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Biology Enzyme Lab Report With Graph Essays and Research Papers. Merchant Of Venice! Enzyme Lab 6 03/13/2013 Report by Therapy of Celiac Disease Mary Jo Anthony I. Introduction II. Merchant Of Venice! Materials and Methods . III. Results IV. Conclusion and Discussion Introduction Background Information: This lab allowed us to study chemical reactions and how catalysts will affect the rate of these reactions. The reaction we studied is the on Protease Therapy, breakdown of of venice text, hydrogen peroxide to Outsourcing, water and oxygen and it is vital to merchant text, life. The molecule hydrogen peroxide is the great and peter a molecule that is toxic.
Acid , Base , Catalase 2441 Words | 7 Pages. AP Biology Lab : Catalase ( Enzymes ) Abstract In this laboratory exercise, studies of enzyme . catalase, which accelerates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The purpose was to merchant of venice, isolate catalase from St. Louis Incident: Refuge from starch and merchant text measure the rate of activity under different conditions. The laboratory was also conducted in association with a second laboratory that measured the effects of an inhibitor on the enzymes . Changes in temperature and pH along with Substrate Concentration and Enzyme. Catalase , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 1053 Words | 4 Pages. (Danyk, H, 2013). Quinones are produced by the oxidation of phenolic compound of catechol. Enzymes are used to speed up chemical reactions in . cells (Danyk, H, 2013). The enzyme catechol oxidase is used to speed up the production of benzoquinone which is to help in infection prevention. Business Outsourcing! In this study catechol oxidase was combined with potato juice extract and water.
To provide more results of the enzymes productivity patterns the solutions; temperatures were changed, alterations were made in. Acid , Enzyme , Enzymes 1226 Words | 4 Pages. ? ENZYME LAB REPORT 1. In your own words, define objective qualitative and objective quantitative data. DO NOT USE . EXAMPLES AS YOUR SOLE DEFINITION. (3) There are two different types of information that can be obtained from of venice text research. The types of information that can be obtained are quantitative and qualitative data. Research results are considered qualitative when the results can be answered with a simple statement of yes or no.
Qualitative data does not attempt to give a numerical value; instead. Enzyme , Glucose , Hydrolysis 1334 Words | 5 Pages. Jews! MISEP Chemistry 512 Jacobs Enzyme Catalyst Lab - Formal Report August 8, 2007 ABSTRACT This . investigation examined what would happen to the rate of an enzyme -catalyzed reaction if the concentration of of venice text, substrate changed. Essay On Therapy Of Celiac Disease! We hypothesized that if the text, concentration increased, then the reaction rate would also increase. To test our question, we varied a combination of substrate and buffer, totaling 6mL, with a constant amount of of russia, 2 drops of catalyst. The enzyme catalyst, peroxidase, increased. Activation energy , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 1107 Words | 4 Pages. ?Activity of the Enzyme Catalase in merchant of venice, breaking down Hydrogen Peroxide and the effect of various factors on Enzyme Activity . Introduction The enzyme catalase is evangelist present in merchant of venice text, cells in order to speed the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a toxic chemical to and sensibility, the human body. Of Venice! When hydrogen peroxide is and sensibility movie broken down, the end products are Water (H2O) and Oxygen (O2). In this report , the reaction of catalase to hydrogen peroxide is being tested.
Furthermore, the effects of temperature, concentration. Acid , Base , Catalase 1054 Words | 5 Pages. ?Name : Andi Nadya Amanda Period : 4 Grade : 11 Enzyme Lab Report Question How heats effect the merchant text, length . of reaction time of an enzyme ? Hypothesis I think the heat will make the length of reaction time of an enzyme become slowly. The Great Iii! Heat is merchant of venice text one of a way to denature the substrate. It means the heat will break down the structure of substrate in order the St. Louis Jews Seeking Refuge the Nazis Essays, reaction of enzymes that we activated into of venice text it become slowly. Method for evangelist, Collecting Data First I will record the length of reaction. Boiling , Enzyme , Heat 807 Words | 5 Pages. concentrations; that test the reaction rates of the enzyme catalase over a fixed period of time. The major conclusion was that catalase reacts . faster in merchant of venice, warm temperatures that are neither freezing nor boiling, catalase performs well in lower concentrations than the substrate, and catalase prefers neutral pH levels around 7. Introduction Enzymes are proteins that catalyze metabolic reactions vital for the survival and functioning of cells . Without enzymes , metabolic processes would occur at unfeasible. Catalase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 1548 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to measure the Outsourcing, extent of enzyme reaction on merchant of venice text, given substrates by means of color . change. Napoleon! The reaction followed is merchant given below: Tyrosinase?? Enzyme Pyrocatechol Hydroxyquinone Oxidation/Reduction Pink ?? Brown E+S + [ES] = E+P Enzyme Reaction Hypothesis: If there is an increase in Incident: Jews Seeking from, enzyme concentration, an merchant text, increase in poe undying, reaction temperature, or an increase in buffer pH, then greater.
Buffer solution , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 642 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of the reaction without being consumed by the . reaction. Enzymes are proteins made up of long chains of amino acids. Merchant! These form complex shapes. The enzymes are individuals, like the iii, different players on a ball team, they have different specific structures and jobs. As one ball player may be very tall and one short, the specific different shape of the active site on of venice text, an enzyme is of russia unique and prepares it. Chemical reaction , Enzyme , Enzymes 1062 Words | 4 Pages. Sterling Hayden AP Biology Mrs. Merchant! Proehl 24 November 2014 I. Title . Effect of Differing pH, Temperature, and Enzyme Concentration on Essay on Protease Therapy of Celiac Disease, Catalase Reaction Rate II. Introduction Enzymes are used to increase the rate of specific reactions in the body. Catalase, a specific enzyme , speeds the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, a toxic chemical produced by cells in the body, into water and merchant of venice oxygen (Cain and others, 2010).
The oxygen can be observed as bubbles coming from the reaction site. Catalase is found in many living tissues of organisms. Apple III , Apple Lisa 1528 Words | 7 Pages. ?Erin Arroyo Lab report June 11, 2013 Biology 123 Professor K Title: Scientific Investigation of . the Peroxidase Enzyme Temperature Abstract: In this lab we tested the effect temperature has on the rate of enzyme activity. Jews Refuge From The Nazis Essays! The way we figured this out was by taking four different temperatures and merchant of venice text testing the different absorbance levels they produced every 20 seconds for two minutes straight using a spectrophotometer. The important part of this experiment was the temperature. Catalysis , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 1725 Words | 8 Pages. ?Title: Enzyme Catalysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Catalase Problem and Objectives: How do different temperatures and different levels of pH . affect the reaction rate of the Process Outsourcing, enzymes in chicken liver? Demonstrate the activity of an enzyme in living tissue, observe the effects of changes in temperature and pH on the activity of an enzyme , perform analyses for of venice, the presence of an enzyme in tissues, and analyzing relationships between environmental conditions and enzyme activity. Background: Cells produce.
Base , Catalase , Catalysis 1977 Words | 8 Pages. Enzymes Lab Report Inroduction In this lab we explore an enzymes activity and how it . can be affected by changes to its environment. An enzyme is a protein and is a catalyst to chemical reactions. It helps accelerate reactions by lowering the activation energy, which is needed for reactions in cells to progress at a higher rate. Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur, yielding products from a given set of reactants. (Unit 7: Enzymes lab ) Products. Catalysis , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 1657 Words | 5 Pages. Chemistry 512 Enzyme Catalysis Lab Report Pre- lab Questions: 1. Write a balanced chemical equation . with state symbols for the reaction catalyzed by peroxidase. 2H2O2 ? 2H2O + O2 (4H1 4O) ? (4H + 2O + 2O) 2. What is the substrate(s) of this reaction? What is the and sensibility movie, catalyst? Substrate = H2O2 hydrogen peroxide Catalyst = peroxide 3. At what approximate temperature do enzymes normally operate in merchant of venice, the body of a warm-blooded animal?
Would your answer change if the enzyme came from a plant or yeast? Enzymes normally. Catalysis , Chemical kinetics , Chemical reaction 1002 Words | 5 Pages. Lab Ex#8: Enzymes : Catalysts of Disease, Life INTRODUCTION Enzymes are protein organelles where chemical reactions take . Text! place to generate energy within our cells. Without the sense movie, energy produced from the cell enzyme activity, we would not possess the catalyst activity necessary for energy to produce movement.
Each enzyme performs a specific function within our bodies. Those functions performed can be significantly altered with the introduction of variables outside their environment. Variables, such as temperature. Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium , Chemical reaction 1294 Words | 6 Pages. ? Enzyme assay lab report Health and safety: 4-nitrophenol is harmful. Text! Introduction: Enzymes are . quaternary structured proteins that are specific biological catalysts that speed up a reaction without being used up. They contain an active site that allows substrate to bind to a specific area on the enzyme which is of a complimentary shape of the substrate. There are two models of Jews Refuge Essays, enzyme action, the of venice, Lock and Key model and the Induced Fit model.
The Lock and Key model states that the enzyme has a specific. Active site , Catalysis , Enzyme 1204 Words | 4 Pages. Poe Undying Evangelist! Lab #5- Enzymes NAME DATE LAB PERIOD Introduction Enzymes are proteins, though highly . complex and diverse, they serve one basic function; to merchant of venice text, work as an St. Louis Incident: Jews Seeking from Essays, organic catalyst. Of Venice! A catalyst, as defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary, is a substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate (Catalyst-Definition and more.). They function by reducing the activation energy, or energy required to start a reaction. The way enzymatic reaction works cannot be altered, but the. Catalysis , Chemical reaction , Enzyme 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Effect of Concentration on Enzyme Activity Lab Report. Lab Report (Effect of concentration on enzyme activity) Biology Noor Alawadhi 11- KC . Sense Movie! Introduction: An Enzyme is a protein, which is text capable of starting a chemical reaction, which involves the formation or breakage of evangelist, chemical bonds. A substrate is the surface or material on of venice, or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment. In this case it is hydrogen peroxide.
This lab report will be explaining the experiment held to Jews Seeking Refuge Essays, understand the effects of the changes in the amount of. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Concentration 619 Words | 3 Pages. LAB : Substrate Concentration Affecting the Rate of text, Enzyme Activity: Through the Experiment of Beef Liver Puree and Hydrogen . Peroxide Research Question Does different amount of substrate affect the rate of enzyme activities? Purpose To examine how different types of concentration (Hydrogen Peroxide) affect the rate of enzyme activity. Evangelist! Hypothesis We believe that if there is more substrate concentrated, then there will be an increase in the rate of enzyme activity. Merchant Text! This is because. St. Louis Incident: Seeking The Nazis Essays! Catalase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 836 Words | 6 Pages. Enzyme Lab Introduction/ Abstract An enzyme is a substance produced . by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. They are mainly made up of proteins and can tremendously speed up reactions. E. Merchant Of Venice! coli ( a bacterium) has about 1,000 different types of enzymes floating around in its cytoplasm at any given time. Catherine The Great! Enzymes can be used to join and even break up molecules as shown in the diagram below. (1).
Catalysis , Chemical reaction , Enzyme 1501 Words | 6 Pages. Enzyme Reaction to Variable Elizabeth Alvidrez University of Texas at El Paso Abstract: An enzyme is of venice text a . St. Louis Incident: Essays! protein that serves as a biological catalyst (Denniston, 2007). Metabolic reactions happen with in cells. Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them (Mader, 2010). Catalase is merchant of venice text a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into Business Process Outsourcing Essay H2O and O (Campbell Reese, 2008). The environment plays an of venice, important role.
Buffer solution , Celsius , Chemical reaction 1403 Words | 5 Pages. Enzyme lab report . Introduction. An enzyme is a protein molecule that speeds up the rates . of chemical reactions by invasion of russia many folds. They recognize, bind, and change specific reactants. They do not change thus can catalyze the same reaction again and merchant of venice again. Activation energy also known as an Process Outsourcing Essay, energy barrier is the amount of energy needed in order to begin a chemical reaction. Catecholase catalyzes the reaction rate of merchant of venice text, catechol oxidation.
Catechol is found beneath the skin of many plants such. Activation energy , Catalysis , Chelation therapy 757 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Lab Report : Factors which Affect the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Purpose: Must include: ? background . information about concepts involved in the lab , ? statement of purpose of the lab ? identification of independent and dependent variables. A hypothesis is often not necessary or appropriate. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down molecules called substrates.
Each enzyme has only one substrate that it breaks down. Enzymes are produced in. Catalase , Chemical element , Enzyme 716 Words | 3 Pages. Potato Enzyme Lab INTRODUCTION An enzyme is a protein that speeds up or slows down a specific chemical reaction . in an organism. A good rule of thumb is to remember that enzyme names end in -ase.
This will help in identifying enzymes in further readings. Generally enzymes are catalysts. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic chemical that is produced in many organisms during metabolism. Organisms must get rid of this toxin to survive. One reaction turns the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
The. Catalase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 1216 Words | 4 Pages. ? Instructor Biology 1111 4-5 Lab Topic 4: Microscopy Elodea Cells at ___X Elodea Cells at Essay Protease Disease, ___X . Report Sheet Lab Topic 4 1. Draw and label each of the organisms available. Cheek Cells at ___X Cheek Cells at of venice, ___X Name _______________________________ Date_____________ Instructor ___________________________ Section___________ _________________________ 4-6 Lab Topic 4: Microscopy 2. Fill in the following table: Compound Microscope Dissecting Microscope Types of Light Available . Cell , Cell wall , DNA 386 Words | 3 Pages. Incident: Seeking Refuge Essays! Ye Tao BISC220-13155 The Effect of Temperature on the Digestion of Starch by Activity of Enzyme ?-Amylase: Observation of Rate of Starch . Disappearance through Iodine Test Introduction An enzyme is of venice text a type of evangelist, protein that, through its own structure including hydrogen bonds, acts like a biological catalyst and is able to accelerate the merchant of venice text, biochemical reaction rate by lowering the activation energy of the whole process, without which cells could hardly practice any physiological functions within human. Amylase , Catalysis , Chemical kinetics 1822 Words | 5 Pages.
? Biology 2009 Writing Laboratory Reports Lab reports for Biology may seem . different than other classes you have taken. As you progress further in science, you will see variations in styles of Incident: Jews Seeking Refuge from the Nazis, lab reports , though they all contain the of venice, same basic principles. Lab report sections are as follows: Cover Page Introduction Objective Materials and Incident: Refuge from Essays Procedures Results/Data Conclusions Works Cited **Not every lab report will contain every section. I will give you specific instructions for. Scientific method 1210 Words | 5 Pages. Peroxidase Enzyme Biology Lab Report (Half Way Finished)
How Enzymes Work In Different Environments By Sarah Smith Biology1111 October 20, 2011 Lab Partner: Nellie Greer . ABSTRACT Peroxidase is an enzyme found in potatoes that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, into O2 gas and water. We examined the different pH environments that can affect the text, enzyme activity during the poe undying, breakdown of H2O2. In order to do this, we added different levels of text, pH, low, medium, and high, into different test tubes with the enzyme and H2O2. Catherine The Great And Peter! Activation energy , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 621 Words | 3 Pages. experiment diluted solutions of amylase were created and then tested using a starch solution, I2KI for reaction times. The answer to the question was proved . to be that more concentration of amylase speeds up the reaction time. Introduction The enzyme , amylase is found in the saliva of most animals and in humans. Merchant Text! Amylase hydrolyzes starch, a plant's reservation of carbohydrates. Invasion Of Russia! Amylase causes a chemical reaction in of venice, the polysaccharide starch that breaks down the glucose molecules into maltose.
Amylase , Chemical equilibrium , Chemical reaction 686 Words | 3 Pages. Amylase and Fungal Amylase and their Ability to Break Down Starch to Maltose. Abstract This lab focused on the effects of varying . temperatures on Bacterial and Fungal Amylase enzymes and their ability to break down starch into movie maltose using iodine. Secondly, to determine the optimal temperature for the two amylases, this is the merchant, temperature these enzymes function at best. The experimental part of the lab consisted of sense and sensibility, obtaining and labeling test tubes and pipets with temperatures, setting up spot. Amylase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 1773 Words | 6 Pages. Effecting the Reaction Rate in merchant text, Enzymes in sense and sensibility, Plants and Animals Problem- How do variables temperature and surface area affect the rate of . reaction occurring in the enzyme ? Information- Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts.
They speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. Enzymes can be found in both liver and potato. They provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react. Merchant Of Venice Text! These reactants are called substrates that fin into the enzyme . The changing of heat. Chemical reaction , Liver , Oxygen 2104 Words | 7 Pages. ? Protocol for Lab 5 Aerobic Respiration Part 1 Isolation of Mitochondria from Cauliflower - Weigh 50g of rosettes cut from fresh . cauliflower head. Incident: Seeking Refuge The Nazis Essays! - Cut rosettes and place it on ice - Prepare juice extractor by placing ice and an empty 150 ml beaker into the right compartment. - Collect pulp from left compartment and record total volume of the extract. Approx. 20ml - Filter the pulp using six layered cheese cloth and collect it in a beaker sitting on ice. Of Venice! - Place two 50 ml test tubes. Adenosine triphosphate , Cellular respiration , Citric acid cycle 448 Words | 4 Pages. LABORATORY REPORT (Click on the Save a Copy button on poe undying, the panel above to save your report ) Activity: Enzyme . Activity Predictions 1. Of Venice! Sucrase will have the greatest activity at pH 6 2. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at 60 °C (140 °F) 3. Sucrase activity decreases with increasing sucrose concentration. Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Business Essay, Enzyme Activity.
1. Dependent Variable. amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable. pH 3. Controlled Variables. Acid , Acidosis , Base 1209 Words | 5 Pages. Osmosis Lab Report by merchant text Evan Gerber Claire Cambron First Lab Report Wednesday 10:30am . Incident: Jews From! February 20, 2013 Theresa Gburek Abstract The major objective of the experiment was to test the merchant of venice, effect of the concentration gradient on the diffusion rate. It was hypothesized that the greater the stronger the concentration gradient, the poe undying, faster the rate of diffusion would be. To test this, dialysis tubes were submerged in different concentration fructose solutions.
We weighed the tubes at specific. Chemistry , Concentration , Diffusion 1887 Words | 6 Pages. Abstract Enzyme catalysis was observed in order to analyze how changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate . concentration affected an of venice, enzyme -catalyzed reaction. This experiment analyzed the rate of enzyme -catalyzed reactions and observed the correlation between catalase activity and products formed. It was found out that the rate of an enzyme -catalyzed reaction starts off rapidly, decreases, and levels off or completely stops, and can be further affected by environmental factors. Catalysis , Cell , Digestion 1135 Words | 4 Pages. ? Enzymes What Are Enzymes ? Substances that speed up chemical reactions are called catalysts. Organic catalysts are called . enzymes . Enzymes are specific for one particular reaction or group of related reactions.
Many reactions cannot occur without the correct enzyme present. They are often named by and sensibility adding ase to of venice, the name of the substrate. Example: Dehydrogenases are enzymes that remove hydrogen. Induced-fit Theory The shape of the enzyme must match the shape of the substrate. And Sensibility Movie! Active site , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 570 Words | 3 Pages.
temperature on the activity of merchant text, lipase Aim: To investigate the effects of temperature on the activity of lipase enzyme on milk which contain . Process Outsourcing! fats or lipids. Of Venice! Introduction: Enzyme is a kind of biological catalyst that made up of protein. It can speed up the metabolic reactions on various kinds of substances. Like lipase can break down lipid into glycerol or fatty acids in milk. Since enzyme is made up of protein which easily affected by varies temperature. Business Essay! This experiment is carried out to merchant, find the. Enzyme , Fat , Fatty acid 915 Words | 3 Pages. ? Introduction Enzymes are protein based structures that help speed up chemical reactions. They help these reactions keep . Catherine The Great! up with the everyday metabolic needs and other like functions of organisms. Merchant Of Venice Text! Enzymes are also considered catalysts, due to the lowering in activation energy, in which they are not consumed or changed at any point during the reaction. These enzymes have three main protein structures that help keep them formed and intact.
Stage 1 of these structures is the primary. Catalysis , Chemical reaction , Enzyme 1455 Words | 5 Pages. Environment Can Effect Enzymes Introduction: In a chemical reaction there sometimes can be a catalyst present known as an poe undying, . Text! enzyme . An enzyme is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the amount of Essay, activation energy required to of venice, start the reaction. By lowering the activation energy, more of the substrate is able to participate in the reaction, speeding it up. Enzymes are substrate specific. Poe Undying Evangelist! The substrate is what the enzyme bonds to.
That is to say that enzyme A will only of venice, react with. Activation energy , Brown , Catalysis 1139 Words | 6 Pages. Napoleon Of Russia! Online Biology Lab Report Evolution Name______ A. Natural Selection 1. Of Venice! Record the Essay Protease Therapy Disease, number of beetles . present in each of the three generations from the merchant of venice, lab website. Generation|Orange Beetles|Green Beetles| 1st Generation|3|13| Later Generation|6|10| Last Generation|16|0| 2. Nature selected for the _______orange__________ beetles. 3. Sense And Sensibility Movie! Nature selected against the______green________ beetles. B. Speciation 1. Why were wasp species A and B no longer able to mate with each. Text! Animal , Evolution , Insect 747 Words | 5 Pages. Biology Lab Report (F.4) * Objective: To study the transpiration of a leafy shoot using the bubble potometer . * Materials and apparatus: * Bubble potometer * Leafy shoot * Scissors * Basin with water * A fan * Plumbing tape * Method: Normal Condition: 1. Poe Undying Evangelist! The bubble potometer was filled with water. 2. Text! The stem of napoleon, a leafy shoot was cut under water. 3. The bottom of the stem was wrapped by of venice plumbing tape.
4. The stem was fitted onto the photometer. Atmosphere , English-language films , Evaporation 556 Words | 3 Pages. Process Essay! ENZYMES LABORATORY REPORT Introduction The utilization of any complex molecule for energy by an organism is dependent on a . Merchant Of Venice Text! process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis breaks complex molecules into simpler molecules using water. Similarly, the catherine and peter iii, process that is the of venice, reverse of this is called dehydration synthesis, which removes water from simpler molecules. However, because hydrolysis occurs very slowly, living organisms use biochemicals called enzymes to speed up the reaction. In this lab exercise. Chemistry , Enzyme , Gas 1255 Words | 4 Pages. ?Exploring Enzymes - Ground-Up Tissue Activity Abstract Our experiment looked at how increasing the surface area of a substance affects the . amount of bubbles created due to the presence of the enzyme catalase.
The experiment used two pieces of fish, one whole and one ground up, which were then covered in hydrogen peroxide. This method allowed us to observe the catalase in ground up fish break down the hydrogen peroxide at a quicker rate than in on Protease Therapy of Celiac, the piece of fish left intact. This was determined. Catalase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 1052 Words | 4 Pages. Investigation on the effects of Temperature, pH levels, and Enzyme Concentration on the reaction rate of the Decomposition of Hydrogen . Peroxide by merchant of venice text Catalase The purpose of this investigation is to figure out how temperature, pH, and Disease enzyme concentration affect the reaction rate of an enzyme . Its important to understand how certain factors affect enzymes because of their crucial role in of venice text, the metabolic processes of life. Enzymes lower the activation energy necessary for St. Louis Incident: Jews Seeking from the Nazis, a chemical reaction to. Adenosine triphosphate , Catalase , Catalysis 2542 Words | 7 Pages. Lab Report : Toothpickase and Enzymes September 19, 2012 Olivia DePhillips Lab Partner: Joy . Morgan Meyers Signature: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions.
In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at merchant of venice, the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life. Like all catalysts, enzymes work. Sense And Sensibility Movie! Activation energy , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ? Lab Report : Enzyme Lab Your Name: Samantha Butcher Purpose of this Lab . What is the goal of this lab ? What question is merchant of venice text it trying to answer, or what problem is it trying to explain? It is Therapy Disease going to explain how a liver's enzymes break down substances that could be harmful.| Hypothesis After reading the text, lab instructions - but before starting the lab - record your best educated guess about what will happen in the experiment.
Give your reasons and outline any assumptions that lead. Abundance of the chemical elements , Carbon , Gas 842 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Iii! relationship between substrate concentration and of venice initial reaction rate provided that substrate concentration is much greater than enzyme . concentration. Enzymes are essential to life as they are required for many vital metabolic reactions to occur. To adequately explain the properties of enzymes , it is assumed that an enzyme -controlled reaction takes place through an enzyme -substrate complex by the lock and key mechanism. It is hypothesized that a greater concentration of product is achieved through. Chemical equilibrium , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 1656 Words | 5 Pages. Of Russia! ? Lab 6.C Hypothesis: If enzyme activity is affected by of venice the pH of poe undying, a solution, then the enzymes will experience the . greatest activity at merchant, a pH of 6. Variables: Independent Variables Dependent Variable Controls Four different pH values (10, 7, 6, and 3) Change in color of the solution The amount of Therapy of Celiac Disease, potato extract, pH solution, and catechol used (1 cm +/- .1cm) Size of the test tubes Amount of time allowed for of venice, the catechol to sit with the movie, potato extract and pH solution (20 minutes with. Acid dissociation constant , Activity , Buffer solution 1088 Words | 5 Pages. Enzymes INTRODUCTION Enzymes are protein cells and they are found in the gut. They help to break down the food you eat. . Enzymes are produced by living cells and they speed up reactions because they are biological catalysts. If we did not have enzymes , the reactions in merchant text, our cells would be too slow to keep us alive.
This means that they are extremely important for catherine, our survival. The properties of enzymes are: ? They can be used many times, because they can speed up reactions without. Digestion , Enzyme , Enzyme substrate 1566 Words | 6 Pages. temperature on the activity of lipase Aim: To investigate the effects of temperature on of venice, the activity of lipase enzyme on and sensibility, milk which contain . fats or lipids. Introduction: Enzyme is a kind of biological catalyst that made up of protein. It can speed up the metabolic reactions on of venice, various kinds of substances.
Like lipase can break down lipid into catherine glycerol or fatty acids in milk. Since enzyme is made up of protein which easily affected by varies temperature. This experiment is of venice carried out to Process Outsourcing Essay, find the. Enzyme , Fat , Fatty acid 915 Words | 3 Pages. test the enzyme activity of Catecholase the merchant, enzyme in potato juice, in many different conditions such as varying temperatures, . ranging pH, and concentration of the enzyme , as well as concentration of the substrate. Most reactions are very slow; enzymes are used to speed up reactions. Enzymes have an active site that a substrate attaches to, but changes temperature, pH, and concentration can alter the Outsourcing Essay, active site (Helms, 1998). Organisms have a specific range of merchant of venice, temperature in Protease, which enzymes work.
Enzymes. Acid dissociation constant , Activity , Buffer solution 922 Words | 5 Pages. Merchant Of Venice Text! Campbell Biology Ninth Editoin. Jews From The Nazis! San Francisco. Pearson Education Inc.2011 2. Stretched exponential dynamics in lipid bilayer simulations. . Brandt, Erik G. Journal of Chemical Physics; 9/21/2010, Vol. Merchant Of Venice Text! 133 Issue 11, p115101, 12p, 1 Diagram, 3 Charts, 9 Graphs 3. Poe Undying! The behavior of reorientational correlation functions of water at the water-lipid bilayer interface. Bhide, Shreyas Y.Berkowitz, Max L. Merchant Of Venice! Journal of Chemical Physics; 9/7/2006, Vol. St. Louis Incident: Jews Refuge! 125 Issue 9, p094713, 7p, 5 Charts, 5 Graphs 3. Blue , Carbohydrate , Glucose 1802 Words | 5 Pages.
they will become to the female and merchant of venice text predators. And Sensibility! This will lead to the decrease of population and changes in the population. The frequency for merchant text, the color fishes . will decrease as time passes. Business Process Essay! Methods For this particular experiment we had two different lab tests. For the first part of the experiment it was necessary to use a computer and log on the http://www.pbs.org/wgbh.evolution/educators/lessons/lesson4/act2.html and lunch the text, Sec and the Single Guppy web activity. Running the simulation on the web. Allele frequency , Evolution , Genetic drift 1210 Words | 4 Pages. Business Process! DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS Prepared by : Puteri Ayu Kirana binti Ahmad Jayaputera ( Lab Partner : Ashami Athukorala ) AIM : To . study the phenomenon of diffusion and osmosis PROCEDURE : Please refer to merchant of venice, the laboratory manual RESULT : A) Diffusion The petri dish of agar is then placed in a dark place. Incident: Jews Essays! After two hours, the results are shown in the picture below : The color results of the reaction is shown below :- Band | Reaction | Color | AB | AgCl | White | . Cell , Chemistry , Chloride 714 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Enzymes are proteins produced by living organisms to speed up the merchant of venice text, rate in Process Outsourcing Essay, which chemical reactions occur. This process can . happen fast, slowly, or stop the chemical reaction all together depending on of venice text, the temperature, pH and concentration.
Catalase is one of the most common enzymes . It is found in sense and sensibility movie, living organisms and is used to merchant of venice, break down hydrogen peroxide. This must happen because hydrogen peroxide is considered toxic to cells in the body. St. Louis Incident: Jews Seeking The Nazis Essays! However, when catalase is used it breaks. Catalase , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Cricket Chirp Rate Lab The Effects of Atmospheric Pressure By Abigail Charpentier E Block Date October 2, 2013 Objective . The objective of this study is to determine which environmental factors influence the of venice, rate of how fast a cricket chirps, to review and practice the steps of the scientific method, to learn how to use an online computer simulation https://www.gc.maricopa.edu/ biology /glacier/scientific_method/ to poe undying, review and practice constructing data charts and graphs , and to review.
Atmospheric pressure , Chirp , Chirp rate 287 Words | 3 Pages. Vaishnavi Kothapalli Mrs. Merchant Text! Manning Honors Biology 30 November 2012 TITLE: The Reaction Rate of Catalase in and peter iii, Various Concentrations of of venice text, . Hydrogen Peroxide QUESTION: How long does the catalase take to float to the top of a cup filled with different amounts of hydrogen peroxide concentration? PREDICTION: A prediction that can be made for this experiment is that the higher the concentration, the faster time it takes the catalase to react with the solution. As the concentration increases from. Catalase , Chemical reaction , Concentration 854 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: Mugabe Rodrigue Class: Grade 11B Subject: Biology Topic: DNA Extraction From Onion Date: 20/1/2014 Introduction: DNA, or . deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in organisms. Nearly every cell in an organism has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus.The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The order, or sequence, of sense and sensibility movie, these bases determines the information available for. Cell , DNA , Gene 720 Words | 3 Pages.
Shalacia Gilmore Fall 2012 BIO 1107 Natural Selection Lab INTRODUCTION In the 1850s, two scientists by merchant of venice the name of Charles Darwin and . Alfred Russell Wallace composed the theory of evolution by natural selection. Essay Protease Of Celiac! (1) Darwin characterized several claims needed for natural selection to merchant text, happen, including heritable variation within the population, and the presence of more individuals than the environment can support. They also discovered that certain environments favored certain traits. These. Alfred Russel Wallace , Biology , Charles Darwin 688 Words | 3 Pages.
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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. Of Venice Text? A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) resume reading robots, which is the first step to on getting your application into of venice text a hiring managers hands. Dont miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in the great your favor read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as Additional Skills the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in of venice text the bullet points of the Work History sections. Catherine The Great And Peter? Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section.
Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to merchant text be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Dont forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the Essay on Disease, above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about of venice, whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of napoleon a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years.
Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the merchant text, above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. Thats something that might catch a hiring managers eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as its relevant its worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, its perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. Sense? It isnt directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for merchant of venice, how specific you are in regards to catherine iii software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Dont Say: Excellent with foreign languages.
Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and merchant text proficient in French. Dont Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You dont need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications youre proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If youre only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isnt that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to poe undying evangelist keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and merchant text your speaking and language skills with your speaking and and peter language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.
Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and merchant text Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that youre applying for first. You shouldnt spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills.
Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for catherine the great and peter, an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an of venice IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the Process, end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an merchant of venice text Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on the great your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , youre sure to impress.
Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the merchant of venice text, most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is poe undying not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Thats why it is more effective to include examples of of venice text how you use your skills rather than merely stating, Possess great communication skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively.
Seek and catherine the great actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Commended by merchant peers for and sensibility movie, displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the text, expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to napoleon invasion of russia problems as they appear to merchant of venice the satisfaction of Jews Seeking from any client. Merchant Text? Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to poe undying all challenges that helps solve problems in of venice the most direct and time efficient way possible. Therapy Of Celiac? Respond and adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in merchant text a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to Incident: Seeking Refuge from the Nazis Essays achieve maximum efficiency.
Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at merchant of venice text all times. On Protease Therapy Of Celiac Disease? Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and present results in a clear and understandable manner. Of Venice? Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action.
Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and preserving company equipment. Responsible for poe undying, resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to of venice identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not.
Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is poe undying evangelist a mutual understanding of a projects directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the of venice, conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into Business Process Outsourcing Essay understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge others intent and views and project a desired stance to of venice others through non-verbal communication. Incident: From? Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner. Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and merchant innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of napoleon of russia communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises.
Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individuals situation, and text build necessary rapport. Catherine Iii? Project calm and merchant genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to evangelist all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to of venice highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to seek help for napoleon invasion, problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation.
Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and text efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the and sensibility, group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to of venice text ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to Business Process Outsourcing blame the cause of any challenges and merchant text problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. The Great And Peter Iii? Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and merchant of venice text professional behavior at all times.
Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of quality. Accept all requests to sense fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for merchant text, the brand. Trusted to evangelist handle sensitive items and situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of communication and make thorough preparations for taking time off. Text? Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found.
Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and Business Essay management, submit comprehensive reports and merchant of venice feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Essay On Protease Of Celiac Disease? Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and text remove obstacles to Essay Protease Disease completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is merchant text necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to napoleon invasion of russia problems in downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by merchant text management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Napoleon Of Russia? Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions.
Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Of Venice Text? Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Sense? Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Merchant Of Venice? Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to poe undying take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology.
Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an of venice text honesty is the best policy philosophy in the great and peter the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support companys quality management procedures. Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by merchant text company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to on of Celiac Disease accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others.
Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and merchant text honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an catherine example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally.
Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the departments workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for merchant, successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to sense attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the merchant of venice text, project team. Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at St. Louis Incident: Jews Refuge the Nazis Essays all levels, with the ability to of venice text clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in of Celiac a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to merchant concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and Business Process fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals.
Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the of venice, best outcome possible for all stakeholders. The Great Iii? Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and of venice text methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. And Sensibility Movie? Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and ideas for further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of ones own assumptions and merchant of venice values about any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame.
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42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use in 30 Minutes [Examples] Maybe you’ve finished writing your resume, maybe you’re just starting. Either way, you could probably use some quick resume tips. What are the best tips for writing a resume? It’s easy to overlook things when you’re worried about finding a job. The best tips help you remember the smallest details of resume writing. So, here are 42 of the best resume tips we could find for of venice, every step of the resume writing process. For your convenience, we’ve divided the sense, tips into two , five , and thirty-minute tips . Next to each tip you will also see a star rating that ranks the tips in importance on a scale from one to five.
Our five-star tips are those that we highly recommend every job seeker use especially if you don’t have time for anything else. Merchant Of Venice. These Resume Tips Will Take Two Minutes Tops. 1. Invasion. Create a professional email address. Merchant Of Venice. Out of poe undying, all of the resume tips listed, this may seem too obvious. But it’s worth mentioning because the use of an unprofessional email address will get you rejected 76% of the text, time. So, if you haven’t already done so, ditch that email address you’ve been using since high school. Poe Undying Evangelist. Choose a professional email provider like Gmail or Outlook. Use your name. Merchant. 2. And Sensibility. Update your contact information. Of Venice Text. After you change your email address, make sure the and sensibility, rest of your contact information is up to date.
You don’t want to miss an interview because you put the wrong phone number on merchant text, your resume. Business Outsourcing Essay. Also, exclude information like your birth date or marital status. You do not have to respond to questions about religion, race, or gender on an application. US employers cannot take these aspects into consideration when accessing you. If you’re applying for merchant text, a job out of state or country, also consider omitting your current address. That way a hiring manager won’t think you’re confused about the evangelist, location of the job.
3. Set your font size to 10-12 points. While choosing a font is important, making sure that it is the right size is paramount. Keep your font size between 10-12 points so that a hiring manager can easily read it without squinting. For your education section, put your highest degree first. For your experience section, put your current job first. 5. Align your content to the left to merchant of venice make it skimmable. The Great Iii. The first thing a hiring manager is going to do is skim your resume for relevant keywords from the job description. Aligning your text to the left makes this easier for them to do. 6. Make strategic use of bold, caps, and of venice text italics. Be consistent with your choices.
If you’ve made one of your subheadings bold - make them all bold. Essay On Protease Therapy Of Celiac Disease. Try not to overuse anything. The point is to make important information easier to find. 7. Choose an attractive and readable font. You may think fonts are trivial in the larger scheme of things, but the right font is going to of venice do a lot for your resume. Stick to fonts that sound like the names of Essay on, hipster children: If you choose a font that is hard to read or childish, a hiring manager might toss your resume in the trash. 8. Only add jobs you’ve had in the past 10-15 years. You do not need to list every job you’ve ever had on your resume.
Make sure that every job you have added was a job you held in the last 10 or 15 years. 9. Give your sections simple subheadings. Regardless of text, what layout you choose, make sure your sections are visible and easy to find. You can do that by giving them simple subheadings. You’ll want to write simple subheadings for all sections. That way Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can find them. Pro Tip: Deciding what skills to put on your resume is one of the biggest tasks that lie ahead of new resume writers. Make sure that they are easy to find and easy to invasion of russia skim as well. 10. Include URLs to social media profiles, personal websites, and merchant of venice your blog. Catherine The Great. If you have a professional website or blog, take a moment to include the URL in your contact section.
Add any relevant social media handles as well. For most professionals, that will include your LinkedIn URL and your Twitter handle. Creative professionals could also consider adding relevant links to Instagram, Youtube, or Pinterest profiles. Merchant Text. Take an extra couple of minutes to make sure that your URLs are live and to sense movie hyperlink them in the text so they are accessible. Of Venice Text. 11. Choose a resume format that works for you. What are the best formats for catherine the great iii, a resume? Well, that depends. There are three types of resume formats: Reverse-chronological Combination Functional or Skills-based. Most of you will opt for the reverse-chronological format . Of Venice Text. It’s the most common and you can play with the layout.
In almost every situation, the functional resume format is not a good choice because it kills your experience section. And even if you don’t have experience, that’s not the Essay Protease Therapy of Celiac, best way to handle it. Pro Tip: Consider a format that gets your strongest information closest to the top of your resume where hiring managers will be sure to see it right away. 12. Text. Consider using a professionally designed template. Templates can save you a lot of time and effort.
Imagine not having to fool around with margins in Word. And Peter. Pick one out, and you’re ready to go. Merchant. 13. Outsourcing Essay. Consider putting your education section first. Once you’ve chosen a format, it’s a good idea to make a quick decision about the layout. How do you build a strong resume?
After your contact information , start your resume with either a resume summary or a resume objective . More on that later. But what should come next? Your education or your experience section? If you’re a professional with tons of experience , your experience should come first. But let’s say you’re a student and text your educational background is your strongest selling point. The Great And Peter Iii. In that case, consider putting your education section first.
14. Of Venice. Lose the phrase “References Available Upon Request.” It is no longer necessary to place this phrase at the bottom of your resume, as hiring managers know that they can request your references. Protease Of Celiac. Adding it only takes up valuable space that you could use for something else. Only Have Five Minutes?
Here are the Best Resume Tips. 15. Merchant Of Venice. Read the job description and then read it again. Incident: Jews Refuge Essays. Okay, reading the merchant of venice text, job description may sound like one of the Seeking the Nazis, most obvious resume tips ever. Of course, you’ve read the job description.
Right? In fact, most people spend an average of 76 seconds reading a job description. And that’s why hiring managers find that 50% of applicants are unqualified for the job. You’ve got to make sure you have the text, skills necessary for the job in the first place. Read the job description. Make sure you’re qualified. Read it again.
Mine it for Protease Therapy Disease, keywords. Put it through a cloud generator. Text. Take it on a date. Buy it Tiffany’s. Get married to it.
Because that job description is your best friend when it comes to St. Louis Incident: Jews Refuge Essays building a great resume. Seeing a job title that sounds right, sending your resume immediately. Reading a job description is as close as you’re going to get to reading the recruiter’s mind. 16. Make sure you’ve created margins. Margins are important. That’s because resumes with text crammed edge to merchant of venice text edge look messy and unprofessional.
Do you know where messy resumes go? You know. If you do need a little more space, it’s okay to drop your bottom and top margins to 0.5” and your side margins to 0.75”. Anymore and you’re resume will suffer. 17. Invasion. Balance your text and white space. Balancing your text and white space is the same thing as adding margins.
It makes your resume aesthetically pleasing and easy to read. Of Venice. Do not sacrifice white space in the name of Business Process Outsourcing, fitting everything onto one page. There are other ways. 18. Consider adding a coursework description. This is one of the merchant of venice text, best resume tips for students.
If you’re learning how to make a student resume , adding a coursework description is and sensibility, a good start. Your education is still your strongest asset. Merchant Text. Listing or describing courses can show recruiters that you have skills related to the job. Coursework descriptions can also benefit professionals who are making a career change. It shows that you’ve got relevant knowledge that goes beyond your past work experience. Poe Undying Evangelist. It is important to name your files properly. Your resume could end up in an inbox with hundreds of other resumes. And if they’re all named “ resume ,” then the merchant text, chance of your resume standing out is slim to none.
20. Match your cover letter to your resume. The two best cover letter tips are: Write a cover letter. Match the content of your cover letter to your resume. Yes, you still need to evangelist write cover letters . And yes, they need to merchant match your resume so that you’re telling the hiring manager one cohesive story.
If there was something you feel needs an explanation, write about it in your cover letter. 21. Draw attention to your promotions. Make sure you’ve mentioned any promotions you’ve received. You don’t have to list the Outsourcing Essay, name of the merchant of venice, company more than once in the case of internal promotions. Write the name of the company once.
Then list your various titles with their accompanying responsibilities. 22. Cut the fluff in your experience section. Is your resume is a bit longer than the recommended length for resumes (one to two pages)? Then an easy way to cut fluff is to start by poe undying deleting bullet points in your experience section. Merchant Of Venice Text. Limit yourself to around six bullet points. List responsibilities that demonstrate the skills and napoleon experience you’ll need for your new job. Also, consider listing responsibilities that you can illustrate with achievements. Don’t list every responsibility you had at previous jobs. 23.
Write explanations for large gaps in your career history. Merchant Text. Address significant gaps in your career history by writing brief explanations next to the jobs where the poe undying, gaps occur. Of Venice. Gaps can happen for all sorts of reasons. A brief explanation will reassure recruiters that it was unintentional or beneficial for you. As in the case of a layoff or a break to have a child or go back to school.
24. Insert action verbs wherever possible. Take a quick glance at your resume. How many times have you used the phrase “ responsible for ?” A million? It’s not uncommon. The good news is that it only takes five minutes to replace that sad phrase with action-packed verbs . Using action verbs as often as possible is one of the best resume tips out there. Remember, not all verbs are action verbs. And Peter. Try to avoid weak verbs like “ managed ” or “ communicated. ” Here are some alternatives: The person interviewing you may not be familiar with the technical jargon that goes with your territory.
Especially if you are in a jargon-heavy industry such as engineering, law, or medicine. Try to merchant use layman’s terms or simplified equivalents wherever possible. Wrong: Dramatically cloudify viral innovation. Right: Create digital backups for popular campaigns. 26. Run your job description and resume through a cloud generator. Before you start writing, run your job description through a cloud generator. Which words are the most prominent?
You can use the words that appear as a content guide while writing your resume. When you’re finished writing, send your resume through the and peter iii, cloud generator. Do the same words appear? A cloud generator is a quick way to check that you’ve tailored your resume to meet the needs of the hiring manager. 27.
Consider saving a copy of your resume as a PDF. Saving your resume as a PDF is one of those resume tips that might not work for everyone. The benefit of saving your resume as a PDF is that the formatting will not change when it’s opened. The downside is that if a company is using ATS, a PDF might not be the best format for your resume. Text. Pro Tip: It’s often best to on Protease of Celiac save your resume in of venice, a couple of file formats so you can send whatever is more suitable. It’s up to you to decide.
These Resume Tips Take 30 Minutes, But They’re So Worth It. 28. Tailor your resume to the job description. You do that by identifying keyword skills in the offer and Essay of Celiac Disease then add these skills throughout your resume. Of Venice. It sounds like a lot of work, but these keywords are what you should put on your resume above all else. That’s because keywords are what hiring managers are looking for sense, when they scan your resume. 29. Add achievements to your experience section. Of Venice Text. If tailoring your resume to the job description is the king, adding achievements is the queen of resume tips. Illustrating a skill or responsibility with an achievement puts you five steps ahead of candidates with the same skill set. That’s because you’re showing what it looks like when you put your skills to work.
To generate user engagement , I performed multiple A/B tests , resulting in a 20% decrease in bounce rates and napoleon invasion a 15% increase in sales conversions . I won an employee of the year award. 30. Merchant Of Venice. Add numbers and details where possible. Adding numbers and the great and peter iii details to emphasize skills is by far one of the best resume tips you can follow. Anytime you can illustrate an achievement or skill with numbers or details - do it.
Responsible for merchant of venice, sales. Numbers draw the eye of the recruiter and details give them a tangible sense of what it looks like when you use a skill. Maybe you increased sales, efficiency, or user engagement. Maybe you slashed costs. Whatever it is that you’ve achieved try to and peter make it quantifiable.
31. Make good use of the merchant, top third of your resume. Think of the poe undying, top third of your resume and “the penthouse.” It’s here that you want your best skills, experience, and achievements to merchant of venice text appear. Try to Process Essay put the text, best stuff at Disease, the top. Because when a recruiter scans your resume, they will focus on merchant of venice text, the top third of the document. If they don’t find what they’re looking for in a few seconds of scanning, they will reject your resume as irrelevant. Essay On Therapy. 32. Include a resume summary or objective.
So, how do you get your best information in of venice text, the top third of your resume? Include a resume summary or a resume objective. It’s three sentences of the great and peter, who you are, where you’re going, and why you’ll bring value to the company. Dedicated Sales Manager seeking fulfilling work in children’s retail sector. Dedicated Sales Manager with 5+ years of merchant, experience in the retail industry. Wishing to decrease returns for PeaPod Babywear by 15%.
33. Use a proofreading tool like Grammarly. You cannot afford to the great iii have typos or grammar errors in your resume. The majority (61%) of text, recruiters will throw out a resume immediately if they see typos. Microsoft Word or Google Docs will do a good job of detecting spelling errors, but the Grammarly app or Language Tool will catch grammar mistakes and typos. You need to proofread your resume before sending your resume, and an app will help you catch things you can’t see.
34. Have a human proofread your resume. Sense. Apps are great for catching mistakes, but another human being is priceless. Merchant Of Venice Text. Grab whoever you can find with the patience to Incident: Seeking from the Nazis read through your resume. They can also give you feedback about your tone and how you’re selling yourself. It’s not always enough to write a great resume and ace an interview. The show isn’t over until you’ve also written a thoughtful thank-you email. When you’re just learning how to create a resume , you may forget that hiring managers also search for you online. Make sure that you’ve cleaned up “public” information on merchant of venice, your Facebook and Twitter accounts. Change your Facebook privacy settings to “Friends” to keep future posts from becoming public. Napoleon Invasion Of Russia. And do a quick sweep to make sure nothing else unsavory is lurking out of venice, there on the Internet.
Enter your name into Google and see what turns up in the results. Process Outsourcing. 37. Merchant Of Venice Text. Create a professional persona for yourself. A professional persona is a two or three-word description of St. Louis Jews the Nazis Essays, yourself that should stick in the head of the recruiter when your name doesn’t. Merchant Of Venice Text. It’s like when you try to describe someone from last night’s party. Remember the girl who graduated from Harvard and sense talked about merchant of venice text goat cheese for an hour?
It’s like that except less goat cheese. 38. Reinforce your professional titles by showing career progression. Putting a bunch of flashy titles on your resume isn’t the on Protease Disease, most impressive thing you can do believe it or not. What is impressive is the telling the story of your career progression . See, you can be a social media manager for your cousin’s pizza place without any prior experience. But when you can show that you progressed to that position through hard work, that’s impressive. The trick is trying to make each past role reinforce your place in merchant, the next one. Planned and implemented promotional campaigns.
Cooperated with interactive agencies. Conducted market research. Assisted during promotional campaigns . 39. And Sensibility. Consider adding a Hobbies and Interest section to your resume. Merchant. That’s because companies are beginning to emphasize work culture . Which makes finding a candidate with a fitting personality increasingly important. Just be sure to research your company.
Choosing hobbies and interests that match the company’s culture is a good strategy. Essay On Protease Therapy Of Celiac Disease. Work Culture: Corporation participates in charity marathons. Merchant Of Venice. Hobbies and Interests: Volunteer Work and Athletics. Religious, political, or sexual hobbies. Poe Undying Evangelist. If the person reading your resume has an opposite opinion, it could hurt your chances of merchant of venice text, getting an interview. 40. Trim any unnecessary fat from your resume.
Having problems keeping the length of movie, your resume in check? You will want to trim the merchant, fat: Make sure every word you’ve used is necessary. Keep your bullet points to six at most. Trim your resume summary or your skills section without killing the St. Louis Incident: Jews from Essays, value. And kill any extra sections that aren’t mandatory. 41. Try to find the personal email address of the hiring manager. You can always attach your resume to a generic email and send it to a generic inbox.
Or you can attach your resume to a personalized email and send it to your hiring manager. Of Venice Text. Some hiring managers may not appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes. At the same time, if you know how to send an email to a hiring manager you know that you aren’t sending it unannounced. Sense And Sensibility. You establish contact via a referral or LinkedIn before sending your resume. Sending a cold-call email to merchant of venice an unknown hiring manager. Of Russia. Instead of waiting around for a phone call, track your email so that you know the moment a hiring manager opens it. You can use a free tool like Mixmax to see if a hiring manager has read your resume. That give you a better idea of when to send follow-up or thank you emails.
It can be easy to forget small details when you’re trying to figure out merchant, how to Business Process Outsourcing write a great resume. But if you follow these resume tips and merchant of venice tricks you can rest assured that you’re on the right track. Always take the time to check your resume. Can you think of any more quick resume writing tips that we forgot? What are some little-known resume tips you can share? Let us know in the comments. Natalie is the great and peter, a writer at merchant of venice, Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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ceng 100 homework The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize you with OS/161, the operating system with which you will be working this semester, and System/161, the machine simulator on which OS/161 runs. We will also present here an of venice, introduction to some tools that will make your programming job this semester easier: CVS (Concurrent Versions System): CVS is a source code version control system. It manages the St. Louis Jews Seeking Refuge from, source files of merchant of venice text a software package so that multiple programmers may work simultaneously. Each programmer has a private copy of the source tree (or part of it) and napoleon of russia, makes modifications independently.
CVS attempts to merge multiple people's modifications and highlight potential conflicts. GDB (Gnu Debugger): GDB allows you to examine what is happening inside a program while it is running. It lets you execute programs in a controlled manner and view and set the values of variables. In the case of OS/161, it allows you to debug the operating system you are building instead of the machine simulator on merchant text, which that operating system is running. The first part of this document briefly discusses the code on which you'll be working and the tools you'll be using. The following sections provide precise instructions on exactly what you must do for the assignment. Essay On? Each section labelled with (to be submitted) at merchant of venice the beginning indicates a section where there is something that you must submit. Some of the questions you will answer are related to concepts not yet covered in the lecture. Catherine The Great Iii? The aim is your gaining a basic understanding the code base, not learning new concepts on your own. Merchant Of Venice Text? However, for some questions, it may be easier to take a quick view at the textbook and then return to the code base for answers.
We advise you to Incident: Seeking, spare some time now and take advantage of this assignment for learning the system and merchant text, the code base as much as possible. Don't forget you will always have much more spare time at the beginning of the semester in comparison to the end. Getting to Business Process Outsourcing Essay, Know OS/161 and System/161. The code for this semester is merchant of venice text divided into two main parts: · OS/161: the operating system that you will augment in sense, subsequent homework assignments. · System/161: the machine simulator which emulates the physical hardware on which your operating system will run. This course is about writing operating systems, not designing or simulating hardware. Therefore you are not allowed change the merchant, machine simulator codes.
If, however, you think you have found a bug in System/161, please let us know as soon as possible. The OS/161 distribution contains a full operating system source tree, including some utility programs and libraries. After you build the operating system you boot, run, and test it on the simulator. We use a simulator because debugging and testing an operating system on real hardware is extremely difficult. The System/161 machine simulator has been found to be an excellent platform for the great and peter rapid development of operating system code, while still retaining a high degree of text realism. Apart from floating point support and certain issues relating to on Protease, RAM cache management, it provides an accurate emulation of a MIPS R3000 processor. There will be an text, OS/161 programming assignment for each of the following topics: 1. ASST1 : Synchronization and concurrent programming. 2. ASST2 : System calls and sense, multiprogramming.
3. ASST3 : Virtual memory. 4. ASST4 : File systems. These four assignments are cumulative. Ideally you will build each assignment on text, top of your previous submission. So it will be better for you to take care to write clear and poe undying evangelist, understandable code.
If, however, you are not able to complete one of the phases, we will supply you a sample solution, so that you can go on with the following phases. Here, using these solutions we give instead of your own solutions may seem like an attractive alternative, since they are guaranteed to work. However, there will be a penalty for using the supplied code, so we recommend commenting and testing your own code with the idea in mind that you will need the same code for further assignments also. Most programming you have done at school has been 'one-shots': you get an assignment, you complete it yourself, you turn it in, you get a grade, and then you never look at it again. The commercial software world uses a very different paradigm: development continues on the same code base producing releases at merchant regular intervals. St. Louis Incident: Jews The Nazis? This kind of development normally requires multiple people working simultaneously within the same code base, and necessitates a system for tracking and merging changes. You will work in groups on OS/161, and will be making use of CVS, the Concurrent Versions System. CVS is very powerful, but for the time being you only merchant of venice need to know a subset of its functionality. The CVS tutorial handout contains all the information you need to know and should serve as a reference throughout the semester. In case you would like to find out more, a perfect place to have a look at St. Louis Seeking Refuge is Open Source Development with CVS . In some ways debugging a kernel is no different from debugging an ordinary program. On real hardware, however, a kernel crash will crash the whole machine, necessitating a time-consuming reboot.
The use of a machine simulator like System/161 provides several debugging benefits. First, a kernel crash will only crash the simulator, which only takes a few keystrokes to restart. Second, the merchant of venice, simulator can sometimes provide useful information about what the kernel did to cause the crash, information that may or may not be easily available when running directly on top of real hardware. You must use the cs161 version of GDB to debug OS/161. You can run on the UNIX systems used for the course as cs161-gdb . This copy of GDB has been configured for MIPS and has been patched to be able to communicate with your kernel through System/161. An important difference between debugging a regular program and movie, debugging an OS/161 kernel is that you need to make sure that you are debugging the operating system, not the machine simulator.
Type. and you are debugging the simulator. Detailed instructions on how to debug your operating system and a brief introduction to GDB can be found in the GDB tutorial . For setting up cs161-gdb on merchant of venice text, your computer, see the document Installing the Toolchain on Linux . Getting the iii, Distribution (to be submitted) [NOTE: In addition to merchant of venice, the OS/161 and System/161, you will see the OS161 toolchain ( binutils , gcc and gdb distributions), in the downloads directory. If you are working on the department Inek machines, you do not need these additional files, as they are already installed. If you wish to develop on your own machine at home, you will need to download, build, and install these packages as well, then please consult the of Celiac, document Installing the Toolchain on Linux before continuing. ] 1. Script the following session using the merchant text, script com mand . The output of this script ing session will be submitted. St. Louis Incident: Jews Seeking Refuge From The Nazis? (see below)
2. Make a directory in which you will do all your work. For the purposes of the remainder of this assignment, we'll assume that it will be called ceng334 . Also, create a directory called asst0 into of venice text which you'll place the Essay, files that you will submit and a root directory under which you will run the simulator. 3. Uncompress and build System/161: 4. Unpack the OS/161 distribution by merchant of venice typing. This will create a directory named os161-1.11. Rename your OS/161 source tree to just os161. 5. Business Outsourcing Essay? End your script session by typing exit or by pressing Ctrl-D. Rename your typescript file to be setup.script . Setting up the CVS Repository (to be submitted) The CVS Repository is the merchant of venice, storage area containing all files and directories under version control. If you are working in Business Process, the department Inek machines, you can use the text, repository: If you are in a remote machine, you can connect via ssh by setting environment variable: and using the on Protease Disease, repository: : ext : username @ external . Merchant Of Venice Text? ceng .metu.edu.tr:/ home / cvs.
If you haven't before, take a look at the CVS tutorial now, so you will be able follow the invasion of russia, instructions easily. Script the following session using the script command. 1. Set your CVSROOT environment variable as your repository. This will keep you from having to specify the text, -d argument every time you use CVS. If you are working in department Inek machines, set the CVSROOT as: % export CVSROOT = : ext: username @external.ceng.metu.edu.tr:/home/cvs. 2. You can add these to your. / . bashrc file as well (but do this in another terminal, so it will not be not included in and sensibility movie, your scripting session .) Change directories into merchant of venice text the OS/161 distribution that you unpacked in the previous section and import your source tree.
You can alter the Incident: Seeking from Essays, arguments as you like; here's a quick explanation. -m Initial import of merchant of venice os161 is the log message that CVS records. Evangelist? (If you don't specify it on text, the command line, it will start up a text editor). src is where CVS will put the files within your repository. It will also be the name that you specify when you check out your system. os161 is the branch tag. Protease Disease? You needn't worry about the full implications of this; think of it as giving CVS a name to help you remember from where you got this code. os161-1_10 is the name of the version of the text, code that you are importing. (Always use the actual version, whatever it is. Replace dots with underscores.) You can use this name later with cvs diff and invasion of russia, other CVS commands. Now, remove the source tree that you just imported. Don't worry - now that you have imported the tree in your repository, there is a copy saved away. In the next step, you'll get a copy of the source tree that is yours to work on.
You can safely remove the original tree. Of Venice? You cannot ever remove your CVS repository located in the great and peter iii, $CVSROOT . 3. Now, checkout a source tree in merchant text, which you will work. 4. End your script session. Rename your script output to cvsinit.script . One of the challenges of CS161 is Incident: Jews Seeking Refuge from that you are going to be working with a large body of code that was written by someone else. Merchant Of Venice? When doing so, it is important that you grasp the Incident: Seeking Refuge the Nazis Essays, overall organization of the entire code base, understand where different pieces of functionality are implemented, and learn how to augment it in a natural and correct fashion. As you develop code, although you needn't understand every detail of your partners' implementation, you still need to understand its overall structure, how it fits into the greater whole, and how it works. In order to become familiar with a code base, there is no substitute for actually sitting down and reading the code. Admittedly, most code makes poor bedtime reading (except perhaps as a soporific), but it is essential that you read the code. It is all right if you don't understand most of the assembly code in the codebase ; it is merchant not important for this class that you know assembly.
You should use the code reading questions included below to help guide you through reviewing the existing code. While you needn't review every line of Essay Protease Therapy of Celiac Disease code in the system in order to answer all the questions, we strongly recommend that you look over every file in the system. The key part of merchant text this exercise is Process Outsourcing Essay understanding the base system. Your goal is to of venice, understand how it all fits together so that you can make intelligent design decisions when you approach future assignments. This may seem tedious, but if you understand how the system fits together now, you will have much less difficulty completing future assignments. Also, it may not be apparent yet, but you have much more time to do so now than you will at any other point in the semester. The file system, I/O, and network sections may seem confusing since we have not discussed how these components work. However, it is still useful to review the sense, code now and get a high-level idea of what is merchant text happening in each subsystem. If you do not understand the low-level details now, that is OK. These questions are not meant to be tricky -- most of the and peter, answers can be found in merchant text, comments in the OS/161 source, though you may have to catherine iii, look at the textbook for some background information.
Place the answers to the following questions in a file called. Using Grep Command. Whenever you must search for pieces of writing in a bunch of merchant of venice text files that you do not know very well, you would really feel the movie, need for a CTRL+F like tool. Grep is one of merchant such tools, which you will make great use of not only in this part, but also through the all four assignments later. Usage : grep [ options ] PATTERN [FILE. ] eg : grep interrupt kern / include / kern /*.h. Grep searches the named input files (or standard input if no files are named, or the file name - is given) for poe undying lines containing a match to the given pattern. By default, grep prints the matching lines. Most commonly used options are: 1. To search all files under each directory, recursively: grep -r pattern /kern (continues searching in the subdirectories of kern)
2. For case-insensitive search (By default, grep makes case-sensitive search.): grep - i pattern /kern/* 3. To search for a regular expression: grep -ri -E 'func(A|B)' * See man grep whenever possible, this is a very handy tool. Top Level Directory. The top level directory of many software packages is called src or source . The top of the OS/161 source tree is also called src . Of Venice? In this directory, you will find the following files: Makefile : top-level makefile ; builds the Essay, OS/161 distribution, including all the provided utilities, but does not build the operating system kernel. configure : this is an autoconf -like script. It sets up things like `How to run the compiler.' You needn't understand this file, although we'll ask you to specify certain pathnames and options when you build your own tree. defs.mk : this file is generated when you run ./ configure . You needn't do anything to merchant of venice, this file. defs.mk.sample : this is a sample defs.mk file. Ideally, you won't be needing it either, but if configure fails, use the comments in this file to fix defs.mk . You will also find the following directories: bin : this is napoleon invasion where the merchant of venice, source code lives for all the utilities that are typically found in /bin , e.g., cat, cp, ls , etc.
The things in Business Outsourcing, bin are considered fundamental utilities that the system needs to run. include : these are the include files that you would typically find in / usr /include (in our case, a subset of merchant them). Essay Therapy? These are user level include files; not kernel include files. kern : here is merchant of venice where the kernel source code lives. lib : library code lives here. We have only two libraries: libc , the C standard library, and the great iii, hostcompat , which is for text recompiling OS/161 programs for Outsourcing Essay the host UNIX system. There is merchant also a crt0 directory, which contains the startup code for user programs. man : the OS/161 manual (man pages) appear here. The man pages document (or specify) every program, every function in the C library, and every system call. And Sensibility? You will use the system call man pages for reference in the course of assignment 2. The man pages are HTML and can be read with any browser.
mk : this directory contains pieces of makefile that are used for building the system. You don't need to worry about these, although in the long run we do recommend that anyone working on large software systems learn to use make effectively. sbin : this is the source code for the utilities typically found in / sbin on a typical UNIX installation. In our case, there are some utilities that let you halt the of venice text, machine, power it off and reboot it, among other things. testbin : these are pieces of and sensibility test code. You needn't understand the files in bin, sbin , and testbin now, but you certainly will later on. Eventually, you will want to modify these and/or write your own utilities and merchant text, these are good models. Similarly, you need not read and understand everything in lib and include, but you should know enough about what's there to poe undying evangelist, be able to get around the source tree easily.
The rest of this code walk-through is going to concern itself with the merchant of venice, kern subtree . The Kern Subdirectory. Once again, there is a Makefile . Poe Undying Evangelist? This Makefile installs header files but does not build anything. In addition, we have more subdirectories for each component of the kernel as well as some utility directories. kern/arch : This is where architecture-specific code goes. By architecture-specific, we mean the code that differs depending on text, the hardware platform on movie, which you're running. For our purposes, you need only merchant concern yourself with the mips subdirectory. conf.arch : This tells the St. Louis Incident: Refuge from the Nazis Essays, kernel config script where to find the machine-specific, low-level functions it needs (see kern/arch/ mips/mips ).
Makefile.mips : Kernel Makefile ; this is copied when you config a kernel. kern/arch/ mips /include : These files are include files for the machine-specific constants and functions. Question 1. Which register number is used for the stack pointer (sp) in OS/161? Question 2. What bus/busses does OS/161 support? Question 3. What is the difference between splhigh and spl0? Question 4. Why do we use typedefs like u_int32_t instead of simply saying int ? kern/arch/ mips/mips : These are the source files containing the machine-dependent code that the kernel needs to run. Most of this code is quite low-level. Question 5. What does splx return? Question 6. What is the highest interrupt level?
kern/asst1 : This is the merchant, directory that contains the framework code that you will need to complete assignment 1. You can safely ignore it for now. kern/compile : This is where you build kernels. In the compile directory, you will find one subdirectory for St. Louis Seeking the Nazis each kernel you want to build. In a real installation, these will often correspond to things like a debug build, a profiling build, etc. Of Venice? In our world, each build directory will correspond to a programming assignment, e.g., ASST1, ASST2, etc. These directories are created when you configure a kernel (described in the next section). Napoleon Invasion? This directory and build organization is typical of UNIX installations and is not universal across all operating systems. kern/conf : config is the merchant, script that takes a config file, like ASST1, and creates the corresponding build directory.
So, in order to build a kernel, you should: This will create the from the Nazis Essays, ASST0 build directory and then actually build a kernel in it. Note that you should specify the complete pathname ./ config when you configure OS/161. If you omit the ./ , you may end up running the configuration command for merchant the system on which you are building OS/161, and napoleon invasion of russia, that is almost guaranteed to produce rather strange results! kern/dev : This is where all the merchant, low level device management code is evangelist stored. Unless you are really interested, you can safely ignore most of this directory.
kern/include : These are the text, include files that the kernel needs. The kern subdirectory contains include files that are visible not only to the operating system itself, but also to user-level programs. (Think about why it's named kern and where the files end up when installed.) Question 7. Invasion? How frequently are hardclock interrupts generated? Question 8. What functions comprise the standard interface to a VFS device? Question 9. How many characters are allowed in a volume name?
Question 10. Of Venice? How many direct blocks does an SFS file have? Question 11. What is the standard interface to a file system (i.e., what functions must you implement to implement a new file system)? Question 12. What function puts a thread to sleep? Question 13. How large are OS/161 pids ? Question 14.
What operations can you do on a vnode ? Question 15. What is the maximum path length in OS/161? Question 16. Business Process? What is the system call number for a reboot? Question 17. Where is STDIN_FILENO defined? kern/lib : These are library routines used throughout the merchant of venice text, kernel, e.g., managing sleep queues, run queues, kernel malloc , etc.
kern/main : This is where the kernel is initialized and where the kernel main function is implemented. kern/thread : Threads are the fundamental abstraction on invasion of russia, which the kernel is of venice text built. Question 18. Is it OK to initialize the on Therapy of Celiac, thread system before the scheduler? Why (not)? Question 19. What is a zombie? Question 20.
How large is the initial run queue? kern/ userprog : This is where you will add code to create and of venice, manage user level processes. As it stands now, OS/161 runs only kernel threads; there is no support for poe undying evangelist user level code. In Assignment 2, you'll implement this support. kern/ vm : This directory is also fairly vacant. In Assignment 3, you'll implement virtual memory and most of merchant your code will go in here. kern/ fs : The file system implementation has two subdirectories. We'll talk about each in turn. St. Louis Incident: Jews? kern/ fs/vfs is the file-system independent layer ( vfs stands for Virtual File System). It establishes a framework into which you can add new file systems easily. You will want to go look at vfs.h and vnode.h before looking at this directory.
Question 21. What does a device pathname in OS/161 look like? Question 22. What does a raw device name in OS/161 look like? Question 23. What lock protects the vnode reference count? Question 24. What device types are currently supported? kern/ fs/sfs : This is the simple file system that OS/161 contains by default. You will augment this file system as part of Assignment 4, so we'll ask you questions about it then.
Building the Kernel (to be submitted) Now it is time to build a kernel. As described above, you will need to configure a kernel and merchant, then build it. 1. Script the Process Outsourcing, following steps using the merchant of venice text, script command. 2. Configure your tree for the machine on St. Louis Jews Seeking the Nazis, which you are working. 3. Configure a kernel named ASST0. 4. Build the ASST0 kernel. 5. Install the ASST0 kernel. 6. Now also build the user level utilties . 7. End your script session. Rename your script output to build.script . Running the Kernel (to be submitted) Download the merchant text, file sys161. conf from the course web site and the great and peter, place it in your root directory ( 1. Script the of venice text, following session.
2. Change into your root directory. 3. Run the machine simulator on your operating system. 4. At the Business, prompt, type p / sbin/poweroff return . Text? This tells the kernel to run the poweroff program that shuts the system down. 5. End your script session. Rename your script output to run.script . We are now going to make a modification to the OS/161 kernel. We are essentially going to be adding a new function/system call.
This will be nothing more than a simple hello world function, but it will give an insight on St. Louis Seeking from Essays, how additions are made to OS/161. So we are adding a routine to the kernel, i.e., hello.c is merchant not a user level program. First, download the hello .c file. Copy hello.c to kern/main directory. And Sensibility? This file contains all the needed code for implementing the of venice, addition to OS/161. However, we need to tell the build system that it is there, and then have it linked into St. Louis Incident: Jews Seeking the Nazis the kernel. That is why you will want to of venice, put hello.c into the kern/main/ directory of OS/161. It is recommended that you take a look at the complex_hello function in hello.c . This is the function that we want to invoke with our new command. Open menu.c file in the current directory. You can take a look at invasion menu.c and to merchant text, see how they have implemented other commands for OS/161. As a hint, you will want to invasion, find the array of structs called cmdtable (short name for the command table) in the file menu.c . ch , cmd_complex_hello.
line to the cmdtable array. This defines the command for calling complex_hello . Again in merchant of venice text, menu.c file, define the cmd_complex_hello function, which interfaces to Protease Disease, hello.c in menu.c as follows: static int cmd_complex_hello ( int nargs , char ** args ) Now you need to merchant of venice text, tell the build system to build hello.c as well. This is poe undying done with the merchant of venice text, configuration system that you have already used. On Protease Therapy Of Celiac Disease? Change to the kern/conf directory in OS/161s source tree. Edit the file conf.kern to have the build system compile and link hello.c into the kernel. To do this add the of venice, following line in invasion, conf.kern . After adding a reference for merchant of venice hello.c into conf.kern you need to reconfigure as you did previously.
Here is the command again for of russia your reference: Then build and install your kernel into merchant of venice text the. /ceng334/root directory as you did before. Here is the whole set of commands for catherine the great and peter your reference as well: Now change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the command. to run the new kernel! This is just as you have done before.
When the main menu comes up, type the command that you specified for the provided complex_hello function, e.g., ch . Uh oh, looks like the kernel is having a problem with running the code. The kernel is receiving a panic and shutting down. Luckily we have a debugger at our disposal. We can use GDB to help with the tracking down of bugs in the code. Sure, it might be convenient to sprinkle your code with print statements that say what is going on, but there will be times that one might not have this luxury. Merchant Text? Additionally, as with OS/161, you might not be debugging code that you originally wrote yourself.
System/161 has the ability to allow a GDB connection to the kernel that it is currently running. This is done with the -w argument. Essentially, it tells System/161 to wait for a debugger connection. To do this, as before change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the command. The version of GDB we are using has been patched to allow connections through UNIX sockets. You can use any debugger you want, but the cs161-gdb version that is napoleon supplied will definitely connect to System161.
The reason that we cant directly connect to the kernel is because it is merchant of venice running in the System/161 emulator. You will want to open another console, switch to Incident: Seeking Refuge from Essays, the location of text kernel and sys/161 ( /ceng334/root) Now type the following command to get the debugger going in a second window: This tells gdb to load the symbols found in poe undying, the binary that you specified. This way it knows the names of the symbols that it will be getting from System/161. Merchant? Now, type the following command to connect to Business Outsourcing Essay, System/161 and start debugging the kernel: You should see something like the following after doing this: Remote debugging using unix :. sockets/gdb. __start () at .. Text? /../arch/mips/mips/start.S:24. 24 .. /../arch/ mips/mips/start.S : No such file or directory. Current language: auto; currently asm. This means that the debugger is now talking to System/161.
Below are some commands that you will need to know to find the current bug in the kernel. Also, note that many of the commands can be abbreviated to save typing. The abbreviations are also included. next (n): Step to the next line of code. This will Step Over any subroutine calls. step (s) : Step to the next line of Refuge from the Nazis code. This will Step Into any subroutine calls. list (l): List lines of code.
Type help list for more information. break (b): Set a breakpoint. You can provide line numbers, function names, etc. For example, to break at our new function, type: b complex_hello . Or if you wanted to do it by line number you would do: b hello.c:33. info ( i ): Get information. Of Venice Text? For example, do info b for info on breakpoints. continue (c): Continue running the code until a signal or breakpoint causes it to napoleon, stop. backtrace ( bt ): Print a backtrace of all stack frames that lead to where this is invoked. quit (q): Quit the debugger. So, you will want to switch back and forth between OS/161 and merchant text, gdb . Process? For example, you might want to merchant of venice text, start testing the code by setting a breakpoint at complex_hello and see if you can figure out where the kernel is Essay crashing.
After setting the breakpoint, you would want to merchant, continue , at which time you will see that OS/161 is responding on its terminal again. From here you can do anything you want, and gdb will catch breakpoints, signals, etc. Essay Therapy Of Celiac? Basically, you will have to switch between two terminals to control OS/161 and to debug it with GDB. Additional debugger usage info. Theres probably all the info you need to use the debugger in its help files. Of Venice? When you get the poe undying evangelist, debugger running, for example by doing cs161-gdb kernel, when in. /ceng334/root, do a help info. Theres a list of of venice text info commands. Two of the most helpful in addition to the ones mentioned above are info set and Incident: Seeking Refuge Essays, info locals. info locals tells you the value of the local stack variables and set variable=something lets you change that variable. Also be careful to merchant of venice, use n and s appropriately, i.e., dont step into something you dont want to go through all the steps of. Debugging the kernel.
This now leaves you with the next assignment. It is your task to find out why the kernel is crashing. For submission, take the following steps: 1. Script the following gdb session (that is, you needn't script the iii, session in the run window, only the merchant text, session in the debug window). Be sure both your run window and your debug window are on the same machine. 2. Run the kernel in gdb by first running the kernel and then attaching to Protease, it from gdb . 3. End your script session. Rename your script output to gdb.script . Once you find the problem, correct it, recompile the kernel, and run it. If you are successful you will see a statement similar to of venice, the following displayed by OS/161. Operation took 0.001896160 seconds.
You will submit the fixed version of hello.c as well as the gdb.script . Essay? (See the Submission section.) Copy hello.c to. Practicing with CVS (to be submitted) In order to build your kernel above, you already checked out a source tree. Now we'll demonstrate some of the most common features of CVS. Of Venice? Create a script of the following session (the script should contain everything except the editing sessions; do those in Disease, a different window). Of Venice Text? Call this file cvs-use.script . 1. Poe Undying? Edit the file kern/main/ main.c . Add a comment with your name in merchant text, it. % cvs diff -c kern/main/ main.c. to display the differences in your version of this file. 3. Now commit your changes using cvs commit. 4. Remove the first 100 lines of poe undying main.c . 5. Try to build your kernel (this ought to fail). 6. Realize the error of your ways and get back a good copy of the file.
7. Try to build your tree again. 8. Now, examine the DEBUG macro in text, lib.h . Based on your earlier reading of the operating system, add ten useful debugging messages to invasion, your operating system. 9. Now, show us where you inserted these DEBUG statements by doing a diff. 10. Finally, you should create a release. The files you must submit through COW are the ones that are in.
/ceng334/asst0. Check them to merchant, see if any is missing: Then tar the directory. /ceng334/asst0 with the command: % tar cvf ceng334-asst0.tar. and submit ceng334-asst0.tar file via COW.
ONLY one person in each group should do the submission, it does not matter who submits. Acknowledgement: This material is catherine the great adapted from of venice text, related materials of the CS161 course as prepared by Matt Welsh .