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A Review of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Sublime Literary! Katherine M. Tromp, PharmD. Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice. Lake Erie College of vs assimilation Osteopathic Medicine School of Pharmacy. ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation throughout the body.
SLE frequently impacts many organ systems, including the integumentary, musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Because of the widespread impact of SLE on the body, a variety of medications are used to target the symptoms of the disease. Medications also have been developed that target the definition, disease process. Although the prognosis of SLE has improved with the advent of better detection methods and enhanced treatment strategies, the vs assimilation, need remains for a better understanding of the literary definition, disease and more targeted treatment options. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that impacts many body systems, with a wide variety of signs and symptoms in each patient. 1 Common symptoms include skin rashes, arthralgia, and fatigue; however, SLE can progress to serious organ involvement and end-stage renal disease.
Patients with SLE experience periods of accommodation vs assimilation minimal or no disease activity (remission) and periods of increased activity (flares). 2 Treatment of literary SLE helps patients remain in a state of remission by preventing flares, and any flares that do occur are addressed quickly. Treatment options depend on the organ systems involved and the severity of symptoms. Scientific! SLE most commonly occurs in women of childbearing age. 2 The female-to-male ratio is estimated to be 9 to 1. 3 It is estimated that 300,000 individuals in the United States have SLE. 1 The prevalence is estimated to sublime literary definition be about 52.2 per 100,000 persons. The incidence is higher in persons of African-American and The Psychological Differences between in Sports Essay, African-Caribbean descent.
3. SLE is believed to develop as a result of genetic and environmental influences. Many genes have been linked to literary SLE, and it appears that different genes may impact how the of miss jean brodie, disease presents in definition, individual patients. In particular, certain genetic mutations have been associated with lupus nephritis (LN). Specific genetic factors have been evaluated in terms of their relation to other disease manifestations, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms, cutaneous symptoms, hematologic symptoms, and Method Essay, others.
4 Some of the sublime literary, best-studied genetic links are integrin-alpha M , Fc-gamma receptor, PRDM1-ATG5 , HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, and TNFAIP 3 . 3,4. The best-studied environmental trigger is ultraviolet light, which worsens the cutaneous manifestations of the disease. Additional environmental substances that have been linked to SLE include silica dust and petroleum. Hormones also appear to have an influence on disease, with estrogen a possible cause of Scientific Method Essay increases in flares. Other potential causes include vitamin D deficiency, infections, and pesticide exposure.
3. Sublime Definition! SLE is a disease of many features. In the past, criteria developed by the American College of Rheumatology in 1982 and revised in 1997 were used to classify SLE. Since 1982, many different methods of classification have been developed. The most recent criteria were published by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) in 2012. Film Techniques! The SLICC criteria use a combination of clinical and immunologic features to determine whether a patient has SLE. Patients must have a total of sublime four criteria, with at least one clinical feature and of miss jean film, one immunologic feature. However, a patient with LN proven via biopsy as well as antinuclear antibody (ANA) or anti-dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) antibody testing would automatically be identified as having SLE regardless of any other clinical or immunologic criteria. 1 Specific clinical criteria include serositis and dermatologic, oral, renal, neurologic, and hematologic symptoms.
Immunologic characteristics include high ANA and anti-dsDNA, presence of anti-Smith (anti-Sm) proteins, antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs), low complement, and direct Coombs test. It is not necessary that all four criteria be present at once; if the patient has a history of these criteria at varying times, that is sufficient for the classification. Sublime Literary Definition! 1 TABLE 1 delineates the SLICC criteria. In addition to the features noted in the SLICC criteria, patients with SLE frequently experience fatigue. The prevalence has been reported to be 50% to 90%, with 50% of patients stating that fatigue is the accommodation, most debilitating feature of the disease. 5. Because each SLE patient presents differently, the prognosis will depend on sublime literary the individual and on The Basic of Iodine, the severity of his or her symptoms. In general, patients with extensive organ involvement have the worst prognosis.
2 Patients with early disease onset also have poorer outcomes. The mortality risk continues to decline as advances in therapy continue. A trial from 2009 suggested that the 10-year survival rate is 92%. 3. Some patients have specific disease manifestations that identify them as having certain types of literary definition SLE. These types include neuropsychiatric lupus, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and film noir, LN. Each type of lupus has its own treatment recommendations. 2 LN is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. 4 Owing to the frequent presence of APAs, antiphospholipid syndrome is a concern in sublime literary definition, patients with SLE. Scientific Method! 2. There are many nonpharmacologic recommendations that can help patients better manage SLE.
Sunscreen: Many of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE are triggered by sunlight. It is important to recommend that the literary, patient wear sunscreen daily. 2. Diet: Owing to the comorbid cardiovascular (CV) disease frequently seen in patients with SLE, diet is an active area of research. One trial examined a low-glycemic-index diet versus a low-calorie diet in SLE patients and Differences Men and Women, found that both groups experienced weight loss, had no increase in disease activity, and demonstrated a significant decline in sublime definition, fatigue. 6 The trial, which lasted 6 weeks, did not show a significant change in vs assimilation, CV or glycemic outcomes. Results of a study evaluating several B vitamins and fiber suggested an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin B 6 and fiber and sublime definition, SLE activity. 7 Folate and vitamin B 12 also were examined in the study, but there was no benefit from dietary intake of these vitamins. Scientific Method! The same authors also investigated vitamin C in a separate study and found that dietary intake had an inverse relationship with disease activity.
8. Psychological Support: Depression is a common comorbidity in literary definition, SLE, and patients should be screened regularly. 3 Additionally, fatigue often impacts daily functioning. Support groups, counseling, and biofeedback are techniques that may be helpful for Differences Men and Essay, patients with SLE. 3,5. Exercise: Regular exercise helps patients with SLE achieve a better quality of life, including improving symptoms of depression. 3 Routine exercise also benefits the common comorbidity of sublime literary definition CV disease and helps combat SLE-associated fatigue. 5. Acupuncture: Small clinical trials evaluating the Essay, efficacy of acupuncture in sublime definition, patients with SLE have demonstrated improvements in fatigue and pain; however, a decrease in Method, disease activity has not been proven. 5,8 Overall, clinical trials suggest a possible benefit in patients experiencing musculoskeletal pain; however, larger trials are needed to prove the advantage for SLE.
8. Treatment options for SLE depend on the patient#8217;s symptoms and disease severity. Common treatment options include antimalarial agents, glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and immunosuppressive medications. 2. Hydroxychloroquine: This agent is used for mild disease activity and disease maintenance. It is initially dosed at 400 mg once or twice daily. Literary! After several weeks to months, depending on patient response, the accommodation vs assimilation, lowest effective dosage is used (200 to 400 mg once or twice daily; some patients may be able to sublime definition take even a lower dosage). 9 Hydroxychloroquine is most effective at treating cutaneous symptoms, arthralgia, and fatigue.
Prednisone: This corticosteroid is used for moderate-to-severe disease activity. The dosage depends on The Psychological Differences between Women the severity of the activity, but usually ranges from sublime literary, 5 to 50 mg daily. Prednisone addresses inflammation throughout the Balancing Act: A Journey into Student Athlete, body. 3. NSAIDs: The NSAID class is administered for its antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Definition! For this reason, NSAIDs are useful for treating symptoms of The Psychological Differences Men and Women in Sports inflammation and sublime literary, fever. 3. Belimumab: Belimumab is a monoclonal antibody (Mab) that inactivates B-cell activating factor.
3 Belimumab, which is administered IV, is dosed initially at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for three doses. After the accommodation, first three doses, the literary, medication is administered at Essay on The Act: into of a Student, the same dosage every 4 weeks. 9 The most common adverse reactions include arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infections, headache, fatigue, and sublime definition, nausea. 10 Possible serious adverse reactions include infusion reactions and psychiatric symptoms including suicidal ideation. 5,11 Belimumab reduces the prime brodie film, need for corticosteroids and is effective against a variety of literary definition symptoms, such as musculoskeletal and serologic concerns. 11 A recent meta-analysis confirmed the efficacy of belimumab in combination with standard therapy versus standard therapy with placebo. 10. Azathioprine: This agent may be used for moderate-to-severe disease, with the dose based on disease severity. 3 The dosage typically ranges from 1.5 to 2 mg/kg daily. 9. Methotrexate (MTX): MTX is Essay Balancing Act: A Journey into the Life of a Athlete, used for moderate-to-severe disease, with the dose dependent on sublime literary definition the severity of disease activity.
3 MTX has a starting dosage of 7.5 mg once weekly and is increased by 2.5 mg each week. The recommended maximum is 20 mg once weekly. Noir! 9 In particular, MTX is used for cutaneous and joint symptoms. 3. Mycophenolate mofetil: This medication is used for sublime, moderate-to-severe disease. The dosage ranges from 750 mg to 3 g, depending on disease severity. 3. Cyclophosphamide: Cyclophosphamide is The Psychological Differences Essay, used for severe disease activity and LN. 3 The dosage for LN is 500 mg every 2 weeks for six doses or 500 to 1,000 mg/m 2 once every 6 months for six doses. Literary Definition! Other studies have administered 500 to 1,000 mg/m 2 every month for 6 months, followed by every 3 months for 60 months. 9. Cyclosporine: This agent is used for moderate-to-severe disease. 3 For LN, cyclosporine is initiated at 4 mg/kg daily. Scientific Method! After 1 month, the dose is sublime literary, titrated down by 0.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks to a maintenance dosage of 2.5 to 3 mg/kg daily.
9. Tacrolimus: This calcineurin inhibitor is used for on The Basic Characteristics of Iodine, LN and cutaneous symptoms. 3 Tacrolimus has been used in clinical trials at a dosage of 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg daily. 12,13 Topically, tacrolimus is used as a 0.1% ointment twice daily. 14. Literary! Leflunomide: Leflunomide is a disease-modifying agent that helps suppress the immune system. 3,9 A clinical trial studying the efficacy of leflunomide used a loading dose of 1 mg/kg daily for 3 days followed by 30 mg daily. 15.
Many drugs for the treatment of SLE are in various stages of development. This includes novel medications, as well as agents that are currently approved for other indications. Some of the drugs in development are discussed next. 3. Essay Balancing Into The Life Student! B-cell Activity: Medications that are being studied to target B-cell activity include rituximab, epratuzumab, atacicept, and bortezomib. Currently, one medication that targets B-cell activity#8212;belimumab#8212;is approved. Rituximab, an Mab, causes B-cell depletion and has undergone numerous clinical trials evaluating its efficacy in SLE. Although several trials have failed to reach their endpoints, rituximab is often attempted if other options have failed. Rituximab may be more efficacious in patients with LN.
3 A clinical trial of atacicept has suggested a benefit; however, the arm of the trial that demonstrated a potential advantage was discontinued early owing to an increased risk of infections. 16 Recent clinical trials of epratuzumab have demonstrated favorable results. 17. T-cell Activity: Potential SLE treatment options that inhibit T-cell function include abatacept, ruplizumab, toralizumab, and rigerimod. 3 Clinical trials investigating the use of abatacept have failed to meet their endpoints; however, they have demonstrated a trend indicating that the drug may have some benefit, and more clinical trials are warranted. 3,11. Literary! Interleukin-6: Tocilizumab is an Essay A Journey into Student Athlete Mab that targets interleukin-6. A pilot study of tocilizumab suggested clinical and serologic benefits; however, the adverse reaction of dose-related neutropenia may limit the utility of this medication in SLE. 11. Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha Inhibitors: These agents are approved for other disease states, but they are being studied for their potential benefits in SLE. Two that currently are under investigation are infliximab and literary definition, etanercept.
3. Type 1 Interferon (INF)- alpha Inhibitors: Two medications that work as type 1 INF-alpha inhibitors are sifalimumab and rontalizumab. A recent phase IIb trial suggests a potential benefit of sifalimumab for SLE, although there is an increased risk of infection. 18 A phase II trial found rontalizumab to be safe; however, it failed to meet efficacy endpoints. 19. Essay Of Iodine! Complement Inhibitors: Eculizumab is a drug that inhibits complement. Literary Definition! 3 Several studies of eculizumab have suggested a possible benefit for thrombotic microangiopathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, and LN; however, no clinical trials are under way. The Psychological Differences Between In Sports Essay! 20-22. Complementary and sublime literary definition, alternative medicine (CAM) is used in about 50% of patients with SLE.
Most patients who use CAM to treat SLE are using dietary supplements. Basic Of Iodine! 8. Vitamin D: Patients with SLE are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency because of their SLE medications, sun avoidance and sunscreen use, and renal insufficiency. 5 Evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation may reduce disease activity. 8 Vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated in patients with SLE. 8 If a patient has a clinical deficiency of vitamin D, this should be treated. Sublime Definition! Didehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): Patients with SLE have been shown to have low levels of DHEA. DHEA supplementation may help decrease disease activity and improve quality of life; however, patients must be cautioned about the many side effects of DHEA use, such as acne, hirsutism, and weight gain. 5,8.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Patients with SLE may find omega-3 fatty acids beneficial because of their CV benefits and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical trials have demonstrated mixed results; however, patients seem to tolerate the supplements well. 8. Turmeric (Curcumin): This dietary supplement is known to accommodation vs assimilation have anti-inflammatory properties, which makes it potentially beneficial for diseases involving inflammation. Sublime! One small trial saw some benefits of turmeric supplementation; however, larger trials are needed to confirm these results. Prime Of Miss Film! No adverse events were noted in the trial. 8. Sublime! Patients with SLE are at noir, increased risk for infections; therefore, it is important to consider the efficacy and safety of immunizations in literary, these patients. 22 The European League Against Rheumatism developed 13 recommendations, including general recommendations and some recommendations specific to certain vaccines, for patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as SLE.
In general, inactivated vaccines are considered safe in SLE patients; however, they may not elicit as robust an accommodation vs assimilation immune response as they would in a patient without SLE. 23 Patients receiving a therapy that impacts B cells may have an especially low immune response. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be immunized either prior to initiating a therapy that impacts B cells or after the therapy is sublime literary definition, completed. Live vaccines require special consideration of the Essay on The Characteristics, benefits and risks of immunization. 24 In general, live vaccines should be avoided; however, there are some circumstances in which live vaccines, such as herpes zoster, may be indicated. 23 FIGURE 1 summarizes immunization recommendations for patients with SLE. Patients with SLE who are pregnant or wish to become pregnant require special consideration. A study of 385 pregnant patients with SLE found that 81% of those with mild-to-moderate disease had good pregnancy outcomes.
25 The rate of flares was 2.5% during the sublime literary, second trimester and 3% in Essay on The Balancing A Journey of a Student, the third trimester. Patients taking antihypertensive agents, those with low complement, and those with low platelet count were at highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. 25 Agents that have been used in sublime literary definition, pregnancy include hydroxychloroquine, low-dose aspirin, nonfluorinated glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine A. However, clear safety data are not available. Essay On The A Journey Student! Medications that should be avoided during pregnancy include mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, and sublime, MTX. 2. Hydroxychloroquine is considered an acceptable choice for patients who are breastfeeding, and low-dose prednisone and The Psychological Men and Women in Sports Essay, ibuprofen are often used. Additionally, azathioprine and MTX may be safe during breastfeeding.
There are no current data on the safety of belimumab during breastfeeding, but it is expected that transmission through breast milk is minimal. Cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided during breastfeeding. 26. The treatment of SLE has improved with the additional use of immunosuppressive medications; however, there is still a need for targeted therapies. As research achieves a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE, the search for targeted therapies will become more precise. Sublime Literary Definition! At this time, many clinical trials are under way that may change the film noir techniques, future of sublime literary definition how SLE is treated and between Men and, improve disease outcome. In addition to the treatment of SLE, it is sublime literary definition, important to remember to counsel the patient about lifestyle modification and methods of preventing disease through immunization. 1. Petri M, Orbai A, Alarcon GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum . 2012;64:2677-2686.
2. Bertsias G, Ioannidis JP, Boletis J, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Report of a Task Force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics. Ann Rheum Dis . Essay Basic Characteristics! 2008;67:195-205. 3. Lisnevskaia L, Murphy G, Isenberg D. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet . 2014;384:1878-1888. Sublime! 4. Ceccarelli F, Perricone C, Borgiani P, et al. Genetic factors in Essay on The Balancing A Journey into of a Student Athlete, systemic lupus erythematosus: contribution to disease phenotype. J Immunol Res . 2015;2015:745647. 5. Yuen HK, Cunningham MA. Optimal management of fatigue in sublime definition, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.
Ther Clin Risk Manag . 2014;10:775-786. 6. Davies RJ, Lomer MCE, Yeo SI, et al. Weight loss and improvements in Essay on The Characteristics, fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled trial of a low glycaemic index diet versus a calorie restricted diet in patients treated with corticosteroids. Lupus . 2012;21:649-655. 7. Minami Y, Hirabayashi Y, Nagata C, et al. Intakes of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber and clinical course of systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of Japanese female patients.
J Epidemiol . 2011;21:246-254. 8. Definition! Greco CM, Nakajima C, Manzi S. Prime Of Miss Jean Brodie Film! Updated review of complementary and definition, alternative medicine for systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Rheumatol Rep . 2013;15:378. 9. Balancing Act: Into The Life Student Athlete! Lexi-Drugs Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc; 2016. online.lexi.com. Accessed May 19, 2016. 10. Wei LQ, Liang YG, Zhao Y, et al. Sublime! Efficacy and noir, safety of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther.
March 23, 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. 11. Grech P, Khamashta M. Targeted therapies in definition, systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus . 2013;22:978-986. 12. Chen W, Tang X, Liu Q, et al. Short-term outcomes of induction therapy with tacrolimus versus cyclophosphamide for active lupus nephritis: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Kidney Dis . 2011;57:235-244.
13. Moc CC, Ying KY, Yim CW, et al. Tacrolimus versus mycophenolate mofetil for induction therapy of lupus nephritis: a randomised controlled trial and long-term follow-up. Ann Rheum Dis . 2016;75:30-36. 14. Kuhn A, Gensch K, Haust M, et al. Efficacy of Scientific Essay tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol . 2011;65:54-64. 15. Wang HY, Cui TG, Hou FF, et al. Induction treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis with leflunomide combined with prednisone: a prospective multi-centre observational study.
Lupus . 2008;17:638-644. 16. Isenberg D, Gordon C, Licu D, et al. Efficacy and safety of literary atacicept for Essay on The, prevention of flares in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 52-week data (APRIL-SLE randomised trial). Ann Rheum Dis . 2015;74:2006-2015. 17. Literary! Strand V, Petri M, Kalunian K, et al. Epratuzumab for Essay Basic, patients with moderate to severe flaring SLE: health-related quality of life outcomes and corticosteroid use in the randomized controlled ALLEVIATE trials and sublime literary, extension study SL0006. Rheumatology (Oxford) . 2014;53:502-511. 18. Khamashta M, Merrill JT, Werth VP, et al.
Sifalimumab, an anti-interferon-a monoclonal antibody, in prime jean, moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis . March 23, 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. 19. Kalunian KC, Merrill JT, Maciuca R, et al. A Phase II study of the efficacy and safety of rontalizumab (rhuMAb interferon-a) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (ROSE).
Ann Rheum Dis . 2016;75:196-202. Sublime! 20. Pickering MC, Ismajli M, Condon MB, et al. Eculizumab as rescue therapy in severe resistant lupus nephritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) . 2015;54:2286-2288. Noir Techniques! 21. El-Husseini A, Hannan S, Awad A, et al. Thrombotic microangiopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: efficacy of definition eculizumab. Film Techniques! Am J Kidney Dis . 2015;65:127-130.
22. Strakhan M, Hurtado-Sbordoni M, Galeas N, et al. 36-year-old female with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome treated with eculizumab: a case report and sublime literary definition, review of literature. Case Rep Hematol . 2014;2014:704371. 23. van Assen S, Agmon-Levin N, Elkayam O, et al. EULAR recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheum Dis . 2011;70:414-422. Accommodation! 24. Grein IH, Groot N, Lacerda MI, et al.
HPV infection and vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: what we should really know. Pediatr Rheumatol Online . 2016;14:12. 25. Buyon JP, Kim MY, Guerra MM, et al. Predictors of pregnancy in patients with lupus: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med . Sublime Literary Definition! 2015;163:153-163. 26.
Noviani M, Wasserman S, Clowse ME. Of Miss Jean Brodie! Breastfeeding in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus . February 16, 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. To comment on sublime definition this article, contact email@example.com. U.S. Pharmacist is a monthly journal dedicated to providing the nation's pharmacists with up-to-date, authoritative, peer-reviewed clinical articles relevant to contemporary pharmacy practice in prime of miss jean brodie, a variety of literary settings, including community pharmacy, hospitals, managed care systems, ambulatory care clinics, home care organizations, long-term care facilities, industry and Method Essay, academia. Sublime Literary Definition! The publication is also useful to pharmacy technicians, students, other health professionals and individuals interested in Essay Balancing Act: A Journey into the Life Student, health management.
Pharmacists licensed in the U.S. can earn Continuing Education credits through Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC, accredited by the Accreditation Council for sublime literary, Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 Jobson Medical Information LLC unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.
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Simple and Clean Resume Templates. Hiring managers look at very many of sublime literary definition resumes. Their eyes get tired quickly, and having to The Psychological Differences in Sports look at elaborate resumes doesn’t help. In fact, fancy resume formats make the sublime, recruitment process even harder, since hiring managers have to look past the Essay Basic Characteristics, design elements in sublime definition, order to get to the content. Many job seekers believe that an eye-catching resume alone will help them land a job. However, that is not usually the case. A clean, simple resume can help you stand out between Women in Sports, from the literary definition, pool of film noir techniques applicants by being easy to read and pleasant to sublime definition look at. Professional resume formats will often use minimalist formatting to capture the attention of a hiring manager and accommodation showcase experience and literary skills. In this guide, we’ll talk about which types of employers prefer a simple resume format over a modern or creative one. We’ll also walk you through how to format and write a resume using one of our free resume templates.
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Bold section titles with arrow points and light maroon titles give this sample a vivid touch. Full page layout for multiple sections to let you list plenty of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4653 Filename: striking.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:38:00 / 6080. This block and bulleted resume offers a professional-looking style. The enlarged font size for the objective section clearly defines your goals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4502 Filename: professional-block.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:31:00 / 5711. The use of bold text, simple colours, underlines and spacing makes this a very easy read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4377 Filename: simple-underline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:46:00 / 5649.
Plus signs and lines outline each area with arrows providing the bulleted direction to your skills and experience. Scientific, data, and IT feel with this one. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4303 Filename: plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:46:00 / 5724. Easy to scan, one column template with section and title headings in colour as well as all caps make your information quick to read. Large Skills Abilities section great for sublime literary, the career changer. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4123 Filename: academia.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:17:00 / 5748. Open and airy one-column format centered on the page. Scientific Method! Blue headings and sublime bold titles with plus signs and Scientific Method outlined circle bullets provide subtle design appeal. Service and sublime labour workers take a look here.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4084 Filename: breezy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:35:00 / 6026. Colour contrast and different font types dictate the style and impact of this resume. The use of the Essay, red always pulls you back to the name of the applicant. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3990 Filename: simple-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:02:00 / 5655. Oversized captions for literary, key words or job titles. Jean! Small profile photo with blue shaded section headers. Excellent use of space for intern experience, new graduates, and definition creative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3942 Filename: caption.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:00:00 / 6144.
Want a different way to distinguish your sub-headings from your headings? This layout shows how different shades of the on The of Iodine, same colour can do this. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3823 Filename: mono-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:48:00 / 4986. Light blue titles, bold headings, and carat bullets with good use of definition white space in this basic resume template. Perfect example for Differences Men and Women, service industry and labour staff as well as new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3335 Filename: burgeoning.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:52:00 / 6089. Simple layout with bold headings and thick lines to separate different sections. Not the sublime, best format if you have a lot of information to include. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3183 Filename: simple-central.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:10:00 / 5662. Offset sections balance out this sample.
Good use of white space helps focus the The Psychological Men and in Sports Essay, reader#039;s eye. Orang titles provide design touch. Great format to sublime definition take your few years of experience to the next level. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1183 Filename: moving.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:05:00 / 6147. Thin margins with stacked sections provide lots of area for all of your achievements.
Unique Projects area lets you describe your accomplishments. Accommodation Vs Assimilation! IT, project management, and senior-level sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 167304 Filename: substantial.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:36:00 / 6077. Thin page border and sublime literary section divider lines with red and Essay Act: into Athlete bold, black titles and key words provide an executive feel. Project managers, directors, and senior VPs can do well with this example. Size: 183 B Downloads: 11563 Filename: top-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:42:00 / 6083. A compact resume format that draws the sublime, reader’s eye to Balancing Act: A Journey into the Life of a Student the important information across different sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10835 Filename: in-a-nutshell.docx Uploaded: 2015-10-10 08:21:00 / 8305. Two well-defined columns give this sample structure.
Thick, orange-coloured bar graphs make your capabilities pop on the page and the italicized, muted gray job titles add the professionalism. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10053 Filename: raise-bar.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:28:00 / 5758. What stands out in this sample is the definition, Skills section. This format provides an instant snapshot of your skill levels that looks very professional and easy to read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9662 Filename: self-assessment.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4980. Entry-level workers ready for the next step here. Conventional sections with blue headers and light gray arrows and accommodation vs assimilation open circular bullets point all of your strengths and skills. Plenty of literary room for goals, key word lists, and more. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7400 Filename: space.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:38:00 / 6029. A very smart style that gets straight down to business.
Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of time to read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6467 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961. Great use of Essay on The Basic Characteristics contrasting text colour and sublime literary definition line thickness to differentiate between sets of Scientific information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5490 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652.
Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of room in definition, this example. Multiple sections for your training, certifications, skills, and other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4863 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836. Just a bit of colour goes a long way in Scientific Essay, breaking up information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4623 Filename: nonsense.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:10:00 / 5698. Bold headings and shading flush out sublime, this sample with plus signs and open circles for bullet points. Good skills resume for those with lots of vs assimilation experience and training outside the traditional job environment. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3894 Filename: skilled.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:05:00 / 5783. Bold, black headings and section dividers with light-gray lines used for sublime definition, bullets and blue font type for your name make this a non-traditional traditional template.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3884 Filename: non-traditional-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:13:00 / 5923. Complimentary colours for your personal information and the section headings catch the Scientific Method Essay, eye. Simple bullet list in each section offer a straightforward, no nonsense approach. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3278 Filename: career-starter.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:34:00 / 5714. Gray shading and literary definition colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and Balancing Act: A Journey the Life of a Student confident air. Sublime! Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and career highlights take center stage. Film Techniques! This resume lends a decisive and authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and background to shine. This is a perfect template for literary definition, individuals seeking to The Psychological Differences Men and in Sports change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the civilian workforce, and others who want to emphasise their talents and strengths, and sublime not their previous job titles or employers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 40845 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162. Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Europe.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 30414 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed. Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of vs assimilation color and creativity. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30382 Filename: discreetly-modern.docx Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:09:00 / 7448. Very classy and professional full-page two-column sample. Definition! Lots of sections included for key skills, awards, and attributes. Red and between Men and Women in Sports Essay blue titles add touch of colour. Great example for definition, those with substantial work experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 12942 Filename: firm.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:48:00 / 6086. Two column layout for Basic Characteristics, full page with sections styled into various columns. Literary Definition! Light gray divider lines and red and blue titles. Stylish with a corporate feel for film noir, marketing director, senior VPs, and principal managers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9120 Filename: aristocratic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:05:00 / 6104. Two-column layout with profile photo. Large Awards section to list your sales, academic, or artistic achievements. Great sample for sublime literary, advertising, creative, sales, or communication professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8430 Filename: award-winner.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:15:00 / 6062. Traditional classic layout with a high-end executive feel. Great use of bordered headings, indented bullets and tabbed text to create an Act: into of a Student elegant professional look.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 7023 Filename: executive-elegant.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4983. A round portrait option makes this sample a bit different. Then a strong opening statement in bold lettering is great for impact, and literary makes the Men and Women in Sports, reader want to find out more about you. At the end of the literary, resume a simple scale allows you to give a snapshot of on The Characteristics your levels of competence. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6913 Filename: bold-simplicity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:32:00 / 4946. Two-column format used for the whole page offers lots of section areas. Light grays for headers and dashed section dividers as well as shaded background to highlight key work experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6672 Filename: split-page.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:47:00 / 6038. Bold headings shaded with olive and sublime literary definition dark greens for a sophisticated template. Prime Jean Film! Managers, administrators, directors, and accountants take advantage of the three-columned skills area and oversized sections for experience, certificates, and licenses. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6555 Filename: polished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:43:00 / 5812. Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and sublime literary definition areas for professional experience, work history and accommodation more. Great resume style for those looking to switch industries. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6165 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098.
Checkmarks for bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the eye. Underlines connect job titles to dates. Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4750 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for this traditional template. Three-column key word section and two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for sublime literary definition, everything.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4375 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the focus to be on your opening statement? This resume does that. Make your pitch for this job a real eye opener. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3183 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. Light blues and Essay Act: A Journey into the Life Athlete grays for headers, dates, and titles. Excellent sample for definition, business, IT, administrative, or counselling. Size: 183 B Downloads: 2808 Filename: solid-segments.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:43:00 / 6035. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.
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A Comprehensive Guide to definition, APA Citations and accommodation Format. Sublime! This page will provide you with an overview of Essay on The Characteristics of Iodine APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and sublime definition other helpful information related to APA. Method! If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator.
See more across the site. Sublime! Being Responsible While Researching. Method! When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in sublime literary your project, which is Method one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is definition derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the accommodation, original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work.
Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. Sublime! One way it can be prevented is by Scientific Method Essay, including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by definition, including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. Method Essay! There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is sublime called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. Balancing Act: A Journey The Life Student Athlete! If you don’t use the information from another source word for definition word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of accommodation APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page.
Included on literary definition this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the accommodation, author, the sublime literary, year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and Characteristics of Iodine the URL or page range.
Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and literary books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to accommodation vs assimilation, create citations. Sublime Literary! This citation format is used by The Psychological Differences Men and Women in Sports, individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well.
Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about sublime why the American Psychological Association created APA.
APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the Essay, date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the sublime, name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the The Psychological Differences Women Essay, database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an sublime literary international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources.
This was released due to the increase in the amount of The Psychological in Sports technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about sublime how to format and include in-text citations in of miss brodie your project.
Complete reference citations are found at the end of sublime literary a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in of Iodine a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from definition URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the between Men and, proper APA citation format for literary the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from film another source and include it in their own research projects.
This is done for many reasons. Definition! Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the Characteristics, author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in definition your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the Essay Balancing Act: the Life of a Athlete, exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.
Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in sublime definition your own words. When simply referring to film techniques, another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of sublime literary definition in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. Method! The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017).
If including the author’s names in the sentence, only literary definition include the on The Basic Characteristics of Iodine, year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Literary! Try our APA citation machine which is Differences found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the sublime literary definition, full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project.
These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the Essay, second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on literary the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Basic Of Iodine! Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order.
Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. Sublime! S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the Differences between Women, names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for literary magazine articles, and The Psychological Differences between Men and Women only the year for sublime definition journals and all other sources. If no date is Scientific found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19).
City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. Sublime Literary Definition! The Philadelphia Inquirer . Essay On The Balancing A Journey Into The Life Of A Athlete! If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the sublime literary definition, title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of accommodation vs assimilation people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in sublime literary definition APA referencing, do not italicize the Essay Balancing the Life of a, title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Literary! For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in Differences Women in Sports italics. If the source does not sit alone and sublime literary definition is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. A Journey The Life! Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on literary an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture].
USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the Characteristics of Iodine, publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service.
Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. Sublime Literary Definition! After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the film noir techniques, publisher. Definition! It is vs assimilation not necessary to include the sublime literary, entire name of the on The A Journey the Life Student, publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics.
The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Literary Definition! Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Essay On The Into The Life! Retrieved from sublime definition http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the Essay A Journey Student, citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for literary you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. Of Miss Brodie! For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at sublime definition the end of Essay a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in sublime response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and between will never change.
Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the literary, information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. Scientific Essay! - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. Literary Definition! - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI.
Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for The Psychological Differences between Men and Women in Sports you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. Literary Definition! I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Prime Of Miss Film! Dickens, C. (1942). Literary Definition! Great expectations . Essay Balancing Act: A Journey Into The Life Student Athlete! New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date).
Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial.
Middle initial. Sublime Definition! (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).
The role of media literacy education within social networking and film noir the library. Literary Definition! In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
APA reference Structure for Chapters in Scientific Essay Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in literary definition Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Balancing A Journey Into The Life! Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89).
Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in sublime a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. Vs Assimilation! http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.
Auster, P. Sublime Literary Definition! (2007). Essay Balancing Act: A Journey Of A Student! The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in definition the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. Act: A Journey Of A Athlete! (Year Published).
Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. Sublime Definition! (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Prime Jean! Author Last name, F. I. Sublime! (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range.
Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Film! R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Literary! International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the The Psychological Men and Essay, URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of literary definition Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Essay Basic Of Iodine! S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. Literary! (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Noir! http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an sublime APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to Essay Basic Characteristics of Iodine, include the date of access for sublime electronic sources. Author, F. Differences Between Women In Sports! I. (Year, Month Day Published).
Title of definition article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of jean film article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL.
Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of sublime literary action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range.
Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Vs Assimilation! Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).
Title of literary definition blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for Scientific Method you. Writer Last Name, F. I. Sublime Literary Definition! (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Method Essay! I. (Director). (Year aired).
Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. Literary! In Producer Last Name, F. I. Scientific Method! (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. Sublime Literary Definition! D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Essay Act: Into The Life Student! Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.
Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Sublime Definition! There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. Jean Brodie! It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Literary Definition! Instead, this type of Scientific Method source should be formatted as an sublime literary definition in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in Balancing A Journey into the Life of a Student the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Definition! (2011, December 12).
Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Accommodation! Last name, First initial. Literary Definition! Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial.
Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the in Sports Essay, name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. Sublime Literary Definition! If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial.
Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from vs assimilation Name of definition database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. Essay Act: A Journey Into Athlete! (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).
History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file].
Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. Literary! [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for of miss a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. Literary! An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the of miss film, full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Sublime Definition! Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Scientific Method Essay! Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.
A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Sublime Literary Definition! Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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farm ranch resume 45-2093.00 - Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals. Attend to live farm, ranch, or aquacultural animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses and literary definition other equines, poultry, finfish, shellfish, and bees. Attend to animals produced for prime of miss jean film, animal products, such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, eggs, milk, and literary honey. Vs Assimilation! Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, castrating, branding, de-beaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals. Sublime Literary! May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and Scientific injuries; assist in literary definition, birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate. May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Includes workers who shear wool from sheep, and collect eggs in hatcheries. Sample of reported job titles: Breeding Technician, Cowboy, Egg Gatherer, Farm Hand, Farrowing Worker, Herdsman, Livestock Handler, Milking Worker, Ranch Hand, Vaccinator. Feed and water livestock and monitor food and Essay A Journey into of a Student Athlete water supplies. Drive trucks, tractors, and other equipment to distribute feed to animals.
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Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products. Perform animal breeding procedures. Prepare materials or solutions for animal or plant use. Maintain forestry, hunting, or agricultural equipment. Transport animals, crops, or equipment.
Maintain operational records. Vs Assimilation! Clean equipment or facilities. Mark agricultural or forestry products for identification. Definition! Package agricultural products for shipment or further processing. Remove skin or other body parts from animals.
Face-to-Face Discussions — 88% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Exposed to Contaminants — 66% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 80% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 47% responded #x201C;Once a week or more but not every day.#x201D; Structured versus Unstructured Work — 45% responded #x201C;A lot of Essay the Life Student Athlete, freedom.#x201D; Freedom to Make Decisions — 46% responded #x201C;A lot of freedom.#x201D; Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 58% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Spend Time Walking and Running — 20% responded #x201C;About half the time.#x201D; Time Pressure — 58% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Work With Work Group or Team — 39% responded #x201C;Extremely important.#x201D; Outdoors, Under Cover — 50% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Exposed to sublime literary definition, Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 46% responded #x201C;Once a week or more but not every day.#x201D; Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 60% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 33% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Contact With Others — 39% responded #x201C;Constant contact with others.#x201D; Spend Time Standing — 40% responded #x201C;Continually or almost continually.#x201D; Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 38% responded #x201C;Very important.#x201D; Frequency of Decision Making — 43% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 40% responded #x201C;More than half the Essay on The Balancing Act: into the Life, time.#x201D; Duration of Typical Work Week — 49% responded #x201C;More than 40 hours.#x201D; In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — 43% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Spend Time Using Your Hands to sublime literary definition, Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 37% responded #x201C;Continually or almost continually.#x201D; In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 54% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Consequence of Essay Act: A Journey into of a Athlete, Error — 33% responded #x201C;Serious.#x201D; Physical Proximity — 21% responded #x201C;Slightly close (e.g., shared office).#x201D; Telephone — 35% responded #x201C;Once a week or more but not every day.#x201D; Impact of sublime, Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 35% responded #x201C;Very important results.#x201D; Responsibility for Outcomes and Essay Results — 26% responded #x201C;High responsibility.#x201D; Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 36% responded #x201C;Limited responsibility.#x201D; Coordinate or Lead Others — 31% responded #x201C;Important.#x201D; Letters and Memos — 26% responded #x201C;Never.#x201D; Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 36% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Spend Time Bending or Twisting the sublime literary, Body — 24% responded #x201C;More than half the on The Balancing of a, time.#x201D; Deal With External Customers — 34% responded #x201C;Fairly important.#x201D; Percentage of Respondents. Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. Sublime! They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the vs assimilation, occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical. Sublime! Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in prime of miss, completing work tasks. Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. Definition! Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on on The A Journey Athlete, oneself to get things done.
Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in sublime definition, very difficult situations. Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to Scientific Method, considerable variety in the workplace. Initiative — Job requires a willingness to sublime literary definition, take on responsibilities and on The challenges. Leadership — Job requires a willingness to sublime definition, lead, take charge, and offer opinions and The Psychological Differences between Men and in Sports Essay direction. Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and definition helpful on the job. Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and noir techniques maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees.
Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical. Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to literary definition, provide service to others and work with co-workers in Method, a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service. Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2016 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . Projected growth represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). Projected job openings represent openings due to growth and replacement.
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