know about this person and their problem?

What has my experience of this immediate situation and the person(s) involved in it contributed to my conclusions for my practice? Is there at least one other way of understanding this situation and the people involved? Is there any possibility that this situation or aspects of it can be seen as the normal consequences of everyday life and/or broader structural disadvantage? How can I use my professional knowledge and associated power as productively as possible? Figure 1: Plain language definitions and critical questions about “reflexivity” and “instrumental accountability” During the blood gem, workshops, data were generated by engaging the participants in discussion about the questions (in Figure 1). They were also given time to provide written responses to material provided in the workshops, which asked them to consider how they might incorporate the proposed concepts into their practice. In 2002, the urban sprawl bad, workshop discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed but this proved to be less than satisfactory. Consumer? A particular problem was that participants, in the heat of the debate, tended to speak over each other (and at the same time), making the transcription fragmented and difficult to follow. Consequently this was not repeated in 2003, but extensive notes of the discussion were taken by the research assistant and research facilitator (first author). Why Is Sprawl Bad? During the workshops in both 2002 and 2003, an electronic whiteboard was used to capture salient points during the characteristics, discussions with the participants at the workshops and these were printed off.

The use of the urban, whiteboard also allowed participants and researchers the opportunity to clarify the urban sprawl bad, points being made. Participants were encouraged to comment on urban, whether the researcher using the whiteboard had adequately captured their meaning, This approach to robert data recording, known as “member checking” (Rubin Babbie, 2005) was concerned with the point that “(t)he central meanings attached to objects or relations should reflect the beliefs that the bad, insiders hold about these” (Kellehear, 1993, p. Of Renaissance? 38) and that “(v)alidity here begins with the why is, convergence of the researcher and the subject’s ideas about the subject’s view of the world” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38). The participants’ responses were analysed in of renaissance architecture accordance with principles drawn from qualitative research, whereby the researcher aims to identify patterns and contradictions in the data and interpret subjective meanings generated by the participants (Everitt, Hardiker, Littlewood Mullender, 1992). “Open coding” (Strauss Corbin, 1990) was used to sprawl start analyzing the data and involved reading through the range of consumer analysis, documents generated by participants through their written responses and the discussions. Themes in relation to how participants defined reflexivity in relation to their practice were then identified, as they emerged from the data (Strauss Corbin, 1990), and categorised according to the interpretations of the researchers. Throughout this process, themes were expanded, developed and changed through the identification of direct quotes from participants and repeated reading of the bad, data. Droplet Blood Gem? This process continued until no new themes emerged. The particular challenges of conducting collaborative research are discussed more fully elsewhere (see D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005), as are the limitations of the research design, both practically and theoretically (see D’Cruz et al., in press). Particular limitations can be summarised as follows. The number of participants was small and we acknowledge that a larger number of participants would have strengthened any claims made. We also relied on the accounts of the participants of why is urban bad, how they tried to integrate the alternative concepts in their practice rather than observe them directly. Architecture? We also acknowledge that the findings of the research are closely linked to the context in which it was conducted, a context which changes (and has changed since the sprawl bad, research was conducted) continually and sometimes swiftly.

The concept of reflexivity as interpreted by practitioners/participants. Of all the concepts explored in book robert this part of the research, reflexivity seemed to have greatest resonance for participants, as it seemed to fundamentally relate to knowledge, theory and practice and the connections between these ideas. In particular, it also resonated with their recognition of the discretion that they have in their practice, however limited this may be by why is, organisational settings. (The other concepts that had greatest resonance for betrayal harold the participants seemed to relate more specifically to the other two dimensions that have not been addressed in bad this article, namely, professional roles and practice skills.) In fact, the richness of the consumer analysis, data related to reflexivity enabled us to develop a detailed analysis (D’Cruz et al., 2004), which we now present below. Firstly we present the different meanings of reflexivity that participants generated and secondly their engagement with the notion of why is sprawl, power/knowledge as it relates to the definition of reflexivity that they were given. We were able to identify six themes that represented the participants’ conceptualisations of reflexivity in relation to their practice: as self-reflection, distinct from reflection.

as a way to combine objectivity and subjectivity. as a critical appraisal of action and consumer knowledge creation, in why is urban sprawl bad the moment. reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. as a process of critical reflection on policy (D’Cruz et al., 2004) These six themes are considered in more detail below. While we acknowledge that there are considerable overlaps between some of the themes, we have separated them out in order to convey the subtleties and range of meaning in the responses. Due to the way that the responses were recorded during group discussions, we were not able to identify participants individually, but have been able to identify and include which of the two cohorts they belonged to droplet gem (2002 or 2003).

This identifying information is significant in that the two cohorts (as explained above in the section “Research Participants and Procedures”) differed in terms of professional roles and experience. The 2002 cohort were mainly team leaders and supervisors, while those involved in 2003 were all relatively recently qualified practitioners. Practitioners’ Meanings of Reflexivity. as self-reflection, distinct from reflection. Some of the participants defined reflexivity as the sprawl, use of intuition or tacit knowledge (Polyani 1967) to make sense of a situation and also as a way of consumer, combining the use of the intellect and the emotions to do so. The inclusion of self (including emotional responses) in the critical approach to why is sprawl knowledge creation are conveyed by the following quotes: reflection is kinda looking out and looking at everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in betrayal analysis that . (emphasis added) (2002) Need to be aware of internal (emotional responses and “gut feelings”) and external (things go on around us) factors. . Why Is Urban? . (2003) (2) as a way to combine objectivity and subjectivity.

The participants engaged with the idea of a continuum between instrumental rationality and reflexivity as a way of combining objectivity and Developing The iLearn Essay subjectivity, of moving between the two and legitimating both approaches to knowledge creation in practice, as demonstrated by the following quotes: I sort of saw it as combining objectivity and subjectivity. . Bad? . . So you can be both, objective and subjective in why is urban sprawl the same context. Why Is? . . (2002) [At the instrumental accountability end of the continuum] the assumption can only be. Droplet Blood Gem? . . [that] if you’re objective then you can’t be subjective. . . whereas it’s actually contextually okay to be both. And it’s realistic to be both. (2002) reflection is kinda looking out and looking at everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in that (2002) These interpretations of the why is urban bad, concept of why is sprawl, reflexivity, in relation to instrumental accountability resonate with one of the original aims of this research, which was to urban investigate whether and how two seemingly polarized approaches to social work practice in child protection can be combined. Though we do not have these participants’ definitions of objectivity and subjectivity, it appears from the context of the discussion that they identifying the ‘instrumental rationality’ end of the continuum with ‘objectivity’ and the ‘reflexivity’ end with ‘subjectivity’. It appears that, for them, the concept of reflexivity offered the opportunity to practice in two ways at the same time. Another participant, however, saw reflexivity as a way of acknowledging his/her personal emotional response and then distancing him/herself from The iLearn, this response in order to why is increase his/her objectivity: This helps me make sense of my responses to what I am being told. Developing Program? It helps me distance myself from my emotional responses to the person who is speaking to me. . Why Is Urban Bad? . . If I figure out that my emotional response is betrayal harold pinter analysis mirroring theirs, or that I am being convinced by why is sprawl bad, their presentation rather than anything else, then I change my emotional response, or put it aside, to become more objective. (2003) (3) as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment.

For some participants reflexivity allowed questioning of what is a ‘fact’ and a broadening of what might be considered pertinent to an assessment: Reflexivity for me means being able to more broadly consider the client’s experience of the world rather than through the narrow confines of accountability through procedures (sic) facts and consumer bottom lines. (2003) One participant gave the example of when the application of reflexivity allowed for alternative explanations for a mother’s behaviour in why is sprawl bad a domestic violence situation. Although (I was) very much aware of theory re DV and cycle of violence, the analysis, information, context and presentation of mother were quite confronting. Rationalizing in my own head drawing on the context of sprawl bad, her life/environment, my knowledge of theory and past experience of DV situations to assist with making sense and understand the mother’s thought processes. Droplet? . . (2003) This application of the concept led to a reassessment of the situation rather than the mother’s behaviour being considered as just a breach of procedures. This questioning also extended to how formal theories and knowledge are applied in practice. The example given here concerned theories about the cause and effects of domestic violence.

The questioning of ‘fact’, knowledge and theory is exemplified by why is bad, the following: valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and bad what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion. Urban? (2002) The reference to ‘navel gazing’ in the above quote could have quite negative connotations in that it could be read that applying the concept of reflexivity could lead to gem endless, or at least time-consuming, introspection and a lack of action. (4) reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a practice tool that could be used to urban change and enhance practice. As in version three, reflexivity was conceptualized as an sprawl bad introspective process, something that a practitioner can engage with on their own:

It’s about why is bad, change, it’s about droplet, changing your own practice in sprawl some subtle way or changing something outside the practice which is why we are actually talking to someone. . The ILearn Program Essay? that the internal conversation goes on . . (emphasis added) (2002) valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of urban bad, conducting reflexivity. . Book? . bring that sort of why is urban bad, ‘third eye’ stuff. The ILearn Essay? . Why Is Urban? . Consumer? you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the why is urban sprawl bad, notion . . . (emphasis added) (2002) Reflexivity is an ongoing ‘live’ process going on internally as the outside world impacts on me. (2003) (5) reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a learning tool, as a process for creating rules to betrayal harold pinter analysis guide practice and why is enhance ‘practice wisdom’. Participants alluded to the idea that reflexivity can be used to sort out ‘what works’ in a particular situation, without having to ‘reinvent the wheel’. This is sprawl encapsulated in the following quote: . . . reflexivity creates a helpful rule in the context, then you might have a . . Urban Sprawl? . point here and the next time you confront a similar situation, you might think, I can try and use that knowledge or rule that I created in that last case, let’s try it and heroes robert if it works you do it and why is your reflexivity says if it isn’t working what can you do next. . . (2002) This quote also refers to the use of reflexivity as a continual and critical process of questioning how knowledge to guide practice is created. However, reflexivity as a critical approach and as a learning tool was not considered to be easy and generated a level of discomfort: But even if you don’t say anything about it, you’re just doing the reflecting on Developing The iLearn Program, yourself, it kind of, it’s not a comfortable feeling for why is sprawl bad people. (2002)

The process of practising reflexivity and moving to book robert that end of the continuum was considered as also being ‘scary’, while the instrumentalist end of the continuum was associated with safety: I mean it is that balance between it being scary and discomfort and I mean, I think there is probably a lot of staff that would sort of ‘just tell me what to do, how to do, what is the rule here, what is (sic) the rules to follow, how do I interpret this, whatever else’ and if you go back to them and take them through a different process, but I think it also has, I suppose the other side to that is that it is also rewarding in the long term. (2002) The extent of why is bad, challenge in practising reflexively might also be linked to levels of professional experience and expertise: I think it also has to betrayal harold pinter do with the individuals, where they are at. . . personal development and bad professional development. (2002) I think it’s a level of urban sprawl bad, confidence and. . . for dealing with some of their own issues that if they sort of reflected on themselves. . Why Is Sprawl Bad? . (2002) Despite the challenges that reflexivity might pose, it was also considered to be rewarding in the long term: So the other side of this is the rewarding, for some people it is a difficult process to go through with that, yeah, the mastery that goes with that. (2002) (6) as a process of critical reflection on policy.

Some participants also interpreted the concept of reflexivity as critical reflection on the policies set by their agencies that inform and guide their practice: . Betrayal Analysis? . . you look at policy, you build in reflexivity in individual practice relative to clients, relative to program, relative to annual reviews. It’s at all those different levels. (2002) I guess I don’t see policies or whatever as set in concrete. I think you still need to keep reflecting on them and seeing if they are still useful because I guess I have seen policies that are being useful to support workers in their practice and if they are not, well then you need to be relooking at sprawl them. (2002) Again, as this quote shows, reflexivity was used as a critical approach to practice, offering a process of engagement with organisational instrumental rationality (rules and betrayal pinter procedures) that shapes and guides practice. Participants also described adopting a reflexive approach to practice as rewarding and as promoting growth and why is sprawl bad trust in relations with clients. Essay? But there remained the question of why is urban, whether their employing organisations were supportive of such an approach.

For example, in that the participants questioned whether organisational culture provided sufficient safety and permission for heroes book cormier them to adopt a reflexive stance in relation to their practice: It is about a culture as well isn’t it, it is the culture that allows that. (2002) Yeah, I think it is back to the ideal world in a way and it is a thing about why is urban bad, how do you fit in organisational culture that allows. . . a relationship to happen rather than the task centred stuff that says we just want another chapter and verse and we don’t really care what your interpretation of that is. (2002) In the next section, we focus on how the participants engaged with the heroes robert, concept of power, as it relates to their roles and the process of knowledge generation. Reflexivity as Knowledge/Power in Practice.

We have acknowledged previously (D’Cruz et al., 2007) that the concept of reflexivity has been offered as a constructive (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and critical (Fook, 1996; 1999; Taylor White, 2000) approach to why is urban bad social work practice, particularly recognizing the relations of power in the generation of situated professional knowledge. Consequently an why is urban sprawl bad important dimension of urban, how the participants in this research engaged with the why is, concept of reflexivity was how they conceptualized and why is sprawl bad acknowledged the operation of characteristics of renaissance architecture, power in their practice. In engaging with the formal definition of reflexivity as an urban sprawl integral relationship between knowledge and power, participants identified three different forms that power could take in their practice which we have categorised as: (1) constructive power, (2) coercive power, and (3) institutional power. The participants acknowledged that power enabled them to: empathize where the heroes book cormier, client is at [knowledge/assessment] should not merely be a conflict of views (2003) Power was also considered as constructive in relation to dealing with the seemingly inevitable conflicts that arise in work with children and why is urban sprawl families: Practice starts off with [the] assumption of a power struggle. The first encounter destabilises power from parents and potentially sets up the groundwork for ‘battle’.

Therefore it is important to start with the parents how can we empower you to fulfil the role of parenting? (2002) The giving of knowledge or information was also seen as a way of empowering clients (parents) and reducing what was considered to be a power imbalance between professionals and families: Just an book equalizing kind of thing, using your own knowledge in a constructive way to help people understand . . Why Is Urban Sprawl? . (2002) It is characteristics also worth noting that participants considered the parents as clients rather than their children when they were asked to reflect on the operation of power in practice. The participants acknowledged the operation of power, in relation to the generation of knowledge, in the relations between themselves, their supervisors (or supervisees) and clients. The following quote illustrates how power was considered to be operating in a top down (and unidirectional) manner. But apparently what’s sitting there is a power dimension about who’s asking the question to sprawl reflect anyway.

So if you’re asking, if the supervisor asked the question, the fact that they asked the question is a power differential. That fact that we go out to architecture a client family. . . did you feed your kids last night is why is a very different question if I ask the question or your mother did or the neighbour, I mean who asks the questions sets up. . . (2002) Statutory power was also considered as a last resort: at some point power needs to be used there are things we can do on the way to avoid reaching this point (2003) The operation of power as oppressive and droplet as located in the rules and why is bad procedures of why is urban sprawl, employing organisations which produce rigid solutions to problems was also identified by the participants, as: a fixation on appropriate course of action for clients [as defined by why is sprawl bad, the organisation] often results in neglecting clients’ real needs. (2002) In summary, power was considered by Program Essay, the participants to be operating in both constructive and oppressive ways in their practice. It was acknowledged as operating in relations between supervisors and practitioners and clients, predominantly in a “top down” manner. Power was also associated with statutory duties. With reference to the process of knowledge creation, at least one of the participants acknowledged the importance of the why is bad, hierarchical status of the person asking the questions, again with power operating in consumer a “top down” manner. Knowledge/power was also alluded to by one participant in why is urban sprawl bad relation to the possibility of knowledge sharing with clients as an empowering process. However, the participants engaged with a structural definition of power rather than a post-modern definition of power as relational espoused by reflexivity.

Participants’ interpretations and the literature. This section will discuss how the pinter, findings of this research extend the current literature about reflexivity as a concept that can be applied to social work practice. Why Is Sprawl? In order to consider the droplet gem, creative and varying ways that the participants in this research related the concept to their practice, we draw on our critical review of the literature on reflexivity as a concept (D’Cruz et al., 2007) to provide an analytical framework to locate these emergent meanings. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), we identified three variations in the meaning of reflexivity: as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context, as a critical approach that questions how knowledge is generated and as an approach to practice that is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice. In this section we relate the findings of the research to these three variations. Why Is Urban? We aim to understand the betrayal harold analysis, practitioner/participants’ interpretations within these broader conceptual frameworks in order to bring together “formal theory” (expressed in academic literature) and urban sprawl “informal theory” (as emergent and grounded in the experience of practitioners) (Fook, 1999; Camilleri, 1999). The First Variation: Individual’s choices in context. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the The iLearn Program, first conceptual variation of reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to bad an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to why is process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004).

This emphasis on individual choice in why is bad context is Developing The iLearn Essay apparent in the ways that some participants interpreted reflexivity for their practice. They saw it as a means (or skill) for making sense of the situations they faced in practice and deciding on action that they could then take. Why Is Urban Sprawl? However, their responses did not suggest that they considered reflexivity to be a skill that can be taught to clients to of renaissance assist them to make sense of their worlds and to take action to further their own interests (Ferguson, 2004). Rather, it was considered as a practice tool to aid their practice and develop professional expertise. The Second Variation: Self Critical Professional Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the why is urban, second conceptual variation of reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self critical approach that questions how knowledge about book robert, clients is generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000).

This variation in the literature was apparent in the ways that the urban bad, participants defined reflexivity as a critical approach to their practice, the knowledge generated in betrayal analysis practice and the rules and policies that guide practice. As in the conceptual variation in the literature, power was considered as part of the definition of reflexivity, particularly by one participant, in relation to why is bad the identity of the droplet blood, knower. The Third Variation: Emotion, Cognition and Social Work Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the third conceptual variation of reflexivity is concerned with how emotion is implicated in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). The meanings of why is urban, reflexivity generated by participants in our research also identified emotions as being an important part of the process of knowledge creation. Participants spoke of urban sprawl, their emotional responses when they attempted to apply a critical approach to why is bad the generation of knowledge to guide their practice. In particular they identified the personal discomfort associated with questioning strictly prescribed rules, procedures and policies in organisational cultures that limit rather than promote practitioner discretion. Overall, there were elements of all three variations contained in the meanings that the participants gave to the concept of reflexivity in analysis relation to their practice. Indeed, participants went beyond describing what practising reflexivity might mean to urban sprawl them. A key point that emerges from this research with practitioners is the descriptions of how they might engage with the concept of reflexivity in a context that prescribes instrumental accountability. Gem? They described the why is urban sprawl, difficulties and blood gem discomfort in incorporating a reflexive approach to practice and the easier option of resorting to the relative safety of following rules and procedures.

A certain amount of self-confidence is why is sprawl bad required to urban sprawl bad engage in critical or reflexive approaches to practice, with confidence associated with practice experience and levels of expertise. So, while reflexivity may offer a way of developing and increasing expertise, it also requires a certain level of why is urban, expertise to begin with. It is worth noting that it was the 2002 group of participants, the more senior practitioners, team leaders and blood gem managers who reflected on this more than the less experienced 2003 group. This also mirrors the conceptualisation of professional expertise and its development by Fook, Ryan and Hawkins (2000), who argue that whereas “novices” in professional practice tend to follow rules, “experts engage with theory in a critically self-reflective process” (p. 189). This particular point offers an important insight that might inform the introduction of alternative practice approaches to enhance practice in child protection. The participants did not engage quite so fully with the concept of power as it relates to knowledge creation in the definition of reflexivity provided to them. While reflexivity was seen as important in challenging how knowledge was created, the role that power has in the process of knowledge creation, particularly the power that they, as child and family welfare professionals have, was not critically engaged with (except in terms of ‘knowledge sharing’). We conceptualized their versions of power as constructive, coercive and institutional and acknowledged more as an entity or possession than a process that operates in all interactions, namely, a structural version of power. Urban Sprawl? This conceptualisation of power may be associated with the location of the practitioners in human service organisations which are structured as bureaucracies in which ‘legal authority’ is the most evident form of power, and which, in betrayal Foucauldian terms establishes a pervasive system of governmentality through hierarchical surveillance (Foucault, 1980). Consequently, participants may have engaged more with a process of ‘reflection’ rather than ‘reflexivity’ in that they did not fully acknowledge the knowledge/power dimension of why is sprawl, reflexivity and their own positioned subjectivities in the process.

We have presented an account of Essay, how practitioners might enhance their practice by engaging with a theoretical construct in ‘real world’ situations rather than hypothetical situations, which offers some insight into the “opportunities” and “dangers” (Ferguson, 1997) of why is bad, adopting alternative, critical practice approaches. Why Is Bad? We have shown that it is possible for practitioners to combine an alternative practice approach based in the social constructionist critique of current child protection practice with the why is urban bad, “risk paradigm” and that the two approaches are not necessarily “incommensurable” (Marcus, 1994). The consequence for practice is that it offers hope that alternative “constructive” approaches (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) to child protection practice that aim to move beyond the “policing” (Donzelot, 1980) and “surveillance” (Parton, 1991) of families can be integrated into child protection practice and that their development should continue. The possibility that such alternative approaches might be well received by practitioners has also emerged from this research, as demonstrated by the enthusiasm with which the Program, participants in urban bad this research engaged with the concept of reflexivity. This article has discussed how the concept of reflexivity was applied by why is, practitioners in the field of child and family welfare to expand their current practice repertoires. The research has shown how individual practitioners interpret concepts and urban sprawl bad create practical meanings appropriate to droplet gem their practice contexts in a range of imaginative ways that combine with current approaches. It has demonstrated how one concept, reflexivity, generated from an alternative approach to practice based in social constructionism, can be used to expand practice options, rather than just offer critique. Consequently this research supports the further development of alternative approaches to urban bad practice in child protection that extend beyond forensic approaches that focus on the identification and management of “risk”. Ai, A. L. (2002). Integrating spirituality into professional education: A challenging but feasible task. Betrayal Analysis? Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(1-2), 103-127.

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Leeks, M. (2006). The implementation of structured decision making (SDM) in child protection practice in Queensland, Australia. Paper presented at the 10th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Wellington, New Zealand, 14-16 February 2006. Leonard, P. (1999). Foreword. In B. Pease J. Fook (Eds.) Transforming social work practice: Postmodern critical perspectives. St. Urban Sprawl Bad? Leonards, Australia: Allen Unwin. Marcus, G. (1994). What Comes (Just) After ‘Post’?

The Case of Ethnography. In N. Denzin Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of characteristics architecture, qualitative research, 2nd ed. (pp. 563-574). Sage:Thousand Oaks. Mass, M. (2000). On the link between academia and practice in social work. Why Is Urban Sprawl Bad? Journal for harold the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 99-125. Miehls, D. Moffatt, K. (2000). Constructing social work identity based on the reflexive self. British Journal of urban sprawl bad, Social Work, 30(3), 33948.

Mills, T. Kleinman, S. (1988). Emotions, reflexivity and action: An interactionist analysis. Why Is Sprawl Bad? Social Forces, 66(4), 1009-1027. Mosca, F.J. Yost, D.S. (2001). Developing tools for reflecting on counteraggressive responses to troubling behaviour. Reclaiming Children and Youth: Journal of Emotional and why is urban Behavioural Problems, 10(2), 10005. Neuman, W.L. Kreuger, L.W. (2003). Bad? Social work research methods: Qualitative and quantitative applications. Pearson Education Inc. . Parton, N. (1991).

Governing the family: Child care, child protection and the state. London: Macmillan. Parton, N. (Ed.) (1997). Child protection and family support: Tensions, contradictions and possibilities. London: Routledge. Parton, N. (1998). Risk, advanced liberalism and child welfare: The need to rediscover uncertainty and why is ambiguity. British Journal of Social Work, 28, 5-27.

Parton, N. (1999). Reconfiguring Child Welfare Practices: Risk, Advanced Liberalism, and the Government of Freedom. In A.S. Droplet Blood? Chambon, A. Irving L. Epstein, (Eds.), Reading Foucault for bad Social Work (pp. 101-130).

New York: Columbia University Press. Parton, N. (2000). Some thoughts on the relationship between theory and why is urban bad practice in and for Social Work. British Journal of Social Work, 30, 449-463. Parton, N. Why Is Urban Sprawl Bad? O’Byrne, P. (2000). Constructive social work: Towards a new practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Parton, N O’Byrne, P. (Fall 2000). What do we mean by blood gem, constructive social work?. Critical Social Work, 1(2). Retrieved from: hhtp//

Parton, N., Thorpe, D. Wattam, C. (1997). Child Protection: Risk and the Moral Order. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Polanyi, M. (1967). The Tacit Dimension. Urban? New York: Anchor Books. Rea, E. (2000). The role of the robert, practice teacher in why is sprawl enabling the student to reflect. Journal of Practice Teaching in Health and Social Work, 3(1), 4354. Reason, P. Bradbury, H. (2001). Introduction: Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration.

In P. Reason H. Analysis? Bradbury (Eds.), Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice (pp. 1-14). London: Sage. Reder, P., Duncan, S. Gray, M. (1993). Beyond blame: Child abuse tragedies revisited. London: Routledge.

Roseneil, S. Seymour, J. (1999). Practising identities: Power and why is resistance. In Roseneil, S. Seymour, J. (Eds.), Practising Identities: Power and Resistance (pp. 1-10). London: Macmillan.

Rubin, A., Babbie, E. R. (2005). Research methods for social work, 5th ed.. Betrayal Harold Analysis? Pacific Grove: Thompson Learning. Ruch, G. (2002). From triangle to spiral: Reflective practice in why is urban social work education, practice and research. Social Work Education, 21(2), 199216.

Sanders, B. Robert Cormier? Becker-Lausen, E. Urban Bad? (1995). The measurement of psychological maltreatment: Early data on the child abuse and trauma scale. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19(3), 315-324. Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action.

New York: Basic Books. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Towards a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Scott, D. Swain, S. (2002). Confronting cruelty: Historical perspectives on child protection in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. Shaw, I. (2004).

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Newbury Park: Sage. Taylor, C. White, S. Consumer Analysis? (2000). Practising reflexivity in health and welfare: Making knowledge. Buckingham: Open University Press. Thorpe, D. (1994). Evaluating child protection. Buckingham: Open University Press. Turnell, A. Edwards, S. (1999). Why Is Urban Sprawl Bad? Signs of safety: A solution and safety oriented approach to child protection.

New York: Norton. Walton, M. (1993). Regulation in child protection policy failure?. British Journal of Social Work, 23, 139-156. Weber, M. (1993). Bureaucracy.

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experiment paper A GUIDE TO WRITING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. Scientific experiments are demanding, exciting endeavors, but, to have an impact, results must be communicated to others. A research paper is urban sprawl, a method of communication, an attempt to tell others about some specific data that you have gathered and what you think those data mean in the context of your research. The rules of writing a scientific paper are rigid and are different from those that apply when you write an English theme or a library research paper. For clear communication, the paper obviously requires proper usage of the English language and this will be considered in evaluating your reports. Scientific papers must be written clearly and concisely so that readers with backgrounds similar to analysis yours can understand easily what you have done and how you have done it should they want to repeat or extend your work. When writing papers for the biology department, you can assume that your audience will be readers like yourselves with similar knowledge. Although scientific journals differ somewhat in their specific requirements, a general format that would be acceptable for most biological journals is:

Materials and Methods. The section headings (Abstract, Introduction, etc.) should be centered and the body of each section should follow immediately below the heading. Do not begin each section on a new page. If one section ends part of the way down the why is sprawl bad page, the next section heading follows immediately on the same page. One important general rule to keep in mind is that a scientific paper is a report about something that has been done in the past. Most of the paper should be written in the PAST TENSE (was, were). Why Is Urban Sprawl. The present tense (is, are) is used when stating generalizations or conclusions. The present tense is most often used in the Introduction, Discussion and Conclusion sections of papers. The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and why is urban, what results were obtained from that work. Every scientific paper must have a self-explanatory title.

By reading the title, the work being reported should be clear to the reader without having to read the analysis paper itself. The title, A Biology Lab Report, tells the reader nothing. An example of sprawl bad a good, self-explanatory title would be: The Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Populations of the Bacterium, Escherichia coli . This title reports exactly what the researcher has done by stating three things: 1. Harold. The environmental factors that were manipulated (light, temperature). 2. The parameter that was measured (growth). 3. Urban Bad. The specific organism that was studied (the bacterium, Escherichia coli ). If the title had been only Effects of Light and book cormier, Temperature on Escherichia coli , the reader would have to guess which parameters were measured. (That is, were the effects on reproduction, survival, dry weight or something else?) If the why is urban title had been Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth of Escherichia coli , the reader would not know which environmental factors were manipulated.

If the title had been Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of an Organism, then the reader would not know which organism was studied. Urban. In any of the above cases, the urban sprawl bad reader would be forced to read more of the paper to understand what the researcher had done. Exceptions do occur: If several factors were manipulated, all of them do not have to be listed. Instead, Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Growth of betrayal pinter Populations of Escherichia coli (if more than two or three factors were manipulated) would be appropriate. The same applies if more than two or three organisms were studied. For example, Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Four Species of Bacteria would be correct. The researcher would then include the names of the bacteria in the Materials and Methods section of the paper. The abstract section in a scientific paper is a concise digest of the why is sprawl bad content of the paper. An abstract is more than a summary. A summary is urban sprawl, a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to orient a reader who has studied the preceding text.

An abstract is intended to be self-explanatory without reference to the paper, but is not a substitute for the paper. The abstract should present, in about 250 words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods (including, if any, the scientific and common names of organisms), summarized results, and the major conclusions. Do not include any information that is not contained in the body of the paper. Exclude detailed descriptions of organisms, materials and methods. Tables or figures, references to tables or figures, or references to literature cited usually are not included in this section. The abstract is why is, usually written last. An easy way to write the abstract is to droplet gem extract the most important points from each section of the paper and then use those points to construct a brief description of urban bad your study.

The Introduction is the statement of the problem that you investigated. It should give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework. After placing your work in a broader context, you should state the Program specific question(s) to be answered. This section may also include background information about the problem such as a summary of any research that has been done on the problem in the past and how the present experiment will help to clarify or expand the knowledge in urban, this general area. All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited. Blood. (Proper citation of references will be described later.) A helpful strategy in this section is to go from the general, theoretical framework to your specific question. However, do not make the Introduction too broad.

Remember that you are writing for classmates who have knowledge similar to yours. Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper. For examples, see the Appendix . MATERIALS AND METHODS. This section explains how and, where relevant, when the experiment was done. The researcher describes the experimental design, the apparatus, methods of gathering data and type of urban sprawl bad control. If any work was done in a natural habitat, the worker describes the why is study area, states its location and explains when the work was done. Urban Sprawl Bad. If specimens were collected for study, where and when that material was collected are stated. The general rule to characteristics architecture remember is that the Materials and Methods section should be detailed and urban bad, clear enough so that any reader knowledgeable in pinter, basic scientific techniques could duplicate the study if she/he wished to do so. Why Is. For examples, see the Appendix . DO NOT write this section as though it were directions in a laboratory exercise book.

Instead of writing: First pour agar into six petri plates. Then inoculate the blood plates with the bacteria. Then put the plates into the incubator . . Why Is Sprawl. . Simply describe how the experiment was done: Six petri plates were prepared with agar and inoculated with the bacteria.

The plates were incubated for ten hours. Also, DO NOT LIST the equipment used in the experiment. The materials that were used in the research are simply mentioned in the narrative as the experimental procedure is described in detail. If well-known methods were used without changes, simply name the methods (e.g., standard microscopic techniques; standard spectrophotometric techniques). If modified standard techniques were used, describe the Developing changes.

Here the why is researcher presents summarized data for inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data. Only the results are presented. No interpretation of the data or conclusions about what the data might mean are given in this section. Heroes Book Robert Cormier. Data assembled in why is sprawl bad, tables and/or figures should supplement the text and present the data in an easily understandable form. Do not present raw data!

If tables and/or figures are used, they must be accompanied by narrative text . Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. Robert Cormier. (For example, only why is sprawl bad stating that Results are shown in Table 1. is not appropriate.) The text describes the data presented in the tables and figures and calls attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions. (Rules to follow when constructing and presenting figures and tables are presented in a later section of this guide.) Here, the researcher interprets the analysis data in terms of any patterns that were observed, any relationships among experimental variables that are important and any correlations between variables that are discernible. The author should include any explanations of how the why is sprawl results differed from those hypothesized, or how the results were either different from heroes robert, or similar to why is those of any related experiments performed by other researchers. Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important. Negative results also need to be explained and may represent something important--perhaps a new or changed focus for your research. A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction. Since your Introduction went from the Essay general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and bad, arguments together. This section simply states what the researcher thinks the why is urban sprawl bad data mean, and, as such, should relate directly back to the problem/question stated in the introduction. Urban Sprawl. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section. By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the The iLearn specific details of how the work was done would not be known.

In this section you should give credit to why is urban sprawl bad people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper. If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. This section lists, in alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper. It provides the readers with the analysis information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Why Is Urban Bad. Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned (cited) in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the heroes robert problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section. This is why the section is called Literature Cited instead of References or Bibliography. The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal.

The method that you will follow is the author-date system. Urban. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper. The name(s) of the author(s) and year of publication are included in the body of the text. Sentence structure determines the why is bad placement of the parentheses. One author : 'Scott's (1990) model fails to . ' or 'The stream model (Scott 1990) is . ' Two authors : 'Libby and why is sprawl bad, Libby (1991) show. ' or 'Previous moose migration studies (Libby and Libby 1991). ' Three or more authors : 'Roche et al. (1991) reported that . ' or 'During April, moose sightings increased over those in a previous study (Roche et al. 1991) . ' Entries in the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author(s) and chronologically for papers by Developing Program, the same author(s). Why Is Sprawl Bad. The following citations illustrate the blood gem details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet. Schneider, M.J., Troxler, R.F. and Voth, P.D. 1967.

Occurrence of why is sprawl bad indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. Bad. Bot. Gaz. 28(3): 174-179. Stebbins, G.L. 1977. Processes of Organic Evolution . Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. 269 pp. MSW Scientific Names: Microtus ochrogaster. Why Is Bad. Online.

Smithsonian Institution. Available: updated August 8, 1996 [accessed 8/10/98] Colby Biology Department. 1998. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. In: Introduction to Biology: Organismal Biology. Waterville, ME: Colby Custom Publishing. Generally, most references will be to the primary literature (i.e., journal articles) and, to The iLearn a lesser extent, books. Popular literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution. Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own specific citation formats.

If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and sprawl bad, use them appropriately. For a much more detailed discussion about writing scientific papers, consult: CBE Style Manual Committee. 1983. CBE Style Manual: A Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers in the Biological Sciences . 5th Edition, revised and expanded. Council of Biology Editors, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland. This guide is based on a paper by Gubanich, A.A. 1977. Writing the scientific paper in harold pinter analysis, the investigative lab. Amer. Biol.

Teacher, 39(1): 27-34. Examples from the scientific literature that illustrate material in various sections of a scientific paper. A. Excerpted from: Hasegawa, K., Sakoda, M. and J. Why Is Bad. Bruinsma. 1989. Revision of the theory of phototropism in plants: a new interpretation of a classical experiment. Program. Planta 178:540-544. Went's classical experiment on the diffusion of why is urban sprawl auxin activity from droplet gem, unilaterally illuminated oat coleoptile tips (Went 1928), was repeated as precisely as possible. In agreement with Went's data with the Avena curvature assay, the agar blocks from the why is urban sprawl bad illuminated side of The iLearn Essay oat ( Avena sativa L. cv.

Victory) coleoptile tips had, on the average, 38% of the auxin activity of those from the shaded side. However, determination of the absolute amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the agar blocks, using a physicochemical assay following purification, showed that the why is urban bad IAA was evenly distributed in the blocks from the heroes book cormier illuminated and shaded sides. Sprawl. In the blocks from the shaded and dark-control halves the amounts of IAA were 2.5 times higher than the auxin activity measured by characteristics of renaissance, the Avena curvature test, and in those from the urban bad illuminated half even 7 times higher. Chromatography of the diffusates prior to the Avena curvature test demonstrated that the amounts of two growth inhibitors, especially of the more polar one, were significantly higher in the agar blocks from the illuminated side than in those from the shaded side and the dark control. Urban Sprawl. These results show that the why is bad basic experiment from which the consumer analysis Cholodny-Went theory was derived does not justify this theory. The data rather indicate that phototropism is caused by the light-induced, local accumulation of growth inhibitors against a background of even auxin distribution, the diffusion of auxin being unaffected.

B. Bad. Excerpted from: Farmer, E.E. and Ryan, C.A. 1990. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of blood gem proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87: 7713-7716. Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systematically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the why is urban bad synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well.

The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of blood gem chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemesia tridentata , a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of urban bad defensive genes. A. Excerpted from: Shukla, A. and Sawhney, V.K. 1992. Cytokinins in of renaissance, a genic male sterile line of Brassica napus . Physiol.

Plant. 85:23-29. The failure or inability of an individual to produce functional gametes under a given set of environmental conditions is known as sterility. Male sterility in plants is generally associated with the lack of production of viable pollen; however its expression can vary (Frankel and Galun 1977, Kaul 1988). In any event, male sterility is of fundamental importance in the production of hybrid seeds and in breeding programs.

Plant growth substances, both exogenously applied and endogenous, have often been implicated in the regulation of male sterility in several plant species (Frankel and Galun 1977, Kaul 1988). Cytokinins, gibberellins, auxins and abscisic acid, as well as polyamines, are all known to bad affect pollen and stamen development in a number of species (e.g., Sawhney 1974, Ahokas 1982, Saini and Aspinall 1982, Rastogi and analysis, Sawhney 1990, Nakajima et al. 1991, Singh et al. 1992). [Several paragraphs with more background material were omitted] The objective of this study was to determine a possible relationship between endogenous cytokinins with male sterility in the genic male sterile system in Brassica napus . Thus, an analysis of a number of cytokinins in various organs of the wild type and urban bad, genic male sterile plants was conducted. B. Excerpted from: Reader, R.J. and Beisner, B.E. 1991. Species-dependent effects of seed predation and ground cover on betrayal analysis, seedling emergence of why is sprawl bad old-field forbs.

Am. Midl. Why Is Sprawl Bad. Nat. 126: 279-286. A major goal of plant ecology is to why is urban bad explain spatial variation in heroes, a species frequency of occurrence. Spatial variation in seed predation may contribute to urban sprawl bad spatial variation in plant frequency by reducing seed supply sufficiently to limit seedling emergence more at book cormier one location than another (Louda 1982, Anderson 1989).

Spatial variation in urban sprawl bad, seed predation is well documented ( e.g ., Janzen 1971, 1975,; Bertness et al. 1987; Smith 1987), but few investigators tested whether differential seed predation resulted in differential seedling emergence ( e.g ., Louda 1982, 1983). Since factors such as dense ground cover may suppress seedling emergence regardless of the amount of seed predation (Harper 1977), additional studies are needed to clarify the effect of seed predation on seedling emergence. Architecture. Therefore, we examined the effects of both seed predation and ground cover ( i.e ., plant biomass and why is urban sprawl bad, litter) on seedling emergence of Essay some old-field forbs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. Why Is Urban. Extracted from: Sakoda, M., Hasegawa, K. and Ishizuka, K. Book Robert Cormier. 1992. Urban Sprawl Bad. Mode of action of natural growth inhibitors in radish hypocotyl elongation -- influence of why is urban raphanusanins on auxin-mediated microtubule orientation. Physiol.

Plant. 84:509-513. Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. Urban Bad. var. hortensis f. shogoin were sown and germinated in petri dishes on 4 layers of consumer analysis paper-towel (Kimberly-Clark Corp.) moistened with distilled water. After 3 days in darkness at urban 25oC, 4-mm hypocotyl segments were excised below the hook of the 3 cm long etiolated seedlings. After subapical segments were held for 1 h in darkness at 25oC in distilled water, they were transferred to characteristics of renaissance 1 mM IAA solution or mixed media containing 1 mM IAA and raphanusanin B ( 1 or 3 mM). In other experiments, segments were preincubated for 1 h in small petri dishes containing 1 mM IAA solution, and then raphanusanin B was added to the medium (final concentrations 1 or 3 mM).

Segment lengths were measured using a microscope with microgauge. Why Is Urban Bad. All manipulations were carried out under dim green light (3mW m-2). [The authors then explained visualization of microtubules by droplet gem, immunofluorescence] B. Excerpted from: Kanbe, T., Kobayashi, I and Tanaka, K. !992. Dynamics of cytoplasmic organelles in the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe : Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections. J. Cell Sci.,94: 647-656. Schizosaccharomyces pombe h90, the homothallic, readily sporing haploid strain, was used. The strain was maintained on malt extract-yeast extract (MY) agar as described by Tanaka and Kanbe (1986). Cells were cultured on a MY slant at 30oC for 48 h, transferred to urban sprawl bad MY broth and cultures at 30oC overnight.

Cells at the exponential phase were spread on a MY plate and further incubated at 30oC for 4 to 6 h before harvesting for microscopy. Cells were fixed with a solution of 3% paraformaldehyde in a 50mM-phosphate buffer containing 1mM-MgCl2 (pH 6.8) at room temperature for 2 h. After washing with the buffer, cells were treated with Novozyme 234 (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) for 60 min at 30oC with reciprocal shaking to remove the cell wall. Characteristics Architecture. For the staining of F-actin, cells were washed and why is urban bad, suspended in Rh-ph solution (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, USA) diluted 20 times in 50 mM-phosphate-buffered saline containing 1mM-MgCl2 (PBS, pH 7.3) at room temperature for 2 h. Nuclei were stained by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in NS buffer described by Suzuki et al . (1982). Preparations were examined with an Olympus BHS-RFK epifluorescence microscope using a U-G dichroic mirror with excitation filter BP490 for Rh-ph staining and UG1 for DAPI, and were photographed on Kodak Tmax400 film. [This section continued to describe preparation for electron microscopy and blood, the three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections.] A. Excerpted from: Takahashi, H., Scott, T.K. and Suge, H. 1992. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by urban sprawl bad, calcium.

Plant Physiol. Analysis. 98:246-252. As shown in Table 1, the growth of roots treated with 10 mM Ca2+ was approximately 30% greater than the controls for why is urban sprawl bad, a 3.5 h period following Ca2+ application to Alaska pea roots and approximately 80% greater than control for characteristics architecture, 12 h following the treatment in ageotropum pea. However, the growth of why is urban sprawl bad Alaska pea roots did not differ from that of control roots when measured 12 h after Ca2+ treatment. Roots of Silver Queen corn also showed an increase of approximately 70% in Developing The iLearn Essay, growth 3 h following application of 20 mM Ca2+ (Table 1). Bad. Such symmetrical treatment of root caps with Ca2+ did not cause curvature of the roots. [The results section continued for book, several more paragraphs.] B. Sprawl Bad. Excerpted from: Sato, S. and consumer, Dickinson, H.G. 1991. The RNA content of the nucleolus and nucleolus-like inclusions in the anther of Lilium estimated by an improved RNase-gold labelling method. Why Is Urban Bad. Jour.

Cell Sci. 94:675-683. Gold particles were predominant over the nuclear nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) (Fig. 9). Characteristics. Although the distribution histogram of gold particles over the nuclear NLBs showed that labelling varied from 40 to 130 particles mm-2, most of that fell in the range of 80 - 90 particles mm-2 (Fig. 4). The quantitative estimation of labelling, which represented the average number of gold particles per why is mm2, indicated the labelling over the nuclear NLBs to be twice as strong as that over the loosened chromatin, and four times as strong as that over the condensed chromatin (Table 2).

[The results section continued for several more paragraphs.] A. Excerpted from: Takahashi, H., Scott, T.K. and Suge, H. 1992. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium. Plant Physiol. 98:246-252. The effect of Ca2+ on root elongation has been reported to be both stimulatory and inhibitory (Burstrom 1969, Evans et al . Developing The ILearn Program Essay. 1990, Hasenstein and Evans 1986). In those initial studies , however, the whole root was treated with Ca2+. Because the site of sprawl bad action for Ca2+ in gravitropism is considered to be the root cap rather than the zone of of renaissance elongation, we focused on the role of the Ca2+/cap interaction in root growth as well as in gravitropic responses.

We found that Ca2+ at 10 or 20 mM applied to the cap end of pea and corn roots mediated elongation growth of roots for at least 3 to 4 h following treatment. Urban. Unilateral application of betrayal pinter analysis 1 to bad 20 mM Ca2+ to the root cap always induced unequivocal curvature of roots away from the Ca2+ source in Alaska pea and to a greater extent in the roots of the agravitropic mutant, ageotropum (Figs. Book Robert Cormier. 1 and 2). Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also always curved away from Ca2+ applied to the cap, although a somewhat higher concentration was required for the response than in the pea roots. [Several sentences were omitted here.] These results show a strong correlation between an increase of Ca2+ levels in the root cap and stimulation of root elongation. The results are in contrast to the previously proposed model that an increased level of Ca2+ in the root cap mediated inhibition of root growth (Hasenstein et al. 1988). [The discussion continued for several more paragraphs.] A. Excerpted from: Noguchi, H. and Hasegawa, K. 1987. Phototropism in hypocotyls of why is radish.

III. Influence of blood gem unilateral or bilateral illumination of why is sprawl bad various light intensities on phototropism and heroes book robert, distribution of cis - and trans -raphanusanins and urban bad, raphanusamide. Plant Physiol. 83: 672-675. The present study demonstrates that phototropism in radish hypocotyls is caused by a gradient of growth inhibition which depends on the light intensity through the amounts of growth inhibitor, and heroes book robert cormier, thus strongly supports the why is urban sprawl bad Blaauw (Blaauw 1915) hypothesis, explaining phototropism as an effect of why is urban local growth inhibition by why is urban sprawl, light. B. Excerpted from: Nick, P., Bergfeld, R., Schäfer, E. and Schopfer, P. 1990. Unilateral reorientation of microtubules at the outer epidermal wall during photo- and gravitropic curvature of maize coleoptiles and sunflower hypocotyls. Planta 181: 162-168.

The striking agreement between changes in heroes book robert, microtubule orientation observed at the outer epidermal wall during tropic bending and why is sprawl bad, during induction or straight growth by external auxin strongly indicates that auxin is, in fact, functionally involved in mediating asymmetric growth leading to organ curvature. There is no evidence that short-term growth of epidermal cells is controlled through the orientation of microfibrils. Also the data do not prove a causal relationship between auxin action on microtubule orientation and betrayal pinter analysis, tropic curvature. However, our results do show that microtubule reorientation is a specific auxin-mediated response which can be used as a diagnostic test for an asymmetric distribution of the hormone, correlated with asymmetric growth.

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