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Bloggers seeing red over Target#039;s little secret. Target Corp. is learning the hard way that life in hua mulan, the blogosphere can put you right in the bullseye. The Minneapolis-based discount retailer is being outed in online blogs and discussed in college ethics classes after students allied with the company were told to keep it like a secret while singing the writing company's praises on the social network site Keep it a secret? That sounds unethical, said Rosie Siman, 21, a senior at the University of Georgia and a member of the movie Target Rounders.

The group of writing service, mostly college students gets discounts, CDs and other prizes for marketing Target products to their friends and providing the movie company with feedback. You're essentially asking people to lie for you, Siman said. Interpretation Constitution! People will be seeing all these posts saying, 'Target's awesome' and they don't realize they're coming from people who essentially are being paid to promote Target. The hubbub began in early October after Siman received a Rounders newsletter as Target was launching a new Facebook page. Like many companies now setting up sites on Facebook and MySpace, Target hoped to get people talking about new products, get feedback and continue to find ways to promote its hip image. Your Mission: Try not to let on in the Facebook group that you are a Rounder, the newsletter read.

We love your enthusiasm for the Rounders, and I know it can be hard not to want to hua mulan sing it from the mountaintops [and in the shower, and on the bus]. Loose Of The Constitution! However, we want to get other members of the Facebook group excited about movie Target, too! And we don't want the Rounders program to steal the compare movie show from the real star here: Target and Target's rockin' Facebook group. So keep it like a secret! Siman didn't keep her own concerns a secret, however. She posted them on hua mulan movie

And the damage control -- which she said included deleting or archiving her posts -- began. Representatives from the New York company that runs the interpretation of the Rounders program and Target's Facebook site, drillTEAM, called Siman within 10 minutes to apologize for the miscommunication. An e-mail from a company employee, identifying herself only movie, as Laura, told Siman that her concerns were completely founded and that the newsletter urging Rounder members to stay anonymous was not endorsed by Target. The Target Facebook page was reworded to remove any mention of keeping secrets. Clearly it was a mistake from this vendor, and that's why they did the Essay on Nursing Education and Quality Patient Care follow-up, said Target spokeswoman Amy vonWalter. Target's intent, VonWalter said, was not to ask Rounder members to hide their affiliation, but to discourage them from dominating the Facebook site and making it feel like an exclusive, members-only club. Matt Wishnow, president of drillTEAM, declined to comment on what happened and did not provide an explanation for why Siman's postings were removed from the website. Target is not interested in hua mulan, feeding guest feedback or public opinion, Von Walter said. Negative feedback is seven color, as valuable as positive. Target is movie, not the only company taking an active role in what's called social marketing -- or to william cause of death get burned by it. The term, coined in the 1970s, refers to selling ideas, attitudes and movie, behaviors.

And it is increasingly being used online to try to reach younger consumers who use Facebook, MySpace, and text messaging to mckinley cause of death talk to each other. Companies form ambassador programs and affiliation circles, as they're known, to reach student groups, sororities and fraternities, and sports teams. Marketers see it as a rich opportunity to generate buzz, get feedback and hua mulan, identify trends. Wal-Mart encourages its employees to post reviews of products as well, with a policy to have them clearly identify themselves as such. Sony has been railed for seven, its clumsy attempts to set up online pages purporting to be teenage boys who wax eloquently about the latest gaming system. The real kids see through it, and go off and hua mulan movie, blog about how lame the company is to Education Patient think of hua mulan, them as so gullible.

Bob Brin, director of compare movie, creative and interactive services at Padilla Speer Beardsley in Minneapolis said that when he gives talks to marketers or signs up a new client, he always warns them of the good and movie, bad of social marketing. He said the No. 1 ethical component is being up front with people about william mckinley of death who you are. We usually tell people that the conversation about you will go on hua mulan with or without you, he said. If you choose to control your blog or keep things gated, it'll come out one way or another. People will blog about your unwillingness to honestly take part in the conversation. Target's VonWalter didn't have many details about the Rounders, whose website is registered in Target's name. She said the company launched its own Facebook page within the past three to six months. A posting about Rounders on says there have about 1,800 members. Some tell of accumulating enough points to get $100 worth of discounts or a free ticket to compare movie the Coldplay concert in Atlanta. For the record, Siman does think Target is awesome.

In fact, she hopes to launch a public relations career that will include social marketing to reach new audiences. But she's adamant about transparency. She wrote a research paper on the ethics of movie, social marketing tools in a public relations class at the University of Georgia. When her teacher, Kaye Sweetser, heard Siman's story, she posted it on her blog. And as happens, one blogger told another.

And so on, and of death, so on.

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lftp - Linux Command - Unix Command. lftp - Sophisticated file transfer program. lftp is a program that allows sophisticated ftp and http connections to other hosts. If host is specified then lftp will connect to that host otherwise a connection has to be established with the open command. lftp can handle six file access methods - ftp, ftps, http, https, hftp, fish and hua mulan movie, file (https and custom dissertation writing service, ftps are only hua mulan movie, available when lftp is seven color, compiled with openssl library). You can specify the method to use in #96;open URL' command, e.g. #96;open'. hftp is ftp-over-http-proxy protocol. It can be used automatically instead of ftp if ftp:proxy is set to hua mulan #96;http://proxy[:port]'.

Fish is a protocol working over an ssh connection. Every operation in lftp is reliable, that is any not fatal error is ignored and the operation is repeated. So if downloading breaks, it will be restarted from the compare movie, point automatically. Hua Mulan Movie! Even if ftp server does not support REST command, lftp will try to retrieve the file from the very beginning until the file is transferred completely. lftp has shell-like command syntax allowing you to custom dissertation writing launch several commands in parallel in background ().

It is also possible to movie group commands within () and execute them in background. All background jobs are executed in the same single process. You can bring a foreground job to background with ^Z (c-z) and back with command #96;wait' (or #96;fg' which is alias to #96;wait'). To list running jobs, use command #96;jobs'. Some commands allow redirecting their output (cat, ls, . Samurai! ) to file or via pipe to hua mulan external command. Commands can be executed conditionally based on termination status of previous command (, ||). If you exit lftp when some jobs are not finished yet, lftp will move itself to seven color nohup mode in background. The same happens when you have a real modem hangup or when you close an xterm. lftp has builtin mirror which can download or update a whole directory tree. There is also reverse mirror (mirror -R) which uploads or updates a directory tree on server. Mirror can also synchronize directories between two remote servers, using FXP if available.

There is command #96;at' to launch a job at specified time in hua mulan, current context, command #96;queue' to queue commands for sequential execution for current server, and Essay Patient Care, much more. On startup, lftp executes /etc/lftp.conf and then. /.lftp/rc . You can place aliases and #96;set' commands there. Some people prefer to see full protocol debug, use #96;debug' to turn the hua mulan movie, debug on. Use #96;debug 3' to see only samurai, greeting messages and error messages. lftp has a number of settable variables. You can use #96;set -a' to see all variables and their values or #96;set -d' to movie see list of defaults.

Variable names can be abbreviated and prefix can be omitted unless the rest becomes ambiguous. If lftp was compiled with ssl support, then it includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. ( To do a directory listing of the Biblical Leaders: A Self on Joshua, local host. Define or undefine alias name . Movie! If value is omitted, the alias is undefined, else it takes the value value . If no argument is given the current aliases are listed. Sets the user to anonymous. This is the default. Wait until the custom, given time and execute given (optional) command. The bookmark command controls bookmarks.

The cache command controls local memory cache. The following subcommands are recognized: cat outputs the remote file(s) to stdout. (See also more , zcat and zmore ) Change current remote directory. Hua Mulan! The previous remote directory is stored as #96;-'. You can do #96;cd -' to change the directory back. The previous directory for Biblical A Self Analysis on Joshua each site is also stored on disk, so you can do #96;open site; cd -' even after lftp restart. Change permission mask on remote files. Hua Mulan Movie! The mode must be an octal number. Close idle connections. By default only with the current server, use -a to close all idle connections. execute given command ignoring aliases. Switch debugging to compare movie level or turn it off.

Use -o to movie redirect the loose, debug output to a file. guess what it does. exit will exit from lftp or move to background if jobs are active. If no jobs are active, code is passed to operating system as lftp's termination status. If code is movie, omitted, the exit code of last command is used. #96;exit bg' forces moving to background when cmd:move-background is false. List files in the directory (current directory by service default) recursively. Movie! This can help with servers lacking ls -R support.

You can redirect output of this command. Obsolete. Use one of the following instead: or other combinations to get FXP transfer (directly between two ftp servers). lftp would fallback to plain copy (via client) if FXP transfer cannot be initiated or ftp:use-fxp is false. Retrieve the remote file rfile and store it as the service, local file lfile . If -o is omitted, the file is stored to local file named as base name of rfile . You can get multiple files by specifying multiple instances of hua mulan rfile [and -o lfile ]. Does not expand wildcards, use mget for that. Glob given patterns containing metacharacters and pass result to given command. E.g. #96;#96;glob echo *''.

Print help for cmd or if no cmd was specified print a list of Leaders: A Self Paper on Joshua available commands. List running jobs. -v means verbose, several -v can be specified. Delete specified job with job_no or all jobs. (For job_no see jobs ) Change current local directory ldir . Movie! The previous local directory is service, stored as #96;-'. You can do #96;lcd -' to change the directory back. Print current working directory on local machine. List remote files. You can redirect output of this command to file or via pipe to external command.

By default, ls output is cached, to see new listing use rels or cache flush. Gets selected files with expanded wildcards. Mirror specified source directory to local target directory. If target directory ends with a slash, the source base name is appended to target directory name. Source and/or target can be URLs pointing to directories. When using -R, the first directory is local and the second is hua mulan, remote. If the second directory is omitted, base name of first directory is Leaders:, used. If both directories are omitted, current local and remote directories are used. RX is an extended regular expression, just like in egrep (1). Include and exclude options can be specified multiple times.

It means that a file or directory would be mirrored if it matches an hua mulan movie include and does not match to excludes after the include, or does not match anything and the first check is exclude. Directories are matched with a slash appended. Note that when -R is used (reverse mirror), symbolic links are not created on Biblical Leaders: Analysis Based server, because ftp protocol cannot do it. To upload files the links refer to, use #96;mirror -RL' command (treat symbolic links as files). Verbosity level can be selected using --verbose#61;level option or by movie several -v options, e.g. Color! -vvv. Levels are: --only-newer turns off file size comparision and uploads/downloads only newer files even if size is different. By default older files are downloaded/uploaded if size is different.

You can mirror between two servers if you specify URLs instead of directories. Movie! FXP is used automatically for compare movie transfers between ftp servers, if possible. Make remote directories. If -p is hua mulan movie, used, make all components of paths. Load given module using dlopen(3) function. Color! If module name does not contain a slash, it is searched in directories specified by module:path variable. Arguments are passed to module_init function. See README.modules for hua mulan technical details.

Upload files with wildcard expansion. By default it uses the Essay on Nursing Care, base name of local name as remote one. This can be changed by #96;-d' option. Same as #96;glob rm'. Removes specified file(s) with wildcard expansion. List remote file names. Select an hua mulan movie ftp server. Gets the specified file using several connections.

This can speed up transfer, but loads the of the, net heavily impacting other users. Use only if you really have to hua mulan transfer the file ASAP, or some other user may go mad :) Options: Upload lfile with remote name rfile . If -o omitted, the base name of lfile is used as remote name. Does not expand wildcards, use mput for that. Print current remote directory.

Add the given command to queue for sequential execution. Each site has its own queue. Of The Constitution! #96;-n' adds the command before the given item in movie, the queue. Don't try to loose interpretation of the queue #96;cd' or #96;lcd' commands, it may confuse lftp. Instead do the hua mulan, cd/lcd before #96;queue' command, and it will remember the place in which the command is to be done. It is possible to queue up an already running job by #96;queue wait', but the on Nursing and Quality Patient Care, job will continue execution even if it is not the first in queue. #96;queue stop' will stop the queue, it will not execute any new commands, but already running jobs will continue to hua mulan movie run. You can use #96;queue stop' to create an empty stopped queue. #96;queue start' will resume queue execution. When you exit lftp, it will start all stopped queues automatically. #96;queue' with no arguments will either create a stopped queue or print queue status. Delete one or more items from the Essay and Quality Patient, queue. If no argument is given, the last entry in the queue is deleted.

Move the given items before the given queue index, or to the end if no destination is given. For FTP - send the command uninterpreted. Use with caution - it can lead to unknown remote state and thus will cause reconnect. You cannot be sure that any change of movie remote state because of quoted command is solid - it can be reset by reconnect at any time. For HTTP - specific to HTTP action.

Syntax: #96;#96;quote []''. Command may be #96;#96;set-cookie'' or #96;#96;post''. For FISH - send the mckinley cause of death, command uninterpreted. This can be used to execute arbitrary commands on server. The command must not take input or print ### at new line beginning. If it does, the protocol will become out of movie sync.

Same as #96;ls', but ignores the cache. Same as #96;nlist', but ignores the cache. Repeat the command. Between the commands a delay inserted, by default 1 second. Example: Remove remote files. Does not expand wildcards, use mrm for Biblical Leaders: that. -r is for recursive directory remove. Be careful, if something goes wrong you can lose files. -f supress error messages. Remove remote directories.

List cached sessions or switch to specified session. Set variable to given value. If the value is omitted, unset the hua mulan movie, variable. Variable name has format #96;#96;name/closure'', where closure can specify exact application of the setting. See below for details. If set is called with no variable then only altered settings are listed. It can be changed by options: Execute site command site_cmd and output the result.

You can redirect its output. Sleep given time interval and exit. Interval is in seconds by default, but can be suffixed with 'm', 'h', 'd' for interpretation minutes, hours and days respectively. See also at hua mulan . Select specified slot or list all slots allocated. A slot is a connection to a server, somewhat like a virtual console. You can create multiple slots connected to different servers and switch between them. You can also use slot:name as a pseudo-URL evaluating to that slot location. Default readline binding allows quick switching between slots named 0-9 using Meta-0 - Meta-9 keys (often you can use Alt instead of seven color Meta). Execute commands recorded in file file . Stop lftp process. Movie! Note that transfers will be also stopped until you continue the process with shell's fg or bg commands.

Use specified info for remote login. If you specify an URL with user name, the entered password will be cached so that futute URL references can use it. Wait for cause of death specified job to terminate. If jobno is omitted, wait for last backgrounded job. #96;wait all' waits for all jobs termination. Same as cat, but filter each file through zcat. (See also cat , more and zmore ) Same as more, but filter each file through zcat. (See also cat , zcat and more ) On startup, lftp executes.

/.lftp/rc . You can place aliases and #96;set' commands there. Some people prefer to see full protocol debug, use #96;debug' to turn the debug on. There is also a system-wide startup file in /etc/lftp.conf . It can be in different directory, see FILES section. lftp has the hua mulan, following settable variables (you can also use #96;set -a' to see all variables and their values): save plain text passwords in. /.lftp/bookmarks on #96;bookmark add' command. Off by default. the commands in string are executed before lftp exits. enables csh-like history expansion. The value is used when #96;open' is used with just host name without protocol.

Default is dissertation writing service, #96;ftp'. if true, exit when an unconditional (without || and movie, at begin) command fails. time of command execution, which is considered as #96;long' and a beep is done before next prompt. 0 means off. default ls argument.

when false, lftp refuses to go to background when exiting. To force it, use #96;exit bg'. The prompt. lftp recognizes the following backslash-escaped special characters that are decoded as follows: insert #64; if current user is not default. an ASCII bell character (07) an ASCII escape character (033) the hostname you are connected to. the name of the client (lftp) current slot name. the username of the user you are logged in as. the URL of the remote site (e.g., the current working directory at the remote site. the base name of the compare movie, current working directory at the remote site. the character corresponding to the octal number nnn. skips next character if previous substitution was empty.

begin a sequence of non-printing characters, which could be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the prompt. end a sequence of non-printing characters. a boolean to control whether or not lftp uses remote completion. if true, lftp resolves host name immediately in #96;open' command. It is also possible to skip the check for a single #96;open' command if `' is hua mulan movie, given, or if ^Z is Essay Education and Quality Care, pressed during the check. if true, lftp checks the path given in hua mulan movie, #96;cd' command. Compare Movie! It is also possible to skip the check for a single #96;cd' command if `' is hua mulan, given, or if ^Z is pressed during the check. Examples: query for SRV records and use them before gethostbyname. The SRV records are only used if port is not explicitly specified.

See RFC2052 for details. enable DNS cache. If it is seven color, off, lftp resolves host name each time it reconnects. dns:cache-expire (time interval) time to live for DNS cache entries. It has format #43;, e.g. Hua Mulan Movie! 1d12h30m5s or just 36h. To disable expiration, set it to #96;inf' or #96;never'. maximum number of DNS cache entries. limit the time for DNS queries.

If DNS server is unavailable too long, lftp will fail to compare movie resolve a given host name. 0 means unlimited, the default. dns:order (list of protocol names) sets the order of DNS queries. Default is #96;#96;inet inet6'' which means first look up address in inet family, then inet6 and use first matched. if true, lftp will fork before resolving host address. Default is true. use specified shell on hua mulan server side.

Default is /bin/sh. On some systems, /bin/sh exits when doing cd to a non-existent directory. lftp can handle that but it has to reconnect. Set it to /bin/bash for such systems if bash is installed. Send this string in ACCT command after login. The result is ignored. The closure for seven this setting has format user#64;host . sets the password used for anonymous ftp access authentication. Default is -name#64;, where name is the username of the user running the movie, program. sets the user name used for anonymous ftp access authentication.

Default is anonymous. if first server message metches this regex, turn on sync mode for that host. bind data socket to the interface of control connection (in passive mode). Default is true, exception is the loopback interface. if true, lftp will try to correct address returned by server for PASV command in case when server address is in public network and PASV returns an address from compare movie a private network.

In this case lftp would substitute server address instead of the one returned by PASV command, port number would not be changed. Default is true. if true, lftp will try to set up source ftp server in passive mode first, otherwise destination one. If first attempt fails, lftp tries to set them up the hua mulan movie, other way. If the other disposition fails too, lftp falls back to plain copy. See also ftp:use-fxp. Initial directory. Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution! Default is empty string which means auto. Set this to #96;/' if you don't like the look of %2F in ftp URLs. The closure for hua mulan movie this setting has format user#64;host . sets options which are always appended to LIST command. It can be useful to set this to #96;-a' if server does not show dot (hidden) files by default.

Default is empty. delay between NOOP commands when downloading tail of Biblical Leaders: Analysis Based on Joshua a file. This is useful for ftp servers which send Transfer complete message before flushing data transfer. Hua Mulan! In such cases NOOP commands can prevent connection timeout. sets passive ftp mode. This can be useful if you are behind a firewall or a dumb masquerading router.

allowed port range for active mode. Biblical Leaders: A Self Analysis Based On Joshua! Format is min-max, or #96;full' or #96;any' to movie indicate any port. Default is #96;full'. specifies ftp proxy to use. To disable proxy set this to empty string.

Note that it is an ftp proxy which uses ftp protocol, not ftp over http. Samurai Color! Default value is taken from environment variable ftp_proxy if it starts with #96;#96;ftp://''. If your ftp proxy requires authentication, specify user name and password in movie, the URL. If ftp:proxy starts with http://, hftp (ftp over http proxy) is used instead of ftp automatically. allow usage of REST command before LIST command. Compare Movie! This might be useful for large directories, but some ftp servers silently ignore REST before LIST.

if false, lftp will not try to use REST before STOR. This can be useful for movie some buggy servers which corrupt (fill with zeros) the of the constitution, file if REST followed by hua mulan movie STOR is used. Retry on server reply 530 for PASS command if text matches this regular expression. This setting should be useful to distinguish between overloaded server (temporary condition) and incorrect password (permanent condition). Additional regular expression for anonymous login, like ftp:retry-530. Send this string in SITE GROUP command after login. The result is ignored.

The closure for this setting has format user#64;host . allow sending skey/opie reply if server appears to support it. On by default. do not send plain text password over the network, use skey/opie instead. If skey/opie is not available, assume failed login. Off by default. if true, try to negotiate SSL connection with ftp server for loose interpretation non-anonymous access. Default is true. This setting is only available if lftp was compiled with openssl. if trus, refuse to send password in clear when server does not support SSL.

Default is false. This setting is only available if lftp was compiled with openssl. if true, request ssl connection for data transfers. This is hua mulan, cpu-intensive but provides privacy. Default is false. This setting is william cause, only available if lftp was compiled with openssl.

interval between STAT commands. Movie! Default is 1. if true, lftp will send one command at compare movie a time and movie, wait for response. This might be useful if you are using a buggy ftp server or router. When it is off, lftp sends a pack of custom dissertation service commands and waits for movie responses - it speeds up operation when round trip time is significant. Unfortunately it does not work with all ftp servers and Biblical Leaders: A Self Paper, some routers have troubles with it, so it is on by default. Assume this timezone for time in listings returned by LIST command. This setting can be GMT offset [#43;|-]HH[:MM[:SS]] or any valid TZ value (e.g.

Europe/Moscow or MSK-3MSD,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3). The default is hua mulan movie, GMT. Set it to interpretation an empty value to assume local timezone specified by environment variable TZ. if false, lftp does not send ABOR command but closes data connection immediately. if true, lftp will try to set up direct connection between two ftp servers.

when true, lftp sends #96;SITE IDLE' command with net:idle argument. Default is false. if true, lftp sends STAT command in FXP mode transfer to movie know how much data has been transferred. See also ftp:stat-interval. Loose Interpretation Constitution! Default is true. if true, lftp sends QUIT before disconnecting from ftp server. Default is true.

verify that data connection comes from the network address of control connection peer. This can possibly prevent data connection spoofing which can lead to hua mulan movie data corruption. Unfortunately, this can fail for Leaders: Analysis Paper sertain ftp servers with several network interfaces, when they do not set outgoing address on movie data socket, so it is disabled by default. verify that data connection has port 20 (ftp-data) on its remote end. This can possibly prevent data connection spoofing by users of remote host. Unfortunately, too many windows and even unix ftp servers forget to set proper port on data connection, thus this check is off by default. disconnect after closing data connection. This can be useful for totally broken ftp servers. Default is compare movie, false. allow server/proxy side caching for ftp-over-http protocol.

specifies http proxy for movie ftp-over-http protocol (hftp). The protocol hftp cannot work without a http proxy, obviously. Default value is taken from environment variable ftp_proxy if it starts with #96;#96;http://'', otherwise from environment variable http_proxy . If your ftp proxy requires authentication, specify user name and compare movie, password in hua mulan movie, the URL. if set to off, lftp will send password as part of compare movie URL to the proxy. Hua Mulan Movie! This may be required for loose of the some proxies (e.g. Hua Mulan! M-soft). Default is Biblical Analysis Based on Joshua, on, and lftp will send password as part of Authorization header. if set to off, lftp will try to use #96;GET' instead of #96;HEAD' for hftp protocol. While this is movie, slower, it may allow lftp to work with some proxies which don't understand or mishandle #96;#96;HEADftp://'' requests.

If set to off, lftp won't try to append #96;;type#61;' to william mckinley URLs passed to hua mulan proxy. Some broken proxies don't handle it correctly. Default is on. http:accept, http:accept-charset, http:accept-language (string) specify corresponding HTTP request headers. allow server/proxy side caching. send this cookie to custom dissertation writing service server. A closure is useful here: set cookie/ param#61;value specifies value of hua mulan Content-Type http request header for POST method. Compare Movie! Default is #96;#96;application/x-www-form-urlencoded''.

specifies http proxy. It is movie, used when lftp works over samurai color, http protocol. Hua Mulan Movie! Default value is Essay on Nursing Education Care, taken from environment variable http_proxy . Movie! If your proxy requires authentication, specify user name and custom writing, password in the URL. specifies which http method to movie use on put. specifies value of Analysis Paper on Joshua Content-Type http request header for PUT method. specifies value for Referer http request header. Hua Mulan! Single dot #96;.' expands to current directory URL. Default is compare movie, #96;.'. Set to empty string to disable Referer header. if true, lftp modifies http:cookie variables when Set-Cookie header is received. the string lftp sends in User-Agent header of hua mulan HTTP request.

specifies https proxy. Biblical Leaders: Paper On Joshua! Default value is taken from environment variable https_proxy . specifies default exclusion pattern. You can override it by --include option. mirror:order (list of patterns) specifies order of file transfers. E.g. setting this to *.sfv *.sum makes mirror to hua mulan movie transfer files matching *.sfv first, then ones matching *.sum and then all other files. Compare Movie! To process directories after other files, add */ to end of pattern list. if true, mirror will start processing of several directories in hua mulan movie, parallel when it is in parallel mode.

Otherwise, it will transfer files from a single directory before moving to other directories. specifies number of william parallel transfers mirror is movie, allowed to start. Default is 1. Leaders: Analysis On Joshua! You can override it with --parallel option. colon separated list of directories to look for modules. Can be initialized by environment variable LFTP_MODULE_PATH. Default is #96;PKGLIBDIR/VERSION:PKGLIBDIR'.

maximum number of concurrent connections to the same site. 0 means unlimited. if true, foreground connections have priority over movie, background ones and can interrupt background transfers to complete a foreground operation. disconnect from william server after that number of idle seconds. net:limit-rate (bytes per second) limit transfer rate on data connection. 0 means unlimited. You can specify two numbers separated by colon to limit download and upload rate separately.

limit accumulating of unused limit-rate. 0 means unlimited. net:limit-total-rate (bytes per second) limit transfer rate of all connections in sum. 0 means unlimited. You can specify two numbers separated by colon to limit download and upload rate separately. Note that sockets have receive buffers on them, this can lead to network link load higher than this rate limit just after transfer beginning. You can try to set net:socket-buffer to relatively small value to movie avoid this. limit accumulating of unused limit-total-rate. 0 means unlimited.

the maximum number of sequential retries of an operation without success. Biblical Leaders: A Self Paper Based On Joshua! 0 means unlimited. contains comma separated list of domains for which proxy should not be used. Default is taken from environment variable no_proxy . ignore this number of movie hard errors. Useful to compare movie login to movie buggy ftp servers which reply 5xx when there is too many users. sets the base minimal time between reconnects. Mckinley! Actual interval depends on hua mulan net:reconnect-interval-multiplier and number of seven samurai color attempts to perform an hua mulan movie operation. sets maximum reconnect interval. When current interval after multiplication by net:reconnect-interval-multiplier reachs this value (or exceeds it), it is reset back to net:reconnect-interval-base. net:reconnect-interval-multiplier (real number) sets multiplier by which base interval is multiplied each time new attempt to perform an compare movie operation fails.

When the movie, interval reachs maximum, it is reset to base value. See net:reconnect-interval-base and net:reconnect-interval-max. use given size for SO_SNDBUF and compare movie, SO_RCVBUF socket options. 0 means system default. use given size for TCP_MAXSEG socket option. Not all operating systems support this option, but linux does. sets the hua mulan, network protocol timeout. use specified file as Certificate Authority certificate.

use specified directory as Certificate Authority certificate repository. use specified file as Certificate Revocation List certificate. ssl:crl-path (path to directory) use specified directory as Certificate Revocation List certificate repository. use specified file as your private key. use specified file as your certificate.

if set to samurai color yes, then verify server's certificate to be signed by hua mulan a known Certificate Authority and not be on Certificate Revocation List. if this setting is off, get commands will not overwrite existing files and generate an error instead. Default is interpretation constitution, on. the period over which wheighted average rate is calculated to hua mulan movie produce ETA. show terse ETA (only high order parts). Default is true. maximum number of redirections. This can be useful for downloading over HTTP. Default is 0, which prohibits redirections.

the period over which wheighted average rate is calculated to be shown. The name of variables can be abbreviated unless it becomes ambiguous. Dissertation Writing Service! The prefix before #96;:' can be omitted too. You can set one variable several times for different closures, and thus you can get particular settings for a particular state. The closure is to be specified after variable name separated with slash #96;/'.

The closure for movie #96;dns:', #96;net:', #96;ftp:', #96;http:', #96;hftp:' domain variables is currently just the host name as you specify it in the #96;open' command (with some exceptions where closure is meaningless, e.g. dns:cache-size). For some #96;cmd:' domain variables the closure is compare movie, current URL without path. For other variables, it is not currently used. See examples in the sample lftp.conf . Certain commands and settings take a time interval parameter. It has the format Nx[Nx. ], where N is time amount and x is time unit: d - days, h - hours, m - minutes, s - seconds. Default unit is movie, second. E.g. 5h30m. Also the william, interval can be #96;infinity', #96;inf', #96;never', #96;forever' - it means infinite interval.

E.g. #96;sleep forever' or #96;set dns:cache-expire never'. Lftp can speed up ftp operations by sending several commands at once and then checking all the responses. See ftp:sync-mode variable. Sometimes this does not work, thus synchronous mode is the default. You can try to turn synchronous mode off and see if it works for you. Movie! It is known that some network software dealing with address translation works incorrectly in the case of several FTP commands in one network packet. RFC959 says: #96;#96;The user-process sending another command before the interpretation, completion reply would be in violation of protocol, but server-FTP processes should queue any commands that arrive while a preceding command is in progress''. Also, RFC1123 says: #96;#96;Implementors MUST NOT assume any correspondence between READ boundaries on the control connection and the Telnet EOL sequences (CR LF).'' and hua mulan movie, #96;#96;a single READ from the control connection may include more than one FTP command''. So it must be safe to send several commands at once, which speeds up operation a lot and seems to compare movie work with all Unix and VMS based ftp servers.

Unfortunately, windows based servers often cannot handle several commands in movie, one packet, and so cannot handle some broken routers. Execute given commands and don't exit. Use the given port to connect. Execute commands in compare movie, the file and hua mulan movie, exit. Execute the mckinley cause of death, given commands and exit. RFC854 (telnet), RFC959 (ftp), RFC1123, RFC1945 (http/1.0), RFC2052 (SRV RR), RFC2068 (http/1.1), RFC2228 (ftp security extensions), RFC2428 (ftp/ipv6). (ftp over ssl).

Important: Use the man command ( % man ) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

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anils essay ghost Anil's Ghost: Identity. Anil's Ghost , written by movie, Michael Ondaatje is a book about a young Sri Lankan forensic anthropologist who returns home to work with a widowed archaeologist named Sarath. While working with the mysterious man, Anil finds the body of a burn victim in a sacred, historical government site. Seven Color? Sure of the hua mulan, government's malicious intentions, Anil attempts to identify the body. Anil's Ghost by Michael Ondaatje is constitution a book about hua mulan identity. This is conceived in Anil, Sailor, Palipana and Ananda. At the age of thirteen, Anil attempted to control over her identity by gaining her brother's second, unused name: Anil. She'd hunted down the on Nursing Education Care, name like a specific lover she had seen and movie wanted, tempted by nothing else along the way.(68) She was so vehement that her attempts made her taut and furious within the family. (136) Anil never gave her family rest, which is peculiar behaviour for Sri Lankans who are always surrounded by family order. (138) The force of her desire to control her identity is so high that she even agreed to perform a sexual favour for her brother to obtain his name. Essay Education And Quality Patient? (68) She even refused to add an e at hua mulan movie, the end of the name, to make the traditionally masculine name more feminine. (136) Later in loose, Anil's life, she divorced her husband, a controlling and hua mulan movie jealous man who limited her freedom. (144) Then, through the affair with the married Cullis, she controls her love life wanting to break free of the confines of marriage.

Her relationship was wound tightly that Cullis never had any control over compare movie her, and hua mulan according to Anil, her identity. (264) At age eighteen, Anil moved to Canada where she spent the next fifteen years with no connection to her home except for a sarong her parents gave her at Christmas. (10) When she finally returns she ignores her family and dives into her work. With this action, Anil shows an compare movie, extreme dislike for her home and her culture that she removes herself from. Movie? In the book Anil cuts her finger on a surgical blade, she then cleans it thoroughly, tapes it, and then goes to william cause of death, the doctor for fear of hua mulan, infection. This shows how dirty she thinks Sri Lanka is. (38) Anil refuses to be defined as anything including a Sri Lankan or a Canadian for fear of people controlling her. At a young age, Anil entered a swimming contest held by the Mount Lavina Hotel.

However on page ten, Michael Ondaatje explains, As far as Sri Lankan families were concerned, if you were a well known cricketer you could breeze into a career in business on the strength of color, your spin bowling or one inning at the Royal-Thomian match. Hua Mulan? Anil rejects her heritage by interpretation constitution, being a swimmer instead of something more traditional. Then, when she returns to Sri Lanka, she rejects the title The Swimmer, connecting it with her family and the only real connection she holds with Sri Lanka. Anil even refuses to be defined as a Canadian. Just as she was getting into the culture, she goes back to hua mulan, Sri Lanka.

Anil then contradicts herself by agreeing to go swimming with Sarath, the Archaeologist she is working with. Custom Writing? She enters the water ungracefully with a belly flop to which Sarath says Ah, a professional.(47) She lost her identity as a swimmer because she rejected it. Like her father, Anil would have made a great doctor, a fate she rejects when she becomes a forensic anthropologist, a job she is obsessed with. Hua Mulan Movie? (47) As a part of custom service, her job description, Anil identifies bodies and on page 55, Ondaatje says in her work Anil turned bodies into representatives of race and age and movie place. Secondly, Anil spends the whole book working with Sarath trying to identify the body of a burn victim found in a government owned. Anil is certain that this body could prove the government's malevolent actions in on Nursing Education and Quality, the current war in Sri Lanka. Anil names this body Sailor: And who was this skeleton? In this room, among these four she was hiding among the unhistorical dead.

To fetch a dead body: what a curious task! To cut down the corpse of an unknown hanged man and then bear the body of the animal on one's back. Movie? something dead, something buried, something rotting away? Who is compare movie he? This representative of movie, all those lost voices. Biblical Paper On Joshua? To give him a name would name the hua mulan, rest. (55) In this she renders her own quest to control her identity, irrelevant. Anil feels awful that Sailor does not have a name so she disregards the fact that he, being dead, has no control over seven color his identity. Movie? At one point in time, Palipana was one of the most well renowned archaeologists in the world. However, during the time that he taught Sarath he was turned graciously out of the establishment. (81) This was a fate that started when Palipana wrote a thesis of william, rock graffiti that awed archaeologists and historians. It was this thesis that was widely known until one of four of Palipana's trusted proteges wrote that there was no real evidence in his thesis. Movie? After this there were a series of debates that then ended in the destruction of Palipana's reputation. (81) Palipana was the strictest of historians, who had always relied on meticulous research. (81) and a man who defined himself by his work.

The loss of his job destroyed his identity and ruined it even more when his eyesight started to slowly deteriorate. (84) Palipana is a man who only addresses another person by a physical gesture. You, Palipana would say. Never using anyone's name, as if that were immaterial to interpretation of the, the discussion or search. (94). He refuses to address anyone's identity. At one point in time, Palipana was known for his brilliance. Now, the forest dwelling, blind epigraphist sends Anil and Sarath to Ananda to rebuild Sailor's face. This was not a wise decision.

When Anil and hua mulan Sarath are looking to reconstruct Sailor's face, they go to Ananda, an artist and a miner who is nearly always saturated with alcohol. Although he receives the highest praise from Palipana, Ananda does not successfully reconstruct Sailor's face. Instead he puts his lost emotions for his dead wife into his work and the end product is not Sailor. (168) At first Anil recognises him as an seven color, artist, however, since he is now a miner; that is hua mulan movie now his only identity. This is strange behaviour from a woman who spent her whole life avoiding a single identity. Loose Interpretation Of The Constitution? Ananda, in his own way, is lost in his identity.

He drinks every single moment of the hua mulan movie, day since the death of his wife Sirissa. He is Essay on Nursing Education Patient so lost without her that once he makes the hua mulan movie, fake reconstruct of Sailor's face, he attempts to compare movie, take his own life only to have Anil save him. (195) Identity is a major theme in Michael Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost . This is in Anil's quest to control her identity, Sailor's lack of identity and hua mulan Anil's want to give him one, as well as Palipana's and Ananda's loss of identity. A person cannot have just one identity. People are filled with diverse personalities that change in such a way that they cannot be defined as one thing.

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essay japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of movie, oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.

According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period. Such newer works describe the samurai, political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and movie production, urbanization and Patient commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.”

What should readers make of hua mulan, these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and A Self Based conflict.

During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).

Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the movie, country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. Interpretation Of The. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.

At his death in movie 1597, he had only one infant son. Compare Movie. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in hua mulan movie northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo).

Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. Loose Interpretation. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for movie 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the loose interpretation, late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.

The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of movie, political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the william mckinley cause of death, land available for redistribution for hua mulan movie themselves. Of the remaining lands, the compare movie, shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of hua mulan, Tokugawa political rule. William Mckinley Cause Of Death. In its policies, the hua mulan, shogunate was careful to william mckinley cause, balance demands on hua mulan, daimy#333; with privileges granted to seven color, them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the hua mulan, daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of william mckinley of death, castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of hua mulan movie, Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. Interpretation Constitution. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and hua mulan movie children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the Essay on Nursing Patient, same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit.

They issued their own law codes and administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency. The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. Movie. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to give a good portion of Leaders: A Self Analysis, their products in hua mulan movie tax to support the ruling classes.

Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Seven. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the movie, necessary evil of the loose constitution, economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.

But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of movie, population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.

At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by Essay Education and Quality Care about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600.

Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and hua mulan land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of compare movie, peasants and hua mulan movie local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on of death, the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the hua mulan, years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the Leaders: A Self Analysis Paper Based on Joshua, intensity with which they worked it. Hua Mulan. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and Biblical A Self Paper Based the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in movie the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.

The population at the time of the william mckinley cause, first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in movie 1720 was around 31 million. Seven Color. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over movie, 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Seven. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to hua mulan, an economic surplus.

That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by william of death such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. Hua Mulan Movie. The road system in Biblical Based on Joshua particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.

Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in movie western and eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and Biblical A Self Analysis Paper Based his immediate successors worked to systematize the hua mulan movie, minting and use of color, coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for hua mulan a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Dissertation Writing. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to movie, and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.

Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades.

The emergence of castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and Biblical Leaders: A Self Analysis Paper supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the hua mulan, late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in custom dissertation service and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas.

Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to movie, fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and Patient Care dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and movie common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in mckinley of death 1580. Movie. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.

Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Writing Service. Osaka, always a major city, grew from hua mulan, 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of compare movie, half a million by the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for movie the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in and Quality prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.

This process was controlled by hua mulan merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Loose Of The Constitution. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in hua mulan farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to Essay on Nursing Education Care, benefit from the hua mulan, growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and mckinley cause save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in movie the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. Writing. They repeatedly tried to shore up the hua mulan, political and moral order by compare movie elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Hua Mulan. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and mckinley of death strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.

More broad-minded thinkers such as the hua mulan movie, philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to Biblical A Self Based, positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite.

The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in hua mulan the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to dissertation writing, provide relief during times of hua mulan movie, crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the Biblical A Self Analysis Paper Based, troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art. While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to movie, the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and seven samurai color dressing in finery that exceeded that of hua mulan movie, samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to compare movie, wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.

However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and hua mulan movie paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Compare Movie. Yet they had to suppress their anger and hua mulan movie keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is loose of the, starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of hua mulan movie, it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of dissertation service, theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and hua mulan movie story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.

Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in cause most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the hua mulan movie, licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.

Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to loose interpretation of the, meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners.

Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to hua mulan, disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of seven color, honor and sacrifice inherent in hua mulan such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the interpretation of the, act on stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the hua mulan movie, treatment of color, shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against hua mulan, proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to william mckinley of death, the fore the issue of movie, cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?

Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the Essay Care, most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to movie, write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and seven samurai color occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of hua mulan movie, Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and on Nursing learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.

These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for movie books was thus extremely high. Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.

While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. Interpretation. The data simply is hua mulan, not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the custom dissertation writing service, dimensions of literacy.

Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and hua mulan movie generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. Seven Color. These cases occurred among the movie, lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is Essay on Nursing Education Care, unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. Hua Mulan Movie. It was certainly the source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.

As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. Compare Movie. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Hua Mulan Movie. Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of william mckinley cause of death, urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of hua mulan, a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to compare movie, fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Movie. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. William Mckinley Of Death. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.

This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in movie world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the mckinley, nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in hua mulan movie the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of mckinley cause, 1839-1842. Movie. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by compare movie the Russians in movie the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.

In the dissertation writing service, end, shogunal officials agreed, in movie spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the writing, United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in hua mulan movie particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to writing, overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on hua mulan, foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of A Self Paper on Joshua, these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.

Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into hua mulan, Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the dissertation, restoration of the hua mulan, emperor and compare movie the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and hua mulan movie daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the Education and Quality Patient, old. Although its exact structure was unclear in hua mulan movie early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and on Nursing and Quality rich political, economic, and movie cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Loose Constitution. Indeed, the story of movie, how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of A Self on Joshua, Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in movie early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Cause Of Death. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only movie, a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and samurai autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. Movie. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in dissertation writing service terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the hua mulan movie, cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo.

By contrast, the Essay Care, most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to movie, be found in the northeast, in Biblical Leaders: what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in hua mulan movie the Tokugawa period was comprised of the Essay on Nursing and Quality Patient, large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in hua mulan movie certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in seven samurai the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of hua mulan movie, sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of Essay Education and Quality, a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. Movie. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000.

This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in and Quality Patient Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on hua mulan, merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in samurai color the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for hua mulan Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is Leaders: A Self on Joshua, given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is hua mulan, prohibited without written permission from the loose of the, Program for hua mulan Teaching East Asia.