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Apple Computer Essays and Term Papers. 176 Apple Computer Essays: 1 - 25. Apple Computer - How Can Apple Sustain Its Spirit of how did greek influence the development of roman civilization Innovation and Design Leadership? Introduction The company actually started its namesake (Apple) on April Fool's Day in animal farm summary chapter 1976 by two very young electronic guru's named Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. With the support and help of other individuals, Apple Computer began making and . Overview Apple Computer Inc. was founded by of roman Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in 1976. It sold motherboard called Apple 1 at that time. In 2007, it changed to Apple Inc. to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the . Animal Chapter 4? Apple Computer Entrepreneurship Strategy. American Entrepreneur Apple Computer, Inc Steven Jobs Business Analysis May 4, 2004 Group 4 I. Background A. Culture The Development? How was the opportunity discovered? Dropouts Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniac were college dropouts who wanted to build computers.
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Generalising about the Arab Spring is playing with fire. Ahistorical portrayals of the Arab uprisings fail to capture the political transformations afoot – and worse, perpetuate a false need for security and stability when institutional reform is the solution. The euphoria and promise of the “Arab uprising” or “Arab Spring” have given way to what many refer to how did greek the development of roman, as a “winter” rather than a “spring”. Headlines such as “Military coup in the road shmoop, Egypt”, “Civil war in Syria”, “Armed militias in Libya”, and “Sectarianism in Iraq” have come to dominate media outlets and policy discussions. The problem with selecting the most ill-fated of the “uprising” cases and greek the development of roman civilization, painting them as illustrative of the Arab world as a whole is that they are unrepresentative of the chapter 4 diverse political transformations throughout the region.
Such essentialist narratives present events outside of their context and greek culture influence of roman civilization, history. They distort the image of the “uprisings”, and of the Arab world generally as a perpetually violent and chaotic region incapable of strong institutional and farm, democratic reform. This narrative conveniently propagates a policy, advocated by actors both within and outside the region, which prioritises stability and security while diverting attention away from needed political and institutional reforms. The key challenge for democratic transitions is the construction of a system characterised by elections, equality of citizenship and opportunity, the rule of law and inclusiveness. The success of transitions should be measured against these criteria. This essay will focus on Egypt and Tunisia: two countries that have become the symbols of the Arab uprising and reflect wide-scale implications for the region. The comparison of how did culture the development these two countries – particularly the creation of their constitutions and their electoral laws - reveals differences in thank you speech, their transitional political paths and highlights the power and importance of the agency of political elites.
The variation between the culture influence civilization two cases serves as a useful indicator of the extent of animal chapter 4 success or failure in the political struggles towards democratic transition. Since the ousting of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011, Tunisia has, on the whole, made significant strides towards democratisation. Despite strong disagreements and how did greek civilization, politically motivated roadblocks, Tunisia’s political elites have demonstrated a strong commitment to national unity, the institutional formation of a robust democracy, characterised by an inclusive constitution, a progressive electoral law, and an institutional setting that has prioritised dialogue and compromise over exclusion and animal farm chapter 4, partisanship. This process was aided by a favourable context. In the wake of the uprisings, Tunisia’s brutal security apparatus collapsed and its small yet professionalised military, which historically had no interest in politics, remained silent in the wings. In civilian politics, Islamists and secular factions were evenly matched; Ennahda won a plurality in Tunisia’s first free democratic elections and had reached out to greek influence civilization, include secular opposition parties in the government. In addition, the sequence of democratic transition in thank examples, Tunisia is worth mentioning as a favourable factor. Rather than beginning with electing a parliament charged with the selection of a constitutional committee, as seen in Egypt, Tunisia began with an interim government and developed a consensual constitution, which preceded parliamentary elections. In contrast, since the 2011 overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, Egypt has undergone a more turbulent political transition process.
A parliament was elected, and dissolved; a democratically elected president faced a wave of popular opposition and was ultimately overthrown by a military-led coalition. Greek Influence The Development Civilization? July 3, 2013 marked a new phase in russian biome, Egypt’s political trajectory. The political process has been heavily tainted by a rivalry between a security state and its opponents. The development of culture of roman institutions and documents of the state and their interpretation have been shaped by the road shmoop, circumstance, i.e. by influence of roman, the military-Muslim Brotherhood rivalry. Political elites in Egypt, in an effort to ensure the exclusion and limitations of the rights of oppositional forces and especially the Muslim Brotherhood (by outlawing and declaring it a terrorist organisation) have significantly backtracked from their promised neutrality and inclusiveness. New constitutions, different means. In theory, Tunisia’s new constitution is by many democratic measures a guarantor of equal opportunity and equal distribution of power. The constitution contains inclusive content that guards against the exclusion often observed in other Arab constitutions, and prevents the Simple Traditions of a return of dictatorship.
In a speech to the National Constituent Assembly last January, President Marzouki said: “With the birth of this text, we confirm our victory over dictatorship.” The document’s careful wording has secured agreement from greek civilization, both sides of the political spectrum by presenting a model of reconciliation, while simultaneously addressing the farm perplexing question of Islam’s role in of roman civilization, public life. The Constitution declares: “Tunisia is russian biome, a free, independent and sovereign state, Islam is her religion, Arabic her language and republic her regime” and “Tunisia is a state of civil character, based on citizenship, the will of the people and the primacy of law. In exchange for explicit mention of greek culture influence civilization Islam as the religion of the following effect on world war i? state, Ennahda compromised on the inclusion of Islamic law. Secular parties, aided by a strong civil society, secured guarantees that Tunisia would remain a civil state with separation of how did culture the development of roman civilization state and religion (something that Rachid Ghannouchi, Ennahda’s leader, had also advocated) and placed preeminence on Traditions Essay the freedoms of its people. It is also important to how did greek the development civilization, note that future governments cannot amend the two clauses. Tunisia established a semi-presidential system of government: both the president and the parliament have the ability to form and dissolve a government; however, neither the parliament nor the president can fully dominate the other. Moreover, Article 49 incorporates what is Simple Traditions Essay, probably the region’s most detailed limitations clause, designed to prevent parliaments from arbitrarily, unfairly or inequitably curbing citizens’ rights. The Tunisian constitution is also the influence the development of roman first to introduce gender-sensitive language in relation to key issues.
For instance, Article 40 stipulates that the right to work is now “a right for every citizen, male and female”. This theme of gender equality runs throughout and encompasses the right to a fair wage, to decent working conditions, and to stand for election. Article 73 provides that every male and female has the right to wedding, run for president of influence the development Tunisia, a feature absent in russian biome, all other Arab constitutions. While Tunisia’s constitution has been hailed as the greek culture influence the development region’s most progressive constitution, it falls short in some areas. The constitution requires that the Simple Traditions of a Buddhist state treat men and women equally in the development of roman, the application of the law, however this does not mean that men and women have the same rights in all circumstances (such as, for example, inheritance and Simple of a, child custody). However, despite its imperfections, many Tunisians believe the constitution to be a welcome departure from what was once there. They also reason that the constitution represents the theoretical formulation of the state. What really matters is how it is practiced and implemented. Thus far, the behaviour of the political elite has been mostly positive, which has eased social discontent. Tunisians have condemned abuses of power and how did influence of roman, have outlined the path they wish Tunisia would take. While there are some inherent contradictions in the constitution, the reality is that it is unlikely that the russian biome parties could have negotiated a better outcome given the circumstances and the existing ideological differences.
Like many skilled constitutional legislators, the Tunisian political elite seems to have honed their ability to use constructive ambiguity to generate balanced and inclusive outcomes. Egypt’s 2014 constitution - the drafting process (headed by a government-appointed Committee of 50), the referendum that passed it with a near unanimous 98.1 percent (with a relatively substantial 38.6 percent voter turnout), and the content of the document itself - has fallen under criticism for the deeply politicised context in which it emerged, and within which it is currently implemented. In contrast to Tunisia, Egypt’s constitution does little to increase accountability among the how did the development country’s political institutions, particularly the military, police and judiciary, or to guarantee citizen rights and Da Vinci, the Epitome of the Italian, the rule of law. Despite the influence of roman representation of a vast cross-section of society in the Committee of 50, with the conspicuous absence of Muslim Brotherhood affiliates, and public debates during the Leonardo Da Vinci, of the drafting period, the rushed, two-month process took place amidst heavy restrictions on the media and in culture influence of roman civilization, the aftermath of the closure of many Islamist-affiliated organisations, and a security crackdown that involved the arrests of several activists who had publicly opposed the charter. The vote on the constitution was thus carried out under suppression of the opposition. However, some viewed these measures as a necessary part of the security hype against the recently ousted MB. Furthermore, some advocated acceptance of the charter as a symbolic means of Simple Traditions of a Buddhist Essay closing a chapter of how did greek influence the development civilization increasingly unpopular Brotherhood rule and legitimising the interim government. Under such conditions, the vast affirmation for the document was unsurprising. In terms of content, while the constitution does make important improvements upon past documents in guaranteeing rights and freedoms (women, children and the disabled are more clearly protected by the constitution), ambiguous clauses leave sufficient space for the road shmoop the circumvention of such rights. For example, the document allows for the military trial of culture influence civilization civilians under numerous, vague circumstances. The wide room for interpretation has already been exploited; applied not only to Brotherhood members, but also to many prominent revolutionary activists, journalists and others who are currently imprisoned under the wedding examples pretext of allowances made by the new constitution.
The document further augments the power of the president, military, police and judiciary—institutions that would be difficult for opponents, particularly Brotherhood members, to infiltrate. The Development Of Roman Civilization? The rivalries that marred the constitution’s writing process have led to continued concentration of power, lack of accountability and oversight. Egypt’s military had been involved in the transition process since the toppling of Hosni Mubarak; its second round of intervention, in russian biome, the name of culture influence of roman civilization establishing security and placing Egypt on a proper path to the road shmoop, democratic transition, has continued to greek culture influence, make it a key player in the political process. The Road Shmoop? Beyond the accusations that the how did culture influence civilization interim government was a facade for military rule, and that former Defense Minister Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s presidency bolsters that rule despite his resignation from the military upon his candidacy, the constitution and laws that have since been enacted work to effectively protect the military from civilian oversight or accountability. Therefore, overall, the rivalry between a security state and its opponents has resulted in the production of a highly politicised document that further concentrates power and leaves ample room for politically motivated infringement upon citizen rights. Political elites and their electoral laws. Tunisia’s new electoral law is another example of the role of political elites in the democratic transition.
The introductory articles commit to free and fair elections, and maintain democratic principles that outlaw electoral exclusion, promote transparency, secrecy of ballot, and impartiality amongst those responsible for the administration of election. The law is the road shmoop, conceptually clear and outlines the culture of roman civilization institutional framework of the which of the revolutions had a electoral process. Greek Culture Of Roman Civilization? Equal access of the national media is guaranteed; funding from foreign sources is Simple Traditions of a Buddhist Essay, prohibited; and greek culture of roman civilization, electoral assistance is which revolutions had a effect, given to candidates. Another important provision includes Article 6, which excludes members of the greek the development armed forces from participation, a critical step for democratisation. The National Constituent Assembly (NCA) has significantly aided the democratisation process in Tunisia. By voting via secret ballot and by a two-thirds majority to wedding, appoint the Instance Superieure Independante pour les Elections (ISIE) (election commission), the how did culture NCA has lent credibility and legitimacy to the democratisation process and the election body. In order to test the professionalism of the NCA, assembly members of the NCA voted individually for farm 4 each commission. The process used to draft the electoral law and implement its mandate suggests that consensus building and inclusiveness top the agenda of Tunisia’s political elite. As in the Tunisian case, the role of the political elite is salient in the formation of Egypt’s elections law, albeit with different results. Egypt’s parliamentary elections law, issued by interim president Adly Mansour days before the end of his term in June 2014, was drafted in a politically fraught context aimed at preventing any potential rise of opposition, particularly MB affiliates, from gaining legislative authority.
The law allows election authorities to how did greek of roman civilization, ban any supporter of Traditions Buddhist Essay a religiously based, religiously discriminatory or violent organisation from candidacy - stipulations that are dangerously open to unjust interpretation. The law further weakens small political parties by putting in place a winner-take-all rather than party list system for the majority (75 percent) of greek culture the development of roman civilization parliamentary seats. This system advantages more powerful local candidates, often with political ties, who are unlikely to russian biome, represent the opposition. The election law also allows the how did the development Supreme Constitutional Court, the of a Essay vast majority of how did greek culture influence the development of roman civilization whose justices were appointed by animal farm chapter, Hosni Mubarak, to dissolve parliament. In addition, given the vague mapping of electoral districts, election results could easily be open to how did greek influence the development of roman civilization, challenge. While parliamentary elections have yet to take place under these 2014 stipulations, it seems highly unlikely under current elections law that a diverse or dynamic body, inclusive of opposition, can be elected. The cases of political transition in Tunisia and Egypt demonstrate the need for more complex and nuanced analysis of which of the effect on world political transformation in the Arab world. They underscore the importance of analysing individual countries within their contexts rather than utilising a few ahistorical, extreme scenarios that paint the Arab world as an enclave of greek culture the development civilization authoritarianism and chaos. In Egypt, a lack of compromise among the russian biome political elite has led to an exclusive system in which the winners are exercising unchecked authority over the very foundations of their country’s political and economic institutions. In contrast, the Tunisian case, while not entirely unflawed, thus far illustrates how inclusive transitional processes can lead to the development of balanced and accountable institutions.
Key features account for civilization difference between the Tunisian and Egyptian cases, both tied to the will of political elite. In Tunisia, a relatively well-educated population and a strong civil society maintained pressure on the political elite. Strong, independent unions in Tunisia, including the General Union of Simple Traditions Tunisian Workers, lobbied the government consistently. Along with other actors, including the trade union federation, the law association, and how did the development of roman, human rights groups, it also served as an important mediator among political actors. In Egypt, unions are neither as powerful nor as independent. In contrast, Egypt, with its much larger, diverse, failed economy and less educated population, more restricted civil society and politicised military and Leonardo Da Vinci, the Epitome Essay, court system enabled political actors to treat the post-revolutionary period as a winner-takes-all rivalry rather than a process of negotiation and compromise. Once in power - and in contrast to Ennahda’s more inclusive political process - the Morsi government installed many Islamists (MB and Salafis) in key power positions, often to the exclusion or minimal representation of the April 6 movement, ‘secularists’ and Copts.
In addition, the 2012 constitution was tilted in favor of the MB’s political power. Greek Influence The Development Civilization? For example, the constitution favoured the power of the road shmoop parliament, where MB representation could be expected to consistently dominate, rather than the president or other bodies. In a similar vein, the military, after the 2013 coup, has sought to completely eradicate the Brotherhood and leftist opposition, and concomitantly shaped foundational documents and institutions to its favour. In contrast, once in power, Tunisia’s Ennahda party, taking a lesson from Algeria’s decades-long civil war, avoided polarising stances. It demonstrated its emphasis on how did greek culture influence the development civilization national unity and inclusion by promising ahead of elections that, if victorious, it would appoint a non-Ennahda citizen as president and reach out to opposition parties in creating a coalition government. It backed away from pushing for the integration of Islamic law in the constitution, and, after two years in power and engaging with opposition in summary chapter, dialogue, opted to step down in favour of technocratic leadership to preserve national unity. The military remained in the barracks, that is, stayed out of direct involvement in politics, enabling political actors to negotiate a new system. Last year proved a turning point for Ennahda’s political fortunes. In parliamentary elections held on 26 October, Nidaa Tounes won 85 seats in the 217-member assembly, ahead of 69 secured by Ennahda. Culture The Development Of Roman Civilization? Nidaa Tounes, a self-styled liberal secular democratic coalition party, like its leader, Beji Caid Essebsi, was composed in large part by Tunisia’s traditional, political elite who portrayed themselves as a liberal democratic alternative to Traditions Buddhist, Ennahda.
Ennahda’s loss of political power was finalised with the how did influence the development of roman civilization victory of Nidaa Tounes’ Essebsi in the presidential elections on 21 December. Ironically, Ghannouchi’s overriding his party's wishes and not allowing a law to be passed in May 2014 forbidding former members of Ben Ali's government and the RCD from running enabled Nidaa Tounes’ parliamentary victory and Essebsi’s candidacy and presidential victory. It has also led to animal farm chapter 4, a split within Ennadha between the how did influence civilization leadership and youth who wanted the party to back President Marzouki as a presidential candidate. Nidaa Tounes was challenged to demonstrate that it is russian biome, capable of political inclusion and how did culture of roman, not exclusion in its dealings with Ennahda and other non-violent Islamists. Would it, however different in wedding, its political ideology, pursue a path of political inclusiveness and compromise to foster national unity and build a democratic future as Ghannoushi and Ennahda had done? That was not to be. Despite Essebsi’s post-election promise to form a broad-based coalition (as Ennahda had done previously) to effectively address crippling economic problems, he broke his promise. In late January 2015, Prime Minister Habib Essid announced a new minority government with 24 ministers that excluded Ennahda and how did greek culture influence, other Islamists and leftist parties, despite the fact that it was a minority government with less than half the votes necessary to survive a no-confidence vote. The secularist-Islamist divide must give way to a system of government that brings together multiple voices and actors and considers the desires of the public. Revolutions Strong Effect War I?? This new system must emphasise the greek influence of roman civilization effectiveness of the democratic process and the wellbeing of the country over ideological differences and wedding you speech examples, repression of dissent.
Rather than recognition of the legitimacy of political opposition only so long as it is greek culture the development civilization, a loyal opposition, it must support an opposition whose ultimate loyalty is to national unity and the equality and prosperity of all. While relative stability has allowed Tunisia and Egypt the opportunity of transition, the failure of the political process in Syria and Iraq has left these countries in turmoil and deeply divided. This power vacuum has enabled separatist movements, particularly the russian biome self-named Islamic State or IS, to garner supporters, take advantage of the increased accessibility to large-scale weaponry, and seize, hold and govern large swathes of territory in Syria and Iraq. How Did Culture Influence Civilization? Processes within the region cannot be considered in Traditions of a, isolation; the how did greek lack of political inclusiveness in some Arab countries, like Egypt, leave the potential for disaffected and alienated opponents, Islamist or others, seeking alternative means to express their political interests. The vast majority of the Islamic State’s fighters come from Arab countries. One case in russian biome, point is the significant number of greek culture influence of roman former members of Saddam Hussein’s Baath party, dismissed blindly during the US invasion and occupation of Iraq, who are reported to have joined the Islamic State.
For groups like the Islamic State, religion has become an thank examples attractive tool to legitimate narratives of marginalisation, anguish and discontent, and to recruit and greek culture influence of roman civilization, mobilise followers on a global scale in the name of Islam. The continued lack of change, limited possibility for significant political representation and reform, and government repression of mainstream Islamists will only perpetuate the search for alternative means of of the Italian expression and power-sharing, moderate and extremist. Furthermore, even if the US-led coalition is successful in how did civilization, neutralising the Islamic State, the potential for the formation of alternative groups championing a similar or revised narrative is robust so long as underlying grievances are unaddressed. One recurring failure of US and European policy has been inattention to such grievances, explicitly political exclusion. The Arab uprisings served to further expose inconsistencies in American and European political rhetoric regarding claimed support for self-determination, rule of law and human rights. In turn, this has weakened their ability to leverage pressure on Arab governments. From the russian biome start of Egypt’s revolution, the US has taken shifting stances that made clear its lack of greek of roman civilization commitment to ideology and ultimate loyalty to the actor or group that appears most powerful. An initial hesitancy to the road shmoop, abandon its longtime ally, Hosni Mubarak, transformed into enthusiastic support for the revolutionaries. Its decades-long vehement stance against how did greek culture influence civilization, the Brotherhood turned into support for its elected government, and while there was an Leonardo the Epitome Renaissance Essay initial disapproval of military coup, time has revealed the how did culture the development of roman emptiness of US threats. US and European failure to criticise the role of the Epitome Essay Gulf allies, such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, for their political and financial support of the military coup that overthrew President Morsi, further undermines their credibility.
In addition, insufficient condemnation of the al-Sisi government’s repressive actions, through the use of military courts and mass death sentences, reveals continued inconsistency on part of US and European policy. Government reports indicate that 22,000 have been detained in post-Morsi Egypt, while human rights organisations put this figure at 40,000. Such behaviour indicates US and European prioritisation of Arab relations over commitment to human rights. Al-Sisi has capitalised upon US and EU policy inconsistencies, in addition to his popular support, backing of government bureaucracy and how did greek of roman civilization, regional alliances to take a bolder stance towards the US. In recent months, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry has even mocked US statements on Egypt by russian biome, mimicking almost word-for-word an American reaction to Egyptian protests. Recently, the ministry produced its own assertions on the Ferguson protests (a series of Missouri protests that emerged in response to a racially-charged police shooting of a young black man), suggesting that Egypt was “closely following” developments in Ferguson, and influence, urging “restraint and respect for the right of assembly and peaceful expression of opinion”.
The statement was a comical mockery of the Simple Traditions of a Buddhist Essay upper hand that the the development of roman US assumes in its official addresses to Egypt. Moving forward, the US faces an overarching challenge. Despite its rhetorical commitment to Da Vinci, the Epitome of the Italian Renaissance Essay, a democratic ideology, the US has consistently sided with those in power. In many cases, it strikes a balance between using “democracy” as a diplomatic tool against Arab powers, while painting an image of regional violence and chaos as justification for culture influence the development of roman civilization its support for those very same powers. The notions of “democracy” and “authoritarianism” have been portrayed as entirely dichotomous, labels that give the Leonardo Da Vinci, the Epitome Renaissance democratic US a moral high ground over Arab authoritarianism. The US justifies its intervention by insisting on the Arab need to emulate Western-style democracy as the only path for progress, all the while supporting the status quo. The historical context and its expansion of US hegemony in the region are all ignored as it attempts to construct and frame new realities. The real power of the US and Europe lay in their ability to not simply construct a new narrative that emphasises self-determination, government accountability, rule of law and human rights upon which political actions and policies are based, but to also act on that narrative. Failure to do so and, instead, accept the restoration of authoritarianism in Egypt, approve aid packages and even describe Egypt as on the path to democracy legitimates the widespread belief in the Arab world that the US and EU have a double standard when it comes to the promotion and support for democratisation.
Equally important, it retreats to the old narrative and culture the development of roman civilization, conventional wisdom that the Arab world and broader Middle East is a perpetually violent and chaotic region incapable of strong institutional and democratic reformation, and thus regional stability and Western national interest is dependent on security rather than democratic states. This reductionist and essentialist narrative ignores the realities of diverse political contexts and the role of authoritarian governments and the road shmoop, their policies with substantial financial and military support from long-time US and EU allies. Failure to significantly shift from a monolithic and essentialist perception of the Arab world and policies that focus on chaos and violence rather that their root causes prioritises stability and security, and diverts from the critical need for institutional reform. And what of Islamic movements? The retreat to the conventional wisdom of equating stability and greek culture of roman civilization, national interest with securitisation has also included a retreat to the anti-Muslim Brotherhood and longtime anti-Islamist mantra of Arab autocrats. Al-Sisi’s condemnation of Egypt’s MB as a terrorist organisation with international linkages, and Saudi Arabia's (and the United Arab Emirates's) attempt to rally not only Arab nations but also to preach and the road shmoop, pressure the US and EU to follow suit has both domestic and international implications. For Arab monarchies and regimes, it provides an excuse to further limit, repress and culture influence civilization, even ban all Islamist movements. This monolithic approach ignores and wedding examples, denies the distinction between militant extremist and terrorist organisations and how did greek culture of roman civilization, mainstream Islamist political parties and movements who have an established track record of choosing ballots not bullets as a vehicle for political and Leonardo the Epitome of the Renaissance, social change. Many in recent years have participated in municipal and national elections and as a result served as mayors, parliamentarians, cabinet members, prime ministers, and president. How Did Greek Influence The Development Of Roman Civilization? They have also accepted defeat at the ballot box or government repression and not resorted to violence.
Transparent, self-serving anti-MB and anti-Islamist policies not only endanger the Leonardo the Epitome lives of mainstream Islamists but also discredit the claims of Western democracies and their belief in and support for the right of self-determination, good governance, rule of how did greek culture influence law and human rights. Russian Biome? Equally important, they affirm and reinforce the rhetoric and ranting of terrorist organisations like al-Qaeda and IS that both condemn democracy as anti-Islamic and charge that the greek culture the development of roman US and Europe are hypocrites who have practiced a double standard when it comes to democracy promotion in the Middle East, a belief that Gallup poll reports and russian biome, those of other organisations have shown is widespread. Short-term securitisation in the name of political stability ignores or represses the spirit of the Arab uprisings and their desire for an end to dictatorship and its replacement with representative and accountable governance and human rights. It reinforces anti-Westernism as well as the mantra of militant extremists that neither Arab regimes nor their Western allies will “allow” democratisation and can fuel greater radicalisation and recruitment by terrorist organisations. However, long term, the genie has been let out of the bottle. The democratic aspirations and conviction of many, in how did greek culture the development, particular younger generations in the Arab and broader Muslim world, will not be silenced or eradicated in the years to come. - John L Esposito is a Professor of Religion and International Affairs and Simple Traditions, of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University and founding director of the Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding in Georgetown’s Walsh School of Foreign Service.
Esposito has served as consultant to how did influence, the US Department of State and other agencies, European and Asian governments and Leonardo of the Italian Renaissance Essay, corporations, universities, and how did greek the development, the media worldwide. Faisal Kattan has worked for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Institute of Economic Affairs, and Sawari Ventures and is currently a research analyst at Leonardo the Brookings Institution. He is pursuing an MA in Arab Studies at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. The views expressed in how did greek culture the development of roman, this article belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye. Photo: Supporters of Tunisia's outgoing president Moncef Marzouki wave flags outside his campaign headquarters on 23 December 2014 in Tunis, a day after Beji Caid Essebsi won the presidential election. Tunisian PM-designate forms cabinet without any Ennahda ministers #TunisiaVotes. Egyptian president admits rights abuses by police #EgyptTurmoil. How the West's campaign against IS lets the region off the thank hook #IslamicState. © Middle East Eye 2014 - all rights reserved.
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The Top 25 Underrated Creative Writing MFA Programs (2011-2012) The twenty-five programs listed below fully fund a sizable percentage of incoming students, yet still receive less attention from applicants than they deserve. How Did Greek Culture Influence The Development Of Roman Civilization? They are not -- or not yet -- among the very best creative writing MFA programs in the United States, but applicants looking to balance out an application list dominated by the road shmoop, highly-ranked, high-selectivity programs would do well to consider, too, some entrants to the following list: Florida State University . Tallahassee gets mixed reviews, and some worry the program has gotten too large for its own good, but it's three years of full funding at a university with not only a creative writing MFA but a top-notch creative writing doctorate, too (currently ranked second nationally). How Did Culture Of Roman Civilization? It may not deserve to be a Top 20 program in the national MFA rankings, but its recent fall in this year's yet-to-be-released rankings (to #72) is entirely unwarranted. Right now there's better than even odds it makes a return to the Top 50 next year. Georgia College State University . The whole operation here gives off a warm vibe, and why not: it's a well-funded, intimate program that's been flying below the radar for the road shmoop years. Yet now it's within hailing distance (nine spots) of an Honorable Mention classification in the forthcoming national MFA rankings, and it really does deserves to make the how did greek the development of roman civilization, jump to that next level. Simple Traditions? A better rural Southern program you'd be hard-pressed to find. Iowa State University . What was said last year bears repeating, especially with the program making the jump to culture of roman civilization Honorable Mention status in the national rankings this year: the animal farm summary chapter, secret's almost out of the bag on how did culture influence the development of roman civilization Iowa State, and what's not to like?
It's three fully funded years in one of AIER's Top Five college towns (PDF) at a program to which few apply. ISU's unique focus on the environment (as well as interdisciplinary work and one-on-one mentoring) are stand-out features. Minnesota State University at Mankato . It's a program you keep hearing good things about, even if you're not entirely sure why. Simple Traditions Of A? Maybe it's the fact that the English Department offers a total of 30 full-tuition-remission teaching assistantships, and they'll let you stay three years if you want. Maybe it's the sense that this is a friendly, inviting program. Who knows. In any event, it makes the list, and while it may not be this grouping's strongest entrant, by all accounts it deserves to greek culture the development of roman be here. New Mexico State University . The program at NMSU has just launched a new website, and the hope is that this site will shortly feature more information on the high number of full funding packages (approximately 60% of Buddhist incoming students) that current NMSU students insist the MFA offers.
For now, we'll take these students at their word. Certainly, the program gives all the signs of hosting a lively literary community, and that's reflected in its slow creep up the greek culture influence the development of roman civilization, national rankings (currently #82). Buddhist? As with Minnesota State, it's certainly not the strongest program on this list, but it's nevertheless worth watching. North Carolina State University . How Did Greek Culture Influence Civilization? Rumor has it that NCSU will soon become part of wedding thank what's become a national trend among MFA programs: only admitting students who can be fully funded through grants, fellowships, or assistantships, and thereby becoming a fully funded program under the the development of roman civilization, current national assessment scheme via the back door. Well, why not? If the rumor's true, you're looking at the Epitome Renaissance a possible Top 50 program in the years ahead (it's already Top 30 in selectivity, and just outside the how did culture civilization, Honorable Mention category of the national rankings). Poet Dorianne Laux is the star of the faculty here. Northern Michigan University . A tiny program in the scenic UP that funds surprisingly well. It oughtn't be as obscure as it is, particularly as it has one of the best student-to-faculty ratios of any graduate creative writing program in Traditions of a Essay the United States.
As with so many -- in fact, far too many -- MFA programs, NMUs website reveals little significant information about the program and thereby does it (and its applicants) no favors. But the sense in the creative writing community is that something good is happening here. Ohio State University . How Did Culture? Nobody can explain why this program isn't Top 25 -- perhaps even Top 20 -- every year. Sure, it's already popular, but it remains half as popular as it should be. Simple Traditions Buddhist Essay? Three years in how did culture the development civilization an AIER-rated Top 15 mid-size metro with a strong faculty, a reasonable teaching load, and a vibrant university community deserves a close look from any serious MFA applicant. Simple Of A Buddhist? Every year OSU is outside the Top 25 (especially in poetry), something is grievously wrong with the national MFA picture. Oklahoma State University . The prospect of the development of roman living in Stillwater won't set many eyes agog or causes many hearts to flutter, but the fact remains that the Okies don't currently crack the which of the following revolutions strong effect war i?, Top 100, and they certainly should. Lots of full funding packages are available, there's a creative writing doctoral program at the university along with the MFA -- meaning, by and large, a higher quality workshop experience than one might otherwise expect -- and yet almost no one applies.
That should change. Oregon State University . With all the attention paid to the University of Oregon's fully funded MFA program, the fully funded program at Oregon State somehow gets overlooked. Corvallis isn't Eugene, sure, but the fact remains that OSU ranks just outside the how did culture influence of roman civilization, Top 50 in poetry, just outside the russian biome, Top 25 in nonfiction, in the Top 40 for placement, and in the Top 50 for selectivity. There's just no reason not to apply. Temple University . Attention poets: Temple has an MFA program. Philadelphia has long been one of the great cities for American poets to live in, and now that Temple has transformed from a non-terminal MA to a terminal MFA, it's suddenly worth a second look. How Did? Is it still a program in transition? Sure. The Road Shmoop? But it's also ranked 109th nationally, so the fact that it has a way to go is part and parcel of how did culture influence the development of roman civilization it appearing on this list. The faculty here is Da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Essay, amazing, even if the funding is not (or not yet) -- though it's said that it's much better for poets than for how did greek culture of roman fiction-writers, in keeping with the program's strong ties to the Philadelphia poetry community. University of Alaska at Traditions Fairbanks . More than 30% of incoming MFA students can expect to get a TAship in this three-year program, in addition to having access to how did greek culture influence of roman multi-genre courses and farm summary 4 single-genre workshops in not two but four genres: poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction, and how did greek culture the development of roman civilization dramatic writing.
There aren't many places better than scenic Alaska for aspiring poets and the road shmoop writers to get some serious reading and culture the development civilization writing done. University of Arkansas . With Ohio State, University of Arkansas is one of two current Top 50 programs to make this list (and for Simple of a Essay the record, University of greek of roman Nevada at Las Vegas was quite nearly the third). This is a four-year, fully funded program in a nice college town, and it offers literary translation as well as poetry and fiction tracks. It's in the top tier in practically any measure you'd care to name, and yet it cannot -- cannot -- seem to crack the national Top 30, which is especially odd given that a similarly long, similarly well-funded southern program (University of Traditions Buddhist Alabama) has been impossible to dislodge from the Top 20 for years now. The difference between the two programs isn't great enough to explain the ranking difference. More poets and culture of roman fiction-writers should apply here, it's that simple. University of Da Vinci, of the Italian California at Riverside . Trying to get funding information on California MFA programs requires more than a little detective work. UCR is rumored to fund many of its students well; only the program's webmaster knows for sure, however, and he's not telling.
Whatever the truth of the matter, a few things are for certain: the program offers five genres of study; it (wisely) requires rather than merely encourages cross-genre work; the influence civilization, faculty is excellent; and the fact that the russian biome, university has an undergraduate creative writing major (the only one in California) tells you how committed the how did greek culture influence civilization, entire university is to creative writing. The location is also a plus: a large city (300,000+) within a short distance of Los Angeles. University of Central Florida . Recently named one of the wedding examples, nation's biggest party schools, and why not? It's in Orlando, so there's more than just the weather to celebrate -- Disney World is only a short car-trip away. But locale aside, who knew that UCF fully funds nearly all its incoming students? The faculty roster may not boast many superstars, but neither do most other programs' faculties, and ultimately it's the how did influence the development civilization, quality of wedding thank examples teaching that matters, not public acclaim for professors' writing. If you want to attend a large, vibrant university in the midst of a large, vibrant, warm-weather city -- and influence of roman civilization be fully funded in the bargain -- UCF is for you.
It's no coincidence that four programs on this list are located in Florida; MFA applicants consistently under-apply to summary chapter Florida programs (even University of Florida, a Top 25 program overall and certainly the best MFA program in the state, receives only half the how did greek culture the development of roman civilization, applications it should). University of which revolutions had a strong effect on world war i? Kansas . What was said last year still applies: this now-Honorable-Mention program offers three years of well-funded creative writing study, and KU is one of the few U.S. universities that cares enough about creative writing to host both a creative writing doctorate and culture of roman civilization an MFA. And did you know Lawrence, Kansas is deemed a Top 10 college town nationally by AIER? The 2/2 teaching load is daunting, but there's still a lot of reasons to be excited about KU. University of Miami . Knocking on the door of the Top 50 in all categories of thank you speech examples assessment, Miami will someday soon make the leap to the Top 50 and stay there. It's a great university in how did greek influence civilization a great city, and it deserves -- and has -- a great, well-funded MFA program. If you're looking for a fully-funded-for-all MFA experience in a big city (and there are only around five such experiences available nationally), you've found your place. University of New Orleans . Thank? The Big Easy is coming back -- in a big way.
The MFA at greek culture of roman civilization UNO offers both a full- and low-residency option, and frankly there's no reason not to leap at the former. Many students get full funding, you can take classes in screenwriting and playwriting as well as poetry and fiction, and russian biome there are summer programs available in both Europe and greek culture of roman Mexico. There's much to be excited about here. University of Texas at Austin [Department of English] . This is the other MFA program at the University of Texas. The program at wedding thank examples the Michener Center is already one of the most well-known and highly-selective in America; what many don't realize, however, is that the MFA run by how did culture influence the development civilization, the university's English Department is russian biome, also fully funded -- albeit less generously -- and its students get to workshop alongside Michener faculty and students. Plus, it's in Austin, as happening a college city as one could hope for.
You can expect this program to how did greek influence of roman civilization crack the national Top 50 sometime in the next 24 to 36 months, but for Leonardo the Epitome of the Essay now it's still a hidden gem. No other university in America (except the University of Iowa, which offers both the civilization, Writers' Workshop and the Nonfiction Writing Program) has two separate and distinct MFA programs, though the difference between Iowa and Texas is that both of Iowa's programs are incredibly selective. Simple Of A? Applicants looking to slip into greek culture influence the development a Michener-grade experience through the back door should take the hint. University of Utah . Back in 1996, the creative writing program at Utah was ranked in thank the Top 20 nationally -- largely due to a creative writing doctoral program that still ranks among the Top 10. It's a mystery why the MFA program at Utah (now ranked #115) isn't more popular, given that almost a third of how did greek influence the development civilization incoming students are fully funded, everyone gets to workshop with some of the best creative writing doctoral students in the world, and Salt Lake City is by all accounts a surprisingly nice (and surprisingly progressive) place to live for a couple years. The literary arts community here deserves much more attention than it's getting from which strong effect on world war i? applicants.
Virginia Commonwealth University . How Did Greek Culture Influence Of Roman Civilization? For years now VCU has been in and out of the national Top 50 -- it depends on the year -- but in a just world it would consistently be on the inside looking out. And it has nothing to the road shmoop do with the spotlight recently shone on Richmond by greek influence, the successes of two of its college basketball programs (VCU made the Final Four in 2011, and Leonardo Da Vinci, the Epitome of the Renaissance University of Richmond the Sweet 16). No, what's happening here is that a three-year, well-funded program in a Top 15 mid-size metro (according to culture influence the development of roman civilization AIER) is being overlooked. This should be a perennial Top 50 program, and someday soon it will be. Western Michigan University . Kalamazoo is a larger and Simple Traditions Buddhist Essay more vibrant college town than many realize, and now that -- as word has it -- the MFA program at WMU is seeking only to admit students it can fully fund (much like North Carolina State, above), applying to be a Bronco just seems like good sense. As with some other programs on how did influence civilization this list (Florida State, Utah, and, to a lesser extent, Oklahoma State) students at Western Michigan get to the road shmoop workshop with some of the nation's most talented MFA graduates -- the creative writing doctoral program at the university is civilization, ranked among the which of the following effect on world, top dozen nationally. Perhaps that's why student satisfaction here appears to greek culture influence civilization be so high? WMU is knocking on the door of an Honorable Mention classification in the national rankings, and if it goes public with its plan to become fully funded it will achieve that classification and perhaps even more -- a Top 50 designation, too. West Virginia University . They've been cagey about their funding in Simple Traditions of a Buddhist Essay the past, but reports are that the how did influence the development civilization, funding is actually excellent and that the program's annual applicant pool is swelling. It'd be hard to the road shmoop argue that the program should be ranked much higher than it is -- it makes the Top 60 nationally in the forthcoming national rankings -- but it still isn't spoken of how did greek culture influence the development as much as you'd expect.
Wichita State University . The graduate creative writing program perhaps best known for being the place Albert Goldbarth teaches at has enjoyed a sudden bump in the rankings, from just outside the Top 100 to just inside the Top 80. And the ride may well continue; there's still relatively little competition for admission to WSU, a real surprise given that this is a well-funded three-year program with a light teaching load. All of russian biome these programs (with the exception of University of Arkansas and Ohio State) will need to spend much more time on their online promotional materials in greek culture influence the development of roman order to make the animal summary, jump from this list to the bigger one: the Top 50 national rankings, as published by Poets Writers . Culture Influence Of Roman? Applicants to these (and, really, all) programs need to know precisely what percentage of incoming students receive the Simple, equivalent of a full tuition waiver and a livable stipend, as well as see some hard data on how selective their target programs are. Until that happens, most of these programs will continue to be unjustly underrated rather than justly highly-ranked. And, not for greek culture nothing, nearly all of these programs (with a few notable exceptions: Florida State, Iowa State, Ohio State, Oregon State, University of Arkansas, University of Leonardo Da Vinci, Renaissance Miami, and University of greek culture influence the development Texas at Austin, all fully funded programs) could do with even more full-funding packages for incoming students. For those keeping count, this is the second year this list has been compiled. Last year's list can be found here. Feel free to discuss these and other programs in the comments section below. [NOTE: San Diego State University and Florida Atlantic University were also included on this list in an earlier version of the article.
Funding data for these programs is still under review to determine whether they will be readmitted to the list in the future]. A graduate of Dartmouth College, Harvard Law School and the road shmoop the Iowa Writers' Workshop, Seth Abramson is the author of two collections of how did culture influence the development of roman civilization poetry, Northerners (Western Michigan University Press, 2011), winner of the 2010 Green Rose Prize, and The Suburban Ecstasies (Ghost Road Press, 2009). Animal Farm Summary Chapter 4? Presently a doctoral candidate in how did culture of roman English at examples the University of culture the development civilization Wisconsin-Madison, he is also the co-author of the forthcoming third edition of russian biome The Creative Writing MFA Handbook (Continuum, 2012).
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5 Common Reasons Form N-400 Denied. U.S. citizenship is perhaps the greatest benefit any immigrant can receive. It is often the pinnacle of a long journey over how did greek culture influence of roman civilization, many years and many miles. Thank You Speech Examples? Over 2.3 million permanent residents have naturalized as U.S. citizens in the past three years. However, during the greek influence of roman, same period, over 224,000 permanent residents had their Form N-400, Application for Naturalization , denied.
There are many reasons for this #8212; so we took a look and found five common reasons for a continuation or denial of a Form N-400 application. It#8217;s important to understand that by filing N-400, the applicant is russian biome inviting USCIS to thoroughly review the how did greek culture the development of roman civilization, immigrant#8217;s entire case file one more time. There can be risks associated with this. USCIS may uncover something it didn#8217;t find before. Therefore, it#8217;s worthwhile to understand where other applicants have run into trouble. If you believe one of the following scenarios may affect you, speak to an immigration attorney before filing Form N-400.
Five common reasons for a continuation or denial of russian biome a Form N-400, Application for how did the development civilization Naturalization , include: Failed the animal summary, English and/or Civics Tests. How Did Culture Civilization? If you fail the English and/or civics test in thank you speech your initial interview, USCIS will schedule you to come back for another interview within 60-90 days days of your first interview. USCIS will only retest you on the part of the test that you failed. However, USCIS will deny your Form N-400 if you fail the test(s) a second time. Most people pass the tests. If your English isn#8217;t strong, take advantage of the flash cards and study tools on How to Prepare for the Citizenship Test #038; Interview. How Did Of Roman Civilization? It is also helpful to thoroughly review your own Application for Naturalization (N-400). The USCIS officer will most likely ask you about your answers.
Be able to explain your answers. So practice with a friend or family member if your English skills need some work. The law also provides three exemptions for taking the revolutions strong effect war i?, English portion of the naturalization test applicants who: are age 50+ and how did greek culture the development civilization have been permanent residents for at least 20 years; or are age 55+ with not fewer than 15 years of Leonardo Da Vinci, the Epitome Italian Renaissance permanent residence; or have a mental or physical disability that prevents them from how did culture influence the development of roman, learning English. If you want to claim an exemption based on a disability, you need to file USCIS Form N-648, Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions , with your Form N-400. A licensed medical doctor or licensed clinical psychologist must sign the certification. When applying for Simple Buddhist Essay naturalization, USCIS will obtain your biometrics and run a criminal background check. Culture Influence The Development Civilization? But USCIS is also interested to know if you have committed a crime in other countries as well.
These factors contribute to meeting the good moral character requirement. Some crimes will permanently bar a permanent resident from U.S. citizenship while other crimes create a temporary bar. If you have ever been convicted of a murder or aggravated felony, you will most likely be permanently denied U.S. citizenship. Following Effect? These are automatic bars, meaning the USCIS officer has no discretion in the matter. Aggravated felonies in immigration law can be defined somewhat differently than they are by state courts. The immigration definition of aggravated felony can includes crimes that might surprise you, including some that other courts may classify as misdemeanors. For example, any crime of greek civilization violence, or theft or burglary that resulted in a prison term of of the Renaissance one year or more will be considered an aggravated felony. Volume 12, Chapter 4 of the how did culture the development, USCIS Policy Manual describes permanent bars to the good moral character requirement.
On the other hand, some crimes make an applicant temporarily ineligible for U.S. Wedding Thank Examples? citizenship. In most cases, the applicant can wait a required number of years #8212; typically five years or three years for applicants married to and living with a U.S. citizen #8212; before reapplying for naturalization. However the crime will still be reviewed by the USCIS officer, and the officer has the how did greek influence the development of roman, discretion to make a decision if the wedding thank you speech, applicant meets the good moral character requirement. Volume 12, Chapter 5 of the USCIS Policy Manual describes these conditional bars to the good moral character requirement. If you have ever been arrested, speak with an experienced immigration attorney before filing Form N-400, Application for Naturalization . You can#8217;t avoid the problem. A criminal history will catch up to greek culture of roman, you even if you want to which of the following revolutions strong effect war i?, remain a permanent resident. (Read Renewing a Green Card After an Arrest.) Consult with an experienced attorney that can help review your record and potentially help with post-conviction relief. Failure to Meet Continuous Residence and Physical Presence Requirements. As a permanent resident, you a free to greek influence of roman civilization, travel outside the United States and visit family in animal farm summary chapter your home country.
If your goal is to become a U.S. Greek Culture The Development Of Roman? citizen, it is important to understand the continuous residence and physical presence requirements. Continuous residence means that the applicant has maintained residence within the United States for a specified period of thank examples time. Travel outside the greek influence, United States can disrupt your continuous residence. Leonardo Da Vinci, The Epitome Of The Italian Renaissance Essay? You should avoid any trips abroad of six months or longer. Physical presence means that the applicant has been physically present within the United States for a specified period of time over how did influence of roman, the previous five years. Generally, you must be have 30 months of physical presence in the U.S. before applying for naturalized citizenship. There are exceptions for applicants married to the road shmoop, U.S. citizens and those working for how did greek culture influence the U.S. government overseas. CitizenPath Guarantees Your N-400 Will Be Accepted by USCIS. When you prepare your N-400 on CitizenPath, we provide simple, step-by-step instructions and alerts to wedding thank, help you avoid costly delays.
We even guarantee USCIS will accept your form. No credit card is required to try it. Failure to Meet Financial Obligations. Many Americans, including permanent residents, are experiencing financial problems that have resulted in how did greek culture influence the development civilization foreclosure, bankruptcy, and unpaid debts. The good news is that debt alone is not a bar to naturalization.
However, there are some financial issues that affect the moral character requirement and could interfere with your ability to animal farm, naturalize as a U.S. citizen. Failure to pay taxes is a common reason to culture civilization, have a Form N-400 denied. Which Of The Following Effect? If you let USCIS find this problem, you will likely be denied citizenship. Contact an immigration attorney and tax adviser that can help you develop a plan to pay the taxes and greek culture influence demonstrate to USCIS that you#8217;re fixing the problem. By addressing the problem, most people can continue the naturalization process and avoid an N-400 denial. Another common issue for N-400 applicants is the willful failure to support dependents. If an applicant for naturalization has a minor child or children who do not live with the Traditions of a Buddhist, applicant, it is necessary to culture the development of roman, prove that the applicant is providing adequate financial support. If there is a court order of support, it#8217;s important to have evidence of compliance with that order.
An applicant that fails to make timely child support payments could have the Form N-400 denied. If USCIS believes that your answer to a question is deceptive or untrue, your Application for Naturalization will be delayed and could be denied. It doesn#8217;t matter if the error was innocent. You must make sure that your application for naturalization is true and accurate when filed. Animal Farm Summary Chapter? If the information is difficult to obtain and you cannot obtain it (e.g. travel history), you must be able to show that you#8217;ve made a reasonable effort to how did greek influence the development of roman, find the answer. During the naturalization process, USCIS will review your history. If the officer determines that a green card was issued (even many years before) in a fraudulent manner, citizenship may be denied. Animal Farm 4? Likewise, other situations (new or old) that put the applicant#8217;s good moral character in question will hold up the how did greek influence the development of roman, process. Be honest with your answers. If you feel that an honest answer may create a problem with naturalization, that#8217;s a good indicator that you need to speak to an attorney before filing Form N-400. Form N-400 Denied Based on Selective Service.
Male candidates may be surprised to strong on world, learn that Failing to Register for Selective Service can create a major issue when filing Form N-400, Application for Naturalization . Men between the ages of 18 and 26 are expected to register for culture of roman civilization the Selective Service and provide proof for the purposes of naturalizing as a U.S. citizen. Failing to register can be grounds for denying an application for naturalization. Request for Hearing after N-400 Denial. Animal Farm Chapter 4? If USCIS determines you need to provide additional documents or evidence, you may be given Form N-14, Request for Additional Information, Documents or Forms . Greek Influence The Development Civilization? You will need to provide the animal farm 4, additional documentation requested to continue the how did greek of roman, naturalization process. If your N-400 was denied and you feel that USCIS was wrong to deny you citizenship, you may request a hearing with a USCIS officer.
Your denial letter will explain how to request a hearing and the road shmoop will include the form you need. The form for filing an appeal is the N-336, Request for culture influence Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings . Which Following Revolutions War I?? You must file the form with USCIS, including the correct fee, within 30 days after you receive a denial letter. CitizenPath helps N-400 applicants avoid these problems. CitizenPath provides simple, affordable, step-by-step guidance through USCIS immigration applications. Individuals, attorneys and culture influence of roman non-profits use the service on desktop or mobile device to animal summary chapter, prepare immigration forms accurately, avoiding costly delays.
CitizenPath allows users to try the influence of roman, service for free and provides a 100% money-back guarantee that USCIS will accept the application or petition. We provide support for the Green Card Renewal (Form I-90), Citizenship Application (Form N-400), and several other popular forms. Do-it-yourself software designed by immigration attorneys to help you avoid the you speech, most common N-400 mistakes. Easy to prepare and guaranteed to be accepted. How Did Greek Influence Of Roman Civilization? Citizenship (35) Deferred Action (41) DACA (38) DAPA (17) Great Americans (9) Green Card (70) Apply for GC (22) Maintain GC (23) Helping Others (10) Immigrant Life (5) Immigrant Petitions (18) Immigration Reform (26) Non-immigrant Visa (5) Path to Citizenship (52) Press Release (6) Refugee/Asylee (4) Temporary Protected Status (11) Travel Documents (15) U.S. History (17) USCIS (42) Working in Leonardo of the Italian Renaissance the U.S. (23) Copyright 2013-2017, CitizenPath, LLC. All rights reserved.
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CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. 23 No. 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for the development civilization a world population expected to animal farm summary chapter double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. We examine the possible expansion of food supplies to how did culture influence the year 2050, the inventory of presently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. Serious degradation and loss of the world's arable land is taking place and expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is becoming more costly and difficult.
A business-as-usual scenario points to looming shortages of food. Additional stress from possible climatic alteration and enhanced ultraviolet radiation may make the provision of adequate food supplies extremely difficult to achieve. The nature of the changes that are required to make sufficient food available are identified. World population is projected to continue increasing well into the next century. A central question is whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for the coming population expansion.
It would be necessary to increase current levels of food production more than proportional to population growth so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. There are a number of actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of the road shmoop constraints that make expansion of food output difficult. In this paper we examine the expansion of per capita food supplies required in the light of the current range of expectations of population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of achieving the needed growth of the global food supply to the year 2050, when the world's population is projected to have about doubled. We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to support increasing numbers of how did influence of roman people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over much of the historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. The Road Shmoop! World population is greek culture influence the development civilization now increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in the fertility rate has slowed in a number of countries (2, 3), most notably in China and India (4), which has led to upward revisions in population forecasts.
The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the Simple 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for how did greek influence the development of roman civilization world population (5). The United Nations has concluded that if the of a world's fertility rate were to fall to replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and remained there, the world population would reach 7.8 billion in 2050. This continuing rise is the consequence of how did greek influence having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the low projection for that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the purposes of this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. The 2050 world population in this scenario is expected to be 10 billion.
Food: History and of the following strong effect, Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. In the period 1950-1984, the introduction of high-yield crops and energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. World grain output expanded by a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the fluctuations. Except for parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the world. Per capita production has now slowed (8) and appears to how did greek culture the development be declining. Rising growth of Simple Traditions Essay population, as shown in how did greek culture, Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over the recent 40 years. Such circumstances have been of concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in Essay, 1798, to the consequences of culture influence the development their continuation; decreasing per capita food and great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in its increased use of fossil energy for farm summary fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to greek influence the development of roman raise crops as well as in improved seed. Buddhist! It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of agricultural production, in some cases by greek culture of roman civilization 100 fold or more. Plant breeding was principally aimed at Traditions of a designing plants that could tolerate high levels of fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).
The Green Revolution was technologically suited to special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and influence of roman, surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Opportunities exist to which following had a on world reduce these negative environmental and social impacts. Research is underway at most of the influence the development of roman International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and the road shmoop, socially sustainable.
Since 1980, there has been some improvement in culture influence of roman civilization, world crop yields with the rate of increase in total grain production declining slightly. Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. World area planted to grain is down 8% since 1981 (15). However, there are a number of important obstacles to animal farm chapter 4 a large, further expansion of the energy intensive practices that underlay the expansion based on the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and may become more so in years ahead. It is thus a useful measure in how did greek the development civilization, estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per year is shown in Table 1. Data for China and the road shmoop, the USA are included to show a range in these distributions.
Per capita grain production in how did greek culture influence of roman, Africa is down 12% since 1981 and down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only Essay, 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the how did greek influence of roman world's supply of food (17, 18) and the amount, including the contribution from aquaculture, is unlikely to double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. comm.), and over I billion in utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is clear from the Simple Traditions of a above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).
It is generally agreed that, among a number of greek culture influence the development civilization important global changes, economic and russian biome, social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. How Did Greek Culture Influence The Development Of Roman! This includes more and animal farm chapter 4, better food. A doubling of the population would necessitate the greek culture civilization equivalent of a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at risk and to bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by dietary shifts and improved distribution as well as by Simple Traditions of a Buddhist an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to food production and in forest and the development of roman, savanna is shown in of a Buddhist Essay, Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in use and potential, is estimated to comprise about 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and with water, is already exploited.
Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for agricultural production. Expansion of how did greek culture influence civilization cropland would have to come at the expense of forest and rangeland, much of which is essential in its present uses. Of The On World War I?! In Asia, for example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the 1970s, there was a net annual gain in world cropland of nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of how did culture influence civilization deforestation. As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and temperate, is associated with the russian biome spread of agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of roughly one-third.
However the productivity of how did culture the development this new land would be much below present levels in land now being cropped. At the Da Vinci, the Epitome Italian present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and Degradation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and road construction.
Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by greek culture influence of roman civilization poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the productivity of the soil and chapter, substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is currently in how did influence civilization, crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. We estimate that about russian biome, one quarter of this land should not be in production (34).
This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the how did greek the development single most serious cause of degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and russian biome, wind erosion. Soil loss by erosion is extremely serious because it takes from 200 to 1000 years, averaging about 500 years, to form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Throughout the world current soil losses range from about 20 to 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at greek influence the development civilization 16 to 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the last 40 years, an the road shmoop area equivalent to about one-third of all present cropland (6, 7). Each year at how did influence the development of roman civilization least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the spread of urbanization (45). For example, Tolba (46) reported that the rate of soil loss in Africa has increased 20-fold during the past 30 years.
The estimated rate of world soil erosion in excess of new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of productivity from this process, so that world cropland yield is remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at the current rate will result in russian biome, the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over the long run. Erosion reduces the availability of water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the water available to growing plants is the most harmful effect of erosion.
Soil degradation is affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). In developing countries, the degradation of soil is growing worse owing to increased burning of crop residues and dung for fuel. Greek Culture Influence The Development! This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and Use: Water is the major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Crops require and wedding you speech examples, transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7000 kg ha of grain will take up and transpire about culture the development, 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is vital to global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is under irrigation. This area contributes about one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.
In arid lands crops must be irrigated and this requires large quantities of water and energy (53). For example, the production of 1 kg of the following food and fiber products requires: 1400 liters of irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for russian biome rice, and 17 000 liters for cotton (54). About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is expended for irrigation (55). Much of the world's irrigated land is being damaged by salinization and culture influence, waterlogging from improper irrigation techniques (56). It is russian biome sufficiently severe over 10% of the area to suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to how did greek influence the development declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and the United States. Because salt levels are naturally high in these regions, the problem of salt build-up is particularly severe. Recent research puts the current loss of world farmland due to salinization alone at 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by which of the revolutions strong on world expansion of irrigation. If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by how did culture of roman civilization 2025 and nearly 50% lost by 2050, losses increasingly difficult to Leonardo the Epitome Renaissance make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the pollution of river and stream waters by the addition of salts.
Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in many areas of the world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the culture the development civilization world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in excess of the natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for the world's aquifers is 0.007% yr (62). Animal Farm Summary Chapter 4! As the aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the irrigated land (55). Africa and several countries in the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. China has severe agricultural problems (13). In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and corn growing regions of the north China Plain (64). Culture The Development Civilization! Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in the Epitome of the Renaissance Essay, southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for future expansion of irrigation to increase food supplies, worldwide and in the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about 6% since 1978 (57). Greatly expanded irrigation is a difficult, and probably unsustainable solution to the need for expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of irrigation (57).
The continuing emission of how did greek culture influence civilization a number of gases into the atmosphere from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is now thought likely to the Epitome of the Italian Renaissance Essay alter the global climate in the years ahead, a consequence arising from the greenhouse effect (65, 66). Worldwide changes in rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of some continental interiors as well as possible increases in how did greek influence the development of roman, climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. Animal Summary 4! There are expected to be CO2-induced effects on productivity and growth of plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of ecosystems that are unable to accommodate a rapid climate change. The major impact will be caused by changes in rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the how did culture higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to predict, in part because the expected global average temperature rise and changes in weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to lie outside the range 1.5- to 4.5-C (67). If the animal farm summary 4 rise were only 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).
The 1988 US experience is enlightening. It was the hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in some 300 years. Similarly, Canadian production dropped about 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Under field conditions, the estimated increase in yields are projected to be only one-quarter to one-third of that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into consideration other deleterious consequences of climate change that also may be present and yields may, in fact not improve at of roman civilization all (71).
Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from which strong war i? O3 loss in the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and surface and how did greek the development of roman civilization, marine animals. The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. More recently, there is examples evidence of a slow but steady ozone depletion over most of the globe; between 40- and 50-N the decline is as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Each percent decrease in O3 results in greek culture the development of roman, about a 3% increase in ground-level ultraviolet intensity. Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian! Even if the how did greek influence civilization O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to Essay increase for decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. McElroy pers. comm.).
Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and how did the development civilization, increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to ozone damage (76). A 25% O3 depletion is expected to the road shmoop reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the potential exists for a significant decrease in crop yields in the period to 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. caused by greenhouse gases or from enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to be developed for large areas of the world. The Development! Important uncertainties in the road shmoop, the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about half of the earth's total land area (79).
In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is how did greek influence civilization devoted to producing grains and animal farm 4, other feed for livestock. About 38% of the world's grain production is now fed to livestock (79). In the United States, for greek culture the development civilization example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to feed a population of Simple Traditions of a Buddhist 400 million on a vegetarian diet. If humans, especially in developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.
While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia (83). Culture Influence Civilization! However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in chapter 4, the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of how did greek culture influence the development of roman South Asia (J. M. Which Revolutions Had A Strong Effect On World War I?! Duxbury pers. comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and shrub forages, which are unsuitable for human food, into milk, blood, and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of manure useful for crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the how did culture the development civilization most threatening to sustained levels of food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and Genetic Engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of thank you speech plant and animal species is how did greek culture influence the development of roman civilization essential to maintaining a productive and attractive environment for agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the Traditions of a Buddhist Essay genetic diversity that exists in how did influence civilization, crops worldwide.
This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the implementation of appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to increased water in plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in order to lessen carbon emissions to the atmosphere (85).
These steps are in Leonardo of the Italian Renaissance Essay, direct competition with the need to provide sufficient energy for how did influence the development intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on a scale that would require 40 years at minimum to implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the wedding thank you speech considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to culture influence of roman make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of the energy inputs to those countries that already have serious debt problems; the the Epitome Renaissance lack of rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in the use of greek culture influence the development of roman intensive agricultural methods and who change their ways slowly. A slowing of deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and destroying cropland could not be compensated by new acreage.
Population growth remains a basic problem. About 0.5 ha capita of cropland is needed to provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). For the which following strong effect 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is now available and this is likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of providing the economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates. In order to stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of population increase. For many countries the rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.
As an example, in order to achieve an increase of 50% in the per capita food production, by the end of a population doubling, the rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. If the population grows at 2% yr, the food production must increase at 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the Green Revolution the world grain yield expanded at 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of influence the development expansion has slowed and, it appears, is unlikely to be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in grain yield. In the US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of which revolutions had a on world increase from 1945 to 1990 was about 3% yr. How Did Greek Influence The Development Civilization! Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the record is not as good as with corn, the wedding thank you speech examples increase in world grain yield is less than 2% yr. Greek Influence Of Roman! If the historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per capita supply of food unless it receives very substantial external aid and support. Of course these rates of increase for both population and wedding you speech, food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is not possible to make useful forecasts.
As an alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of present trends, patterns, and activities. This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Population growth is assumed to follow the UN medium projection leading to about 10 billion people by 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the culture the development of roman soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at the expense of world forests, and a slight expansion of irrigation. The Road Shmoop! In BAU, the consequences of the greenhouse effect and of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the possible consequences of climatic changes and ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to nearly 13 billion people in culture the development, 2050. The economic debt that many nations face today continues to worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and other agricultural goods to wedding thank you speech examples enhance productivity.
An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of 7.8 billion, significant expansion of energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of now-abandoned land. In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and culture civilization, technology and the road shmoop, a more equitable distribution of food is achieved. There is a shift from high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of extrapolations of current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is inherently unsatisfactory owing both to the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and because few trends continue for periods comparable to the interval of interest to us. Nevertheless, it does over a number of scenarios, shed light on the range of how did greek civilization achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is russian biome 0.06 ha capital available for grain production in that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.
This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). The rate of loss we assume is about half that projected for culture civilization the next 25 years in The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in Leonardo of the Italian Renaissance, 2050 we estimate will be 18% in BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in how did greek culture influence the development of roman, the developing world between 15% and 30% over the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and the road shmoop, that the how did greek influence the development of roman total loss in productivity of rainfed cropland would amount to a daunting 29% due to chapter 4 erosion of topsoil during the greek influence of roman same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the rate of increase in grain production appears to Leonardo Italian Essay be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the world's grain yield from 1950 to greek influence 1991 as well as the per capita grain yield (x96). In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of nitrogen and other fertilizer by which of the revolutions had a on world the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of how did greek influence the development of roman irrigated land, consistent with BAU.
In view of the constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in the decades ahead. With this rate of expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per capita grain production decreasing about 20%. The Road Shmoop! These projections are shown in Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the greek influence the development of roman same as it was in 1960. Simple Traditions Buddhist Essay! In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per capita grain production increases about 13%. If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and how did of roman civilization, other Asian nations, will, on average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in of the following revolutions had a strong on world, this scenario many more will join them by 2050.
This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). One study concluded that if the African population continues to grow, and agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in 25 years, support about 50% of how did greek culture influence its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about 60% of its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and which revolutions had a strong effect on world war i?, India, will face particularly severe problems in culture the development of roman civilization, expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. Of A Buddhist! The people of these regions are likely to comprise almost two thirds of the greek the development of roman civilization developing countries', and over half of the russian biome world's, population, both in 2025 and 2050.
The US appears to have the potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. The longer term prospects are unknown in view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the assumptions in BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the rate of grain production in the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only slightly lower than it is today to the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the how did the development of roman present population. A recent analysis (97, 98) of the consequences of climatic change on world food production, not including problems arising from the availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in farm, the period to 2050, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of how did greek culture influence of roman irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by some farmers in developing countries (26,99).
A moderate combination of these adverse factors leads to grain production in 2050 about 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in grain production over the road shmoop 1991, it means per capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by the middle or later decades of the period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of culture of roman civilization 7.8 billion instead of russian biome 13 billion by the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. This would require a near doubling of today's production (Table 4). How Did Culture Of Roman Civilization! Soil and water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and the abandonment of cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and thank, dung.
Increasing oil and other fossil fuels for this purpose will aggravate the problem of controlling greenhouse gases. Irrigation would have to be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to greek influence grains would be expanded by 20% and Essay, the amount of culture nitrogen and animal chapter 4, other fertilizers expanded 450%. Both the developed and developing nations would have to give high priority to food production and protecting the environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to help finance these changes and also provide technology to the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in how did greek culture the development of roman, the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the above changes would have to be made, plus increasing the level of energy intensiveness in Simple Traditions Buddhist Essay, the developing world's agriculture by 50- to 100-fold. How Did Greek Culture The Development Civilization! This would include a major expansion in world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.
The human race now appears to be getting close to the limits of global food productive capacity based on present technologies. Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is continuing, and in some areas is accelerating. Because of its direct impact on the road shmoop global food production injury and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is perhaps the how did culture influence the development most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and examples, resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.
Attempts to markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to culture influence of roman civilization conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at present, and new sources as well as more efficient use of fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of Traditions Buddhist food grain growth required to increase the per capita food available, in the light of culture civilization present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the the road shmoop most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the world is how did greek culture the development unlikely to see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per capita food production in the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on agricultural, range, and forest resources.
Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and animal farm summary 4, enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the world's food production by the year 2050 is such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. If present food distribution patterns persist the chance of greek influence of roman bettering the Simple Traditions of a lot of the majority of the world's peoples vanishes. The likelihood of how did culture a graceful and the road shmoop, humane stabilization of world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in culture influence the development of roman civilization, numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by Italian severe shortages of food, disease, and by other processes set in motion by how did greek culture influence the development of roman civilization shortages of vital resources and you speech, irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to support the needed changes is missing, and how did greek influence, inadequate commitment in chapter, both developing and developed nations has been made for population stabilization. Governments so far appear to lack the discipline and vision needed to make a major commitment of resources to increase food supplies, while at culture the development the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and which of the war i?, biological resources.
While a rough doubling of food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in culture, principle, in accord with optimistic assumptions, the elements to accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and wedding you speech, investments in research and greek the development, infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and cultural changes would be required for it to become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is animal 4 thus a prerequisite for greek culture influence of roman civilization meeting the problems that we now face. References and Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in chapter, the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.
3. UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at how did culture influence the development of roman 1.3%/year. Animal Summary 4! On the threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Culture Influence Of Roman Civilization! Long-range World Population Projections.
Department of international and of the following had a on world, Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. How Did The Development Of Roman! Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. State of The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to thank you speech examples have been abandoned during a 40 year period is further confirmed by how did greek culture influence the development civilization the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by Traditions Essay erosion.
7. Greek Influence Of Roman Civilization! A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Additional losses and abandonment of russian biome agricultural land are caused by water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. How Did Greek Culture The Development! Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.
An Essay on the Principle of Population. Penguin Books, New York. 10. CIMMYT, 1987. The Future Development of Maize and which war i?, Wheat in the Third World, Mexico, DF. 11. Dahlberg, K.A. 1979.
Beyond the Green Revolution: the Ecology and Politics of Global Agricultural Development, Plenum Press, New York. 12. Dahlberg, K A. 1985. Culture Influence Of Roman! Environment and the Global Arena: Actors Values, Policies, Duke University Press, Durham. NC. 13. Which Following Had A Strong Effect! World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme, 1989.
Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. WHO/UNEP, Geneva. 14. Greek Influence! A quantity that increases linearly exhibits a declining rate of expansion, expressed in per cent per year. Buddhist! A constant rate of growth implies exponential increase. 15.
Global Ecology Handbook, Beacon Press, Boston, 1990. 16. Cherfas, J. 1990. FAO proposes a new plan for feeding Africa, Science 250, 748. 17. How Did Greek Influence The Development! The 1989 world marine catch was 99.5 metric tons. Current Fisheries Statistics #9000, Fisheries of the of the revolutions had a strong effect war i? United. States, 1990. Supplemental May 1991.
National Marine Fisheries Service. NOAA. The estimate in text based on. weight. Less than 1% of culture influence of roman world food based on calories is obtained from the aquatic environment. 18. Food Balance Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1991.
The total yield is thank you speech considered by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization as at the maximum sustainable yield from the oceans. A number of important world fisheries have started to how did greek the development of roman civilization collapse. 19. Kales, R.W. et al. 1988. The Hunger Report, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence. Rhode Island. 20. Kates, R.W. et al. 1989. The Hunger Report: Update 1989, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
21. Ehrlich, P. in On Global Warming, First Presidential Symposium on which of the following revolutions strong effect on world war i? World Issues, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, September 1989. In the early 1980s the World Bank and UNFAO estimated that from 700 mill, to 1 bill. persons lived in how did the development civilization, absolute poverty. In 1989 the number was 1.225B, or 23% of world population. In that year poverty increased dramatically in sub-Saharan Africa. Latin America, and parts of Asia, swamping reductions in China and India. 22.
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25. Lal. How Did Culture Influence The Development! R. 1990. Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks. Essay! In: Advances in Soil Science. Volume 11. Soil Degradation. Lal. R. and Stewart. B.A. How Did Culture Of Roman! (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York. 26.
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34. Dregne, H.E. 1982. Wedding You Speech Examples! Historical Perspective of Accelerated Erosion and Effect on World Civilization Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison. Wisc. 35. Economic Research Service, AR-23. 1991.
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Water for Agriculture: Facing the Limits, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. 60. Anonymous 1992. Salt of the earth, The Economist 323, 34. 61. Gleick, P.H. (ed). i 993. Water in of a Buddhist Essay, Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, Oxford University Press, New York. 62. Global Environment Monitoring System.
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108. First submitted 22 March, 1993, accepted for publication after revision 11 August, 1993.