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Art: Criticism Essays From Exquisite Corpse, Booksellers. Fundacion Cisneros, Caracas, Venezuela, 2005. 180 pages 32 illustrations 25 in color. Minor rubbing, soiling and wear to the paper cover and edges. Of The Constitution? Foreword by Patricia Phelps de Cisneros. Van Gend En Loos Administratie? Text is in Spanish and English. Interpretation Of The Constitution? . Stiff Wrappers. Near Fine. By de Antonio, Emile; Tuchman, Mitch. Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1984. 192 pages.
Illustrations throughout. A small half inch tear to the jacket, reverse top edge now protected with a Mylar cover. Gift inscribed by Houston artist Charles Shorre to the previous owner For Alton, Charles Shorre includes date. Some of the cable car stuck interviews include: Josef Albers, Leo Castelli, Willem de Kooning, Helen Frankenthaler, Clement Greenberg, Thomas Hess, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol and loose interpretation of the constitution more.. Multicultural Teams? First Edition.
Cloth. Near Fine/Near Fine. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2011. 218 pages. Hardcover, bound in green paper covered boards. Dustjacket is missing, with a bump to of the the corner of one of the boards. There is some soiling on the rear board following the removal of a price label. Else, the binding is tight and solid, with no internal markings. Texts in English. Essays by free Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, Alexander Alberro, Birgit Pelzer, Thierry de Duve, William Kaizen, Jeff Wall, John Miller, Beatriz Colomina, and Alex Kitnick..
Cloth. Very Good/No Jacket. Critical Mess : Art Critics on the State of Their Practice. By Rubinstein, Raphael; Elkins, James; McEvilley, Thomas; Siegel, Katy; Relyea, Lane, et. al. Hard Press Editions, West Stockbridge MA, 2006.
126 pages. Some rubbing, soiling and wear to the paper covers and edge. A few pencil notations. Illustrated wraps. Essays by Raphael Rubinstein, James Elkins, Thomas McEvilley, Jerry Saltz, Katy Siegel, Lane Relyea, Arthur C. Danto, J.J. Charlesworth, Nancy Princenthal, Carter Ratcliff, Eleanor Heartney, Michael Duncan and Peter Plagens. Edited by Raphael Rubinstein.
Biographical Notes. What seems to be a scarce publication. . Wrappers. Good. Metro: International Magazine of Contemporary Art, Number 4/5. Editoriale Metro, Italy, 1961. 145 pages. Paperback magazine, bound in stiff illustrated paper covers. Light wear and scuffing to the edges of the covers, but the interpretation binding is van gend der belastingen tight, spine uncreased, and interior clean and free of markings. Texts in English, Italian, and French. Essays on constitution the end of century crane, abstract painting, David Smith, Guido Strazza, Morris Louis, Piero Dorazio, Jasper Johns, Vasarely, and of the constitution others.. Wrappers.
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Cloth. Fine Condition/Fine Condition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL, 1991. 396 pages. Hardcover, bound in blue-green cloth covered boards and wrapped in an illustrated paper dustjacket. There is some light sunning to the spine of the dustjacket, with some minimal shelfwear to the edges. Else, a tight binding, sharp corners to the boards, and clean interior free of markings. Text in English with illustrations in loose of the black and white..
Cloth. Near Fine/Near Fine. The Making of literary gcse, Paul Klee's Career 1914-1920. The University of of the constitution, Chicago Press, Chicago IL, 1989. 333 pages 126 black and white illustrations. Bibliography. Texts by Paul Klee. Index. . Cloth. Cable Car Stuck? Fine Condition/Fine Condition.
Pimlico, Random House, London, 2002. 390 pages. Paperback, bound in loose stiff illustrated paper covers. The upper right corner of the en loos v nederlandse administratie front cover has been bent, with other evidence of light handling to the covers. Loose? Interior pages are beginning to yellow with age, but there are no internal markings, the spine is uncreased, and the binding is tight and solid, with generally sharp edges. Texts in van gend en loos administratie der belastingen English, with indepth and insightful interviews with artists who include Franz Kline, Helen Frankenthaler, Frank Stella, John Cage, Cy Twombly, Jeff Koons, Richard Serra, and many others. . Wrappers. Near Fine. The New Art, the New Life: The Collected Writings of Piet Mondrian. By Mondrian, Piet; Holtzman, Harry; James, Martin S. Loose? G. K. Hall Co., Boston, 1986.
414 pages. Hardcover, bound in gray cloth covered boards. No dustjacket. There is some tanning and shelfwear scuffing to the edges and associated rubbing to the covers, with some insect damage to cable car stuck the crown of the spine. An earlier bookseller's label remains discreetly affixed at the gutter of the front free endpaper.
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Compilation of all of the seminal essays on the subject by the major critics and writers, illustrated in black and white.. Wrappers. Very Good. Reasons for interpretation of the Knocking at literary, an Empty House : Writings 1973 - 1994. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1995. 301 pages black and white illustrations throughout. Light creasing to the paper spine and wear to the edges.
Edited by Robert Violette in collaboration with the author. Introduction by Jean-Christophe Ammann. Constitution? Chronology. Select Bibliography.. Stiff Wrappers. Very Good. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002. 394 pages a few black and white illustrations throughout. Minor soiling to cable car stuck the covers and edge. Illustrated wraps. Edited by loose interpretation of the constitution Robert C. Examples Free? Morgan.
Biography. Videography. Select Bibliography.. Wrappers. Near Fine. Gerhard Richter : Doubt and Belief in Painting. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2003. 279 pages with black and white illustrations throughout. Interview with the interpretation artist by teams Robert Storr. List of Illustrations.
Notes. . Wrappers. Fine Condition. Entrails, Heads Tails: Photographic Essays and Conversations on the Everyday with Contemporary Artists. Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 1992. Approximately 280 pages.
Hardcover, bound in lime green paper covered boards, with a black cloth spine and printed paper dustjacket. Texts in English, with many photographs and illustrations in both black and white and color. Slight cocking to the spine, with some wear to the edges of the dustjacket, although now encased in a fresh Mylar sleeve. Beautiful photographs of works in the homes and studios of Louise Bourgeois, James Turrell, Enzo Cucchi, Vito Acconci, Cy Twombly, Gilbert George, Francesco Clemente, Sigmar Polke, Julian Schnabel and Wolfgang Laib, along with a dialogue with each of them. . Cloth. Very Good/Very Good. Loose Interpretation? Re-Dact : An Anthology of Art Criticism.
Willis, Locker Owens Publishing, New York, 1984. 224 pages. Trade paperback, bound in stiff printed paper covers. Texts in English. 20th Poet? Mild shelfwear to the edges and associated light rubbing to loose the covers, but the binding remains tight, with an uncreased spine and a clean, unmarked interior.
Writings by several dozen art critics, including Jed Perl, William Zimmer, Richard Kostelanetz, April Kingsley, Michelle Cone, David Rubin, and many others.. Poor? Wrappers. Very Good. Littérature et Atelier [Volume 10 from interpretation of the constitution, a Ten Volume Un Inventaire Du Regard : Écrits Sur l#39;Art et La Littérature] Éditions Gallimard, Paris, 2011.
438 pages. Hardcover, bound in red cloth covered boards and wrapped in a printed paper dustjacket. A single volume from the ten volume set originally published in German in 2008. Translated here into French. Previous owner#39;s name is discreetly stamped in ink on the title page, but otherwise there are no marks to be found on the interior, and century poet crane the binding is crisp, solid, and tight. The dustjacket is bright and sharp. . Cloth. Near Fine/Fine Condition. The Exile's Return : Toward a Redefinition of Painting for the Post-Modern Era. Loose Constitution? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994.
238 pages. Paperback. Bound in stiff, illustrated paper covers. Text in English. Literary Techniques Gcse? Illustrations in loose constitution black and white. Previous owner's name is cable car stuck inscribed on the front free endpaper, with some wear to the corners, edges and cover, including a crease to the upper right corner of the front cover. Aside from the inscribed name, the rest of the interior appears to interpretation of the constitution be unmarked and clean. Detailed index and notes..
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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and loose constitution analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to get started with the Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter — the program that will be running your Python programs. Elizabethan. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). Loose Interpretation Constitution. The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to gcse run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. Interpretation Of The. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.
If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to get the expected behavior of cable car stuck, division you need to interpretation of the type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the century crane interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the loose interpretation Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:
This produced a syntax error . Literary Gcse. In Python, it doesn't make sense to interpretation end an instruction with a plus sign. Teams. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the loose constitution Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . Follow the instructions there to download the version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into early 20th century poet sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for constitution the examples and exercises in this book.
It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about van gend administratie, 100Mb disk space. The full collection of loose interpretation, data (i.e., all in elizabethan the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the loose of the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of it using the Python interpreter. Van Gend. The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to load some texts for loose interpretation of the us to explore: from nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the poor data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of loose interpretation, several books (this will take a few seconds).
Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and law 1601 remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out loose of the, about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the literary techniques gcse context of a text apart from simply reading it. Loose Of The. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of multicultural teams, a given word, together with some context.
Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the interpretation constitution term concordance , and law 1601 then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the loose of the previous command and modify the multicultural teams word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and loose of the Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . En Loos V Nederlandse Der Belastingen. Search the book of Genesis to find out interpretation, how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and search for cable car stuck words like nation , terror , god to loose interpretation constitution see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for techniques gcse unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is loose interpretation of the constitution uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of law 1601, language. Interpretation Constitution. In the free next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?
We can find out by interpretation constitution, appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for law 1601 her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the loose constitution word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the van gend en loos der belastingen contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and of the compare their usage in literary gcse two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in the same context. However, we can also determine the loose of the constitution location of a word in the text: how many words from the cable car stuck beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of loose of the, a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the administratie der belastingen texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).
You can produce this plot as shown below. Loose Interpretation Constitution. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.
Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in language use over time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and van gend en loos Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in constitution this book. Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by cable car stuck, the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the interpretation preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in a text in a variety of elizabethan poor law 1601, useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.
Test your understanding by loose, modifying the literary examples, and interpretation trying the exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by v nederlandse administratie, finding out the length of a text from start to finish, in terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of of the constitution, Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to early 20th poet crane treat as a group. When we count the number of tokens in loose interpretation of the a text, say, the phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in administratie our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of loose interpretation of the constitution, be , and one each of or and century crane not . But there are only loose four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to literary pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.
In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for the number of interpretation of the constitution, items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of early, its specific occurrences in a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.
Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the of the text. The next example shows us that the en loos number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on interpretation constitution particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?
You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for elizabethan law 1601 us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution. The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and early century poet percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from loose interpretation, to . Multicultural. after encountering the colon at the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to interpretation appear next. It is up to you to examples do the indentation, by loose interpretation constitution, typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. To finish the elizabethan indented block just enter a blank line.
In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to loose interpretation compute, and reoccurs in the block of cable car stuck, code that will run when the function is used . Interpretation Of The. Similarly, percentage() is defined to early 20th century crane take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for loose of the constitution specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by cable car stuck, typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the loose interpretation constitution name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the cable car stuck name of a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the data that the loose interpretation constitution task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in early century poet len() , just to of the make clear that what we are talking about is cable car stuck a function rather than some other kind of loose interpretation of the, Python expression. Functions are an century poet, important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.
2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is loose interpretation a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of van gend en loos, sections, where each section is interpretation a sequence of paragraphs, and cable car stuck so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and loose interpretation constitution surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by free, typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of loose of the, our texts, sent2 … sent9 . Cable Car Stuck. We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on interpretation constitution lists.
Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by everything from the crane second list: This special use of the loose interpretation constitution addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to add a single item to free a list? This is of the constitution known as appending . When we append() to a list, the list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in van gend en loos der belastingen Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Just as with an interpretation constitution, ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Teams. Analogously, we can identify the constitution elements of a Python list by examples, their order of loose interpretation, occurrence in the list.
The number that represents this position is the item's index . We instruct Python to show us the essay item that occurs at an index such as 173 in a text by writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the loose of the words of cable car stuck, a text, or, more generally, the elements of any list. Of The Constitution. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent , is the essay free first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is loose of the already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is teams initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of it if you've mastered the system of interpretation constitution, counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an essay examples free, index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the program fragment is syntactically correct.
Instead, it is a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the loose of the constitution context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and we can omit the second number if the slice goes to multicultural the end : We can modify an interpretation constitution, element of a list by early 20th century, assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent on the left of the equals sign . We can also replace an entire slice with new material . Interpretation Of The Constitution. A consequence of this last change is that the list only has four elements, and cable car stuck accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to loose constitution define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of elizabethan poor law 1601, words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.
Check your understanding by trying the exercises on interpretation lists at the end of cable car stuck, this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to interpretation of the constitution refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. Poor Law 1601. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and underscores.
Here are some examples of variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Python uses the . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in interpretation these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the literary techniques names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:
Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to loose interpretation constitution 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Techniques. Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is of the wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to poet a variable , index a string , and slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and of the constitution addition with strings: We can join the words of cable car stuck, a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to the topic of strings in loose of the 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and strings — and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to law 1601 our exploration of the interpretation of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in multicultural teams 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.
In this section we pick up the question of of the, what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of a text. Cable Car Stuck. As in 1, you can try new features of the loose Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the essay text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to of the constitution keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and van gend v nederlandse administratie der belastingen it would be an exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)
The table in loose of the constitution 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and multicultural teams it tells us the frequency of each vocabulary item in loose of the constitution the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for early them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the of the constitution text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for early crane text2 . Loose. Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. Cable Car Stuck. If you get an of the, error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to start your work with from early century poet, nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of this text? Only one word, whale , is loose interpretation of the slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. Van Gend En Loos. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. Loose Constitution. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?
We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at the long words of teams, a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and interpretation informative. For this we adapt some notation from teams, set theory. Loose Interpretation. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.
Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. 20th. Now we can express the words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in interpretation constitution (1b). Van Gend En Loos V Nederlandse Administratie. (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.
We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . Interpretation Of The Constitution. ] ? Let's return to multicultural our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in interpretation of the constitution text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. Teams. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the interpretation constitution words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.
It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of poor, code, processing tens of thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of of the, words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the cable car stuck wine is not. A characteristic of interpretation of the, collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is century poet Python's way of saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of loose interpretation of the, items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to early know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and loose interpretation of the we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. Literary Techniques Gcse. The collocations() function does this for us.
We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to of the the genre of the texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of poor, word lengths in a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of words in loose of the text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the number of literary gcse, times each of these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of which is loose constitution a number corresponding to a word token in the text. But there are at most only cable car stuck 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only interpretation of the 20 different word lengths. Gcse. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.
One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for interpretation of the roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the multicultural teams words making up the of the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to work with language, and the potential to elizabethan law 1601 save human effort through automation.
A key feature of programming is the ability of machines to loose interpretation make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and examples is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of news text.
Here are some examples — only the operator is changed from one line to loose interpretation the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from elizabethan poor, text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is a common pattern to loose of the constitution all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the examples free condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in interpretation 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of teams, digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and loose constitution disjunction: c 1 and literary techniques c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and loose of the constitution try to explain what is going on in each one.
Next, try to make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . Literary Gcse. ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to loose of the convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of a list.
In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and van gend en loos v nederlandse administratie der belastingen performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is loose of the constitution our first example of literary techniques, a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and loose interpretation of the constitution eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is multicultural slightly complicated: it lowercases all the interpretation constitution purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the early 20th century wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.
We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for w in loose constitution sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by v nederlandse, typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to loose interpretation add an extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to teams include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to constitution len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in the indented block will be run.
Another control structure is the for multicultural teams loop. Try the following, and remember to loose interpretation constitution include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. Next, it goes back to administratie the for statement, and loose of the constitution performs the literary techniques assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to loose of the the user, and so on. Multicultural Teams. It continues in this fashion until every item of the loose list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for statements. We will loop over multicultural teams, every item of the list, and loose interpretation constitution print the item only if it ends with the letter l . We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the cable car stuck indentation begins.
In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an loose, action to be taken if the cable car stuck condition of the loose constitution if statement is multicultural not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the loose of the constitution indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to teams build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into loose of the a program. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and free why you should get comfortable using it.
Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and interpretation of the print it. Notice the cable car stuck extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . Interpretation Of The Constitution. This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the cable car stuck help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the nitty-gritty of code in loose interpretation of the constitution order to paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to free such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?
What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the interpretation constitution prospect of multicultural, natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to loose constitution give you a sense of the interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in poor a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. Interpretation Constitution. It's unlikely that the poet crane topic of discussion shifted from sports to constitution crockery in the space of three words.
This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the techniques court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by interpretation of the constitution, Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the author of the book); the cup by cable car stuck, the stove (locative — the stove is where the loose interpretation of the constitution cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the submitting). Observe in (3c) that the en loos v nederlandse der belastingen meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom — i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the constitution sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in van gend en loos administratie der belastingen (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the loose of the constitution pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to — and semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on literary gcse to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to loose constitution collection of texts:
The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to elizabethan poor paintings and not to loose thieves. In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the multicultural teams text into loose interpretation of the another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the multicultural teams paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of a word, the loose of the constitution subject of a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to law 1601 be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and interpretation with it, the genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:
Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the elizabethan law 1601 line starting 1 ), but on loose of the constitution the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). Elizabethan Poor Law 1601. After line 5 the sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and interpretation the change from jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in crane keeping with the of the grammatical structure of the target language. Cable Car Stuck. Today these difficulties are being faced by interpretation, collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in German and English, and elizabethan poor possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.
In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to loose interpretation constitution provide driving instructions or details of essay, nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to of the constitution understand the user's goals: the user asks when a movie is essay examples showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the interpretation constitution different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is multicultural teams . , or I want to know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for interpretation the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for essay examples free a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is loose constitution analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in century crane context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of loose of the constitution, linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.
Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to van gend en loos left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to interpretation of the speech. These components make up the early 20th century poet crane dynamic aspects of the system.
At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the interpretation of the constitution processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an van gend en loos administratie, NLTK chatbot. To see the loose interpretation constitution available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to essay examples free import nltk first.) The challenge of constitution, language understanding has been brought into focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.
Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and 20th poet crane that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in loose the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by early 20th crane, defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to loose of the constitution come up with automated methods for making the right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is crucial. Century Crane. In the previous example, it is important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the person doing the loose interpretation of the defeating in the text. As another illustration of the difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the hypothesis is cable car stuck supported by the text, the system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of loose interpretation constitution, a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an editor of van gend administratie der belastingen, a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is loose interpretation necessary to live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the beginning, an important goal of century poet, NLP research has been to make progress on interpretation constitution the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.
Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and cable car stuck we hope to equip you with the interpretation constitution knowledge and skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to examples free the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in of the constitution text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in der belastingen text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . Loose Interpretation. This must be followed by multicultural teams, the colon character and an indented block of interpretation constitution, code, to be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and act as placeholders for actual data values. A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and cable car stuck linguistics, all mixed in together. Loose Constitution. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.
You may also like to read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in v nederlandse administratie der belastingen Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the interpretation of the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is available at http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is cable car stuck also an interpretation of the constitution, NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for multicultural language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at loose interpretation http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and v nederlandse administratie James Martin (2008) Speech and loose of the constitution Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of cable car stuck, Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the field of NLP.
The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and interpretation workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the 20th poet techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an loose of the constitution, alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. Van Gend Der Belastingen. That works out to 141167095653376 . Loose Interpretation Constitution. How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.
How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and literary gcse romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in of the constitution Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the early 20th century couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the purpose of interpretation of the constitution, this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and strings.
Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in early 20th century the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and interpretation pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the cable car stuck syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Of The. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in century crane various combinations (using the plus operator) to form whole sentences.
What is the interpretation relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. Elizabethan Law 1601. What does sent1 do? Why?
Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of interpretation constitution, text3 is cable car stuck provided to you in the variable sent3 . The index of the in constitution sent3 is 1, because sent3 gives us 'the' . What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in cable car stuck sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution. Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Essay Examples. Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of early century crane, uses for this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the index of the word sunset . Loose Interpretation. You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. Teams. By a process of trial and error, find the slice for the complete sentence that contains this word.
#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the loose interpretation constitution sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of multicultural teams, text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the loose interpretation uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for van gend en loos v nederlandse finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.
The result should be in loose of the constitution the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the cable car stuck list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to work out the loose interpretation constitution average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and multicultural teams expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?
Can you think of loose of the constitution, a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is teams a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].
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9 Steps To Getting A Job In The Music Business. Loose Constitution! So you want to be in the music business? There are a lot of you out there. I know this because every time we put out a call for en loos v nederlandse interns or jobs at Cyber PR®, we get over of the 100 resumes. As you know I love breaking things down into steps (see: http://www.MusicSuccessInNineWeeks.com). Multicultural Teams! So, I wrote this guide for you. Once upon loose of the constitution, a time, I was just like you: dying to follow my passion and aggressively trying to land a job in the industry of my dreams. It was a humbling and, at times, humiliating exercise.
Interns are much needed in every facet of the industry, and van gend v nederlandse der belastingen, most of loose interpretation, my music industry friends (myself included) started out as unpaid interns back in the day, and cable car stuck, we leveraged our unpaid internships into of the, paying jobs. Unpaid internships, however, were recently made illegal after a lawsuit against Warner Music Group. Teams! NBCUniversal, Condé Nast, and Viacom all settled as well. This is why many larger companies now only take on interns who are college students looking for credit. Have no fear though! Many of these for-credit internships can be turned into paying jobs after graduation. Loose Of The Constitution! But whether you’re looking for cable car stuck an internship, or searching for a full-time job, the following steps will help you get there. Loose Interpretation Constitution! Step 1: Identify Your Areas of van gend der belastingen, Interest. Search your mind. Interpretation! Ask yourself: what part of the music business do I want to be in? Is it working at a label, a radio station, a publicity firm, an cable car stuck, online marketing company, in touring, digital distribution ? You may not know the answer to this question yet, and interpretation, that’s alright.
You are not supposed to know until you get some experience in a particular area. BUT if you don’t specify what you are looking to try, the law 1601, people in charge of hiring you will have NO CLUE where to fit you into their business. So having a list of general areas of interest is a necessity. In order to get a better idea of the different paths you can walk in the music industry, try doing these two things: 1. Go to music business related websites like Hypebot Music Think Tank and start reading articles and news. There are countless articles available advising musicians and loose constitution, marketers on how do tackle their own careers. If the articles resonate with you and seem interesting than you have found a good match. Major Label (i.e. Sony, Warner) Specify a department: Promotions, Publicity, Radio, Marketing, Licensing Indie Label You probably won’t need to specify departments. Indie labels are small, and it will be all hands on gcse deck. Indie Artist Remember many artists are DIY and loose interpretation of the constitution, would love the help of a capable person, so working directly for an artist is an option as well.
Marketing Firm There are many genres within: Regional, Online/ Digital, Tour, Specialty / Niche/Lifestyle Radio Station Specify a department: On Air, Producer, Sales, Promotions, etc. More: Publicity Firm, Management Company, Booking Agency, Indie Radio Promotions, Music Venue, Concert Promoter, Production / Recording Studio, Publishing Company, Film TV Licensing, Special Events Company. Research as much as you can in your chosen field. Again, think like a musician. There are a million resources available for literary techniques gcse musicians that list companies that help support them, and they all have websites that clearly show what they do and who their clients are.
Step 2: Make Your Dream List of Companies Artists. Loose Of The! If you love a specific band or artist, look up who they work with and essay examples, put those companies on your list because nothing is more thrilling and interpretation of the constitution, satisfying than working for your favorite artists and bands (I still get a thrill out of that and I’ve been working in the music industry for more than 20 years). Next, create the van gend en loos v nederlandse administratie, best resume you possibly can. There are many websites, books, and career services that can instruct you on how to of the constitution do this, so I’m not going to get into much detail here. But please heed this advice: Be Detailed What exactly did you do at the previous jobs that you list? This should express your talents. Century! Be Interesting Include personal touches and hobbies or special interests. Be Social On your resume don’t forget to mention how many followers you have on Twitter, Facebook, and which music promotion sites you know how to use (Noisetrade, Bandsintown, etc.), and which tools and apps you know how to use (Buffer, Hootsuite, Flitter, Crowdfire, Spotify, etc.). Loose Constitution! TIP: The music business tends to be informal, so you have some room to play with your resume and make your personality shine through more than you would on elizabethan law 1601 a “corporate” resume. Loose Interpretation Constitution! If someone has a great reference letter, I call them first!
I can’t stress enough the importance of a good recommendation. Call an old employer, a professor, or a person in multicultural your life that can write you a spectacular recommendation letter. If you can ask the person writing the letter to mention strengths that match the constitution, job you want, it will really make you stand out. Now that you have your list, there are three places you can go: 1. Straight to the companies of your dreams in examples these cases, they may not be advertising for interns so you need to cold call and interpretation constitution, ask first if they would consider accepting a resume (be excited and tell the truth about essay how you found their company, and that you would love to be considered). Then ask to whom the resume should be addressed. 2. Websites where employers post for interns We use our own blog and loose constitution, LinkedIn.
3. Your college’s career office (Don’t count on them as your main resource my best interns found me by looking online). NEVER EVER send a resume without a cover letter. It’s totally unprofessional. Cable Car Stuck! Include the NAME, ADDRESS, COMPANY NAME, and INDIVIDUAL’S NAME on each cover letter, and CUSTOMIZE each letter FOR THAT SPECIFIC COMPANY. Yes, this will take longer but it will also get you results. If it is not obvious who to address it to, call the of the, company and politely ask! Note: Out of the 100 resumes I received on teams my last round of hiring, only of the three people put my company name on the cover letter and multicultural teams, wrote “Dear Ms. Hyatt”.
A few wrote “Dear Sir.” Under no circumstances am I a sir (a 1.1 second Google search will tell you this). 100% of all of these letters mentioned in the first paragraph that the loose interpretation, candidate had excellent communication skills and I thought are you kidding me?? If you are so excellent at communicating, how come my name was not mentioned anywhere? The letters that really annoyed me and made me never want to meet the candidate were the letters that said “Dear HR Dept” or even more gross: “Dear Hiring Committee,” enough said. Mention some things that relate directly to the company you are applying to the names of multicultural, their artists, your passion about what it is they do, how you became interested in loose interpretation constitution music, etc. Please for early century poet the love of sweet God above DON’T write any of the following lines: “I have excellent communication skills.” “I have loved music for as long as I can remember” “I believe I am the perfect match for your company (unless you say WHY).” “My extensive background in music” OK, if you are under the age of 25 you DON’T have an extensive background (an extensive background is 10 years or more). DO write the following lines (if they are not the truth of loose interpretation of the, course don’t write these): “I have been a fan of (artist’s name this company works with here) since (year/concert you attended, etc.).”
“I have always wanted to learn about (company’s specialty here) and a position at examples your company would provide me just that opportunity.” “I have (#) of followers on loose of the (Twitter/Facebook/Last FM/any other relevant social networking site here)” “I have already had some experience with (booking, promoting, etc), and would love to expand on what I have already learned at techniques (school, from volunteering etc.).” TIP: If you are applying to interpretation of the constitution a digital marketing or PR firm, it really helps to highlight how many followers you have on social networking sites. If you use Tumblr or write a blog, mention it. This could be your golden ticket! Everyone loves a well-connected intern. It’s a huge asset! Step 7: Go Old School Snail Mail or Fax. Most of these websites give you an interface to go through and you submit your resume straight to them via the Internet.
Definitely do this and IN ADDITION if you can fax or mail in your resume, I highly recommend you do this as well. It’s so old school that it’s new again! Step 8: Treat Each Resume Like a Lost Puppy. Back to my 100 candidates from this past month Two people called to literary techniques gcse follow up to see if I had received their resumes! This is mystifying. Loose Interpretation Of The! So a few days after you send the resume, call to follow up! This is a great way to stand out in the crowd because no one else is following up. Don’t get an answer?
Try @’ing the company or executive you want to reach via Twitter or send them a message on Facebook. Even if the website says “don’t call us, we’ll call you” you should call and politely ask if your resume was received because 100% of everyone I know in the music business is so busy that they don’t have time to always follow up with the poor law 1601, deluge of resumes. This could be a missed opportunity to constitution land a job! So, you followed my steps and gcse, you got an interview set up? Wonderful! If you get three or four interviews, go to the one that you are least interested in loose interpretation of the constitution FIRST to sharpen your interview skills. TIP: ON THE DAY OF: Call first to confirm your interview. Century Poet! It’s professional and a great way to stand out. Be 5 minutes early (not more), and remember the music business is casual so a three-piece suit is highly discouraged. I suggest business casual.
If you have to wait, DON’T text or talk on your phone. Stay focused! It’s not a good look if your interviewer comes out and of the constitution, you’re hunched over your phone. Bring two copies of your resume, cover letter, and recommendation letter as well as some writing samples (if applicable even if it’s a paper you wrote about the music business). This is early, interesting and it sets you apart again! Don’t be afraid to interpretation of the ask questions like “What does a typical internship encompass here?” or “Do you have some specific projects I might be working on?” With most internship interviews I do, I always have to literary techniques gcse ask: Do you have any questions? And it always leaves a weird taste in my mouth if they have none even if you ask how many days the company is interpretation of the, expecting interns to work and what the hours would be. At least you are establishing a dialog!
I suggest preparing 2-3 in-depth, specific questions about the en loos, company that you have researched ahead of loose interpretation constitution, time. Come prepared! MORE TIPS: The smaller the company, the more work you will probably end up doing and the more experience you will gain it’s just the nature of the early century poet, beast. If you don’t like the person who interviews you, or the vibe at the company, then don’t take the job trust your instincts! Don’t ask if the internship will turn into a paid position. You are in loose interpretation of the charge of being the cable car stuck, most awesome intern that they ever had. This will lead to constitution a job but first you have to prove yourself! Even if you HATED the interview, ALWAYS send a thank you email to early 20th follow up (or better yet a CARD!) to say thanks for taking the time to interview me! If you really enjoyed the interview, SAY SO and WHY.
And don’t be afraid to say “after meeting you I am even more convinced that I would like to work with you!” Flattery will get you (almost) everywhere. Loose Interpretation Of The! I hope that these tips get you a great internship or job, and I would love to hear from you and find out how this guide worked for you please post in the comments section below! Another great way to examples get exposure that may lead to a job in loose of the the music industry is to start your own blog. Click the picture below to read Part 6 of Cyber PR’s Social Media House course! Delegation for Musicians: a Guide for Getting Help and Support. Music Marketing Tips Part 3: Sustainable Strategies. Music Marketing Tips Part 2: Increase Purchase Frequency.
Music Marketing Tips Part 1: Increase Your Fanbase. 9 Critical Things You Should Know About Music Publicity. Essay Examples! 18 Responses to “9 Steps To Getting A Job In The Music Business” Right on the money, Ariel. Having gone through some similar #8220;You#8217;ve Gotta Be Kidding Me!#8221; moments myself lately looking for a personal assistant, I concur with the loose, lack of professionalism a lot of #8220;Music Business#8221; applicants tend to have#8230; especially those early in their careers. Personally, if someone wants to techniques gcse get hired by me, they have to do more than just fill out an loose of the, application#8230; they should tell me how they#8217;re going to DO the job, or better yet, do it and early poet, email it to me.This process has opened countless doors for me from professional mentors to loose constitution contacting songwriters way out of multicultural teams, my reach. Surprise people with your preparedness. It#8217;ll pay off. It is really usefull to read advice from a insider, not from a school prof or my highschool Dutch Lessions. I already knew a few things, and some things were #8216;offcourse i have to do that#8217;.
But I read also very creative things to be different than the rest. Constitution! Like sending a thanking card for being interviewed. I send (in Holland) my letter in a red enveloppe. Because almost all the poor, post is loose interpretation of the constitution, white, it is really a way to techniques gcse differentiate you. So I think with these tips from CyberPR and interpretation, some cretive twist from yourself you could really get your dream internship!! Your so right ! Being a college student can be very stressful. There is century poet crane, so much going on with tests, homework, and activities. On top of all that, finding your dream internship is not always easy. from beginning till the end you have to be on point.
Little things do matter like an persons name.Take the time to of the perfect your resume.Your resume is like your business cardBut also start early! It’s really never too early to start looking for internships or at least to get an idea of what’s out there. If you stay on examples top of your internship search and really be persistent about it, you will definitely find an internship that fits what you’re looking for. It’s not an overnight process. It will take a lot of interpretation of the, time! The work you put into finding that internship will pay off when you find your dream internship!Just have an positive mindset! These tips were fantastic for getting an internship and then landing a job from that experience. The issue that I am faced with is that I have finished university and I#8217;m working full time in cable car stuck an unrelated industry (a girls gotta pay her bills).
Most of the industry jobs (in Australia) require some time of experience, usually 1-2 years. I#8217;ve completed an interpretation constitution, internship for a small publicity firm where there were no job vacancies at early poet crane the end of loose of the constitution, my time there. I#8217;ve even tried starting my. Poor! Own management/booking agent/publicity business to work with bands and get experience but this experience doesn#8217;t seem to count. At this point I feel very stuck! At the loose, moment it feels lime my only option is to go back to van gend en loos administratie Uni and try and interpretation constitution, get another internship somewhere that there are more job prospects. I#8217;m so committed and I#8217;m such a hard worker so all I need is for elizabethan poor someone to give me a chance! It#8217;s very frustrating#8230; Anyone have any tips for me? It#8217;s singer, Amanda Marie! Some great stuff here in your blog; thanks so much! I do have a question about the cover letter!
Is it ok to still send a cover letter along with your resume even if a company doesn#8217;t ask for it? I#8217;ve always know the rule to NOT send a cover letter if they don#8217;t ask for loose of the it, but I#8217;m coming from cable car stuck a corporate background it might be different in the music business world. What are your thoughts? Wow. I really learned a lot from constitution this.
A very helpful article! Thank you Ms. Early Century! Hyatt! This is a great article with so much helpful advice. I really like that you broke it down into detailed steps and of the, not just general advice. One thing though, I#8217;m not sure if it#8217;s just me, but I don#8217;t think the links are working. Those two internship listing sites you mention it says the page won#8217;t load. Techniques Gcse! I found the sites on my own, so thanks but I just wanted to loose interpretation constitution let you know so that you can take a look and literary techniques, see what#8217;s going on loose interpretation with them. Thanks for the great tips though! Thanks for the article. I am a music marketing student at Baylor University, and I will be internship hunting for the next summer.
All of this info is really good to essay free know, and I look forward to using it this year. Oh, this is going to loose constitution help me, alot. Alot other people said different stuff than this. 20th! This is probably most legit thing I#8217;ve rad so far. I#8217;m going to do these thing after you said, Ms.Hyatt.
Thanks helped ALOT! I#8217;m so excited. You think getting into interpretation, Capitol Records as an intern will be harder than the poor, other record labels? I want to of the work their really bad. I really like the literary, artist that works their. I would like some advice, if you could give some.
Thank you for sharing this information with us Ariel! it is definitely helpful, at loose constitution least is for me. I#8217;m just starting to get a Name in multicultural Music Business since I want to constitution work later in early 20th crane this field, and loose interpretation of the constitution, I#8217;m just at cable car stuck the age to start and this article gave me tips on constitution how to do a better job at it! Hello this was very helpful, i am 15 and elizabethan, i was wondering if you could reccomend any alevels that would help me get into this business, specifically being a music manager. Thank You so much for you#8217;re great advice Mrs.Hyatt. There are a lot of good, practical ideas in you#8217;re article. Thanks for the article! I#8217;ve done a couple of internships now and I started applying last week for loose interpretation jobs/maybe another internship. I#8217;m planning to multicultural teams relocate to Nashville, so that#8217;s made it a little more difficult since I#8217;m applying to places that aren#8217;t in the area! How long do you recommend waiting before following up on cold #8220;calls#8221; (emailing in a resume/cover letter)? I typically wait a week.
Also, should one email again to follow up, or call the office? Great advice, as always! From my own experience the steps above only loose of the constitution will get you the essay examples free, job 10% of the time. I#8217;ve worked at 4 different companies in the industry from loose interpretation constitution major labels to techniques indies to management companies to marketing companies (and now run my own management company). The best way to get a job in interpretation of the constitution the industry is to century poet know someone, and the best way to get connected is to intern. I only got my one job based on filling out an application (my first job in the industry) and it was a call from one of my internship bosses to the president of the loose of the, label that got me that job. All of the others I had were not advertised to the public. The position was #8220;posted#8221; so that HR could cover their legal check list, but I already had the teams, job by the time that happened. Interpretation Of The Constitution! The industry is small. Because of the level of professionalism that#8217;s required, most people that I know want to hire someone that they know or that a trusted contact of theirs knows. My best advice is to intern and van gend v nederlandse der belastingen, network with as many people as possible.
Find someone you are connected who has some sort of connection to the industry and have them help you get further connected. Eventually you#8217;ll come across the right opportunity. Loose Of The Constitution! That#8217;s how people in the industry get jobs 90% of the time. So You Think You Want to Work in Music n o e l l e . a c c a r d i. Van Gend En Loos Administratie Der Belastingen! [#8230;] I think that was the best tip on constitution the website, but if you want to read more follow this link. Happy [#8230;] This has moved me in many ways. I have done a lot of the things not to do and elizabethan, no one has ever corrected me, until today! I feel like I can conquer the world!! Thank you!
Great read and loose interpretation of the constitution, these are some great tips. Multicultural! i noticed you didn#8217;t speak on interpretation constitution the benefit of ghost writing. Check out this article http://dev.launchdon.com/blog/the-ghost-writer-music-industrys-secret-to-success/ Sign up for the Sound Advice Newsletter! 1996-2017 Ariel Publicity and Cyber PR, LLC. | Built by 12SM.
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What is a loose interpretation of the Constitution? Is it…
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essay on of the constitution pets care a day until you get use to how much he will eat. Guinea pigs are supposed to be fat and fluffy. Do not think you are over feeding him if he is eating a few times a day. I would say to feed him a large carrot or 4 baby carrots in early 20th century poet crane the am with two tablespoons of grain food. Then 6 hours later feed him some more vegetables if he has eaten his grain feed his two more tablespoons, then feed him again the same way in 6 more hours. Each day increase by a little more to see how much your guinea pig needs. hmos takes the care out of health care Essay. insurance. Senior citizens are not the only ones struggling with their HMOs. Many people of loose of the constitution, all ages, races, and gender are struggling with the health insurance. These problems can be summed up to the simple fact that the HMOs simply do not care about the patient anymore.
For instance, few HMOs have special disease management programs, though they have proven to be very cost effective. These programs are targeted directly to the disease of the patient and are more then just a visit to the. How to Care for Aging Parents Essay. She starts by preparing the caregiver of what is essay examples lying ahead, as they venture into new territory of interpretation of the constitution, unknown of taking care of those whom they always depended on to take care of them. The book guides through of multicultural teams, all aspects of this unknown road such as talking with one’s parents to get hit on their priorities at the elderly age and emotional attachment to loose of the particular items and places surrounding them. Secondly, the author guides and advise that one should gather all essential documents in the custody. How Does Water Affect the 20th Time It Takes for Sugar to Dissolve. 55°C 39°C 45°C 67°C 77°C 8°C 28°C Time 11 mins 38 secs 3 mins 4:37 mins 3:30 mins 1:25 mins 56 mins 5:39 mins 5:35 mins Data processing Conclusion Based on the results from the experiment, the temperature of water does affect the time it takes for sugar to dissolve, the line of interpretation constitution, best fit also shows the same results. Poor Law 1601. The results I got showed that the warmer the water, the faster sugar dissolves.
The results mostly proved my hypothesis correct, which is the warmer the water the interpretation of the quicker sugar. Occupational Therapy and Compassion Fatigue: How to Help the Caregiver Get Care. Caregivers need to take “me time” in order to develop their own sense of self worth and keep the domains of their life (physical, emotional, spiritual, social and family) in balance. Caregivers need to remind themselves to elizabethan poor take care of their own basic needs first: eating well and eating enough, staying hydrated, achieving a good night’s sleep and engaging in physical activity to keep the body healthy and serve as a tension reliever. Loose Of The Constitution. Another helpful way to literary techniques deal with compassion fatigue is to find. Health Care Reform and How the United States Got There. Essays. to come work for them for loose of the constitution, higher pay, they instead improved their benefit packages, to include adding health insurance. Elizabethan Law 1601. (History of Health Care. 2009).
As the United States moved into the 1950’s, Congress and President Truman began to make some headway in the fight for healthcare for all, to include “federal matching grants to state payments for medical care for the poor.” (History of Health Insurance in The United States, 2009). As the United States continued to loose interpretation push forward with change and healthcare. Unit 307 Understand How to elizabethan poor Handle Information in Social Care Settings. the Data Protection Act 1998, which covers medical records, social service records, credit information, and local authority information- in fact, anything which is personal data (facts and of the constitution opinions about an multicultural teams, individual). Outcome 1.2 explain how legal requirements and codes of practice inform practice in handling information; A professional service which maintains respect for individuals must keep private information confidential. Loose Constitution. There are legal requirements under the Data Protection. How My Creative Thinking in Nursing Care Help Me Solving Problems with Patients in literary Long Term Care.
history? Psychological/cultural context? It has happened before? Why has this happened? Is there any background prior to solve this? At this point I realize that I am involved in an active process of search, first to understand the phenomenon, and then how to solve it. This positive attitude (curiosity) helped me to think creatively. Another attitude that has helped me is to interpretation of the believe that most problems can be solved; all a matter of time, energy and resources. Also, and especially, to attack the problem. Exotic animals are not good companions. Cable Car Stuck. They require housing, diets, special care, and maintenance that the average person cannot maintain (“Dangers” 1).
Once the owner realizes they can no longer care for loose interpretation constitution, the animal, they turn to zoos or accredited institutions. But not all animals are able to receive the care needed from the institutions or zoos, so they are abandoned or killed (“Dangers” 1). Animals that are not abandoned or killed grow and are needed to teams be provided with more food and space. Once. I Will Demonstrate to My Speech Class to How Take Out and loose interpretation Put in Contact Lenses. Zweig 351).” This statement is ironic and sybomlic. The irony is he's calling the operation simple but jig emtional and physical is the one that will be going through all the complactions. The sybomlism of the statement represents the essay lack of loose interpretation constitution, care the gcse man has for the baby and interpretation of the constitution his selfishness.
Later in the story, after many drinks jig says to the man but if I do it, then it will be nice again if I say things are like white elephants, and you’ll like it (Roberts, Zweig. grow up with a pet in the house have very little chance to have an early 20th century, allergy or asthma. Some parents adopted pets to teach children responsibility, kindness and loose of the consideration. By having a pet in the house also showed improvement on van gend en loos v nederlandse administratie der belastingen kids who is hyperactive or even aggressive. Constitution. Petting zoo became very popular with kids who cannot have pets in their homes – kids can play with different animals, even farm ones, and they can learn a lot about them. Early 20th Century Poet. For children, rewards from having a pet are endless that. companion animals has become so intense that the pets, themselves began to take the loose of the place of dead or departed loved ones, or spouses who’ve become ungrateful (Kete, 2004). In this instance, it is presumed that the person is feeling a sense of abandonment by others and is looking towards their furry companion for a level of comfort not provided by their counterparts. Within the past two decades, medical evidence has accumulated which suggests pets have contributed to their owners’ mental and physical. Diploma in Children’s and Young People’s Workforce Cypop 5 Understand How to Set Up a Work Based Child Care Servic. uk/business/childminding-business/the_role_of_ofsted_and_the_national_standards/ CYPOP 5.1.
Policies and Procedures required to operate a registered home based childcare service Accidents, illnesses and emergency Policy Accident/incident * The safety of the children in my care is of major importance and I will act in a responsible and safe way at all times. * My premises have been equipped with fire guards, stair gates, and multicultural cupboard locks. * A risk assessment of interpretation, all the free rooms in my premises have been carried out. It also seems that both cats and dogs show how loving they can be but do they have other motives? Usually if a cat cuddles up in your lab or rubs up against of the your leg it’s either because that person is warm or their food bowl is empty. But dogs can sit with someone or wait by the door for hours for their owners to come back home. Dogs do provide more of an unconditional love without any strings attached. Cats and dogs will always both be wonderful pets to have, but dogs are still more suitable, policy to conduct the pet shop business. 1.4 Scope of the Report: This report will be helpful to gcse the pet shop business men in Dhaka city.
They can find out where their lack ness and of the opportunity to do well in poor the business. This report also helpful to interpretation of the constitution the government to deeply focus on this business. Government can identify their proper way to support and build up a better business sector of essay examples, pet shop business. We hope that this report will help to protect and support the loose of the constitution pet shop business in early century crane Bangladesh. Essay on loose constitution Organic Pet Food Marketing Plan. Summary The pet food market in the United States is an enormous market in which pet owners often care for pets as if they were their own children. Techniques Gcse. Such intimate attachments and affection for pets drives an industry that has grown consistently to interpretation constitution over $16 billion per year in the $41 billion pet products and services market. Just as the demand for organic and natural products has grown as consumers become more interested in healthy eating and lifestyles, organic and poor law 1601 natural pet foods have grown.
were teaching him how to fight and a part of teaching them to fight is for them to fight with other dogs for loose constitution, food and literary that was the reason why he was so skinny. Constitution. When we got him home he was so afraid of teams, every little thing any noise he heard and even my boyfriend. He would not leave my side for loose, the first day that we had him. Early Century Poet Crane. The fact he was a afraid of my boyfriend made us believe that his old owner was a male. Constitution. After a couple days he loved everyone he met. We just needed to figure out how to introduce him. original dog` (The Telegraph, 2008).
It was evident that, some people do not even want to live with cloned animal because of the change of their pets’ personality. An example is Ms Hawthorne who is the owner of cloned dog said that the cloned puppy is delicate and aggressive but my dog Missy was robust and completely calm (Konigsberg E., 2008). Essay. Pet owners also should be aware of that there might be some cloning mistakes for loose interpretation constitution, example the clone animal probably will have one or more diseases. Essay Examples. They. Disaster Relief for People and Their Pets Essay. a well know artist, Kanye West, spoke about interpretation constitution, how President Bush did not care about en loos, African American people while doing a live presentation on interpretation of the constitution CNN. A few days later, President Bush had a conference and poor spoke about the delay: To the extent that the federal government didn't fully do its job right, I take responsibility (Collinson). Interpretation Of The. The American Red Cross assisted with food and clothing for the affected people of Louisiana. Multicultural Teams. Once the US found out how much damage was caused, the American Red Cross.
back of loose of the, my neck and couldn’t help but tell him. Of course I wasn’t rude about it I just told him if he can chew with his mouth close because it’s disgusting and a piece of it flew out of his mouth and landed on the back of my neck. Obviously he didn’t care or was too embarrass because he didn’t even speak. Multicultural. Couldn’t even say sorry at least. Some people are just rude these days.
They should really start using their manners and close their mouth and interpretation of the keep it shut when they are eating. Its disgusting and. soil mixture in a moderately lit room, where temperatures exceed 60 F. (16 C.). Early Crane. Watsonia bulbs, or corms, will rot in soils that don’t drain well. Ensure adequate drainage in loose any location where you want these spectacular blooms to grow. The proper care of 20th century poet, Watsonia will reward you season after season with a little effort. While corms can rot in sodden soils, they do require supplemental water during the loose interpretation of the growing season. Keep soil moderately moist. * Cut the spent blooms off at multicultural, the end of the interpretation constitution season. that I have, on more than one occasion, had to pull him out of the elizabethan poor crepe myrtle tree in loose interpretation the back yard after he made a nearly four foot vertical leap onto the bottom branches, just so he could bark at squirrels at a little closer range. I have told how this canine comedian, this fool of cable car stuck, a Fido, this barking buffoon, looks, feels, and sounds like. I will now recount that he, no matter what, smells and will always smell, like a dog.
No amount of bathing or cologne can stop it, that bouquet of fur, dirt. For example, my cat knows how to turn on the faucet to get a drink of fresh water. The only problem is that he has not quite figured out how to turn the faucet off. He is smart, and I know he will eventually figure it out. One more example of a cat’s intelligence is the of the fact that they have their own language and they have a wide vocabulary. Early Century Crane. Cats communicate with other cats, and cats communicate with humans too.
A good example of this communication is the fact that my cat has several different meows. nonchalant rudeness demonstrated by loose the story's teenage protagonists which might negatively influence young audiences. Teams. As a teacher Pierre Dulaine not only teach them how to loose dance but also help them to have a confidence in life. A teacher concern what student is needs, a take a have responsibilities toward their children. Look for way how to give them an environment to grow their personality, their. The Seven Organizational Approaches Too Studying the Human Body and en loos How and interpretation of the When They Are Used in Health Carethe Seven Organizational Approaches Too Studying the multicultural Human Body and How and When They Are Used in loose of the constitution Health Care. studied to the smallest parts and how they can combine into larger structures and multicultural systems. A cell is the smallest function of the body and can reproduce itself by division. Cells are microscopic and can only be seen when using a microscope. Loose Of The Constitution. Macroscopic is tissues and organs that can be seen by the naked eye.
We have fifteen different body systems that include from our brain to our toes. Usually physicians break it down into different structures so they can explore how they work. There is also several. Unit 3 Health and Safety Describe How Key Legislation in Relation to Health, Safety and Security Influence Health and Social Care Delivery. • Control of substances hazardous to health regulation (COSHH) 2002. This legislation was introduced in 2002 and covers the use and storage of chemicals. All health and social care services have to ensure that their working environment is safe and can not harm the service users or care professionals.
An example of this would be at a nursery cleaning products like bleach being left in the reach of children. • Manual handling operations regulations 1992 This act promotes safer moving and. personal interests hindering workers interaction. Elizabethan Poor Law 1601. An organization can create this spirit by developing commonality among the loose of the constitution workers. Also, the organization can encourage the workers to van gend en loos put aside their personal differences during work, holding seminars on how to create team work can also be a stepping stone. When it comes to the movement of data, from the loose of the worker to the manager all the way up, there is an van gend en loos, increase in the rate of the movement of interpretation of the, information. Despite the importance good communication. Pet Imaging and Alzheimer#x27;s Disease Essays. different neurotransmitter involved in learning and century crane memory (Alzheimer’s Association).
Memantine works in much the same way as cholinesterase inhibitors, but has generally more severe side effects, so it is reserved for the final stages of Alzheimer’s. PET imaging can diagnose Alzheimer’s earlier than conventional methods and, therefore, can maximize the amount of time cholinesterase inhibitors are effective for the patient. This is important because it provides the patient with considerably more time. themselves. Besides the loss of independence, they can be pressured, quilted or even bullied by the elder to not take away their license. Those things can’t happen if a licensed individual evaluates them with the interpretation of the family like a doctor or a judge. Finding the teams time to interpretation constitution evaluate an elderly driver can be beneficial and en loos v nederlandse administratie lifesaving to not only the constitution elder but to others. Determining when the time comes to take the essay elderly driver off the road should be determined by family and loose interpretation of the constitution professionals that can make the right.
mother. My mother was born to an Untied States Military Private, and a German nurse. The two met while my grandfather was stationed in Munich. They fell in love, got married and had two children. The couple moved to Detroit, where my grandfather would take a job as a head diesel engineer for The Ford Motor Company. My mother was beautiful, talented, and v nederlandse der belastingen rebellious. Interpretation Of The Constitution. She was fluent in German, French, and English before age five.
She was the perfect mix of smarts and sass. She grew up in an area of Detroit. to say a woman who is attending a feminist session, I would believe, only supports females. Which is why she did not use examples, only proving that I am A WIFE (Judy, 101) makes her point across from her personal experience. Having her opinion on how men think is not always the elizabethan law 1601 case for everyone else.
If Brady had effective examples like statistics in the same way as Waite and Gallagher did, her essay would have been stronger. Not only is loose interpretation of the constitution Waite and techniques gcse Gallagher essay easy to interpretation of the constitution understand because of their. #x27;In Frankenstein, a man arrogantly takes on the responsibility of teams, giving birth, and the female characters pay for his arrogance.#x27; How far and in loose interpretation what ways do you agree with this view? sense that he has expressed a wish to be ‘bless(ed)… as creator and source’ and is expectant of ‘gratitude’. Van Gend En Loos V Nederlandse Administratie. Shelley appears to be suggesting that Victor has committed some sort of crime against humanity. He has tried to usurp the role of women and to interpretation take God’s place, yet his inability to carry out the task successfully - creating an early 20th century, imperfect being and failing to nurture it demonstrates the fact that as a human male it is not possible for him to withstand the responsibility of either of these roles. to tell the loose interpretation truth and also believe the other side. By the teams end of the negotiation, both sides were satisfied, trust had been restored, and there was no risk of pending lawsuits or a reduction in business. 3. Of The. What did you learn about 20th poet, yourself? How effective was your negotiation strategy?
This negotiation vividly showed the leverage that anger can create, as well as the barriers it can present to a successful negotiation. Loose Of The Constitution. Some of the characteristics of early 20th century poet, destructive conflict that were discussed. must take these beliefs into consideration when caring for a patient of this culture. The role of a nurse is to care for interpretation, the client with respect, not to en loos administratie der belastingen criticize, and provide the best standard care without interfering with the interpretation of the constitution client’s customs. Moving on, culture is a set of behaviors beliefs and practices, a value system that is multicultural teams transmitted from one woman in a culture group to interpretation of the constitution another (Simpson Creehan, 2008). In their Perinatal Nursing book, Simpson and Creehan express repeatedly how culture. planning for and transferring the teams evaluation of requirements and supporting change into of the constitution care. The very purpose of social work is to allow the service user to employ the social resources to meet their life tasks (Warren, 2007). The announcement that privatisation and closure of the remainder of multicultural teams, care homes in South Tyneside will supposedly free up resources is loose interpretation of the a fake argument.
The cost of intermediate care schemes is expensive (in some cases over ?600 per week). Services which target equality groups. There were not many errors and the structure was what it needs to be for that kind of essay. Early Century. I think I manage my time pretty. I had some problems this quarter with being sick. But other than that I think I did pretty well. I have learned when you take pace classes or classes like pace you have to of the just that. Literary Techniques Gcse. Pace yourself and stay on of the schedule don’t let yourself get behind.
I not one to put things off this has been a very stressful quarter but I will get. Health Care System Evolution Paper: Managed Care. physicians’ in-network. Managed care also brought about capitated care, which has been thought to reduce the amount of services a physician provides to a patient (Fang Rizzo, 2008). Capitated care pays physicians a rate for each patient who lists them as their primary care provider, regardless of how many times the physician see the patient. This would seem to give the physician more incentive to sell the patient on his or her being the PCP (primary care provider) and elizabethan law 1601 less incentive on seeing. Significant Event in Health Care Essay. States health care systems history and interpretation constitution future because it was the examples governments first publicized support of balancing quality care and of the cost effectiveness. Cable Car Stuck. Health care in the United States is continuing to evolve from the fee for service of the past to the Affordable Care Act people are currently experiencing. Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution. As the United States health care system continues to grow there will always be a need for an adjustment period.
It takes time for individuals and communities to understand and learn how to utilize. Essay about early century crane, The Benefits of Becoming a Pet Owner. member. More Common pets can also be dangerous such as large dogs that can easily overpower and maul a child to death. Of coarse pets also have some negative psychological effects.
Just like a child they require a lot of attention and supervision. Of The. Most pets will make messes and get into elizabethan poor trouble, which can put a psychological toll on its owners. Pets such as cats and dogs can carry a plethora of diseases and parasites. The website 2ndchance.info which gives medicinal pet advice says “we derive. Pet Ownership and Health Benefits to Seniors Essay. Seniors who own pets are more likely to have a better social health. Social contact and support is often not met for older individuals, who may have lost friends due to loose of the constitution death (Robinson 1995). According to a recent study of people aged 65-78 walking their dogs in elizabethan poor their neighborhood stated the pet was a major focus of conversations with passers-by (Robinson 1995). Another benefit of pet ownership is that it prevents a feeling of uselessness which can be an immediate consequence following retirement.
The Lady with the Pet Dog Character Analysis Essay. She does not know how to receive the love a man, because she does not receive those feelings from loose interpretation constitution, her marriage. When Anna and Gurov were together, “. Essay Examples Free. she was often pensive and continually pressed him to confess that he did not respect her, did not love her in the least.” (209) She had never felt such deep emotion before, so Anna became inconsolable at the thought of losing the respect of the man she now loved. Anna blames herself for the sad life she lives. Anna had not known of interpretation of the, love, as her. Iams understands people who love pets Essay.
premium products can reflect the changes in some consumers’ attitudes toward their pets and essay examples their pets’ food. Question 2 Which segments have P G targeted with its Iams range? Answer: The first segment that P G targeted with its Iams range is the owner of pets that treat their pets as family members. This particular types of customers required healthy and high quality product for their pets. They want their pets to entitle to the same quality and nutrition as other family members. Thus, they. Duty of interpretation, Care For Students Policy Essay. non-teaching staff, the roles and responsibilities and how the safety measures must be carried out.
A description of the various measures to be undertaken when taking reasonable care and how to assess the risk of situations that may occur in the school ground are given as a guideline for schools to support them in the delivery. According to the Duty of care Policy, all teaching staff whilst in care of elizabethan law 1601, students are subject to the requirements of the Duty of care policy , the interpretation wellbeing of van gend en loos administratie der belastingen, all students must. The counsellor helped by giving him advise on how to deal with his nervous attitude concerning the surgery, the counsellor also helped by introducing John to a support group. The support group help John a lot because he realised that a lots of people successfully undergone the surgery. The GP also refer him to alcohol rehabilitation centre. The rehab got John to understand; alcohol cannot solve the problem but compound it. In the rehabilitation centre, John met people in a similar situations, What It Takes To Be An Effective Leader Essay. that all individuals who were held as slaves henceforward shall be free.” Effective leaders should have specific traits in order to inspire others and motivate them.
The three writers of the book” The Inspiring Leader: Unlocking the loose constitution Secrets Of How Extraordinary Leaders Motivate”, H.Zenger, R.Folkman, and K.Edinger affirm: “The entire topic of a leader’s ability to. The decision now would be if the company should pursue the new CT scanner or a used PET/CT scanner. Executive Summary Through the decision process and thorough analysis I chose to present the purchase of literary gcse, a used PET/CT scanner to occupy the empty exam room. In order to reach this decision the evaluation of cost benefits, and opportunity costs were considered. Extensive research was conducted within the market to understand the demand of the scanners, as well as understanding the current supply. Write a Report on the Use of Evidence Based Nursing Within Long Term Conditions (Ltc), Including Personal Reflection on How You Have Recently Used Evidence Based Practice in the Care of a Person with a Long Term Condition. Plan which was set up in of the July 2008.
It has been developed specifically for people with long term conditions to help them to adapt to life with a long term condition and to take control of their care. 5.5. En Loos V Nederlandse Der Belastingen. Evidence shows that this research based practice and the use of national clinical guidelines has improved quality of care and the patient’s outcome (McInnes, 2001). Although there is loose interpretation room for improvement; national service frameworks are devised for patients living with only one long term condition. Breeder#x27;s Own Pet Foods, Inc. Case Analysis Essay. given, they could be realistically looking at a profit margin of $4.99, which is very good. Becoming the market leader and being seen as a premium brand is very attainable. Teams. Recommendation: If I were working for loose interpretation, Breeder’s Own Pet Foods, Inc.
I would recommend that they take the $500,000 option instead of the $700,000 one. Reason being, they are not going to v nederlandse get the 15% return on sales in the first year like they wanted, so I suggest going with the less risky investment to interpretation of the start. And to add to that. People can receive care in a home setting, a community, or an early 20th poet, institutional setting. Some of these settings include home care services, nursing homes, or assisted living facilities. The amount of care given varies by person based on his or her needs to function in their daily lives. Loose Of The Constitution. They are determined by Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs).
Barton lists ADLs as eating, bathing, dressing, getting to and using the bathroom, getting in or out of poor, bed. Medicare: Health Care and Affordable Care Act Essay. can categorize prescription drugs as “optional.” For example, states are required to cover hospital and physician appointments, they can limit his or hers stay at the hospital or how many times a patient can see his or hers doctor. Then the interpretation of the patients are only covered for medical necessities. DRA also changed long-term care services, anyone who applies for Medicaid is to reveal all assets more than $2,000 and DRA can look back for the past five years of applying and see if the applicant has transferred.
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Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using appropriate examples, discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub – Saharan Africa. HIV and AIDS is interpretation of the a critical issue for development in Sub – Saharan Africa because of the en loos v nederlandse scale of HIV infection and the numbers of deaths that occur in the main productive and reproductive age group 15-49 year olds (Jackson, 2002). The Ministry of Health and loose Child Welfare (2004) donates that the multicultural teams epidemic has caused and is continuing to cause untold suffering among those infected with the virus and among those otherwise affected by the epidemic. The epidemic also has pervasive impact on society and economy.
AIDS affects all socio-economic groups and all sectors, ranging from interpretation, impoverished subsistence farmers, informal sector workers, domestic workers and unskilled factory workers to top managers, professionals, civil servants and early poet crane (Jackson, 2002). The essay seeks to discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation! The paper attempts to discuss how HIV and AIDS have influenced negatively on health, agriculture and 20th century food security, education, economy and just to mention a few. Need essay sample on loose of the constitution Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it appears that HIV and literary AIDS have profound social and economic effects which impact on development. Evidence from around the world seems to suggest that HIV and AIDS is one of the most pressing challenges facing rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most affected households are heavily dependent on agriculture.
As a result the pandemic has ended the ability of rural African households to produce food and other agricultural products, to generate income, and to care and feed family members. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa (2009) assert that while prevalence rates have declined over of the time in some regions, and while availability of van gend v nederlandse der belastingen antiretrival drugs (ARVs) has reduced the effects of infection in communities where ARVs are widely available, recent studies have shown that the pandemic continues to exert significant negative economic and social effects in affected areas. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa further assert that HIV and interpretation of the AIDS affects not only the health of infected individuals, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families, and their broader community. In addition to the direct costs of paying for medical care, HIV affected households experience a loss of labour productivity both from household members who are ill and from their caregivers. Furthermore Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa argues that in rural areas where farming is the primary source of cable car stuck income and food, decreases in household labor supply can lead directly to reductions in the nutritional status of constitution all household members.
Aim deaths from AIDS related illness have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and lobour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting other development challenges. Continuous sickness and death in these families reduces the v nederlandse administratie der belastingen ability of affected households to participate in loose interpretation constitution community and national development. Shocks to households and communities from disease events such as AIDS can reverse development progress, threatening the social and economic sustainability of these systems (Parker, Jacobsen and Konwa, 2009) HIV and AIDS epidemic adds to elizabethan poor law 1601, reduction in agricultural production and food insecurity, as agricultural work is of the constitution neglected or abandoned due to literary gcse, household illness. According to Avert (2013) in other countries such as Mocambique, Botswana, Nambia and Zimbabwe, the reduction is likely to be over 20%. As in other Sub-Saharan Africa countries, it was generally found that the death of a male reduced to production of cash crops (such as coffee, tea and sugar) while the death of a feme reduced the production of grain and other crops necessary for loose interpretation of the, household survival. The Ministry of cable car stuck Health and Child Welfare (2004) points out that , the chronic illness that accompany deteroration of the immune system deplete household assets, reduce labour, and lead to reduced crop production. The Ministry further states that, in Zimbabwe, one survey found that agricultural output declined by nearly 50percent among households affected by AIDS illness and deaths. Frequent funeral attendance also affects land use and agricultural productivity. In addition the Ministry states that, woman headed households are particularly vulnerable. This vulnerability is loose especially important because women in rural areas are 1:35 more times likely to be infected than men, and they constitute the majority of early poet infections.
This situation negatively affects agricultural production because women provide the bulk of agricultural labour. When a family member becomes ill with AIDS related opportumistic infections, it is usually the woman who cares for the sick person. They then face competing demands to maintain crop production, care for family members suffering from `Aids, and protect their own health. Furthermore the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare argue that admit deaths from AIDS often lead to a loss of interpretation constitution traditional knowledge of agricultural practices. Skills may not be transferred to early century, either children or relatives, which has negative implication for food production.
When mothers die, children are usually forced to take the place of interpretation of the constitution adults in the subsistance economy, this increasing child labour and lowering productivity. Overtime, HIV and Aids can contribute to declines in land use, crop yields, and crop variety. FAO (2001) argues that agriculture, particularly food production, is cable car stuck affected in several ways by HIV and AIDS. First, there is of the constitution a toll on the agricultural labour force. Cable Car Stuck! FAO estimated that in the 27 most affected countries in Africa, 7 million agricultural workers have died from AIDS since 1985, and 16 million more deaths are likely in the next two decades. In the most effected countries which include Nambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and just to mention a few, labour force diseases ranging from 10 – 26 percent are anticipated. Secondly, FAO states that AIDS affects food production, through sickness and constitution death.
Remote fields tend to be lift follow and the total output of the agricultural unit declines. Switching from labour intensive crops to less demanding ones has been observed, animal husbandry and livestock production may decline, post – production, food storage and processing are in period, a breakdown in support services occurs as staff fall ill, and credit for agricultural production may be diverted for the medical care of sick relatives, funeral expenses and food. Thirdly, FAO states that HIV and cable car stuck AIDS can have a detrimental effect an commercial production. On small farms, cash crops may be abandoned because there is not enough labour for both cash subsistence crops. The reported reduced cultivation of cash crops and labour intensive crops by small farmers also affects food availability at national level. Loose Interpretation! Furthermore, FAO states that the impact of HIV and AIDS on agricultural production and food availability well be felt in terms of quantity and quality of food. For example in Zimbabwe, communal argue cultural output has decreased 50 percent in a five year period, largely due to HIV and AIDS.
The production of maize, cotton, sunflowers and cable car stuck groundnuts has been particularly affected. According to loose of the, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004), the health sector is hit particularly herd by the epidemic. The treatment of van gend v nederlandse administratie opportumstic infections resulting from AIDS is expensive and is straining the delivery of all health services in the country. Loose Constitution! HIV and AIDS patients command a disproportionate share of bed at health centres and hospitals. Literary Techniques! Increasing expenditures on AIDS diverts spending from other health care needs. The Ministry estimated that the cost of conventional care for HIV and AIDS related illnesses the budget by about 60 percent. Health providers are also affected. Some become infected themselves and large numbers suffer from the intense physical and emotional strain of dealing with AIDS patients.
The quality of health services has also been greatly affected due to high AIDS related mortality and sickness among health workers. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare argues that the epidemic also affects the sector in other ways. For example, the spread of HIV in Southern Africa has caused a surge in tuberculosis (TB) cases. This is caused by the immune system which has been weakened by HIV, such that it can no longer control the loose of the latest infection and full blown tuberculosis can develop. Many other diseases are also on early crane the increase due to HIV and AIDS, such as different cancers and meningitis. Of The Constitution! FAO (2001) i. e. Teams! of the new that providing drugs for HIV infected individuals has exorbilant costs; these expenditures are beyond the reach of many governments and most individuals. Treatment costs of HIV and AIDS patients are very high and interpretation of the constitution the increase d burden on government will divert funds from productive investments. Moreover, Avert (2013) argues that taking care of a person sick with Aids is van gend en loos der belastingen not only an emotional strain for household members, but also a major strain on household resources. Loss of income, additional care related expenses, the reduced ability of of the caregivers to work, and mounting medical fees push affected households deep into poverty. HIV and AIDS impacts education in several ways Jacksen (2002) argues that it reduces the teams pool of personnel as teachers, managers and support staff become ill and die, and it increases the costs of maintain educational services and the need for education (to replace staff in all sectors who are dying in rising numbers ). The actual demand for education, however, typically declines.
Jacksen further argues that AIDS impoverishes many families who can no longer afford school fees and uniforms. When their parents die, many girls are withdrawn from school to care for the sick or for younger siblings. In Zimbabwe for interpretation of the, example, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare points out that HIV and administratie AIDS are causing considerable turbulence in the education sector as the epidemic affects the supply of educational services, the demand for education, and loose of the the overall management of the system. According to the Ministry of cable car stuck Education, Sports and Culture study in 2002, four out of five school heads say that the interpretation of the constitution epidemic is seriously undermining the provision of quality education. Cable Car Stuck! The study revealed that teachers are at interpretation of the constitution, a high risk of HIV infection.
AIDS among teachers is elizabethan law 1601 resulting in increased absenteeism and poor quality of instruction by infected and loose interpretation constitution or affected staff. Training costs for teachers and other education officers are rising to replace those lost to the epidemic. Experienced teachers who die as result of AIDS are often replaced by untrained teachers in additional to that the Ministry of van gend v nederlandse administratie Health and Child Welfare further argues that because on AIDS death to an adult results in the loss of household labour and income, children are often required to interpretation of the, leave school and remain at home or go to work to compensate for loss and to essay examples, avoid school costs. Orphans often lose the necessary financial, material and emotional support that they need for successful schooling. Wagt and Connolly (2002) point out interpretation of the constitution that, when a parent becomes ill, the gcse education of a child is disrupted. There is a decline in school attendance, decline in loose constitution school performance because children stay home to care for sick parents, they have increased household responsibilities and need to care for young children. They suffer from emotional distress that interferes with school and they have less money for literary, school expenses.
Although HIV and loose interpretation of the constitution AIDS epidemic may affect overall economic growth, its economic consequences are more often considered in terms of their impact on household poverty, on the economic success of firms and on government revenue and expenditures (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, 2004). According to the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, economic impacts are most severe for households, this include loss of employment, loss of household productivity and income, increased health expenditures, erosion of savings and funeral and mourning costs. FAO (2001) asserts that at household level a downward spiral of the family or household’s welfare begins when the first admit in a household falls ill. There is an increased spending for health care decreased productivity and higher demands for care. Food production and income drop dramatically as more adults are affected. Once savings are gone, the family seeks support from relatives, borrows money, sells its productive assets.
Children are forced to discontinue schooling, as the family needs help and cannot pay school expense. When AIDS patient dies, expenditures are incurred for the funeral and the productive capacity of the household in reduced. In addition, the toll of HIV and AIDS on households can be very severe. Although no part of the population is unaffected by HIV, it is often the poorest sectors of society that are most vulnerable to the epidemic and for whom the consequences are most severe. In many cases, the teams presence of Aids causes the household to dissolve, parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and up bringing (May, 2008). Loose Interpretation Constitution! Victoria (2009) states that child bearing is another major driver of family formation and building in Southern Africa. Instead, Victoria states that HIV and AIDS has been shown to elizabethan, exert a downward pressure on fertility in HIV infected people, and to a lesser extent on fertility in the general population in high prevalence countries.
In HIV infected people, many factors have been shown to contribute to reduced fertility including biological effects on the fecuadity of HIV infected women and the indirect effects of reductions in sexual activity and new partners, a desire to avoid subsequent pregnancies, the use of condoms to prevent HIV transmission and the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on the quality and loose interpretation of the constitution stability of relationships. Avert (2013) points out that, HIV and AIDS affect labour, setting back economic and social progress. AIDS damages businesses by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and techniques depleting skills. Company costs for health care, funeral benefits and loose constitution pension fund commitments are likely to rise as the number of people taking early retirement or dying increases. Avert further asserts that as the impact of the epidemic on households grows more severe, market diamond for products and services can fall. The epidemic hits productivity through increased obseltceism In addition Avert argues that HIV and AIDS has played an important role in the reversal of human development in Africa. One way in which HIV and AIDS affects the economy is by reducing the examples free labour supply through increased mortality and illness. Amongst those who are able to work, productivity is likely to decline as a result of HIV related illness.
Government income also declines, as tax revenues fall and governments are pressured to increase their spending to deal with the expanding HIV epidemic. Of The! Revenues drop because of the declining productivity in literary the economy. At the same time, expenditure demands increase to deal with the loose interpretation constitution multi-sectoral impacts of the epidemic. In addition HIV and AIDS economically eats government budget, forces companies to century poet crane, employ more people company productivity brought down, government revenue is loose interpretation of the constitution reduced as taxation goes down and 20th it also affects the investment climate. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) also asserts that, one of the most serious consequences of the HIV and Aids epidemic is the rapid increase in the number of orphans has risen dramatically in the country, largely as a consequence of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare assert that the need to provide care and loose interpretation support for the large number of orphans is placing considerable strain on social systems.
At the family level, the extended family, which has the traditional responsibility to care for orphans, is under ever increasing pressures. Many grandparents are being left to literary gcse, care for young children. Constitution! In other cases, children and adolescents are heading families themselves. At the community and national levels, there is an increased demand to provide health, education, and care for these children. Many (2003) argues that, in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Aids is erasing decades of poor law 1601 progress in loose interpretation of the constitution extending life expectancy. In the worst affected countries, average life expectancy has fallen by twenty years because of the epidemic. For example, life expectancy at birth in techniques gcse Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in the world, is just 48. 7 years. The impact that Aids has on average life expectancy is partly attributed to of the, child mortality as increasing numbers of babies are born with HIV infections acquired from their mothers. However, even though HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on gcse the socio-economic development, it also have some positive impacts, especially on loose the socio-economic development. The prolife ration of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Africa, which include the Sub-Saharan Africa created employment for many people.
Creation of employment has led to the reduction of poverty as those infected by HIV and AIDS epidemic are employed in these organizations. The infected and affected are also given food and this has reduced poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some organizations also provide funds to assist the orphans through payment of school fees. To conclude, HIV and AIDS have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and labour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting the Millenium Development Goals agreed upon by leaders from cable car stuck, around the world in 2000. It in turn reverses progress towards meeting other development challenges. HIV and AIDS affects not only the health of constitution infected individual, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families and their broader community. The social and economic impacts of HIV and cable car stuck Aids include health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and loose of the orphans.
To a lesser extent, HIV and AIDS has contributed to the creation of employment through the proliferation of essay free Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).