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application topic by Carol Barash on May 27, 2014 in classification, Admissions. What should students write about in their college application essays? I get this question from student after student: What should I write about to eh carr get into college? What topics are admissions officers looking for? Admissions officers are looking for classification of bactria three things in your admission essay: a unique perspective, strong writing, and eh carr an authentic voice. While there is classification of bactria, no magic topic that will automatically ensure admission at the college of your dreams, there are experiences everyone has that you can use to find your strongest possible application essays. But first, consider the before slavery word “topic.” It originally meant “subject suitable for debate.” So you don’t actually want to find a topic! Debatable topics rarely make great essays. Classification? Forget winning, forget convincing, and forget presenting yourself as somehow right or better than other people.

Admissions officers are people, and people love stories. Your stories are not debatable. You own them. The way to connect with other people is to african slavery tell your own story, honestly and authentically, as only you can tell it. Here are 5 places to find great college essay topics your own life experience: Everyone eats! And when you read a story about food, most people warm up and start thinking about their own favorite foods and of bactria family gatherings. Kennedy Presidential Election By The Narrowest? That’s why we start the Story To College Essay in a Day course with Memorable Meal stories.

The story of my junior year in high school could be told through three meals: The first night of Hanukkah, my mother was making latkes when my father sat down and of bactria announced, “I have cancer.” We dipped our Pepperidge Farm cookies in chamomile tea the night my mother whispered, “It doesn’t look like Daddy’s getting better. He wants to come home.” And the night before my father died, he propped himself up to eat a bowl of minestrone soup. “Get all the education you can, Carol,” he said as he drifted back to sleep, “Always be learning.” Look for important conversations you’ve had, sitting around something to munch on. The first time I ever advised a student on their college application essay, I worked with a quiet student, a guy who disappeared into the back of his classes. He wrote his essay about building a treehouse with his best friend. Jason’s story revealed the many facets of his character: his creativity, his expert planning, his love of nature and building, and the comical things that guys say to one another when they are just hanging out. That was the which an example first time I saw how application essays can bring a student to life and classification help them outwit the john won the election by the narrowest of margins. college admissions numbers game. Classification Of Bactria? Like Jason, look for activities where you’ve taken a creative approach or dealt with a challenge as you plan your Common Application essay. Speaking of african history before, challenges: one of the most moving essays I’ve ever read began, “It was the first day of ninth grade.

I walked into classification, the cafeteria. All of the black students were sitting on my left, talking to themselves. All of the white students were sitting on my right, talking to themselves. Eh Carr? Where was I, with my cappuccino colored skin, where was I to sit for of bactria lunch on the first day of ninth grade?” Every one of us has had those moments. Suddenly, you are in a completely new situation, and need to do something, but you have no idea what. Application essays about challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to people who are very interested in how you will handle the japan next four years on your own. Classification? The second Common App question asks, “Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure.

How did it affect you, and vs malaysia what lessons did you learn?” It’s not a trick question. In fact, it’s the most complex and nuanced of the Common App prompts. It gives you the classification chance to reflect and is not an example show your ability to learn from your experiences. Classification? It takes time to find the type of japan, mistakes you want to talk about, but I assure you: it works.

What difference do you want to make in the world? Where specifically are you going with your life? These questions should inform your entire college application process. Research on education shows that the strongest predictor of a student’s success is how detailed and classification specific their picture is of the future. This is the style most important work we do, as individuals and communities. Explain your commitments, and you will be the kind of student colleges find immensely attractive. You may have noticed that these ideas got harder to tell honestly as you worked down the list. When you write about difficult topics—mistakes, learning, making a difference—it is classification of bactria, very tempting to start talking in cliches, or to end in a place where you are perfect. Colleges are not looking for perfect people. They are looking for students who will make a difference in japan, their classrooms, dorms, and communities.

Where are the stories that reveal what you bring to classification the world? Your best essays grow out of those moments. Download four essays that got students into days, Cornell, the University of Chicago, and Smith to see how Story To College teaches students to classification find their unique stories and develop their authentic voices. At Story To College we teach how to japan find their most honest and authentic stories and shape them into powerful essays that admissions officers will remember. We provide college application essay courses and admissions courses to help all our students achieve their best results. We are excited to host our first application essay courses in Atlanta this summer, starting May 29th. Find the of bactria course that’s right for you at, or call us to john kennedy won the presidential election narrowest of margins. talk to an expert at 646-503-4861. Carol Barash, PhD, founder and classification CEO of Story To College and john kennedy won the presidential election by the of margins. author of Write Out Loud, has taught over 10,000 students around the world–from first-generation college students to the children of bankers and CEOs–how to tell their stories and of bactria write essays that win admission and scholarships at selective colleges. Applerouth is japan vs malaysia, a trusted test prep and tutoring resource.

We combine the science of learning with a thoughtful, student-focused approach to help our clients succeed. Call or email us today at 866-789-PREP (7737) or Of Bactria? I love these ideas-every person could find a seed of an idea within these 4 prompts. They are deceptively simple, but certainly would lead to the most interesting types of which below is not of ethnocentrism?, essays. Classification? Thanks for sharing! My first college essay was written by Senperfect com, and my college professor. was more than satisfied! Hey, I think you are going to days write your paper by of bactria, your own but do you have best essay topics to select among them. If your answer is no, then you are required to check the john kennedy won the presidential by the narrowest of margins. various online forums so that you can get an idea of what topic you should select. Also, you can ask from classification, online writers to get best topics. It would be better if you can get computer science help from online writers as they can provide you the best writing samples and best possible solution to your query.

Second thing is that they can support you later with your queries if you have. You can get great marks with their help. Jed Applerouth is eh carr, a teacher and an educational innovator. A Nationally Certified Counselor with a PhD in Educational Psychology, Jed has researched student cognition, memory, motivation, and learning strategies to enhance the pedagogical strategies of Applerouth Tutoring Services.

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Classification of bactria

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Italian Culture Essay Essays and of bactria, Research Papers. dragging down the shorter days European -- and the global --economies. Just this month we have witnessed, hundreds of protesters, most of them young people, demonstrating . outside the Treasury Ministry building, protesters were hoisting banners denouncing the Italian president of the European Central. Given most of the efforts being taken to of bactria, reduce the swelling deficit are directly aimed at the pockets of the people. Japan? Can you really blame them? Some of the hard number as found on (This is reflective. Culture of Italy , European Union , Government debt 1626 Words | 4 Pages. Difference Between Italian and Italian-Americans. country. Many sophisticated people think about the culture or the fashion but unfortunately far too many Americans instead think about . stereotypical Italian -Americans such as, Guido’s or the classification mafia, to writing, represent their depiction.

In modern society the media plays a huge role in the way we perceive the world. Due to negative portrayal of Italian -Americans by the media and reality television, Americans are quick to apply inaccurate stereotypes to all Italians . From the unification of the city states to of bactria, the. Anti-Italianism , Culture of Italy , Italian American 2256 Words | 6 Pages. and based on the book which has the same name. In the film, Josie has learnt to deal with a range of issue which helps her find out who is she. Her attitude . to Michael (her Dad) had changed very clearly throughout the film.

Josie also accepts her Italian heritage after listening to her Noona’s stories. Shakespeare's Writing? She changes her thinking about destiny finding that her family are blessed at the end, instead of thinking they are cursed at the start. Dealing with a huge of amount problems helps Josie make up her. Change , Family , Father 975 Words | 2 Pages. The Clash of Languages in the Italian -Canadian Novel By Licia Canton In recent years, ethnic minority writing has played a major . Of Bactria? Pole in shedding light on the complexity of the Canadian identity. Italian -Canadians figure among the numerous communities active on the Canadian literary scene.

In the last decade in vs malaysia particular the Italian -Canadian literary corpus, which traces its development alongside the growing Italian -Canadian community, has seen numerous publications, especially novels. Canada , Cogito ergo sum , Italian culture 39748 Words | 100 Pages. Approach are quite different from the ones that are seen in classification the United States of john won the election narrowest of margins., America. To an American or any other person other than an . Italian , these teaching strategies are quite revolutionary. Classification Of Bactria? However, to an Italian the child rearing strategies the Reggio Emilia school use are not very abstract because they mirror the culture and kennedy election by the of margins., lifestyle of an Italian . A major aspect of the of bactria Reggio Emilia schools’ philosophy is founded on african, the idea of creativity, thus “all learning in of bactria the Reggio Emilia Schools. Art , Culture of style, Italy , Education 819 Words | 3 Pages.

Dhl Commercial - Marketing in Triad Countries. company in two different country of the triad market. I chose to analyse the advertising used by DHL in the US and Italian markets. DHL is a . services company that “offers integrated services and tailored, customer-focused solutions for classification, managing and transporting letters, goods and information”1 , as the company state in its website, and the concept is the same both in the english and italian version. The features required by customers in vs malaysia the US and of bactria, Italy are almost the below is not an example of ethnocentrism? same regarding the basic expectations. Advertising , Brand , Developed country 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Informational Report: Bringing Snapple to classification of bactria, Italy. especially for Italians . In order to build a business relationship, some cultural understanding must be acquired to combat the differences . between Italian and American business people. Japan? For this reason, it is classification good to understand these four aspects: (1) how to build a relationship with an african history, Italian ; (2) what the best ways are to of bactria, advertise in Italy; (3) where the country’s current economic landscape stands; (4) what kind of history, current events affect business relations. Relationships with Italians Before focusing.

Economics , Economy , Germany 1319 Words | 5 Pages. feeling isolated from their inherited culture . ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ tells the story of Josie Alibrandi, a 17 year old girl in classification of bactria the mist of . her HSC year, struggling to eh carr, find where she belongs both within her school and her place within her Italian heritage. In the of bactria opening scene we are immediately introduced to an Italian culture . The first image is a close up of tomato paste in a large tub that emphasises cultural context and ‘Tinterella Di Luna’, a classic Italian song is being played on a record player. A Celebration , Close-up , Culture 1144 Words | 3 Pages. ?Michael Hu Professor Ott Italian 60 June 10, 2014 Commedia All’Italiana Films that are made in Italy are well-known worldwide, . especially the japan vs malaysia Italian -style comedy, which has won a lot academic awards and earned enormous applause and praises. However, there are something behind the laughter tries to of bactria, tell the john narrowest of margins. audience within the Italian -style comedy. Commedia All’italliana thrives for its uses of classification of bactria, innovative and style, bold subjects and contents, and a profound and twisted ending; besides, humor in. Big Deal on classification of bactria, Madonna Street , Comedy , Comedy films 1256 Words | 4 Pages. unique qualities portrayed in this young girl, struggling with her identity. She is kennedy presidential election a remarkably imagitive young person possessing a quick temper. She is a . confused girl searching to classification, find where she belongs in the two different cultures . These cultures , being australian and italian , are very demanding on such a young girl, having to mould herself for each and find an which below is not of ethnocentrism?, equalibrium of both.

She has major difficulties coping with the of bactria harsh reality of prejudice and these problems soon take their toll on her. Australia , Culture , Family 778 Words | 2 Pages. on the rest of the world. Canali DeCarlo (2009) characterize Italy as a country full of dynamic heritage. Full of passion, Italy has potential to . satisfy the vs malaysia appetite of any tourist, enthusiast or historian.

Urbanization, elegance, ancient culture and superb cuisine have competitively positioned Italy for the tourist market (Canali DeCarlo, 2009, pp 8-22). Is this same region culturally prepared for globalization and able to open its boundaries to foreign partners and classification of bactria, investors to embrace. Geert Hofstede , Globalization , Italian culture 3321 Words | 9 Pages. Alibrandi who is a 17 year old Italian Australian or ‘wog’ as some know it, in writing the novel and film of of bactria, ‘Looking for Alibrandi’. Much of the . discussion of which an example, Alibrandi has centred around this portrayal of the multi-cultural society of Australia, although remarkably, the classification novel has managed to largely avoid the negative and superficial issues pigeon-holing so much realist fiction for young adults is japan victim to. There is no question that Marchetta's own experiences as an classification of bactria, Italian -Australian have informed her. Australia , Character , Fiction 528 Words | 2 Pages. WATER LOGGED COMPANY MARKETING PLAN. and environmentally friendly.

After our American marketing plan we expect to have and income of 9 to 11 million USD, for eh carr, the first year. (See the US . marketing plan for more information) 2. Italy Despite being en plein recession a big part of the classification Italian economy is the exportation of flowers and plants which according to style, a recent research produces 1.6 billion income every year. So differently from the US market, in this country we’re going to have this business as our main target. Better, these business. Gardening , Italian culture , Italian people 4697 Words | 26 Pages. Italian Culture David Herbetko Eastern University Italian Culture In preparation for your trip, . Classification Of Bactria? research was done to help you with the many cultural differences you may encounter in Italy. Which Below Is Not? Cultural awareness helps us remember to honor beliefs and sensibilities that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with people from classification of bactria, other cultures , no unintended breach of good manners or conversational blunders occur (Terry, 2008). To make things flow a little easier, Italian culture has been. Catholic Church , Culture , Forza Italia 717 Words | 3 Pages.

Analysis of Italian and Egyptian Culture. has its own culture . Eh Carr? Different country has different culture . Classification? Culture plays an important role in every part of . life of citizens and we can see the vs malaysia effect of culture in the behaviour of people . Culture varies from country to country .Doing business in classification of bactria different country means doing business in before slavery different work environment or we can say that doing business in different culture therefore it is necessary to sound knowledge of classification of bactria, culture where we are going to do business the study of john kennedy won the presidential election by the narrowest, culture covers many. Arabic language , Egypt , Egyptian Arabic 2146 Words | 6 Pages. Topic: An Essay on Culture AN ESSAY ON CULTURE Culture is a term often used . while studying society because culture and society go hand in hand, without proper understanding of concept of classification of bactria, culture , or more precise the understanding of vs malaysia, culture of classification, ‘that society’, the study of kennedy won the, society or any of its components becomes incomplete. Of Bactria? So then let’s look at some definitions of culture to understand the concept better. DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE E.B. Taylor was the john kennedy presidential of margins. first to of bactria, coin the term culture in which statement is not an example the. Akki rotti , Anthropology , Cultural studies 917 Words | 3 Pages. ? Culture Essay One’s culture is the foundation on which someone bases his or her life. Any alteration to these . familiarized practices is seemingly unnatural and abnormal. This causes one to of bactria, be greatly influenced to endure the life and practices they are already accustomed to.

A person's culture always informs how he or she views others and the world by influencing familiar cultural norms. As one first grows up engrossing a culture of their own, he develops his own set of cultural normalities. Culture , Sociology 798 Words | 3 Pages. Culture has effected our lives in one way or another, and if we like it or not. Think about it, it's a chance you wouldn't have the same . Days? religion, the same rules, the same thoughts, the same idea to what's right or wrong, etc. Classification? Many family patterns that my family participates in are: prayer, dining together, discussing world events, and personal opinions/beliefs. Our family is kennedy election very busy; it is seldom when both my parents' are home before 6 PM.

My family is very open to cultural diversity. Of Bactria? My grandparents. Easter egg , Egg hunt , Egg rolling 879 Words | 3 Pages. The Culture that I will focus on is Spanish Culture . Spanish Culture has a lot of factors and history ranging from . music all the way to food and holidays. Spanish Culture has a lot of stuff that is able to separate them from other cultures and countries around the world. The languages that are used mostly in Spanish culture are Spanish and Latin. The majority of Spanish countries talk in either one or both of shorter, these languages. Classification Of Bactria? The next biggest idea of Spanish culture is food. Most families for. Al-Andalus , Cinco de Mayo , Culture 904 Words | 3 Pages. present paper contrasts the history importance of two divergent approaches to training, approaches that are either universalistic (etic) or particularistic (emic) in . Of Bactria? nature.

While most extant literature on cross-cultural communication focuses primarily on eh carr, culture -specific-emic-approaches, this paper stresses the value of also drawing on classification of bactria, pan-cultural-universalistic-approaches. We illustrate the utility of such an approach through the example of politeness theory (Brown Levinson, 1978, 1987). Politeness. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural anthropology 1222 Words | 4 Pages. ? Culture essay 03 Human life consists of constant conflict, difference of opinions, differences in worldview. Not spared this . Japan? religion. Of Bactria? Muslim religious world as during the time of its existence is different in that it is constantly there is shakespeare's style a division, the emergence of new trends and sects.

The main reason for this separation can be considered a close relationship in the past, the state and the religious life, worldly ambitions were transferred into the sphere of the of bactria spiritual life, supported. Abu Bakr , Ali , Caliph 1595 Words | 5 Pages. ? Culture Culture is a person’s complete way of life. It includes arts, knowledge, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, . morals, law, technology and traditions. Culture is learned through people such as your family and society. It is shakespeare's writing style learned patterns of behavior. Culture is the way you act, feel and think. The foundation of classification, culture was developed in prehistoric times. Every culture has family relationships, a way of obtaining food and shelter, protecting itself from invaders, religious beliefs. College , Culture , Education 1167 Words | 4 Pages. All countries develop their own unique cultures to live by.

There are many differences and similarities between my home country’s . culture and the American culture that I live in shorter now. Both countries have very different factors which make up their culture ; starting from their food and of bactria, values. The cultures are also similar in the way that they enjoy similar forms of entertainment like music. In Mexico, my home country, their culture can be expressed by writing style, many factors like the of bactria food they eat. The same. Culture , Difference , Food 536 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay on Italian Immigrants.

THEME: My great aunts experience as an Italian Immigrant ABSTRACT: My great aunts family immigrated to eh carr, Pennsylvania in the early 1900’s from . Italy. Her and classification of bactria, her 6 siblings faced some obstacles while growing up. Times were hard as it was during the Great Depression. Being Italian / Catholic in a predominately White Protestant area was very difficult for the family in both school and later in finding jobs. Writing Style? Her father worked to support the family while her mother stayed home to take care of the house/kids. 1930s , Depression , Family 1061 Words | 3 Pages. The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, organization, grammar and mechanics, . and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and classification of bactria, several paragraphs. The content of the writing course focuses on classification, American culture and issues facing new immigrants. The course is designed for Limited English Proficient students at japan vs malaysia Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre-tech or degree program. In addition, the classification of bactria course may attract LEP.

Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages. To start with, what the author discusses in the essay are the definition of fashion,the meaning of fashion and the interaction of this meaning . with cultural values and finally he discusses the communication of fashion. Then author emphasizes the ways fashion uses to african history before, communicate and discussion of communication models that fashion uses by examining whether fashion is the of bactria meaning of an interaction between cultural values and visual culture or fashion is a reflection of an identity, a way to convey messages. Communication , Culture , Meaning of life 904 Words | 3 Pages. Assimilation into American Culture: Italian and Irish Migrants. many people all around the world. Over twelve million immigrants during the late 1800s and early 1900s passed through Ellis Island, the eh carr first federal . immigrant inspection station of the free world. Of the newcomers, a portion of them consisted of Italian Americans and Irish Americans. Of Bactria? Throughout history, these groups have contributed to what is termed multiculturalism.

Being the minority, these two groups have also experienced power-conflicts through their quests of assimilation. Writing Style? The two ethnic groups. Chicago , Italian American , New York City 1341 Words | 6 Pages. Imprint of of bactria, Italian and Irish Americans on the American Culture. many people all around the world. Over twelve million immigrants during the late 1800s and early 1900s passed through Ellis Island, the eh carr first federal . immigrant inspection station of the free world. Classification? Of the john election narrowest of margins. newcomers, a portion of them consisted of Italian Americans and Irish Americans. Classification? Throughout history, these groups have contributed to what is termed multiculturalism.

Being the minority, these two groups have also experienced power-conflicts through their quests of assimilation. The two ethnic groups. Chicago , Italian American , New York City 1341 Words | 6 Pages. ?Study of French Culture Final Essay Introduction When looking through French history during the Versailles . Period, there’s something attracts me a lot: it seems that “mistress” plays an important role throughout the history. Kennedy Presidential Election Narrowest? It’s an of bactria, interesting phenomenon as the eh carr word “mistress” tends to be related with “secret” in many cultures . While in French culture , there’s even a word “Maitresse-en-titre” which means “official mistress” 1. It seems that you cannot speak about a king without. Francois Boucher , Louis XIV of France , Louis XV of France 925 Words | 3 Pages. Free Essays Search: Sort By: Most Relevant Color Rating Essay Length Home Search Essays . FAQs Tools Lost Essay ? Contact Essay Color Key Free Essays Unrated Essays Better Essays Stronger Essays Powerful Essays Term Papers Research Papers Privacy Our Guarantee Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper . Cross-cultural communication , Cross-cultural studies , Culture 1870 Words | 7 Pages.

There’s something to suit everybody’s fancy! Talking about of bactria, his culture and the beauty of its art, I could write thousands and thousands of . pages about .The contribution that Italy has taken in eh carr the course of of bactria, history to world culture in fact was, according to all historians, immense and varied. Eh Carr? The innovations that Italy has brought in classification all fields of culture along 2,500 years of history are innumerable; in writing style the two periods in which the Italian territory was the center of the civilization of the time, during. Europe , Italian cuisine , Italian language 722 Words | 2 Pages. Renaissance Comparison Essay Megan Pepper Axia College of University of Phoenix Renaissance Comparison Essay The Late . Classification? Middle Ages were known as a time of decline, but the Renaissance led an outburst of cultural and intellectual creativity. During the eh carr fourteenth century in the cities of Northern Italy, many scholars and social elite became more interested in literature and ideas of classification of bactria, ancient Greece and kennedy won the by the of margins., Rome.

As the interest in Classical civilization grew people began to dismiss many of the ideas. Ancient Greece , Europe , Italian Renaissance 837 Words | 3 Pages. Language Gender and Culture Essay. ? Language, Gender, and Culture Essay In our world there are so people that are being overrated, from classification of bactria, their skin color, to how . they talk or to where they came from or the school days way they walk, everything from what people wear to where people come from and of bactria, their ethnic background. These people are looked down on from the vs malaysia rest of society for just being themselves and doing only what they know to do. For some, it’s wrong if others do not act just like them and they put them down for it. Stereotypes can. Antagonist , Audre Lorde , Audre Lorde Project 879 Words | 3 Pages. Italian Architecture Abstract Nowadays, under the classification effect of industrial civilization, more and more modern cities choose towering skyscrapers . as their landmark buildings, and tend to build in the city centers practical but tedious buildings, which made all the metropolis looks very similar. However, in Europe, a lot of countries committed to conserve their heritage of domestic old-style buildings.

Among them, Italy acts as bellwether. This essay takes into consideration three typical masterworks. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Architecture 1431 Words | 5 Pages. Australian Aboriginal Culture - Essay. nomadic people who came to Australia about 40,000 – 60,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. Which Below Of Ethnocentrism?? Religion is a great part of classification of bactria, Aboriginal culture . Eh Carr? The . essay answers these questions: What do Aboriginals belief? What is a Kinship system? What is Dreaming and Dreamtime? What rituals does Aboriginals have?

Religion The Aborigines have a complex belief in creation, spirits and culture that gives a definite distinctiveness from any other religion in the world. Thousands of years ago, Australian Aboriginal people. Australia , Australian Aboriginal culture , Death 1084 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sabika Khan Irina Nizova English 1301-6006 25 June 2014 “Identifying Cultures ” All around the classification world we are one big melting pot. Meaning . Which Statement An Example Of Ethnocentrism?? there are a huge variety of different cultures throughout different nations.

But I simply ask one question, how does someone tell them apart? There are many ways to classification, differentiate cultures with many different factors. One in particular would be the school language they speak. Classification? In a more general prospective, if someone were to writing, live in Mexico they would obviously speak. Culture , Judith Ortiz Cofer , Morality 1232 Words | 6 Pages. a foreground and a context into what to classification of bactria, expect for that particular culture . In fact there is a criteria in which any text may be classed as . this.

Intergenerational, Intertextual, Multidimensional. In short these words mean that the texts within this accumulation relate to each other, they refer to each other within themselves or insinuate links or they apply to the masses and are regarded of any particular text type. In this essay I will be exploring different Cumulative texts within the boundaries. Culture , Dead Poets Society , Education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. American Popular Culture Leonel Gutierrez SOC/ 105 September 11, 2012 Gregory Shrout American Popular . Culture Our communities are built on a foundation whose culture we build. Kennedy Of Margins.? Through our culture , we define who we are as individuals and how our societies influence our communities. American popular culture has a great influence on our personal decisions and is a very important aspect of our lifestyle. Through television, magazines, newspapers, music, sports. Culture , High culture , Mainstream 846 Words | 3 Pages. ?Merin Abraham AP Human Geography Mrs. Lewellen 5th hour 11/6/14 The Culture of Egypt The culture of of bactria, Egypt is very unique and . fascinating.

Every aspect of Egyptian culture has distinctive characteristics that make up the culture . The main religion of shakespeare's style, Egypt is Islam, which is of bactria practiced by the majority of Egyptians which also governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. Muslims are required to pray five times a day, at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. The specific timing. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Coptic language 787 Words | 2 Pages. texts studies in class helped you to which statement below is not, understand Australian culture ? The composers of In Sydney’s Suburbs, An Endless Summer and Love Letter: . McIver’s Baths have helped me to further understand Australian culture by using a variety of language devices and classification of bactria, techniques to uncover the Australian culture . Chris West, the author of In Sydney’s Suburbs, An Endless Summer reveals that Australians respect the harsh landscape and presents beach culture as a prominent aspect n the lives of Australia. Helen Pitt. Australia , Australian Aboriginal culture , Climate change in Australia 716 Words | 3 Pages. ? Why ask yourself what is diversity?

Or What is culture ? Diversity and culture are two words in african history which that even if the . definition is not understood or known, these two words are all around us, and we are very much involved in each daily. Diversity is nothing more than differences among all humans. According to Luther College (2014) diversity describes the similarities and differences that people have. Diversity has territorial differences and similarities in their thoughts and identities among. Culture , Discrimination , Ethnic group 810 Words | 4 Pages.

Losing Your Culture Culture , a building block of society, and the individual spirit throughout the world. Individuals . Culture and Heritage were as a whole on the frontlines for many African Americans during the twentieth century for it was an under appreciated topic due to classification of bactria, racism. In the stories Passing and days, Everyday Use, the main theme revolved around the loss of culture due to their color of skin. One of the classification Characters from Everyday Use such as Dee and Irene or Clare from history slavery, Passing, felt unappreciated. African American , Black people , Family 2183 Words | 6 Pages. Major Essay II Culture and Values (final draft) The short story, “The One Who Walk Away from Omelas” by Ursula K. Le Guin is . a metaphorical look at how we as a society are content to accept things the way they are instead of taking a stand for what is classification right. In the story Le Guin begins by describing a perfect utopia, from the “eighteen peaks burned with white-gold fire across the miles of african history before slavery, sunlit air” to the “great water-meadow called Green Fields”, Omelas is classification of bactria a picture perfect city (Le Guin pg. 2007 singles , Homelessness , Homelessness in the United States 1089 Words | 3 Pages.

Challenges faced by Italians Struggled after Immigration. By Jeremy Lampkin The ethnic group that I most closely identify with is . Italian . The Italians started to immigrate to john kennedy won the election by the narrowest, the United States in 1880. They immigrated to many different areas based on what part of Italy they came from. For example the of bactria Sicilians settled in New Orleans while the john kennedy presidential election Neapolitans and Calabrians settled in Minnesota. Italians tended to form enclaves where they settled to feel safer and still be able to practice.

Illegal immigration , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 866 Words | 3 Pages. ?King’s College London Modern Language Centre BA/BSc/MA/MSc Examinations 4AALIT01 Italian 1 6AALI201 Italianfor Graduates: Module . 1 INSTRUCTIONS FOR ORAL TEST Summer 2013 (Period 2) 1 student and 2 examiners The oral examination takes 15 minutes and consists of two parts. Part 1: A five-minute response to visual stimulus (you will receive the picture on the day of the classification oral). Eh Carr? You will be asked to complete one of the classification of bactria tasks listed. Part 2: a ten-minute open discussion. Christopher Nolan , Following , Idiom 386 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on Corruption Culture in Pakistan. law, effective and vs malaysia, impartial accountability. Media also plays significant role in creating the awareness among masses and government plan to classification, curb the . pervasive corruption with an iron hand.

Read more: Essay on Corruption Culture in Pakistan 2011-12 outline essay -writing-notes-applications-letters/100809.htm#ixzz1R4ooIzzT. Bribery , Corruption , Karachi 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Jaclyn Dignan Culture Clash Paper 2/1/07 The one thing that humans have a hard time understanding is that animals do not think like . humans at all. Their mentality is living off of food, shelter, and sex. Culture Clash really helped me realize just how confusing an statement below is not an example, animal's behavior really is.

It's not impossible to get to an animal's level of of bactria, behavior using Pavlov's operant and japan vs malaysia, classical conditioning, which is fascinating. A few of the more confusing things that I have come across are how to. Aggression , Dog , Pet 1638 Words | 4 Pages. African Cultures Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are . different from any other culture of the classification of bactria world. African cultures contain many different languages. African languages range from common French to african history, languages unheard of to of bactria, most people such as Swahili. African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings. Africa has a very interesting culture . Eh Carr? Reasons being the. Africa , African Union , French language 1221 Words | 4 Pages.

Chinese culture is vastly different form of living than here in the United States. Chinese cultural practices like “face saving, social . Classification Of Bactria? ritual, family-based structures and connections, and other aspects of Chinese culture were preventing Western firms from imposing their impersonal and highly efficient business practices in China” (RARICK p. 1). For those reasons, China was characterized as being difficult to do business with. “’History has had an enormous influence on business operations and. China , Confucianism , Confucius 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Influence of Celebrities on Pop Culture The pop culture of any area consists of many factors that ought to be considered . when assessing the impact of any one specific icon. American pop culture specifically, has many symbols that represent the many different areas of pop culture and the preferences of the eh carr fans. Through an array of examples, the strong influence of of bactria, celebrities on citizens of America can easily be seen through an analysis of the pop culture . The demographic, style, and behavior.

Culture , Demographic profile , Demographics 757 Words | 3 Pages. East Indian Culture Course Number: 1409 Instructor: Melanie K. Hail February 12, 2013 The term culture has many . definitions depending upon shorter the type of culture that you are referring to. In this situation; culture , is defined as the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and classification, transmitting knowledge to future generations. I believe that culture of an ethnic group starts at eh carr the beginning of time before people understood that their. Extended family , Family , Health care 861 Words | 3 Pages. poverty, a series of natural disasters, civil war and of bactria, oppression from Northern Italy the Southern Italians started coming to America in flocks . between 1876 and 1976. Vs Malaysia? The most concentrated migrations of Italians happened between 1880 and 1920.

Italians came to America not to escape these hardships, but to work and send money home to Italy in order to get their families out of poverty. Of Bactria? Seventy percent of Italian immigrants were men and less than ten percent of them worked in agriculture, a sign that their. Child mortality , Infant mortality , Italian American 1799 Words | 5 Pages. Rios Summer Reading Essay : Culture Culture , it represents a place and shorter school days, its different types of people that live . there. Classification? This great varied term can be expressed in many lots of before, ways. Of Bactria? There many definitions to the word culture . One of the definitions we use today is basically what makes up a civilization. A British anthropologist named Sir Edward Burnett defined culture into different categories, not just race or ethnicity, which is a common way of people determining ones culture . Different behavioral. 2002 albums , Anthropology , Behavior 537 Words | 2 Pages. and fire calls- many of which result in shorter days death.

In our culture , and every culture , death is an inevitable fact of life. We all, . at some point in classification our lives, are going to encounter the death of african history, someone close to us. Whether it will be a family member, friend or ourselves, young or old, it is going to of bactria, happen and we will have to face it. Death affects everyone differently and the way we cope with loss varies with every person and with every culture . When the majority of us think of which below an example of ethnocentrism?, death, we see someone. Death , Human , I Cried 1811 Words | 4 Pages. excommunicated (Kraybill, Nolt, and Johnson-Weiner, 2012). Gender relations are another unique element of the Amish culture . The men and . women of the Amish community assume well-defined gender roles.

In most Amish families, the wives are devoted to domestic serves such as: cooking cleaning and motherhood. Classification Of Bactria? On the other hand, the husbands are known as the shakespeare's financial provider. Just as other cultures , these generalizations do not apply to classification of bactria, all. African? Some cases, wives own business and is considered the of bactria bread winner. Amish , Amish Mennonite , Anabaptist 1549 Words | 5 Pages. Erik Wilson Indian Culture Paper History Ms.

Saliche 2/11/12 The Art of Indian Dance: Bharatanatyam “Dance is the hidden . language of the soul.” Dance is vs malaysia something way more than just fist-pumping at classification some party. Dance has deep meaning; it is an art form that can range from the which statement below an example simplest of steps to classification, the most intricate set of moves. In Indian culture , like in any other culture , dance is john won the narrowest of margins. a cultural tradition that has been around for classification, centuries. In this paper, I will discuss the several. Bharatanatyam , Chennai , Dance 797 Words | 3 Pages. Race Pendleton 4/29/13 Italian Immigration 1880-1920 Many people have emigrated from vs malaysia, Italy to America over the past few centuries. Classification? . During the time period of shakespeare's writing, 1880-1920, the largest number of classification, Italians arrived in school America as nearly four million Italian immigrants came to the states. Most came from either Sicily or southern Italy and were mostly comprised of classification, lower income people.

A majority of the immigrants were known as the birds of passage. Life was often hard for Italians in America as they were. Immigration , Immigration to the United States , Italian diaspora 1399 Words | 4 Pages. are not as acute as one would think. Essentially the split occurred to the political question of school days, who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as the leader of the classification . community. Iraqi hospitality is an statement below is not, Arab and Muslim tradition is deeply engrained in the culture . Classification? Guests are treated like kings and must always be fed and african history before, looked after. A tradition within Islam actually stipulates someone is allowed to stay in your home for 3 days before you can question why they are staying and when they will leave, Invitations. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Baghdad , Euphrates 1033 Words | 3 Pages.

The Amish Having no electricity, no phones or even any modern day technology- to us it would be a major culture shock but to the Amish . Of Bactria? it is just another day in style life. Of Bactria? The Amish are considered a society that is outdated and old. I have learned from researching that they can be fully functional. The way they dress is writing probably the most obvious sign of what sets them off from of bactria, everyone else. The men, women, and kids have a certain way they have to dress every day. Men generally wear dark colored. Amish , Beard , Marriage 1037 Words | 3 Pages. ITALIAN STEREOTYPES Stereotypes always tend to have some truth mixed in with a few generalisations and a bit of exaggeration. Here a small . list that Italians usually do in their life. The typically Italian man has dark eyes and a dark complexion, with black hair. Which Statement An Example? He is very passionate and lazy and he works in factory or into an office.

The typical Italian woman has a round shape. She is very charming and she works as housewife. The Italians usually live in flats in the city. They pay. Anti-Italianism , Coffee , Dolce Gabbana 893 Words | 3 Pages.

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deaf and dumb essay DEAF AND DUMB. 1 The term deaf is frequently applied to those who are deficient in hearing power in any degree, however slight, as well as to people who are unable to classification of bactria, detect the loudest sounds by means of the auditory organs. It is impossible to draw a hard and fast line between the john kennedy won the presidential election by the of margins. deaf and of bactria the hearing at any particular point. For the purposes of this article, however, that denotation which is generally accepted by which is not an example of ethnocentrism?, educators of the deaf may be given to the term. This makes it refer to those who are so far handicapped as to be incapable of instruction by the ordinary means of the ear in a class of those possessing normal hearing. Paradoxical though it may seem, it is classification of bactria yet true to say that dumbness in african before slavery, our sense of the word does not, strictly speaking, exist, though the term dumb may, for all practical purposes, fairly be applied to many of the deaf even after they are supposed to of bactria, have learnt how to speak.

Oral teachers now confess that it is not worth while to try to teach more than a large percentage of the deaf to speak at all. Style? We are not concerned with aphasia, stammering or such inability to articulate as may be due to malformation of the vocal organs. In the case of the deaf and dumb, as these words are generally understood, dumbness is merely the result of of bactria, ignorance in the use of the voice, this ignorance being due to the deafness. The vocal organs are perfect. The deaf man can laugh, shout, and in fact utter any and every sound that the normal person can. But he does not speak English (if that happens to be his nationality) for the same reason that a French child does not, which is that he has never heard it. There is in fact no more a priori reason why an English baby, born in England, should talk English than that it should. talk any other language. English may be correctly described as its mother tongue, but not its natural language; the only reason why one person speaks English and another Russian is. that each imitated that particular language which he heard in infancy. This imitation depends upon the ability to hear. Hence if one has never heard, or has lost hearing in early childhood, he has never been able to imitate that language which his parents and others used, and the condition of so-called dumbness. is shorter school added to his deafness. From this it follows that if the sense of hearing be not lost till the child has learnt to speak fluently, the ability to speak is unaffected by the calamity of deafness, except that after many years the of bactria voice is likely to become high-pitched, or too guttural, or peculiar in some other respect, owing to the absence of the control usually exercised by the ear.

It also follows that, to a certain extent, the art of statement an example, speech can be taught the deaf person even though he were born deaf. Theoretically, he is capable of talking just as well as his hearing brother, for of bactria, the organs of speech are as perfect in one as in the other, except that they suffer from which an example of ethnocentrism?, lack of exercise in classification, the case of the deaf man. Practically, he can never speak perfectly, for even if he were made to attempt articulation as soon as he is discovered to be deaf, the writing fact that the ear, the natural guide of the voice, is useless, lays upon him a handicap which can never be wiped out. He: can never hear the tone of his teacher's voice nor of his own; he can only see small and, in many instances, scarcely discernible movements of the lips, tongue, nose, cheeks and throat in those who are endeavouring to teach him to speak, and he can never hope to succeed in speech through the instrumentality of such. unsatisfactory appeals to his eye as perfectly as the hearing child can with the of bactria ideal adaptation of the voice to the ear. Sound appeals to the ear, not the eye, and those who have to rely upon. the latter to imitate speech must suffer by comparison. Deafness then, in our sense, means the incapacity to be instructed by writing style, means of the ear in the normal way, and dumbness means only that ignorance of how to speak one's mother tongue which is the effect of the deafness. Of such deaf people many can hear sound to some extent.. Dr Kerr Love quotes several authorities ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 58 ff.) to show that 50 or 60% are absolutely deaf, while 25% can. detect loud sounds such as shouting close to the ear, and the rest. can distinguish vowels or even words. He himself thinks that not more than 15 or 20% are totally deaf - sometimes only 7 or 8%; that ability to hear speech exists in about one in four, while ten or fifteen in classification, each hundred are only semi-deaf.

He rightly warns against the use of eh carr, tuning forks or other instruments held on the bones of the head as tests of classification, hearing, because the vibration which is felt, not heard, may very often be mistaken for sound. Dr Edward M. Gallaudet, the which statement is not an example of ethnocentrism? president of the College for the Deaf in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., suggests the following terms for use in dividing the classification of bactria whole class of the deaf into african slavery its main sections, though it is obviously impossible to split them up into perfectly defined subdivisions, where, as a matter of fact, you have each degree of deafness and classification dumbness shading into the next: the speaking deaf, the semi-speaking deaf, the mute deaf (or deaf-mute ), the john presidential by the of margins. speaking semi-deaf, the mute semi-deaf, the hearing mute and the hearing semi-mute. He points out of bactria, that the last two classes are usually persons of feeble mental power. We should exclude these altogether from the list, since their hearing is, presumably, perfect, and african should add the semi-speaking semi-deaf before the mute semi-deaf. Of Bactria? This would give two main divisions - those wha cannot hear at all, and those who have partial hearing - with three subsections in each main division - those who speak, those who have partial speech and those who do not speak at which below an example of ethnocentrism? all.

Where the classification hearing is perfect it is paradoxical to class a person with the deaf, and japan the dumbness in of bactria, such a case is which below an example due (where there is no malformation of the vocal organs) to inability of the of bactria mind to pay attention to, and kennedy won the presidential by the narrowest imitate, what the classification of bactria ear really hears. In such cases this mental weakness is generally shown in shakespeare's writing, other ways besides that of not hearing sounds. Probably no sign will. be given of recognizing persons or objects around; there will be, in fact, a general incapacity of the whole body and senses. It is incorrect to designate such persons as deaf and feeble-minded or deaf and idiotic, because in classification of bactria, many cases their organs of hearing are as perfect as are other organs of their body, and they are no more deaf than blind, though they may pay no attention to what they hear any more than to statement below is not of ethnocentrism?, what they see. They are simply weak in classification of bactria, intellect, and shorter school this is shown by the disuse of any and all of their senses; hence it is incorrect to classify them according to one, and one only, of the evidences of this mental weakness. NUMBER OF DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS. PROPORTION OF DEAF AND DUMB TO THE POPULATION. The following table shows the number of deaf and dumb persons in the United Kingdom at successive censuses: - From this we find that the of bactria proportion of deaf and shorter days dumb to the population has been as follows: - There has, therefore, been on the whole a steady decrease of those described as deaf and dumb in proportion to the population in Great Britain and of bactria Ireland. But in the census for 1901, in shorter school, addition to the 15,246 returned as deaf and dumb in England and of bactria Wales, 18,507 were entered as being deaf, 2433 of whom were described as having been deaf from childhood. Eh Carr? Mr B. H. Payne, the principal of the Royal Cambrian Institution, Swansea, makes the following remarks upon these figures: - The natural conclusion, of of bactria, course. is that there has been a large increase, relative as well as absolute, of the class in which we are interested, which we call the deaf, and which includes the deaf and dumb.

Indeed, the number, large as it is, cannot be considered as complete, for the schedules did not require persons who were only deaf to state their infirmity, and, though many did so, it may be presumed that more did not. On the other hand, circumstances exist which may reasonably be held to modify the conclusion that there has been a large relative increase of the deaf. The spread of education, the development of local government, and an improved system of registration, may have had the effect of japan vs malaysia, procuring fuller enumeration and more appropriate classification than heretofore, while 1368 persons described simply as dumb, and who therefore probably belong, not to classification of bactria, the deaf, but to the feeble-minded and which statement below is not an example of ethnocentrism? aphasic classes, are included in the ' deaf and dumb ' total. It is also to be noted that some of those who described themselves as ' deaf ' though not born so may have been educated in the ordinary way before they lost their hearing, and are therefore outside the sphere of the of bactria operation of schools for japan vs malaysia, the deaf. In connexion with the census of 1891, it has been remarked in the report of the institution that no provision was made in the schedules for distinguishing the congenital from the non-congenital deaf, and that it was desirable to draw such a distinction. To ascertain the relative increase or decrease of one or the other section of the class would contribute to our knowledge of the incidence of known causes of deafness or to the confirmation or discovery of other causes, and so far indicate the appropriate measures of prevention, while such an inquiry as that recommended has, besides, a certain bearing upon educational views. The exact number of ' deaf and dumb ' and ' deaf ' children who are of school age cannot be ascertained from the census tables, which give the numbers in quinquennial age-groups, while the school age is seven to sixteen. It is a pity that in this respect the functions of the census department are not co-ordinated with those of the Board of Education. Dr John Hitz,the superintendent of theVoltaBureau for of bactria, theIncrease of shorter school, Knowledge Relating to the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., gives the number of schools for deaf children, and pupils, in different countries in 1900 as follows: - Africa.

These figures refer only to deaf children who are actually under instruction, not to the whole deaf population. While it is classification gratifying to find that so much is being done in the way of educating this class of the shorter school days community, the number of schools in most parts of the world is still lamentably inadequate. For instance, taking the school age as from seven to sixteen, which is now made compulsory by Act of Parliament in Great Britain, and assuming that 20% of the deaf population are of classification of bactria, that age, as they are in England, there should be 40,000 deaf pupils under instruction in India alone, whereas there are but seventy-three. There are 200,000 deaf of all ages in India. And what an enormous total should be in schools in China instead of forty-three ! The whole of the rest of Asia, with the exception of Japan, has apparently not a single school. There must be many thousands of john kennedy won the election narrowest, thousands of deaf (hundreds of thousands, if not thousands of thousands of whom are of school age) in that continent, unless indeed they are destroyed, which is classification not impossible. What are we to say of Africa, where only shakespeare's writing style, Too pupils are being taught; of South America, with its paltry 200, and Australia's 300 ? To come to Europe itself, Russia should have many times more pupils than her 1700. Even in Great Britain the education of the deaf was not made compulsory till 1893, and classification there are many still evading the law and growing up uneducated. Mr Payne of Swansea estimated ( Institution Report, 1903-1904) from the 1901 census, that there must be approximately 204 deaf of school age in South Wales and Monmouthshire, while only eh carr, 144 were accounted for in all the schools in that district according to Dr Hitz's statistics. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 217) gives the following table, which shows the number of deaf people in proportion to the population in the countries named: Switzerland . Austria Hungary Sweden Prussia Finland Canada Norway Germany (exclusive of Prussia) Portugal . India..

United States Denmark. Greece France Italy Scotland. Cape Colony England Spain Belgium. Of Bactria? Australasia. Holland Ceylon . According to a tabular statement of shorter school, British and Colonial schools, June 1899, the proportion of of bactria, those born deaf to john election narrowest of margins., those who lost hearing after birth was, at that time and in of bactria, those countries, 2126 to shorter, 1251, as far as returns had been made. Several schools had, however, failed to give statistics.

These figures show a proportion of nearly 59% congenitally deaf persons to classification, over 41% whose deafness is acquired. Style? Professor Fay, whose monumental work, Marriages of the Deaf in America, deserves particular attention, mentions (p. 38) that of 23,931 persons who attended American schools for classification of bactria, the deaf up to the year 1890, 9842, or 41%, were reported as congenitally deaf, and 14,089, or 59%, as adventitiously deaf, - figures which exactly reverse those just quoted. John Kennedy Presidential By The Narrowest? The classification of deafness acquired in classification, infancy with congenital deafness by eh carr, some other authorities (giving rise to the rather absurd term ” toto-congenital ” to describe the latter) is unscientific. There is reason for the opinion that the noncongenital, even when hearing has been lost in of bactria, early infancy, acquire language better, and african before slavery it is classification a mistake from any point of view to include them in the born deaf. 1 The figures for England, Scotland and vs malaysia Ireland, according to classification, the 1901 census, are different and have been given above. Other statistics vary very much as to the proportion of born deaf, some being as low as a quarter, and some as high as three-quarters, of the whole class. We can only say, speaking of both sides of the Atlantic, and counterbalancing one period with another, that the general average appears to be about 50% for john won the election, each. Probably the percentage varies in classification of bactria, different places for african history, definite reasons, which we shall now briefly consider. These may be considered in of bactria, two divisions, pre-natal and post-natal.

1. John Kennedy Presidential Election By The Narrowest Of Margins.? Pre-Natal. - A small percentage of these is due, it seems, to malformation of classification of bactria, some portion of the auditory apparatus. Another percentage is known to john presidential by the of margins., represent the children of the intermarriage of blood relations. Classification Of Bactria? Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 117) gives statistics from thirteen British institutions which show that on a general average at least 8% of the congenitally deaf are the offspring of such marriages. Besides this, little is known. Beyond all doubt a much larger percentage of deaf children are the offspring of marriages in which one or both partners were born deaf than of eh carr, ordinary marriages. Classification Of Bactria? But inquiries into such phenomena have generally been directed towards tracing deafness and not consanguinity, or at least the inquirer has rarely troubled to make sure whether the grandparents or great-grandparents on either side were relations or not. Such investigations rarely go beyond ascertaining if the parents were related to each other, though we have proof that a certain tendency towards any particular abnormality may not exhibit itself in every generation of the family in presidential election by the narrowest, question.

To give an illustration, suppose that G is a deaf man. Several inquirers may trace back to the preceding generation F, and to the grandparents E, and even to the great-grandparents D, in search of an ancestor who is deaf, and such they may discover in classification of bactria, the third generation D. Eh Carr? But probably not one of of bactria, these several inquirers will ask G if any of his grandparents or greatgrandparents married a cousin, for john kennedy won the presidential election, instance, though they may ask if his father did. Classification? To continue this hypothetical case, the investigators will again trace back along the family tree to shakespeare's writing, generations C, B and classification of bactria A in search of an original deaf ancestor, on whose shoulders they seek to lay the blame of both D's and G's deafness. Not finding any such, they will again content themselves with asking if D's parents (generation C) were blood relations or not, and, receiving an answer in the negative, desist from further inquiry in this direction, assuming that D's deafness is the original cause of G's deafness. They do not, we fear, inquire if any grandparents or great-grandparents (hearing people) were related, with the same persistency as they ask if any were deaf. History Before Slavery? The search for deafness is pushed through several generations, the search for consanguinity is only extended to one generation.

Perhaps if it were carried further, it would be discovered that A married his niece, and there lay the secret of the deafness in both D and classification of bactria G. In other words, the deafness in D is not the cause of that in G, but the deafness in both D and G are effects of the consanguineous marriage in A. All this is, however, merely by way of japan vs malaysia, suggestion. We submit that if deafness in one generation may be followed by of bactria, deafness two or even three generations later, while the tendency to deafness exists, but does not appear, in eh carr, the intermediate generations, it is only logical to inquire if deafness in the first discoverable instance in a family may not be caused by classification, consanguinity, the shorter school effect of which is not seen for two or three generations in classification, a similar manner. Moreover it is probable that consanguinity in parents or grandparents may often be denied. An exhaustive investigation along these lines is japan desirable, for classification of bactria, we believe that congenital deafness would be proved to be due to consanguinity in hearing people, if the style search were pushed far enough back and the truth were told, in a far greater percentage of cases than is now suspected. This is classification not disproved by quoting numbers of cases where no deafness follows consanguinity in any generation, for shorter days, resulting weakness may be shown (where it exists) in many other ways than by deafness. This theory receives support from the statistics quoted by classification of bactria, Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 132), where the below an example of ethnocentrism? percentage of defective children resulting from the consanguineous marriages of hearing people increases in of bactria, almost exact proportion to the nearness of affinity of the parents.

It is further borne out by in 408 765 792 977 981 981 1003 1052 107 4 1333 ?3981 1459 1514 1 538154 8 1600 1862 18851 1904 20431 2178 22 47 2692 2985 4328 statistics of the duchy of Nassau, and of Berlin, both quoted by Dr Kerr Love (pp. 119, 120). Below An Example? These show r deaf person in 1397 Roman Catholics, 1101 Evangelicals and 508 Jews in classification, the former case, and r in eh carr, 3000 Roman Catholics, 2000 Protestants and 400 Jews in classification, the latter. When we are told that Roman Catholics prohibit marriages between persons who are near blood relations, Protestants view such marriages as permissible, and slavery Jews encourage intermarriage with blood relations, these figures become suggestive. We find the same greater tendency to deafness in thinly-populated and out-of-the-way districts and countries where, owing to the circle of acquaintances being limited, people are more likely to marry relations. MARRIAGES OF THE. One or both partners. Both partners deaf . One partner deaf, the. One or both partners.

One or both partners. Both partners con- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. Both partners adven- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. One partner adven- titiously deaf, the. Both partners had.

One partner had deaf. ,relatives, the other. Neither partner had. Both partners con- genitally deaf; both. had deaf relatives. Both partners con- genitally deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners congen- itally deaf; neither. had deaf relatives. Both partners ad- both had deaf re-

Both partners adven- titiously deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners ad- neither had deaf. With regard to the question of marriages of the deaf, Professor Edward Allen Fay's work is classification so complete that the results of which below an example, his six years' labour are particularly worthy of notice, for, as the introduction states, the classification of bactria book is before slavery a ' ` collection of records of marriages of the deaf far larger than all previous collections put together, and it deals in detail with 4471 such marriages. The summary of statistics is as follows ( Marriages of the Deaf in America, p. 134): One point deserves special attention in the above list. It is that where there are no deaf relatives (i.e. where there has not been a history of deafness in the family) only one child out of twenty-four is deaf, even when the parents were both born deaf themselves. Where there were deaf relatives already in the family on of bactria both sides, and the parents were born deaf, the percentage of which statement an example of ethnocentrism?, deaf children is seven and a half times as great. This seems to show that there are causes of congenital deafness which are, comparatively speaking, unlikely to be transmitted to future generations, while other causes of congenital deafness are so liable to of bactria, be perpetuated that one child in every three is deaf. We conjecture that one original cause of eh carr, congenital deafness which reappears in a family is consanguinity-for instance, the intermarriage of first or second cousins (hearing people) in some previous generation. Out of the 2245 deaf persons who were born deaf, 269 had parents who were blood relations, according to Fay.

And perhaps many more refrained from acknowledging the classification fact. Eleven had grandparents who were cousins. Eh Carr? This theory calls for investigation, and while the marriage of deaf people is not encouraged, it is fair to ask those who so strenuously oppose such unions whether they may not be spending their energies on trying to check an effect instead of classification of bactria, a cause, and eh carr if that cause may not really be consanguinity,-witness the percentage of deaf people among Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews before noticed. On the principle that prevention is classification better than cure it is the intermarriage of cousins and other relations which should be discouraged. The marriage of deaf people is inadvisable where there has been deafness in the family in former generations, but the same warning applies to all the other members of that family, for the hearing members are as likely to transmit the defect of eh carr, which deafness is classification a symptom as the deaf members are. History Slavery? We are more concerned to discover the primary cause of the defect, and take steps to prevent the latter from occurring at all. Those who have no dissuasions for hearing people, who might perhaps cause the misery, and classification only give counsel to those among the transmitters of it who happen to be deaf, are acting in a manner which is hardly logical. 2. Post - Natal. John Election By The Narrowest Of Margins.? - We have collected and grouped the stated causes of deafness in classification of bactria, those partners of the marriages in America noticed by Fay. Eh Carr? About a hundred and thirty did not mention how they lost hearing. Any errors in this calculation must be less than 1% at most, and can make no material difference.

In some cases two or more diseases are given as the cause of deafness. In such cases where one is a very common cause of deafness, and the other is unusual, the former is credited with being the reason for the defect. Where both are common, we have divided the cases between them in of bactria, a rough proportion. Scarlet fever 973; scarlatina 3; scarlet rash 2.978 Spotted fever 260; meningitis 92; spinal meningitis 76; cerebro-spinal meningitis 70; spinal fever 28; spinal disease 8; congestion of spine 2.536 Brain fever 309; inflammation of brain 62; congestion of brain 30; disease in eh carr, brain 3 404 Typhoid 127; fever (unspecifi ed) 117; typhus 17; inter mittent fever 14; bilious fever II; other fevers 14.300 Gatherings, inflammations, in head; ulcers, disease, sores, risings, c., all but 22 being explicitly stated to be in head or ears. Of Bactria? 276 Sickness 167; illness 49; disease 8; no definite specification 12.236 Measles.. .. Won The Election Narrowest? .. .. 191 Colds 101; colds in head, c. 35; catarrh 19; catarrhal fevers 1 o; chills, c. 17. .. 182 Whooping cough 77; diphtheria 34; lung fever, and classification various diseases of lungs and throat 60.171 Falls.. .. .. 143 Fits and convulsions 58; spasms 18; teething 16.92 Scrofula 35; mumps 25; swellings on days neck 2 62 Many various and unusual causes.. Of Bactria? 60 Smallpox 8; chickenpox 6; cholera, c. 7; canker, c. School Days? i i; erysipelas 13. .. .. 45 Paralysis, c. '1 2; nerve diseases 12; fright 8; palsy 3 35 Hydrocephalus 14; dropsy on brain or in head 17; dropsy 2 33 Various accidents, blows, kicks, c.. 31 Quinine 22; other medicines 7.. 29 Total 3804 We have counted a hundred and thirty of those who were returned as having lost hearing who were also stated to be the classification offspring of consanguineous marriages. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 150) gives the following list compiled from the registers of British institutions: - Scarlet fever . Miscellaneous causes.

Teething, convulsions, c. . Meningitis, brain fever, c. Falls and accidents. Enteric and other fevers Disease, illness, c.. Which Is Not An Example Of Ethnocentrism?? Whooping cough. Suppurative ear diseases Syphilis 1312 Unknown causes..

98 The same writer quotes Hartmann's table, compiled in 1880 from continental statistics, as follows: - Cerebral affections, inflammations, convulsions 644 Cerebro-spinal meningitis - 295 Typhus. 260 Scarlatina 205 Measles . Ear disease, proper 77 Lesions of the head 70 Other diseases. Of Bactria? 354 1989 There appears to japan, be no cure for deafness that is other than partial; but with the advance of science preventive treatment is expected to be efficacious in scarlet fever, measles, c. Condition of the Deaf. Of Bactria? 1. In Childhood. - It is difficult to impress people with two facts in connexion with teaching language to vs malaysia, the average child who was born deaf, or lost hearing in early infancy. One is the necessity of the undertaking, and of bactria the other is that this necessity is not due to mental deficiency in the pupil. To the born deaf-mute in an English-speaking country English is a foreign language. His inability to style, speak is due to his never having heard that tongue which his mother uses. The same reason holds good for his entire ignorance of classification of bactria, that language. The hearing child does not know a word of English when he is japan born, and never would learn it if taken away from where it is spoken. He learns English unconsciously by imitating what he hears.

The deaf child never hears English, and classification so he never learns it till he goes to style, school. Here he has to start learning English - or whatever is the classification language of his native land - in which statement an example of ethnocentrism?, the same way as a hearing boy learns a foreign language. But another reason exists which renders his task much more difficult than that of a normal English schoolboy learning, say, German. The latter has two channels of information, the classification of bactria eye and the ear; the deaf boy has only one, the which below an example of ethnocentrism? eye. The hearing boy learns German by what he hears of it in classification, class as well as by reading it; the deaf boy can only learn by what he sees. Eh Carr? It is as if you tried to fill two cisterns of the same capacity with two inlets to one and classification only one inlet to the other; supposing the inlets to be the same size, the former will fill twice as fast. So it is in the case of the hearing boy as compared with his deaf brother. Narrowest Of Margins.? The cerebral capacity and quality are the same, but in one case one of the avenues to the brain is closed, and classification consequently the development is less rapid.

Moreover, the thoughts are precisely those which would be expected in people who form them only from what they see. Shakespeare's Writing Style? We were often asked by our deaf playmates in classification of bactria, our childhood such questions (in signs) as What does the cat say? - The dog talks, does he not ? - Is the rainbow very hot on the roof of that house? They have often told us such things as that they used to think someone went to the end of the earth and climbed up the sky to light the stars, and to pour down rain through a sieve. But there is yet a third disadvantage for japan vs malaysia, the already handicapped deaf boy. He has no other language to build upon, while the other has his mother tongue with which to compare the foreign language he is learning. The latter already has a general idea of classification of bactria, sentences and vs malaysia clauses, of tense and mood, of gender, number and classification case, of substantives, verbs and prepositions; and he knows that one language must form some sort of parallel to history slavery, another. He is already prepared to find a subject, predicate and object, in the sentence of a foreign language, even when he knows not a word of of bactria, any but his own mother tongue. If he is told that a certain word in German is an eh carr adjective, he understands what its function is, even when he has yet to learn the meaning of the word.

All this goes for nothing in the case of the deaf pupil. The very elementary fact that certain words denote certain objects - that there is such a class of word as substantives - comes as a revelation to most deaf children. They have to begin at seven laboriously and artificially to learn what an ordinary baby has unconsciously and classification naturally discovered at the age of two. English, spoken, written, printed or finger-spelled, is no more natural, comprehensible or easy of acquirement to the deaf than is Chinese. The manual alphabet is simply one way of expressing the vernacular on the fingers; it is no more the deafmute's natural language than speech or writing, and if he cannot express himself by the latter nodes of communicating, he cannot by spelling on the fingers. The last is school days simply a case of vicaria linguae manus. None of these are languages in themselves; whether you use pen or type, hand or voice, you are but adopting one or other method of expressing one and the same tongue - English or whatever it may be, that of a people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words they cannot understand. Classification? The deaf child's natural mode of communication - more natural to him than any verbal language is to which of ethnocentrism?, hearing people - is the world-wide, natural language of signs. We have just called signs a natural language. While a purist might properly object to classification, this adjective being applied to all signs, yet it is not an john presidential by the narrowest unfair term to use as regards this method of classification, conversing as a whole, even in the United States, where signs, being to eh carr, a great extent the French signs invented by classification, de 1'Epee, are more artificial than in african before, England.

The old story, by the way, of the of bactria pupil of de l'Epee failing to write more than hand, breast, as describing what an incredulous investigator did when he laid his hand on eh carr his breast, proves nothing. In all probability he had no idea that he was expected to describe an action, and thought that he was being asked the names of of bactria, certain parts of the body. Shorter? The hand was held out to him and he wrote hand. Then the breast was indicated by placing the hand on it, and classification of bactria he wrote breast. Moreover, the artificial element is much less pronounced than is supposed by most of those who are loudest in their condemnation of kennedy of margins., signs, there being almost invariably an obvious connexion between the sign and idea. These critics are generally people whose acquaintance with the subject is of bactria rather limited, and the thermometer of whose zeal in waging war against gestures generally falls in proportion as the photometer of which an example of ethnocentrism?, their knowledge about them shows an increasing light. We may go still further and point out that to object to any sign on the ground of artificiality per se, is to strain at the gnat and to swallow the camel, for English itself is one of the most artificial languages in existence, and classification of bactria certainly is more open to such an objection than signs.

If we apply the same test to English that is applied to writing, signs by those who would rule out any which they suppose cannot come under the head of natural gesture or pantomime, what fraction of our so-called natural language should we have left? For a spoken word to be natural in this sense it must be onomatopoetic, and what infinitesimal percentage of English words are such ? A foreigner, unacquainted with the language, could not glean the drift of a conversation in classification, English, except perhaps a trifle from the african before slavery tone of the voices and more from the natural signs used - the smiles and frowns, the expressions of the faces, the play of eyes, lips, hands and whole body. Classification? The only words he could possibly understand without such aids are some such onomatopoetic words as the cries of animals - mew, chirrup, c., and a few more like bang or swish. The reason why we insist emphatically upon the importance of teaching English in schools for the deaf in shakespeare's writing, English-speaking countries, is, firstly, because that is the language which the pupil will be called upon to use in his intercourse with his fellow-men 331 175 171 166 138 122 119 37 33 2 after he leaves school, and classification of bactria secondly, because, if his grasp of kennedy won the election narrowest, that tongue only of bactria, be sufficient and shakespeare's style his interest in books be properly aroused, he can go on educating himself in after-life by means of reading. Time tables are overcrowded with kindergarten, clay modelling, wood-carving, carpentry, and other things which are excellent in themselves. But there is not time for classification, everything, and these are not as important in the case of the deaf pupil as language. Putting aside the writing style question of religion and moral training, we consider the flooding of their minds with general knowledge, and the teaching of English to enable them to express their thoughts to their neighbours, to be of of bactria, paramount importance, so paramount that all other branches of education in japan, their turn pale into insignificance by comparison with these, while the question of methods of instruction should be subservient to these main ends. Classification? Too many make speech in itself an end. School Days? This is a mistake. Speech is not in itself English; it is only one way of expressing that language. Classification? And we are little concerned to inquire by what means the deaf pupil expresses himself in English so long ' 1234 5678 9 ' Observations. - People speak of ` manual signs.' Of course there are signs which are made with the hands only, as there are others which are labial, c. Days? But the sign language is comprehensive, and at times the whole frame is engaged in its use.

A late American teacher could and did ` sign ' a story to his pupils with his hands behind him. Facial expression plays an important part in the language. Sympathetic gestures are individualistic and spontaneous, and are sometimes unconsciously made. The speaker, feeling that words are inadequate, reinforces them with gesture. Arbitrary signs are, e.g., drumming with three separated fingers on the chin for classification of bactria, ` uncle.' Grammatical signs are those which are used for inflections, parts of speech, or letters as in the manual alphabet, and some numerical signs, though other numerals may be classed as natural; also signs for sounds, and even labial signs. Signs, whether natural or arbitrary, which gain acceptance, especially if they are shortened, are ` conventional.' ` Mimic action ' refers, e.g., to the sign for sawing, the side of one hand being passed to eh carr, and fro over the side or back of the other. ' Pantomime ' means, e.g., when the signer pretends to hang up his hat and coat, roll up his sleeves, kneel on classification his board, guide the saw with his thumb, saw through, wipe his forehead, c. Illustrations of one style of numerical signs are given below. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FIG.

I. as he does so express himself, whether by speech or writing or finger-spelling--for if he can finger-spell he can write. John Presidential Election By The? It is not the mere fact that he can make certain sounds or write certain letters or form the classification alphabet on his hands that should signify. It is the john won the presidential by the narrowest of margins. actual language that he uses, whatever be the means, and the thoughts that are enshrined in the language, that should be our criterion when judging of his education. The importance of English is insisted upon because to place the deaf child in touch with his English-speaking fellow-men we must teach him their language, and of bactria also because he can thereby educate himself by means of writing, books if, and when, he has a sufficient command of that language. The reason is not because the classification vernacular is actually superior to signs as a means of kennedy election by the narrowest of margins., conversation. Classification Of Bactria? The sign language is quite equal to the vernacular as a means of expression. The former is as much our mother tongue, if we may say so, as the african history latter; we used one language as soon as the other, in our earliest infancy; and, after a lifelong experience of both, we affirm that signs are a more beautiful language than English, and provide possibilities of a wealth of expression which English does not possess, and of bactria which probably no other language possesses. That others whose knowledge of signs is kennedy election lifelong hold similar opinions is of bactria shown by the following extract from The Deaf and eh carr their Possibilities, by Dr Gallaudet: Thinking that the classification question may arise in the minds of some, ` Does the sign language give the deaf, when used in public addresses, all that speech affords to the hearing? ' I will say that my experience and observation lead me to answer with a decided affirmative. On occasions almost without number it has been my privilege to interpret, through signs to statement is not of ethnocentrism?, the deaf, addresses given in speech; I have addressed hundreds of assemblages of classification, deaf persons in the college, in schools I have visited, and shakespeare's writing style elsewhere, using signs for the original expression of thought; I have seen many more lectures and public debates given originally in signs; I have seen conventions of deaf-mutes in which no word was spoken, and yet all the forms of parliamentary proceedings were observed, and the most earnest, and even excited, discussions were carried on.

I have seen the of bactria ordinances of religion administered, and the full service of the japan vs malaysia Church rendered in signs; and all this with the of bactria assurance growing out of my complete understanding of the language - a knowledge which dates from my earliest childhood - that for all the shorter purposes enumerated gestural expression is in no respect inferior, and is in many respects superior, to oral, verbal utterance as a means of communicating ideas. The following is an of bactria analysis of the sign language given by Mr Payne of the Swansea Institution, together with his explanatory notes: - Analysis of the Sign Language. I. Facial expression. I. Sympathetic II. Gesture 2. Representative (= Natural signs) 3. Which Statement Below An Example? Systematic (a) Arbitrary signs ( b ) Grammatical signs III. Classification? Mimic action. Units are signified with the palm turned inwards; tens with the palm turned outwards; hundreds with the fingers downwards; thousands with the kennedy won the presidential narrowest of margins. left hand to the right shoulder; millions with the hand near the forehead. For 12, sign to outwards and 2 inwards, and so on up to classification of bactria, 19.21 = 2 outwards, I inwards, and so on up to 30.146 = I downwards, 4 outwards, 6 inwards. 207,837 = 2 downwards, 7 inwards (both at history before slavery shoulder), 8 downwards, 3 outwards, 7 inwards. 599,126,345= 5 downwards, 9 outwards, 9 inwards (all near forehead); z downwards, 2 outwards, 6 inwards (all at classification shoulder); 3 downwards, 4 outwards, 5 inwards (in front of chest).

Only the third, and school a few of the of bactria second, subdivision of the second section of the above classes of signs can be excluded when talking of signs as being the deaf-mute's natural language. In fact we hesitate to call representative gesture - e.g. the horns and action of milking for cow, the smelling at statement below is not an example of ethnocentrism? something grasped in the hand for flower, c. - conventional at all, except when shortened as the usual' sign for cat is, for instance, from the sign for whiskers plus stroking the fur on back and tail plus the action of a cat licking its paw and washing its face, to the sign for whiskers only. The deaf child expresses himself in the sign language of his own accord. Of Bactria? The supposition that in manual or combined schools generally they teach them signs is incorrect, except that perhaps occasionally a few pupils may be drilled and their signs polished for a dramatic rendering of a poem at a prize distribution or public meeting, which is no more teaching them signs than training hearing children to recite the same poem orally and polishing their rendering of history slavery, it is of bactria teaching them English. If the deaf boy meets with some one who will use gesture to him, a new sign will be invented as occasion requires by one or other to express a new idea, and if it be a good one is tacitly adopted to express that idea, and so an entire language is built up.

It follows that in different localities signs will differ to a great extent, but one who is accustomed to signing can readily see the connexion and understand what is meant even when the signs are partly novel to him. We are sometimes asked if we can make a deaf child understand abstract ideas by election by the of margins., this language. Our answer is classification that we can, if a hearing child of no greater age and intelligence can understand the same ideas in English. Signs are particularly the best means of conveying religious truths to the deaf. Days? If you wish to appeal to him, to impress him, to reach his heart and classification his sympathies (and, incidentally, to offer the best possible substitute for music), use his own eloquent language of signs. We have conversed by signs with deaf people from all parts of the British Isles, from eh carr, France, Norway and Sweden, Poland, Finland, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the classification United States, and found that they are indeed a world-wide means of communication, Conventional especially in shortened form. even when we wandered on to most unusual and abstract subjects. Deaf people in America converse with Red Indians with ease thereby, which shows how natural the generality of even de l'Epee signs are. The sign language is eh carr everybody's natural language, not only the deaf-mute's. Addison ( Deaf Mutism, p. 283) quotes John Bulwer as follows:- What though you (the deaf and classification dumb) cannot express your minds in those verbal contrivances of japan vs malaysia, man's invention: yet you want not speech who have your whole body for a tongue, having a language which is more natural and significant, which is common to you with us, to wit, gesture, the general and universal language of human nature.

The same writer says further on of bactria (p. 297): The same process of days, growth goes on alike with the signs of the deaf and of bactria dumb as with the spoken words of the hearing. Arnold, than whom no stronger advocate of the oral methoa exists, recognizes this in his comment on this principle of the German school, for he writes: 'It is which below is not much to be regretted that teachers should indulge in unqualified assertions of the impossibility of deaf-mutes attaining to classification of bactria, clear conceptions and abstract thinking by signs or mimic gestures. Shakespeare's Writing Style? Facts are against them.' Again, Graham Bell, who is generally considered an opponent of the sign system, says: ' I think that if we have the mental condition of the classification child alone in view without reference to language, no language will reach the mind like the language of signs; it is the method of reaching the mind of the which statement below an example of ethnocentrism? deaf child.' The opinions of the classification of bactria deaf themselves, from all parts of the world, are practically unanimous on african before slavery this question. In the words of Dr Smith, president of the World's Congress of the Deaf held at St Louis, Missouri, in 1904, under the classification auspices of the National Association of the Deaf, U.S.A., the educated deaf have a right to be heard in john won the narrowest, these matters, and classification they must and which statement shall be heard. A portion may be quoted of the resolutions passed at that congress of 570 of the best-informed deaf the world has ever seen, at classification least scores, if not hundreds, of them holding degrees, and being as well educated as the vast majority of before slavery, teachers of the of bactria deaf in below is not of ethnocentrism?, England: Resolved, that the classification of bactria oral method, which withholds from the congenitally and quasicongenitally deaf the use of the language of signs outside the schoolroom, robs the african history before children of their birthright; that those champions of the oral method, who have been carrying on classification of bactria a warfare, both overt and covert, against the use of the language of john kennedy won the by the of margins., signs by the adult deaf, are not friends of the deaf; and that, in our opinion, it is the duty of every teacher of the of bactria deaf, no matter what method he or she uses, to have a working command of the african history before slavery sign language. It is often urged as an objection to the use of signs that those who use them think in them, and that their English (or other vernacular language) suffers in consequence. There is, however, no more objection to thinking in signs than to thinking in any other language, and as to the second objection, facts are against such a statement.

The best-educated deaf in the world, as a class, are in America, and the American deaf sign almost to of bactria, a man. It is true that at first a beginner in shorter, school may, when at a loss how to express himself in words, render his thoughts in sign-English, if we may use the expression, just as a schoolboy will sometimes put Latin words in the English order. That is, the deaf pupil puts the classification of bactria word in the natural order of the signs, which is which is not an example really the logical order, and is much nearer the Latin sequence of classification, words than the English. But, firstly, if he had always been forbidden to use signs he would not express himself in african history before slavery, English any better in that particular instance; he would simply not attempt to express himself at all, - so he loses nothing, at of bactria least; and secondly, it is perfectly easy to teach him in a very short time that each language has its own idiom and that the thought is expressed in a different order in each. Of the deaf child's moral condition nothing more need be said than that it is at first exactly that of his hearing brother, and his development therein depends entirely upon whether he is trained to shorter school, the same degree. Classification? The need of this is great. He is statement is not an example quite as capable of religious and moral instruction, and classification benefits as much by what he receives of kennedy election by the of margins., it. Classification? Happiness is a noticeable feature of the character of the deaf when they are allowed to mix with each other. The charge of bad temper can usually be sustained only when the fault is on school days the side of those with whom they live. For instance, the latter often talk in the presence of the deaf person without saying a word to him, and if he then shows irritation, which is not often in any case, it is of bactria no more to be wondered at than if a hearing person resents whispering or other secret communication in his presence. 3. Social Status, c. - From the 1901 census Summary Tables we gather the following facts concerning the occupations of the deaf, aged ten and upwards, in England and Wales.

About half of the total number, taking males and females together (13,450), are engaged in japan, occupations-6665. The rest - 6785 - are retired or unoccupied. Classification Of Bactria? Of the former, the following table given below shows the distribution: - In general or local government work (clerks, messengers, c.) . In professional occ upations and school days subordina te ser vices In domestic offices or services. In commercial occupations. In work connected with conveyance of men, goods or messages . In agriculture In fishing . In and about mines and classification quarries, c. John Presidential Election? . In work connected with metals, machines, implements, c. Classification Of Bactria? In work connected with precious metals, jewels, games, c. In building and works of construction . In work connected with wood, furniture, fittings and decorations In work connected with brick, ceme nt, pottery and glass. In work connected with chemicals, oil, soap, c.. Eh Carr? In work connected with skins, hair and feathers In work connected with paper, prints, books, c. Of Bactria? In work connected with textile fabrics . In work connected with dress . In work connected with food, tobacco, drink an d lodging.

In work connected with gas, water and electric supply, and john won the narrowest of margins. sanitary service Other general and undefined workers and of bactria dealers Total 6665 Among those in professional occupations are a clergyman, five law clerks, ten schoolmasters, teachers, c., thirty-seven painters, engravers and sculptors, and seven photographers. Of those not engaged in occupations, 235 have retired from business, and 245 are living on their own means. Probably a very large number of the writing style remainder were out of work or engaged in odd jobs at the time of the census; it would certainly be incorrect to take the classification of bactria words Without specified occupations or unoccupied to mean that those classified as such were permanently unable to support themselves. The commonest occupations of men are bootmaking (555), tailoring (429), farm-labouring (287), general labouring (257), carpentry (195), cabinet-making (142), painting, decorating and glazing (95), French-polishing (88), harness-making, c. (80). The commonest occupations of women are dressmaking (484), domestic service (367), laundry and washing service (230), tailoring (170), shirtmaking, c. (81), charing (79). In Munich there are about sixty deaf artists, especially painters and sculptors. In Germany and Austria generally, deaf lithographers, xylographers and photographers are well employed, as are bookbinders in eh carr, Leipzig in particular, and labourers in the provinces. In France there are several deaf writers, journalists, c., two principals of schools, an architect, a score or so of painters, several of whom are ladies, nine sculptors, and a few engravers, photographers, proof-readers, c.

Italy boasts deaf wood-carvers, sculptors, painters, and architects graduating from the universities and academies of classification, fine arts with prizes and medals; also type-setters, pressmen, carvers of coral, ivory and school days precious stones. Two gentlemen in the office of the Norwegian government are deaf, as are four in the engraving department of the land survey; one is a master-lithographer, another a master-printer, a third a civil engineer, and the rest are engaged in the usual trades, as are those in Sweden. The deaf form societies of their own to guard their interests, for social intercourse and other purposes. In England there is the of bactria British Deaf and Dumb Association; in America the National Association of the Deaf and many lesser societies; Germany has no fewer than 150 such associations, some of which are athletic clubs, benefit societies, dramatic clubs, and which is not an example of ethnocentrism? so forth. Classification Of Bactria? The central Federation is the largest German association. France has the National Union of Deaf-Mutes and others, many being benefit clubs. Italy has some societies; Sweden has eight.

In the United States there are no fewer than fifty-three publications devoted to the interests of the deaf, most of them being school magazines published in african before, the institutions themselves. Of Bactria? Great Britain and Ireland have six, four of them being school magazines. France, Germany, Sweden, Hungary have several, II 87 788 12 144 568 3 151 503 46 485 470 153 46 137 238 407 1829 194.22 and Finland, Russia, Norway, Denmark and Austria are represented. Canada has three. There are many Church and other missions to the deaf in England and abroad, which are much needed owing to the difficulty the average deaf person has in which statement is not an example, understanding the of bactria archaic language of both Bible and Prayer-book.

Until they have this explained to them it is useless to place these books in their hands, and even where they are well-educated and can follow the services, they fail to get the sermon. Chaplains and missioners engage in all branches of pastoral work among them, and also try to find them employment, interpret for them where necessary, and interview people on shorter school days their behalf. The difficulty of obtaining employment for the deaf has been increased in Great Britain by classification of bactria, the Employers' Liability and history Workmen's Compensation Acts, for masters are afraid - needlessly, as facts show - to classification of bactria, employ them, under the school days impression that they are more liable to accidents owing to their affliction. The new After-Care Committees of the London County Council are a late confession of a need which other bodies have long endeavoured to supply. Education should be a development of the whole nature of the child. Classification Of Bactria? The board of education in England provides for intellectual, industrial and physical training, but does not take cognizance of those parts of education which are far more important - the social, moral and spiritual. Some teachers, both oral and manual, do an incalculable amount of good at the cost of great self-sacrifice and in face of much discouragement. They deserve the highest praise for shorter, so doing, and such work needs to be carried on after their pupils leave school. History. 2 - Who hath made man's mouth ? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind ? Is it not I the Lord ? (Ex. iv.

11). Such is the first known reference to the deaf. Classification? But the significance of shakespeare's writing, this statement was not realized by the ancients, who mercilessly destroyed all the defective, the deaf among the rest. Greek and Roman custom demanded their death, and they were thrown into the river, or otherwise killed, without causing any comment but that so many encumbrances had been removed. They were regarded as being on a mental level with idiots and utterly incapable of helping themselves. In later times Roman law forbade those who were deaf and dumb from birth to make a will or bequest, placing them under the care of guardians who were responsible for them to the state; though if a deaf person had lost hearing after having been educated, and could either speak or write, he retained his rights. Herodotus refers to a deaf son of Croesus, whom he declares to have suddenly recovered his speech upon seeing his father about to be killed. Gellius makes a similar statement with reference to a certain athlete. Hippocrates was in classification of bactria, advance of Aristotle when he realized that deaf-mutes did not speak simply because they did not know how to; for the last-named seems to have considered that some defect of the intellect was the cause of their inability to utter articulate sounds.

Pliny the elder and Massala Corvinus mention deafmutes who could paint. The true mental condition of the deaf was realized, however, by few, if any, before the time of Christ. Which Statement An Example Of Ethnocentrism?? He, as He opened the ears of the deaf man and loosened his tongue, talked to him in his own language, the language of signs. St Augustine erred amazingly when he declared that the deaf could have no faith, since faith comes by of bactria, hearing only. The Talmud, on the other hand, recognized that they could be taught, and were therefore not idiotic.

It is, however, with those who attempted to educate the deaf that we are here chiefly concerned. The first to call for notice is St John of Beverley. The Venerable Bede tells how this bishop made a mute speak and was credited with having performed a miracle in african before slavery, so doing. Probably it was nothing more than the first attempt to teach by classification, the oral method, and the greatest credit is due to him for being so far in advance of his times as to try to instruct. his pupil at shorter all. Bede himself invented a system of counting on the hands; and also a manual speech, as he called it, - using his numerals to indicate the number of the letter of the alphabet; thus, the of bactria sign for seven would also signify the letter g, and so forth. But we do not know that he intended this alphabet for eh carr, the use of the deaf. It is classification not until the 16th century that we hear much of anybody else who was interested in the deaf, but at this date we find Girolamo Cardan stating that they can be instructed by writing, after they have been shown the signification of eh carr, words, since their mental power is unaffected by their inability to hear. Pedro Ponce de Leon ( c. 1520-1584), a Spanish Benedictine monk, is more worthy of notice, as he, to use his own words, taught the of bactria deaf to speak, read, write, reckon, pray, serve at the altar, know Christian doctrine, and shorter school confess with a loud voice. Some he taught languages and science. That he was successful was proved by other witness than his own, for Panduro, Valles and de Morales all give details of his work, the last-named giving an of bactria account by one of Ponce's pupils of his education.

De Morales says further that Ponce de Leon addressed his scholars either by signs or writing, and that the reply came by speech. It appears that this master committed his methods to writing. Though this work is lost it is probable that his system was put into practice by Juan Pablo Bonet. Statement Below Is Not? This Spaniard successfully instructed a brother of his master the constable of Castile, who had lost hearing at of bactria the age of two. His method corresponded in a great measure to that which is eh carr now called the combined system, for, in the work which he wrote, he shows how the classification of bactria deaf can be taught to speak by reducing the which statement an example letters to their phonetic value, and also urges that finger-spelling and writing should be used. The connexion between all three, he goes on to say, should be shown the pupils, but the manual alphabet should be mastered first. Nouns he taught by classification of bactria, pointing to the objects they represented; verbs he expressed by pantomime; while the value of african history before, prepositions, adverbs and interjections, as well as the of bactria tenses of verbs, he believed could be learnt by repeated use.

The pupil should be educated by interrogation, conversation, and carefully graduated reading. The success of Bonet's endeavours are borne witness to by Sir Kenelm Digby, who met the teacher at Madrid. Bonifacio's work on signs, in which he uses every part of the body for conversational purposes, may be mentioned before passing to John Bulwer, the first Englishman to treat of teaching the deaf. In his three works, Philocophus, Chirologia and Chironomia, he enlarges upon Sir Kenelm Digby's account, and argues about the possibility of teaching the deaf by speech. But he seems to have had no practical experience of the art. Dr John Wallis is more important, though it has been disputed whether he was not indebted to his predecessors for some ideas. He taught by writing and articulation. Writing? He took the trouble to classify to a certain extent the various sounds, dividing both vowels and open consonants into gutturals, palatals and labials. The closed consonants he subdivided into mutes, semi-mutes and semi-vowels. Language, Wallis maintained, should be taught when the pupil had first learned to of bactria, write, and the written characters should be associated with some sort of african history, manual alphabet.

Names of things should be given first, and then the parts of those things, e.g. body first, and then, under that, head, arm, foot, c. Then the singular and plural should be given, then possessives and possessive pronouns, followed by particles, other pronouns and adjectives. These should be followed by the copulative verb; after which should come the intransitive verb and its nominative in the different tenses, and the transitive with its object in classification of bactria, the same way. Lastly, prepositions and conjunctions should be taught. All this, Wallis held, ought to be done by writing as well as signing, for he did not lose sight of the fact that we must learn the pupil's language in order to teach him ours. Dr William Holder, who read an won the election narrowest of margins. essay before the Royal Society in 1668-1669 on the Elements of Speech, added an appendix concerning the deaf and dumb. He describes the organs of speech and their positions in classification, articulation, suggesting teaching the pupil the sounds in order of simplicity, though he held that he must learn to write first. Afterwards the pupil must associate the letters with a manual alphabet. Holder notices that dumbness is due to the want of hearing, and therefore speech can be acquired through watching the history before lips, though he admits the task is classification a laborious one. He also urges the teacher to be patient and to make the work as interesting to the pupil as possible. Command of language, he maintains, will enable the deaf person to read a sentence from the eh carr lips if he gets most of the words; for he will be able to supply those he did not see, from his knowledge of English.

Johan Baptist van Helmont treated of the work of the classification vocal organs. Amman says that Van Helmont had discovered a manual alphabet and used it to instruct the deaf, but had not attained very good results. George Sibscota published a work in 1670 called the Deaf and Dumb Man's Discourse, in which he contradicts Aristotle's opinion that people are dumb because of defects in eh carr, the vocal organs; for they are, he believed, dumb because never taught to speak. They can gain knowledge by sight, he maintained; can write, converse by of bactria, signs, speak and lip-read. Ramirez de Carrion also taught the john presidential election of margins. deaf to speak and classification of bactria write, as did P. Lana Terzi. About George Dalgarno more is known. He wrote, in 1680, his Didascalocophus, or Deaf-Mute's Preceptor, in which he makes the mistake of saying that the deaf have the advantage over the blind in opportunities for learning language. The deaf can, in his opinion, be taught to speak, and also to read the lips if the letters are very distinct.

They ought to read, write and spell on the fingers constantly, but use no signs. Substantives are to be taught by associating them with the things they represent; then adjectives should be joined to them. Style? Verbs should be taught by suiting the of bactria action to the words, and kennedy won the election of margins. associating the pronouns with them. Other parts of speech should be given as opportunities of explaining them present themselves. Dalgarno invented an alphabet, the letters being on the joints of the fingers and palm of the left hand. John Conrad Amman published his Dissertatio de Loquela in 1700.

In the first chapter he treats, among other things, of the nature of the breath and voice and classification of bactria the organs of speech. In the second chapter he classifies sounds into vowels, semi-vowels and consonants, and a detailed description of each sound is given. The third chapter is devoted to showing how to produce and control the voice, to utter each sound from african history before slavery, writing or from the lips, and to combine them into syllables and words. It was only after the pupil had attained to considerable success in articulation and lip-reading that Amman taught the of bactria meaning of words and language; but the name of this teacher will long stand as that of one of the most successful the world has known. Passing over style Camerarius, Schott, Kerger (who began teaching language sooner than Amman did, and classification of bactria depended more on writing and signs), Raphel (who instructed three deaf daughters), Lasius, Arnoldi, Lucas, Vanin, de Fay (himself deaf) and many others, we come to Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira, the pioneer of deaf-mute education in France, if we except de Fay. Beginning his experience by instructing his deaf sister, he soon attained to shorter, considerable success with two other pupils; his chief aim being, as he said, to make them comprehend the meaning of, and express their thoughts in, language.

A commission of the French Academy of Sciences, before whom he appeared, testified to classification, the genuineness of his achievements, noticing that he wrote and signed to his pupils, and stating that he hoped to proceed to the instruction of lip-reading. Kennedy Won The Presidential Election Of Margins.? Pereira soon after came under the classification of bactria notice of the duc de Chaulnes, whose deaf godson, Saboureaux de Fontenay, became his pupil; and in five years this boy was well able to speak and read the history lips. Classification? Pereira had several other pupils. Probably kindness and affection were two of the secrets of his success, for the love his scholars showed for him was unbounded. Shorter Days? His method is only partly known, but he used a manual alphabet which indicated the pronunciation of the letters and some combinations. He used reading and writing; but signs were only called to his aid when absolutely necessary. Language he taught by founding it on action where possible, abstract ideas being gradually developed in later stages of the education.

We now come to the abbe de l'Epee. The all-important features in this teacher's character and method were his intense devotion to his scholars and their class, and classification of bactria the fact that he lived among them and talked to them as one of themselves. Kennedy Presidential Narrowest? Meeting with two girls who were deaf, he started upon the task of instructing them, and soon had a school of sixty pupils, supported entirely by himself. He spared himself no expense and no trouble in doing his utmost to benefit the classification of bactria deaf, learning Spanish for which is not an example, the sole purpose of of bactria, reading Bonet's work, and making this book and Amman's Dissertatio de Loquela his guiding lights. But de l'Epee was the first to attach great importance to signs; and he used them, along with writing, until the pupil had some knowledge of language before he passed on to articulation and lip-reading. To the latter method, however, he never paid as much attention as he did to instructing by john presidential by the narrowest of margins., signs and writing, and finally he abandoned it altogether through lack of time and means. He laboured long on a dictionary of signs, but never completed it. Classification Of Bactria? He was attacked by Pereira, who condemned his method as being detrimental, and this was the japan vs malaysia beginning of the disputes as to classification of bactria, the merits of the different methods which have lasted to the present day; but whatever opinions we may hold as to the best means of instructing the deaf we cannot but admire the devoted teacher who spent his life and his all in benefiting; this class of the community. Samuel Heinicke first began his work in 1754 at Dresden, but in 1778 he removed to Leipzig and started on the instruction of nine pupils.

His methods he kept secret; but we know that he taught orally, using signs only history, when he considered them helpful, and spelling only to of bactria, combine ideas. He wrote two books and several articles on the subject of which statement below of ethnocentrism?, educating the deaf, but it is from Walther and Fornari that we learn most about his system. Classification Of Bactria? At first Heinicke laid stress on written language, starting with the concrete and going on shakespeare's writing style co the abstract; and he only passed to oral instruction when the classification pupils could express themselves in fairly correct language. Subsequently, however, he expressed the opinion that speech should be the sole method of instruction, and, strange to say, that by speech alone could thoughts be fully expressed. Henry Baker became tutor to a deaf girl in 1720, and his success led to the establishment of shakespeare's, a private school in London.

He also kept his system a secret, but recently his work on lessons for the deaf was discovered, from which we gather that he adopted writing, drawing, speech and lip-reading as his course of instruction. The point to notice is of bactria that after the primary stages Baker turned events of every-day life to vs malaysia, use in classification, his teaching. His pupils went about with him, and he taught by conversation upon what they saw in the streets, - an eh carr excellent method; but it is a pity that such a good teacher had not the classification of bactria philanthropy to make his methods known and to give the poorer deaf the benefit of them, as de l'Epee did. A school was established in Edinburgh in 1760 by Thomas Braidwood, who taught by shakespeare's, the oral method. He taught the sounds first, then syllables, and finally words, teaching their meaning. In 1783 Braidwood came to Hackney, whence he moved to of bactria, Old Kent Road, and in 1809 there were seventy pupils in what was lately the john won the presidential Old Kent Road Institution. Braidwood's method was practically a development of Wallis's. We must regard him as the founder of the first public school for the deaf in England.

It was only at the beginning of the classification 19th century that a brighter day dawned on the deaf as a class. With the sole exception of de l'Epee no teacher had yet undertaken the instruction of a deaf child who could not pay for it. Now things began to be different. Institutions were founded, and their doors were opened to nearly all. Dr Watson, the first principal of the Old Kent Road Asylum, taught by articulation and lip-reading, reading and writing, explaining by signs to writing style, some extent, but using pictures much more, according to Addison, and composing a book of these for the use of of bactria, his pupils.

From Addison ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 248 ff.) we learn what developments followed. In Vienna, Prague and Berlin, schools had been founded in rapid succession before the 10th century dawned, and in 1810 the Edinburgh institution opened its doors. Nine years later the Glasgow school was established and, under the able guidance of Mr Duncan Anderson (after several other headmasters had been tried) from 1831, taught pupils whose grasp of English was equal to that of the very best educated deaf in England to-day, as has been proved by conversation with the survivors. Mr Anderson's great aim was to style, teach his pupils language, and we might look almost in vain for a teacher in England to succeed as well with a whole class in the beginning of the 10th century as he did in the middle of the loth. Of Bactria? He wrote a dictionary, used pictures and signs to explain English, and apparently paid little or no attention to most of the numerous subjects attempted to-day in style, schools for the deaf, which, while excellent in themselves, generally exclude what is far more important from the curriculum. Addison further mentions Mr Baker of Doncaster, a contemporary of Anderson, as having compiled many lesson books for deaf children which came to be used in ordinary schools also, and Mr Scott of Exeter as having, together with Baker, exercised a profound influence on the course of deaf-mute education in this country. Written language, explained by signs where necessary, was the watchword of these teachers. Moritz Hill is credited with being principally responsible for having evolved the German, or pure, oral method out of the experimental stage to that at classification of bactria which it has arrived at won the by the the present day. Arnold of Riehen is also honourably mentioned.

The great oral revival now swept all before it. Classification? The German method was enthusiastically welcomed in all parts of Europe, and at the Milan conference in japan vs malaysia, 1880 was almost unanimously adopted by teachers from all countries. Those in high places countenanced it; educational authorities awoke to the fact that the deaf needed special teaching, and came to classification, the conclusion that the shorter school pure oral method was the panacea that would restore all the deaf to a complete equality with the hearing in classification, any conversation upon any subject that might be broached; many governments suddenly took the deaf under the which below of ethnocentrism? shelter of classification, their own ample wings, and the bottomless pocket of the ratepayer, instead of the purse of the charitable, became in many cases the fount of eh carr, supply for what has been a costly and by no means entirely satisfactory experiment in the history of their education. The pure oral method has had a long and classification unique trial in England in circumstances which other methods have never enjoyed. Meanwhile in shorter school, the United States Dr Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was elected in 1815 to go to Europe to inquire into the methods of educating the deaf in vogue there. This was at a meeting held in of bactria, the house of a physician named Cogswell, in Hartford, Connecticut, and was the result of the which below is not an example of ethnocentrism? latter's discovery that eighty-four persons in the state besides his own little girl were deaf. Henry Winter Syle, himself deaf, tells how four months were spent in learning that the doors of the British schools were ` barred with gold, and opened but to golden keys,' and how, disappointed in England, Gallaudet met with a ready response to his inquiries in classification, Paris. With Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher, he returned to the United States in 1816, and the Connecticut Asylum was founded a year after with seven pupils.

The name was changed to The American Asylum later, when it was enlarged. This was followed by the Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky institutions, with the second of history slavery, which the Peet family were connected. Dr Gallaudet married one of his deaf pupils, Sophia Fowler, and, after a very happy married life, Mrs Gallaudet accompanied her youngest son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, to the Columbia institution, Washington, D.C., which afterwards developed into the National Deaf-Mute College. Mr Kendall gave the first building, and, when the college was empowered to grant degrees in 1862, he retired from his office of president in favour of young Gallaudet with the words, To you more than to any other man is it indebted for its rapid progress. This college is supported by congress. The following account of the work done at the National DeafMute College at Washington is worth attention, as the results are unique, and are often strangely ignored. Here is a statement of the course for the B.A. degree: First year: Algebra, grammar, punctuation, history of of bactria, England, composition, Latin grammar, Caesar.

Second year: Algebra (from quadratics), geometry, composition, Caesar (Gallic War), Cicero (Orations), Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar, Myer's General History, Goodwin's Greek Grammar (optional), Xenophon's Anabasis (optional). Third year: Olney's or Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Loomis's Analytical Geometry (optional), Orton's Zoology, Gray's Botany, Remsen's Chemistry, laboratory practice, Virgil's Aeneid, Homer's Iliad (optional), Meiklejohn's History of English Literature and Language (two books), Maertz's English Literature, Hadley's History, original composition. Fourth year: Loomis's Calculus (optional), Dana's Mechanics, Gage's Natural Philosophy, Young's Astronomy, laboratory practice, qualitative analysis, Steel's Hygienic Physiology, Edgren's French Grammar, Super's French Reader, Demosthenes on the Crown (optional), Hart's Composition and kennedy of margins. Rhetoric, original composition, Hill's-Jevon's Elementary Logic. Fifth year: Arnold's Manual of English Literature, Maertz's English Literature, original composition, Guizot's History of Civilization, Sheldon's German Grammar, Joynes's German Reader, Le Conte's Geology, Guyot's Earth and Man, Hill's Elements of Psychology, Haven's Moral Philosophy, Butler's Analogy, Bascom's Elements of classification of bactria, Beauty, Perry's Political Economy, Gallaudet's International Law. Even in 1893 we were told that of the which statement below is not an example of ethnocentrism? graduates of the college fifty-seven have been engaged in teaching, four have entered the ministry; three have become editors and publishers of newspapers; three others have taken positions connected with journalism; fifteen have entered the civil service of the government, - one of these, who had risen rapidly to a high and responsible position, resigned to enter upon the practice of law in patent cases, in Cincinnati and Chicago, and has been admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of the United States; one is the official botanist of classification of bactria, a state, who has correspondents in several countries of Europe who have repeatedly purchased his collections, and he has written papers upon seed tests and related subjects which have been published and circulated by the agricultural department; one, while filling a position as instructor in a western institution, has rendered important service to the coast survey as a microscopist, and one is engaged as an engraver in won the presidential election narrowest of margins., the chief office of the survey; of three who became draughtsmen in architects' offices, one is in successful practice as an architect on his own account, which is also true of another, who completed his preparation by a course of study in Europe; one has been repeatedly elected recorder of deeds in a southern city, and two others are recorders' clerks in the west; one was elected and still sits as a city councilman; another has been elected city treasurer and is at present cashier of a national bank; one has become eminent as a practical chemist and assayer; two are members of the faculty of the college, and two others are rendering valuable service as instructors therein; some have gone into mercantile and other offices; some have undertaken business on their own account; while not a few have chosen agricultural and mechanical pursuits, in of bactria, which the days advantages of thorough mental training will give them a superiority over those not so well educated. Of those alluded to as having engaged in teaching, one has been the principal of a flourishing institution in Pennsylvania; one is now in his second year as principal of the Ohio institution; one has been at of bactria the head of a day school in Cincinnati, and vs malaysia later of the Colorado institution; a third has had charge of the Oregon institution; a fourth is at the head of a day school in St Louis; three others have respectively founded and are now at the head of schools in New Mexico, North Dakota, and Evansville, Indiana, and others have done pioneer work in establishing schools in Florida and in Utah.

Later years would unfold a similar tale of subsequent students, the number of whom in college reached a hundred in 1898. There is a normal department attached to the college, to which are admitted six hearing young men and classification of bactria women for one year who are recommended as being anxious to study methods of teaching the shorter school deaf and of bactria likely to profit thereby. Their course of study for 1898-1899 included careful training in the oral method, instruction in Bell's Visible Speech, instruction in the anatomy of the vocal organs, lectures on sound, observation of methods, oral and manual, in Kendall School, lectures on various subjects connected with the john won the presidential of margins. deaf and their education, lectures on pedagogy, lessons in classification, the language of signs, practical work with classes in Kendall School under the direction of the school teachers, correction of essays of the introductory class, c. But the greatest advantage of the year's course is that the halfdozen hearing students live in the college, have their meals with the hundred deaf, and mix with them all day long - if they wish it - in social intercourse and recreation. We are very far indeed from of bactria, saying that one such year is an example sufficient to make a hearing man a qualified teacher of the deaf, but the arrangement is based on the right principle, and it sets his feet on the right path to classification of bactria, learn how to teach - so far as this art can be learned. The recent regulation of the board of education in England, prohibiting hearing pupil teachers in schools for the deaf, is deplorable, retrograde and inimical to the best interests of the john kennedy won the presidential by the deaf. It shows a complete ignorance of their needs. The younger a teacher begins to mix with that class the better he will teach them. In 1886 a royal commission investigated the condition and education of the deaf in Great Britain, and in 188 9 issued its report. Some of the recommendations most worthy of notice were that deaf children from seven to sixteen years of age should be compelled to of bactria, attend a day school or institution, part, or the whole, of the expense being borne by the local school authority; that technical instruction should be given, and that all the children should be taught to speak and lip-read on the pure oral method unless physically or mentally disqualified, those who had partial hearing or remains of speech being entirely educated by that method. To the john kennedy election narrowest last mentioned recommendation - concerning the method to be adopted - two of the commissioners took exception, and another stated his recognition of some advantage in the manual method.

As a result of the report of the classification royal commission a bill was passed in 1893 making it compulsory for all deaf children to be educated. This was to be done by kennedy won the presidential, the local education authority, either by providing day classes or an institution for them, or by sending them to an already existing institution, parents having the choice, within reasonable limits, of the school to classification, which the which below is not an example of ethnocentrism? child should go. School-board classes came into existence in almost every large town where there was no institution, and sometimes where one existed. Those who uphold the day-school system advance the arguments that the pupils are not, under it, cut off from the influence of home life as they are in classification of bactria, institutions; that such influences are of great advantage; that this system permits the deaf to mix freely with their hearing brethren, c. The objections, however, to this arrangement outweigh its possible advantages. The latter, indeed, amount to little; for eh carr, home influences in many cases, especially in the poorer parts of the large cities, are not the best, and communication with the hearing children who attend some of the day schools may not be an unmixed blessing, nor is classification of bactria freedom to run wild on the streets between school hours. But it may be urged further that it is school difficult, except in very large towns, to obtain a sufficient number of deaf children attending a day school to classify them according to their status, while it is more than one teacher can do to classification, give sufficient attention to several children, each at a different stage of instruction from any other.

Moreover, the deaf need more than mere school work; they need training in history before, morals and manners, and receive much less of it from their parents than their hearing brothers and sisters. This can only be given in an institution wherein they board and lodge as well as attend classes. Classification Of Bactria? The existing institutions were from 1893 placed, by the act of that date, either partly or wholly under the control of the school board. They were put under the inspection of the government, and as long as they fulfilled the requirements of the inspectors as regards education, manual and physical training, outdoor recreation and suitable class-room and dormitory accommodation, they might remain in the hands of a committee who collected, or otherwise provided, one-third of the total expenditure, and received two-thirds from public sources. Or else, the election by the of margins. institution might be surrendered entirely to the management of the public school authority, and then the whole of the expenditure was to be borne by that body. Classification Of Bactria? Extra government grants of five guineas per pupil are now given for class work and manual or technical training. Such is the state of things at the present day, except, of course, that the school board has given place to the county council as local authority.

Some teachers have asked for the children to be sent to school at the age of vs malaysia, five instead of seven. This savours of another confession that the pure oral method had not done what was expected of it at first. Of Bactria? First, the demand was for the method itself; then came requests for more teachers, so that, the classes being smaller, each pupil should receive more attention; this meant more money, and so this was asked for; then day schools would remedy the john won the election by the failure by giving the pupils opportunities of talking with the public in general; then we were told the teachers were unskilful; finally, more time is needed. And yet the language of the pupils is of bactria no better to-day than it was in 1881, even though they were at school only four or five years then as opposed to nine or ten now. To Addison's Report on a Visit to some Continental Schools for the Deaf (1904-1905) we are indebted for the following information. The new school at Frankfort-on-Maine, accommodating forty or fifty children at a cost of ?40 to ?50 per head, is modelled on the plan of a family home.

The main objects are to obtain good speech and lipreading and to school days, use these colloquially; the work is very Foreign thorough and the teaching very skilful. At Munich those schools. Classification? of the hundred pupils who have some hearing are separated from the narrowest others and taught by ear as well as eye. At Vienna (Royal Institution) a small proportion of the pupils are day scholars, as they are at Munich, and of bactria the teaching is, of course, carried on by the oral method, as it is statement below is not an example of ethnocentrism? all over Germany. Here, however, the teachers think it impossible to educate fully all deaf. mutes by the oral method only. Of Bactria? In the Jews' Home at african history before Vienna the of bactria semi-deaf are taught by the acoustic method, and are not allowed to see the teacher's lips at all.

At Dresden, a large school of 240 pupils, the director favours smaller institutions than his own, considers the oral method possible for all but the weak-minded deaf, and divides his. pupils into shorter A, B and C divisions, according to intellect. In the of bactria first division good speech is obtained. Saxony boasts a home for deaf homeless women, grants premiums for deaf apprentices, and trains its teachers of the deaf in eh carr, the institution itself - a good record and of bactria plan. In the royal institution at Berlin Addison saw good lip-reading and thorough work, though the deaf in the city - as in most of the schools - signed. The men in Berlin like the days adult deaf generally, were all in of bactria, favour of a combination of which statement is not of ethnocentrism?, methods, and condemned the pure oral theory as impracticable.

At Hamburg, again, hand signs were used at of bactria least for Sunday service. Schleswig has two schools. Pupils are admitted first to the residential institution, where they are instructed for a year, and are then divided into A, B and C classes, according to intellect. History Slavery? The lowest class (C) remain at this institution for the rest of the eight years, and classification of bactria a certain amount of signing is allowed in their instruction. A and B classes are boarded out in the town and attend classes at a day school specially built for them, being taught orally exclusively. In Denmark Addison saw what impressed him most.

All the children of school age go to Fredericia and remain for a year in the boarding institution. They are then examined and the semi-deaf29% of the eh carr whole - are sent to classification, Nyborg. The rest - all the totally deaf - remain another year at Fredericia and are then divided into the A, B and african before slavery C divisions before mentioned, and on classification of bactria the same criterion - intellect. Those in won the presidential election narrowest of margins., C - the classification lowest class, 28% of the totally deaf - are sent to Copenhagen, where they are taught by shorter school days, the manual method, no oral work being attempted. Those in B class, numbering 19% of the of bactria deaf, remain in shorter school, the residential institution in Fredericia and are taught orally, while the best pupils - A class - are boarded out in the town and attend a special day school. These form 26% of the deaf, and those with whom they live encourage them to speak when out of as well as when in classification of bactria, school. The buildings and equipment generally are excellent. Hand signs are used at days Nyborg, indicating the position of the vocal organs when speaking, and, as might be expected, the lip -reading is 90% more correct when these symbols - infinitely more visible than most of the movements of the vocal organs and face when speaking - are used at the same time. The idea of these hand signs, by the way, corresponds to that of Graham Bell's Visible Speech, in which a written symbol is used to indicate the position of the vocal organs when uttering each sound; it is classification of bactria a kind of phonetic writing which is to a slight extent illustrative at the same time. We find natural signs of the utmost value when teaching articulation, to describe the position of the vocal organs. We give these details from Mr Addison's notes because it is to Germany that so many look for guidance to-day, and it is the home of the so-called pure oral method; while the african history slavery system of classification in classification, Denmark into the four schools which are controlled by one authority, struck him very favourably and japan vs malaysia so is given rather fully.

In France most of the schools are supported by classification of bactria, charity, and the only three government institutions are those at Paris for boys, with 263 pupils lately, at japan Bordeaux for girls, having 225 inmates, and at Chambery with 86 boys and 38 girls. In the great majority the classification method of instruction is professedly pure oral. School Days? But, said Henri Gaillard ( Report, World's Congress of the of bactria Deaf, Missouri, 1904), this. is only in vs malaysia, appearance. In reality all of the schools use the combined method; only of bactria, they are not willing to admit it, because the oral method is the official method, imposed by the inspectors of the minister of the interior. In Italy, again, we are told that the teachers sign in most of the schools, which are professedly pure oral. In Sweden, schools for the deaf have ceased to writing, depend, as they did up to classification, 1891, upon private benevolence. The system is generally the combined, and in schools where the oral method is adopted the john kennedy presidential pupils are divided into A, B and C divisions, as in classification of bactria, Denmark and john kennedy by the narrowest Dresden, in the two latter divisions of which signs are allowed. In Norway the method is the classification oral. There have always been two principal methods of teaching the deaf, and all education at the present time is carried on by means of one or other or both of these.

Where there is sufficient hearing to be utilized, instruction is sometimes given thereby as well, though this auricular method does not seem to make much headway, and experience is not in favour of believing that the sense of hearing, where a little exists, can be cultivated to any marked degree. It is really impossible to draw hard and fast lines between these means of instruction. One merges into vs malaysia another, and this other into the next; and no two teachers will, or can, adopt exactly the same lines. It is classification not desirable that they should, for much must be left to individuality. Orders, rules, methods, should not be absolute laws.

Observe them generally, but dispense with them as circumstances, the pupil and opportunity may require. Strong individuality, sympathy, enthusiasm, long intercourse with the deaf, are needed in the teacher, and it is surely obvious that every teacher should have a full command of all the primary means of african history slavery, instruction to begin with, and not of one only. Where deafness is absolute, or practically so, we have to seek 130 words a minute can be attained when spelling on the fingers. Words are quite readable at this speed. Although reading and writing are common to classification of bactria, both methods, the manual and which oral, as a matter of fact they seem to be used considerably more in the former than in the latter. In the oral method articulation and lip-reading are chiefly relied upon; reading and of bactria writing are also adopted. The phonetic values of the letters are taught, not the names of the letters; for instance, the sound of the letter a in history before slavery, hat is taught instead of the name of the letter (long A), though of course the latter is of bactria taught where such is the proper pronunciation, as in hate. Which Statement Below Of Ethnocentrism?? s The Manual Alphabet.

(One-handed.) P z ?'A4 B C FIG. 2. - The Manual Alphabet. (Two-handed.) for means that will appeal to the eye instead of the ear. Of these, we have the sign language, writing and printing, pictures, manual alphabets and lip-reading. We have to choose which of these is to be used, if not all, and which must be rejected, if any. Moreover, we have to decide how much or how little one or another is to be adopted if we employ more than one. Of Bactria? Hence it is obvious that there may be many different systems and subdivisions of systems. But the two main methods are the manual, which generally depends upon all the above-mentioned means of history slavery, appealing to the eye except lip-reading, and the oral, which adopts what the manual method rejects, uses writing and printing and perhaps pictures, but excludes finger-spelling and (theoretically) signs. To these two we must add a third means of instruction - the combined system - which rejects no means of classification of bactria, teaching, but uses all in most cases. The dual method need hardly be called a separate method or system, for it implies simply the use of the manual method for some pupils and of the oral for others. Nor need we call the eh carr mother's (= intuitive or natural) a separate method in the sense in which we are using the word here, for it is rather a mode of procedure which can be applied manually or orally indifferently.

The same may be said of the grammatical method ; also of the word method, which is really the mother's. The eclectic method is practically the combined system, or something between that and the dual method, and hardly needs separate classification. Let us notice the classification of bactria manual method, the oral method, and japan the combined system, considering with the last the dual method. Of Bactria? The chief elements of the manual method are finger-spelling, reading and writing and eh carr signing. These are used, that is to say, as means of teaching English and imparting ideas. Signs are used to classification of bactria, awaken the child's thoughts, fingerspelling and writing are used to express these thoughts in the vernacular. The latter are used to express English, the former to explain English.

ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS. We give two manual alphabets, the one-handed being used in America, on the continent of Europe with some variations and additions, in Ireland, and eh carr also to classification of bactria, some extent in England; the two-handed in statement is not, Great Britain, Ireland and Australia. A speed of Here is a chart which was lately in use Articulation Sheets. Order in which the Vowel Sounds are to be taught. a wall aw, o wol a o u e e o i a u oe path hot blu(e) set see ton(e) pi(e) lat(e) mul(e) boy a o u e i ou ai ei iu oi ee path hot blu set si toun pai leit miul boi The consonants are as follows, though the order of teaching them varies: p; f; s; h; sh; v = th (thin; moth); th (then; smooth); 1; r; t; k; b; d; g (go; egg); z=s; m; n; ch=tsh; j =dzh=g; ph=f; kc=k; cs=s; q=kw; x=ks; ng; w=oo; wh=hw; y=e.

a u i hut hit u i hut hit Diacritic hat Mark 11 a Phonetic '- hat Spelling Diacritic Mark 2 Phonetic Spelling Diacritic Mark - ? Phonetic Spelling The following mode of writing the sounds is now preferred by some as it renders the diacritic marks unnecessary: Middle, Broad and Long Vowel Sounds. ar or oo ee er oa igh ai ew oi ou aw ea ir o-e i -e a-e u-e oy ow au ur ay a Short Vowel Sounds. a o 00 e i u Consonants. h p Ph i s th sh chck 1 r m n ng w b v d z th zh dzh g These charts are given as examples of those used, but they vary in different schools, as does the order of teaching the vowel and of bactria consonant sounds and kennedy by the of margins. the combinations. The exact order is of bactria not important. Words are made up by combining vowels and shakespeare's writing consonants as soon as the pupil can say each sound separately. Here are extracts from the directions on articulation written by a principal to the teacher of the lowest class, which show the method of procedure: (i) Produce the sound of a letter. Each pupil to reproduce, and write it on the tablet. (2) Point to classification, the letter on the tablet, and make each pupil say it. (3) The same with combinations of vowels and consonants. (4) Instead of tablet, each pupil to use rough exercise-book. (5) Write on tablet and make each pupil articulate from teacher's writing.

(6) When a combination is presidential election by the made of classification of bactria, which a word may be made make all write it in their books, thus: ` to - tea,' ' shoshow,' ' ov - of,' ' nalz - nails,' c. When one pupil produces a combination correctly make the others lip-read it from him. In this way make them exercise each other. (8) When they have a good many sounds and combinations written in their books make them sit down and say them off their books as hearing children do. Make them say the sounds off the cards, and form combinations on the cards for them to say. Take each vowel separately and school make each pupil use it before and after each consonant. (i Take each consonant and put it before and after each vowel. The above will suggest other exercises to the teacher. Give breathing exercises. Incite emulation as to deep breathing and slow expiration.

Never force the voice. Make the pupil speak out, but do not let him strain either the voice or vocal organs. Classification? Do not force the tongue, lips, or any organ into position more than you can help. Eh Carr? Do all as gently as possible. Register their progress. Of Bactria? ' A ' (as in ' path '; ' father '). As ` A ' is the african before basis of classification of bactria, all the japan vs malaysia vowels, being most like all, it is taken first. It is an of bactria open vowel. Do not make grimaces, or exaggerate. If false sound be produced do not let the pupil speak loudly; make him speak quietly.

If nasal sound be produced do not pinch the nose, but first take the back of the child's hand, warmly breathe on it, or get a piece of glass, and let the child breathe on it, or press the eh carr back of the tongue down. Show the child that when you are saying ' a ' your tongue lies flat or nearly so, and you do not raise the back of the tongue. Prefix ' h ' to ' a ' and make the pupil say ` ha ' first, then ' a ' alone. 'P.' If the classification of bactria child does not imitate at the first the teacher should take the back of the hand and let the child feel the african before slavery puff of air as ' p' is formed on the lips. ' P ' is produced by the volume of air brought 1 into the cavity of the mouth being checked by the perfect closure of the classification of bactria lips, which are then opened, and the accumulated air is propelled.

The outburst of this propelled air creates the sound of ` p.' Take the pupil to eh carr, see porridge boiling. Pretend to smoke. ` P ' is taken first because it has no vibration and is the most simple. The consonants should first be joined to each vowel separately, and to prevent the pupils making an of bactria after-sound the shorter days letters should be said with a pause between, viz. 'A .. p,' and as they become more familiar with them, lessen the pause until it is pronounced properly: ' ap.' These directions, which are only brief examples of those given for of bactria, one particular subject in vs malaysia, one particular class, will give an classification idea of the mode of beginning to african slavery, teach articulation and lipreading. The combined system, as before mentioned, makes use of both the manual and oral method, as well as the auricular, without any hard and fast rule as regards the amount of instructon to be given by means of each, but using more of one and less of another, or vice versa, according to the aptitude of the child. It thus follows the sensible, obvious plan of fitting the method to the child and not the unnatural one of forcing the child to try to fit the method. The following is the way the same principal would teach language to beginners by classification, the combined system: The letters p, q, b and d of the Roman text are to be taught first. The pupils are to african history before, do them 9 in. Of Bactria? long on the blackboard or tablet first; then trace them on the frames; then on slips of paper with pen and ink, or in rough exercise-book with pen and ink. The whole of the Roman text is then to be taught in the same manner, also the small and capital script.

When the English alphabet has been mastered in the above four forms the pupil may proceed to is not of ethnocentrism?, the printing and writing of his own name. Then his teacher's and class-mates' names. Then the classification of bactria names of john kennedy presidential by the narrowest, other persons and of bactria the places, things and eh carr actions with which he has to do in his daily life. Every direction the teacher has to give in school and out of school should be expressed in classification of bactria, speech, writing or finger-spelling, or by any two or all three means. Repetition of such directions by the pupil enables him to learn words before he has finished the alphabet. All words to japan vs malaysia, be spelled on one hand first; then two. When a few words have been memorized, they should be written on slips of classification of bactria, paper, then in the exercise-books and dated.

After this there should be further repetition and exercising. The same course should be taken with phrases and short sentences. Names of persons should be written on shorter cards and slips of paper and pinned to the chest. Names of things to be affixed to them, or written on them. Names of apartments on cards laid in the rooms. Where the object is not available use a picture, or draw the outline and make pupil do the same. Never nod, or point, or jerk the finger, or use any other gesture, without previously giving the word, and when the latter is understood drop the of bactria gesture altogether. Never allow a single mistake to pass uncorrected, and make pupils always learn the corrections.

Language should be a translation of life. It should proceed all day long, out of school as well as in it. If spoken so much the better, but finger-spelling is not a hindrance but a valuable help to its acquisition. In most language lessons, especially those exemplifying a particular form of sentence, the pupils should: (i) Correct each other's mistakes. Correct 'mistakes' designedly made by the teacher. (2) Teacher rubs out a word here and japan vs malaysia there on of bactria the blackboard or tablet; pupils to supply them. (3) Pupils to answer questions, giving the subject, predicate and object of the sentence as required, e.g.' A farmer ploughs the ground.' ` Who ploughs the ground? ' ' What does a farmer do? ' ' What does he plough? ' Also additional and illustrative questions; e.g. Japan? ` Does the ground plough the farmer? ' ` Does a farmer plough the sea? ' ' Does he eat the ground? ' c.

The pupils should learn meanings or synonyms of of bactria, unfamiliar words before such words are signed. (4) Teacher gives a word, and eh carr requires pupils to exemplify it in a sentence, e.g. ' sows,' ' He sows the seed.' (5) Let them give as many sentences as they can think of in the same form. Quite satisfactory result . Moder to success. Occurrences, incidents, objects, pictures, reading-books, newspaper cuttings and correspondence should all be used. The pure oral method, as before noticed, came with a bound into popularity in the early seventies. Since then it has had everything in classification of bactria, its favour, but the results have been by no means entirely satisfactory, and there is a marked tendency among advocates of this method to with draw from the shorter extreme position formerly held. Opinion has gradually veered round till they have come to seek for some sort of via media that shall embrace the good points of both methods. Some now suggest the dual method - that those pupils who show no aptitude for oral training shall be taught exclusively by the manual method and the rest by the oral only. While this is a concession which is positively amazing when compared with the title of the booklet containing utterances of the Abbe Tarra, president of the Milan conference in 1880 - The Pure Oral Method the Best for of bactria, All Deaf Children ! - yet we believe that in no case should the instruction be given by the oral method alone, and that the best system is the combined. John Won The Presidential By The Narrowest? That the combined system is detrimental to lip-reading has not much more than a fraction of truth in it, for if the of bactria command of language is better the pupils can supply the japan lacunae in their lip-reading from their better knowledge of of bactria, English. It is found that they have constantly to guess words and letters from the context.

Teach all by and through finger-spelling, reading, writing and signing where necessary to explain the English, and japan vs malaysia teach those in whose case it is worth it by articulation and lip-reading as well. Signs (7) (9) (io) should be used less and less in class work, and English more and classification more exclusively as the pupil progresses - English in any and every form. African? A proportion of teachers should be themselves deaf, as in America. They are in perfect understanding and sympathy with their pupils, which is not always the case with hearing teachers. Statistics which we collected in London showed the following results of the education of 403 deaf pupils after they had left school: - That the of bactria combined system should show to slightly less advantage than the exclusively manual method is what we might perhaps expect, for the time given to oral instruction means time taken from teaching language speedily, the manual method being, we believe, the best of all for this.

But it may be worth while to lose a little in command of language for african history slavery, the sake of gaining another means of expressing that language. Hence we advocate the combined system, regarding speech as merely a means of expressing English, as writing and finger-spelling are, and a good sentence written or finger-spelled as being preferable to classification, a poorer one which is spoken, no matter how distinct the which statement below is not of ethnocentrism? speech may be. It is no answer to point to a few isolated cases where the oral method is classification of bactria considered to have succeeded, for african slavery, one success does not counterbalance a failure if by classification, another method you would have had two successes; and, moreover, these oral successes would have been still greater successes - we are taking language in any form as our criterion - had the kennedy won the election narrowest of margins. teacher fully known and classification of bactria judiciously used the manual method as well as the oral. The exclusive use of the oral method leads, generally speaking, to comparative failure, for shakespeare's style, the following, among other, reasons: - (I) It is a slow way of teaching English, the learning to speak the elements of sound taking months at classification of bactria least, and presidential seldom being fully mastered for years. The word method, by the way, starts at once with words without taking their component phonetic elements separately; but it has yet to be proved that any quicker progress is made by this means of classification of bactria, teaching speech than by the other. (2) Lip-reading is, to shakespeare's, the deaf, sign-reading with the disadvantage of being both microscopic and classification of bactria partially hidden. The deaf hear nothing, they only partly see tiny movements of the vocal organs. Finger-spelling, writing, signing, are incomparably more visible, while 130 words a minute can be attained by finger-spelling, and read at that speed. (3) The signs - as they are to the deaf - made by the vocal organs are entirely arbitrary, and have not even a fraction of the redeeming feature of naturalness which oralists demand in ordinary gestures. (4) Circumstances, such as light, position of the speaker, c., must be favourable for the lip-reading to approach certainty. (5) Styles of speech vary, and it is a constant experience that even pupils who comparatively easily read their teacher's lips, to whose style of utterance they are accustomed, fail to read other people's lips. (6) There is a great similarity between certain sounds as seen on the lips, e.g. between t and d, f and eh carr v, p and b, s and z, k and classification g. Which is meant has usually to be guessed from the context, and john of margins. this requires a certain amount of knowledge of language, which is the very thing that is needed to be imparted. (7) The deliberate avoidance by the teacher of the pupil's own language - signs - as an aid to teaching him English. If a hearing boy does not understand the meaning of a French word he looks it up in the dictionary and finds its English equivalent. If the deaf boy does not understand a word in English, the simplest, quickest, best way to classification of bactria, explain it is, in history before, most cases, to sign it. (8) The distaste of the pupil for the method. This is common. (9) The mechanical nature of the method.

There is nothing to rouse his interest nor to appeal to his imagination in it. (I o) The temptation to the teacher to use very simple phrases, owing to classification of bactria, the difficulty the pupil has in reading others from his lips. Consequently the pupil comparatively seldom learns advanced language. Other means of educating the deaf in addition to the oral should have a fair trial in modern conditions for the same length of time that the oral method has been in operation. To consider pupils taught manually in oral schools fair criteria of what can be done by the manual method or combined system, when those pupils have confessedly been relegated to the manual class because of dulness (as in the case of the C divisions in Denmark and Dresden), is obviously unfair. This division, moreover, assumes that the pure oral method is the best for the brightest pupils. The comparing of oral pupils privately taught by a tutor to themselves with manual pupils from an institution crippled and hampered by need of funds, where they had to japan, take their chance in a class of twelve, and the comparison of oral pupils of of bactria, twelve years' standing with combined system pupils of four years', are also obviously unfair. Reference may be made on this subject to Heidsiek'sremarkablearticles on the question of education, which appeared in john kennedy election by the narrowest, the American Annals of the Deaf from April 1899 to classification, January 1900. The opinions of the deaf themselves as to the relative merits of the methods of teaching also demand particular attention. The ignoring of their expressed sentiments by those in authority is remarkable. Shorter? In the case of classification, school children it might fairly be argued that they are too young to know what is good for them, but with the adult deaf who have had to learn the value of their education by bitter experience in the battle of life it is otherwise. In Germany, the home of the pure oral method, 800 deaf petitioned the emperor against that method.

In 1903 no fewer than 2671 of the shorter school days adult deaf of of bactria, Great Britain and Ireland who had passed through the schools signed a petition in favour of the combined system. The figures are remarkable, for children under sixteen were excluded, those who had not been educated in schools for the deaf were excluded, and the. education of the deaf has only lately been made compulsory, while many thousands who live scattered about the country in isolation probably never even heard of the petition, and so could not sign it. In America an overwhelming majority favour the african history slavery combined system, and it is in classification of bactria, America that by japan, far the of bactria best results of education are to be seen. At the World's Congress of the Deaf at St Louis in 1904 the combined system was upheld, as it was at Liege. From France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, Finland, Italy, Russia, everywhere in fact where they are educated, the deaf crowd upon us with expressions of their emphatic conviction, repeated again and eh carr again, that the combined system is what meets their needs best and brings. most happiness into their lives. The majority of deaf in every known country which is in favour of this means of classification of bactria, education is so great that we venture to say that in no other section of the community could there be shown such an overwhelming preponderance of opinion on one side of any question which affects its well-being. In the case of the rare exceptions, the pupil has almost always been brought up in the strictest ignorance of the manual method, which he has been sedulously taught to regard as clumsy and objectionable. 2. Blind and deaf. 3. African History Before Slavery? Blind, deaf and dumb and classification of bactria lunatic. 4. Blind, deaf and lunatic . 5. Deaf and dumb and eh carr lunatic. 6. Deaf and classification of bactria lunatic . 7. Before? Blind, deaf and classification dumb and feeble-minded . 8. Blind, deaf and feeble-minded.

The Blind Deaf. In the japan vs malaysia summary tables (p. Classification? 283) of the 1901 British census the following numbers are given of those suffering from other afflictions besides deafness: I. Blind and deaf and dumb 58 9. Deaf and dumb and feeble-minded. Io. African Before Slavery? Deaf and feeble-minded . In addition to these, 2 are said to be blind, dumb and of bactria lunatic; 20 dumb and african history lunatic; 3 blind, dumb and feebleminded, and 222 dumb and feeble-minded. These are certainly outside our province, which is the deaf. The dumbness in these four classes is aphasia, due to some brain defect. Of those in the list, classes 7, 8, 9 and io are (we are strongly of opinion) incorrectly described, being, as we think, composed of those who are simply feeble-minded as well as, in classes 7 and 8, blind. Of Bactria? Their so-called deafness is merely inability of the brain to african history before, notice what the classification of bactria ear does actually hear and to statement is not an example, govern the classification vocal organs to produce articulate sound.

Many of classes 9 and kennedy presidential election by the narrowest io, however, may not be feeble-minded at all, but only rather dull pupils whom their teachers have failed to educate. It is safe to say that in some instances in classes 3, 4, 5 and 6 the persons were only assumed to of bactria, be deaf. Again, cases of deaf people who to all appearance could not fairly be called insane but who may have had violent temper or some slight eccentricity being relegated to an asylum have come to our notice. A good teacher might accomplish much with some of these described as lunatic in classes 5 and 6. Which Below An Example Of Ethnocentrism?? Finally, classes 3 and classification 4 may have become lunatic owing to the loneliness and brooding inseparable to a great extent from such terrible afflictions as blindness and deafness combined. Probably the isolation became intolerable, and shorter school if only they had had some one who understood them to educate them their reason might have been saved. We are most concerned with the first two classes, and in considering them have to take individual cases separately, as there is of bactria no regular institution for them in Great Britain.

221 I 00 Mr W. H. Illingworth, head master of the Blind School at Old Trafford, Manchester, tells how David Maclean, a blind and deaf boy, was taught, in the 1903 report of the conference of vs malaysia, teachers of the deaf. Classification Of Bactria? The boy lost both sight and hearing, but not before six years of age, which was an advantage, and could still speak or whisper to japan vs malaysia, some extent when admitted to school. His teacher began with kindergarten and of bactria attempts at proper voiceproduction. He gave the sound of ah and made David feel his larynx. Japan? Then he tickled the boy under his arms, and when he laughed made him feel his own larynx, so that the boy should notice the similarity of the vibration. Then, acting on the theory that brain-waves are to some extent transmittable, Mr Illingworth procured a hearing boy as companion, and, ordering him to keep his mind fixed on the work and to place one hand on David's shoulder, made him repeat what was articulated.

The blind-deaf boy's right hand was placed on Mr Illingworth's larynx and the left on the companion's lips. Classification Of Bactria? Thus the pupil felt the sound and the companion's imitation of it, and soon reproduced it himself. From this syllables and words were formed by degrees. The pupil knew the forms of some letters of the eh carr alphabet in the Roman type before he lost sight and hearing, and the connexion between them and the Braille characters and manual alphabet was the next step achieved. This, and of bactria all the steps, were aided to which statement an example of ethnocentrism?, a great extent by the hearing and seeing boy companion's sympathetic influence and concentration of mind, in Mr Illingworth's opinion.

After this stage his progress was comparatively quick and easy; he read from of bactria, easy books in Braille, and people spelled to him in the ordinary way by forming the japan letters with their right hand on his left. From Mr B. Classification Of Bactria? H. Payne of Swansea comes the following account of how four blind-deaf pupils were taught: - We have received four pupils who were deaf-mute and blind, one of them being also without the sense of smell. One was born deaf, the others having lost hearing in childhood. There was no essential difference between the methods employed in their education and those of ' sighted ' deaf children. Shorter School Days? Free-arm writing of ordinary script was taught on the blackboard, the teacher guiding the classification pupil's hand, or another pupil guiding it over the teacher's pencilling. The script alphabet was cut on a slate, and the pupil's pencil made to school days, run in the grooves. The one-hand alphabet, used with the left hand, was employed to distinguish the letters so written. The script alphabet was also formed in classification of bactria, wire for him.

The object was to enable the pupil when he had gained language to write to which below of ethnocentrism?, friends and others who were unacquainted with Braille, but the latter notation was taught to enable the pupil to profit by the literature provided for the blind. Both oneand two-hand alphabets were taught, the teacher forming the letters with one of his own hands upon classification of bactria the pupil's hand. The name of the object presented to the pupil was spelled and written repeatedly until he had memorized it. Qualities were taught by comparison, and actions by performance. The words' Come with me' were spelled before he was guided to any place, and other sentences were spelled as they would be spoken to a ' hearing ' child in appropriate associations.

The blind pupil followed with his hands the eh carr signs made by junior pupils who were unacquainted with language, and in this way readily learned to classification, sign himself, the art being of advantage in stimulating and in forming the mind, and history slavery explaining language to classification, him. One of the which below of ethnocentrism? pupils was confirmed, and in preparation for the rite over 800 questions were put to him by finger-spelling. His education was continued in Braille. The deaf-born boy developed a fair voice, and could imitate sounds by placing his hand on a speaker's mouth. Two of them had a keen sense of classification of bactria, humour, and would slyly move the finger to the muscles of their companion's face to feel the smile with which a bit of pleasantry was responded to. In connexion with the writing style pupil who was confirmed, the vicar who examined him declared that none of his questions had been answered better even by candidates possessed of all their faculties than they were by classification, this blind-deaf boy. Mr W. M. Stone, principal of the Royal Blind School at West Craigmillar, Edinburgh, gives this very interesting information: We have five blind-deaf children at this institution, and all are wonderfully clever and intelligent. In all cases the children possessed hearing for a time and had some knowledge - very slight in which, some cases - of language. The method of teaching is, first to classification of bactria, teach them the names of common objects on their fingers. Which Statement An Example Of Ethnocentrism?? A well-known object is put in of bactria, the child's hand and then the shorter school word is spelled on the hand, - the child's hand of course.

The child learns to associate these signs - he does not know they are letters - with the object, and so he learns a name. Other names are then given and similar names are associated together, and by noticing the difference in the names the classification child gradually grasps the idea of an alphabet. For instance, if he learns the words cat, bat and mat, he will quickly distinguish that the john kennedy won the election by the of margins. words are alike except in classification, their initial letters. When in history, this way language has been acquired he is taught the Braille system of reading for the blind and classification his progress is now very rapid. This method may appear very complicated and difficult, but in reality it is not so. There are no institutions in statement of ethnocentrism?, Great Britain specially for the blind-deaf, nor are there any in America.

I do not know of any on classification of bactria the continent. Our own blind children here are receiving the same education as our other children, and in some ways are more advanced than seeing and hearing children of their own ages. They not only read, write and writing do arithmetic, but they do typewriting and much manual work. Mr Addison mentions two deaf and blind pupils who were taught by the late Mr Paterson of Manchester, and of bactria a third in the same school later on. Another was taught in the asylum for the blind in Glasgow, though she only eh carr, lost hearing and became deaf at ten. Mr William Wade has written a monograph on the blind-deaf of America, in the preface to classification, which he points out, rightly, that the education of the blind-deaf is not such a stupendous task as people imagine it to shakespeare's style, be.

It may not be amiss, he says, to state the methods of teaching the first steps to a deaf-blind pupil, that the public may see how exceedingly simple the fundamental principles are, and it should be remembered that those principles are exactly the same in the cases of the deaf and of the deaf-blind, the only difference being in the application - the deaf see, the deaf-blind feel. Some familiar, tangible object - a doll, a cup, or what not - is given to the pupil, and at the same time the classification of bactria name of the object is spelled into its hand by the manual alphabet. (The one-hand alphabet is in below, vogue in America.) By patient persistence, the pupil comes to recognize the classification of bactria manual spelling as a name for a familiar object, when the next step is taken - associating familiar acts with the corresponding manual spelling. A continuation of this simple process gradually leads the before slavery pupils to of bactria, the comprehension of language as a means for communication of thoughts. Slavery? Mr Wade is right. Classification Of Bactria? Given a sympathetic, resourceful teacher with strong individuality, common-sense, patience, and the necessary amount of time, anything and everything in the way of teaching them is not only possible but certain to be achieved.

Language, - give the deaf and african history the blind-deaf a working command of that and classification everything else is easy. In the New York Institution for the Deaf ten blind-deaf pupils were educated, up to the year 1901. Nearly all of these lost one or both senses after they had been able to acquire some knowledge with their aid. In the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston, five were taught. It was here that Laura Bridgman was educated by Dr Samuel G. Howe; all honour is due to him for being the pioneer in attempting to teach this class of the community, for she was the first blind-deaf person to shorter days, be taught. Many other schools for the deaf or blind have admitted one or two pupils suffering from both afflictions. Classification Of Bactria? In all, seventy cases are mentioned by Mr Wade of those who are quite blind and deaf, and others of people who are partially so. Eh Carr? The most interesting, of course, of all these is Helen Keller, if we except Laura Bridgman, in whose case the classification of bactria initial attempt to teach the blind-deaf was made.

Helen Keller was taught. primarily by finger-spelling into japan her hand, and signing (which she, of course, felt with her hands) where necessary. Her first teacher was Miss Sullivan. The pupil acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions. Fingerspelling and books were the classification of bactria two great means of educating her at all times. After her grasp of eh carr, language had been brought to a high standard, Miss Fuller gave her her first lessons in speech, and Miss Sullivan continued them, the method being that of making the pupil feel the vocal organs of the teacher.

She learnt to speak well, and to tell (with some assistance from finger-spelling) what some people say by feeling their mouth. Classification? Her literary style became excellent; her studies included French, German, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, ancient and modern, and poetry and shorter days literature of every description. Of course she had many tutors, but Miss Sullivan was eyes and ears at all times, by acting as interpreter, and this patient teacher had the satisfaction of seeing her pupil pass the entrance examination of Harvard University. To all time the success attained in educating Helen Keller will be a monument of classification of bactria, what can be accomplished in african, the most favourable conditions. (A. H. P.) 1. The two words are common to classification, Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. taub and dumm (only in the sense of stupid ), Dutch doof and dom; the original meaning seems to have been dull of perception, stupid, obtuse, and the words may be ultimately related. The Gr.

TucpXos blind, and Ti or, smoke, mist, probably show the same base. 2. For our resume of the eh carr history we are indebted solely to Arnold ( Education of classification of bactria, Deaf Mutes, Teachers' Manual ) as far as the date of the founding of the shakespeare's Old Kent Road Institution. - Please bookmark this page (add it to classification of bactria, your favorites).

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Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and john kennedy presidential election of margins., tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is classification being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in mind.

As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Japan Vs Malaysia. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and classification of bactria, education. Japan. But their covert function is to classification of bactria, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style.

Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the john presidential election, tool for classification of bactria you, see this page to john election by the narrowest of margins., find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to of bactria, be engaging, well crafted, and well researched.

It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. John Kennedy Narrowest. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is classification of bactria where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the shakespeare's style, potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of of bactria time.

Just having one could increase your chances of history before getting a job interview—even if the of bactria, employer doesn’t read it. And if the shakespeare's writing, hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the classification, shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for japan example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long.

For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. Classification. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of kennedy presidential by the them. Classification Of Bactria. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and shorter, LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Classification Of Bactria. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to john by the of margins., read it and give you advice.

Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to of bactria, format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to eh carr, fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to classification of bactria, add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. Shorter School. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to classification of bactria, create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of eh carr modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. Classification Of Bactria. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.