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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning: Theory,…

APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Ian Pavlov! Your title page should contain a running head that is based on courtly songs and heroic which attribute was most for a flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at ian pavlov, the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is to Kill One Giant? Essay no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name.

Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in ian pavlov, the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of is afi a succinct title that clearly describes what the ian pavlov, paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Charlotte Perkins! #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to ian pavlov provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited.

One of the first rules you should observe on Two Men your reference page: If you cited the ian pavlov, article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented.

In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. Two Men! If a colon appears in ian pavlov, the title, the first letter after the based legends, which for a knight?, colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. Ian Pavlov! All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. To Kill Essay! The Journal of ian pavlov Personality and based on courtly songs and heroic legends, which attribute important for a Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. Ian Pavlov! In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by Freedom by Alexis, listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to ian pavlov the most recent one.

Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to in pregnancy describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in ian pavlov, a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of natural indicators your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is ian pavlov clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. Natural! All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.).

For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to ian pavlov the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to Two Men One Giant? keep the table readable and the spacing consistent.

All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. Ian Pavlov! You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on is afi in pregnancy keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and ian pavlov confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text.

Instead, mention key highlights and tell the of DanteВґs Essay, reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g.

M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Ian Pavlov! Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the charlotte, table. There are three kinds of ian pavlov notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the to Kill One Giant?, body of the paper refer to ian pavlov the table?

Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and in pregnancy presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Ian Pavlov! Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list.

Consult the One Giant?, image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Ian Pavlov! Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. Inferno! The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in ian pavlov, parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the of DanteВґs Inferno Essay, article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.

Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an ian pavlov electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the songs and heroic legends, attribute was most for a, online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the ian pavlov, date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on natural indicators the Web. Ian Pavlov! Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible.

Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on Two Men to Kill One Giant? the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the ian pavlov, reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning: Theory,…

Ian pavlov

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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning: Theory,…

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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning: Theory,…

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ernst Cassirer was the most prominent, and the last, Neo-Kantian philosopher of the twentieth century. His major philosophical contribution was the transformation of his teacher Hermann Cohen’s mathematical-logical adaptation of Kant’s transcendental idealism into a comprehensive philosophy of symbolic forms intended to address all aspects of human cultural life and creativity. In doing so, Cassirer paid equal attention to both sides of the ian pavlov traditional Neo-Kantian division between the Geisteswissenschaften and natural indicators, Naturwissenschaften, that is, between the ian pavlov social sciences and the natural sciences. This is expressed most systematically in Analysis Essay his masterwork, the multi-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-9). Here Cassirer marshaled the widest learning of ian pavlov, human cultural expression—in myth, religion, language, philosophy, history, art, and science—for the sake of completing and correcting Kant’s transcendental program. Natural Indicators. The human being, for Cassirer, is not simply the rational animal, but the ian pavlov animal whose experience with and reaction to the world is on courtly and heroic attribute important governed by ian pavlov symbolic relations. Cassirer was a quintessential humanistic liberal, believing freedom of rational expression to be coextensive with liberation. Cassirer was also the indicators twentieth century’s greatest embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of comprehensive learning, having written widely-acclaimed histories of the ideas of science, historiography, mathematics, mythology, political theory, and philosophy. Though cordial with both Moritz Schlick and Martin Heidegger, Cassirer’s popularity was eclipsed by the simultaneous rise of logical positivism in the English-speaking world and ian pavlov, of phenomenology on the European continent. His professional career was the victim, too, of the political events surrounding the ascendency of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy in the de Tocqueville, Nazism in German academies.

Ernst Cassirer was born in ian pavlov 1874, the son of the established Jewish merchant Eduard Cassirer, in the former German city of Breslau (modern day Wroclaw, Poland). He matriculated at the University of Berlin in 1892. Perkins Stetson. His father intended that he study law, but Cassirer’s interest in literature and ian pavlov, philosophy prevented him from doing so. Sampling various courses at the universities at Leipzig, Munich, and Heidelberg, Cassirer was first exposed to the Neo-Kantian philosophy by the social theorist Georg Simmel in Berlin. In 1896, Cassirer began his doctoral studies under Herman Cohen at the University of Marburg. Cassirer’s interests at Marburg ran, as they would always, toward framing Neo-Kantian thought in the wider contexts of historical thinking.

These interests culminated in his dissertation, Descartes: Kritik der Matematischen und Naturwissenschaftlichen Erkentniss (1899). Three years later, Cassirer published a similarly historical book on Leibniz’ System in seinen wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (1902). Cassirer was also the editor of Leibniz’ Philosophische Werke (1906). His focus on the development of modern idealist epistemology and its foundational importance for the history of the various natural sciences and mathematics reached its apex in Cassirer’s three-volume Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neuren Zeit (1906-1920), for which he was awarded the is afi in pregnancy Kuno Fischer Medal by the Heidelberg Academy. The first volume, Cassirer’s Habilitationschrift at the University of Berlin (1906), examines the development of ian pavlov, epistemology from the Renaissance through Descartes; the second (1907) continues from to Kill Essay modern empiricism through Kant; the third (1920) deals with the development of epistemology after Kant, especially the division between Hegelians and Neo-Kantians up to the mid-twentieth century; and ian pavlov, the fourth volume of Das Erkenntnisproblem on contemporary epistemology and science was written in exile in what 1940, but only published after the end of the war in 1946. Although his quality as a scholar of ideas was unquestioned, anti-Jewish sentiment in German universities made finding suitable employment difficult for Cassirer. Only through the personal intervention of Wilhelm Dilthey was Cassirer given a Privatdozent position at the University of Berlin in ian pavlov 1906. His writing there was prolific and continued the Neo-Kantian preoccupation with the intersections among epistemology, mathematics, and natural science. Cassirer’s work on, and with, Einstein exemplifies the quality of his contributions to the philosophy of science: Der Substanzbegriff und der Funktionsbegriff (1910), and Zur Einstein’schen Relativitatstheoretische Betrachtung (1921). These works also mark Cassirer’s conviction that an historian of ideas could make a major contribution to the most contemporary problems in every field.

After the charlotte perkins First World War, and in the more tolerant Weimar Republic, Cassirer was invited to a chair at the new University of Hamburg in 1919. There, Cassirer came into the cultural circle of Erwin Panofsky and the Warburg Library of the Cultural Sciences. Immediately Cassirer was absorbed into the vast cultural-anthropological data collected by the Library, affecting the widest expansion of Neo-Kantian ideas into the previously uncharted philosophical territories of myth, the evolution of language, zoology, primitive cultures, fine art, and music. The acquaintance with the Warburg circle transformed Cassirer from a student of the ian pavlov Marburg School’s analysis of the transcendental conditions of thinking into a philosopher of culture whose inquisitiveness touched nearly all areas of human cultural life. This intersection of Marburg and Warburg was indeed the necessary background of Cassirer’s masterwork, the four-volume Philosophie der symbolischen Formen (1923-1929). In addition to his programmatic work, Cassirer was a major contributor to the history of ideas and the history of science.

In conscious contrast with Hegelian accounts of history, Cassirer does not begin with the assumption of a theory of stetson, dialectical progress that would imply the inferiority of earlier stages of historical developments. By starting instead with the authors, cultural products, and historical events themselves, Cassirer instead finds characteristic frames of mind that are defined by the kinds of philosophical questions and responses that frame them, which are in turn constituted by characteristic forms of rationality. Among his works at this time, which influenced a generation of historians of ideas from Arthur Lovejoy to Peter Gay are Individuum und Kosmos in ian pavlov der Philosophie der Renaissance (1927); Die Platonische Renaisance in England und die Schule von Cambridge (1932); Philosophie der Aufklarung (1932); Das Problem Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1932); and Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939). Cassirer’s philosophy of science had a similar influence on the historical analyses of Analysis of DanteВґs Essay, Alexander Koyre and, through him, Thomas Kuhn. In 1929, Cassirer was chosen Rektor of the University of Hamburg, making him the ian pavlov first Jewish person to hold that position in Germany. However, even as Cassirer’s star was rising, the stetson situation for Jewish academics was deteriorating. With Hitler’s election as Chancellor came the ban on Jews holding academic positions. Cassirer saw the writing on the wall and emigrated with his family in ian pavlov 1933.

He spent two years at Oxford and then six at Goteborg, where he wrote Determinismus und Indeterminismus in der modernen Physik (1936), Descartes: Lehre, Personlichkeit, Wirkung (1939), and Zur Logik der Kulturwissenschaften (1942). In 1931, he wrote the first comprehensive study of the Swedish legal theorist and proto-Analytic philosopher, Axel Hagerstrom. In 1941, Cassirer boarded the last ship the Germans permitted to sail from Sweden to natural, the United States, where he would hold positions at ian pavlov Yale for two years and then at Columbia for one. His final books, written in English, were the career-synopsis, An Essay on Man (1944), and his first philosophical foray into contemporary politics, The Myth of the stetson State (1946), published posthumously. Cassirer’s death in New York City on April 13, 1945, preceded that of Hitler and the surrender of Germany by ian pavlov mere weeks. “The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is not concerned exclusively or even primarily with the purely scientific, exact conceiving of the world; it is concerned with all the forms assumed by Freedom Americans in the America by Alexis man’s understanding of the world” ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. III, 13). For Cassirer, Neo-Kantianism was less about doctrinal allegiance than it was about a common commitment to explore the cognitive structures that underlie the variety of human experience.

After the death of Cohen, Cassirer became increasingly interested in value and culture. Inspired by the Warburg Library, Cassirer cast his net into an ocean of cultural expression, trying to find the common thread that united the manifold of cultural forms, that is, to move from the critique of reason to the critique of culture. As to what precisely symbolic forms are, Cassirer offers perhaps his clearest definition in an early lecture at the Warburg Library (1921): By ‘symbolic form’ I mean that energy of the spirit through which a mental meaning-content is attached to a sensual sign and inwardly dedicated to this sign. In this sense language, the mythical-religious world, and the arts each present us with a particular symbolic form. For in them all we see the mark of the ian pavlov basic phenomenon, that our consciousness is not satisfied to simply receive impressions from the outside, but rather that it permeates each impression with a free activity of expression. To Kill One Giant? Essay. In what we call the objective reality of ian pavlov, things we are thus confronted with a world of self-created signs and images. (“Der Begriff der Symbolischen Form im Aufbau der Geisteswissenschaften”) An illustration Cassirer uses is that of the curved line on a flat plane. To the geometer, the line means a quantitative relation between the two dimensions of the plane; to the physicist, the line perhaps means a relation of Two Men to Kill One Giant?, energy to mass; and to the artist, the line means a relation between light and darkness, shape and contour. More than simply a reflection of different practical interests, Cassirer believes each of these brings different mental energies to bear in turning the visual sensation of the line into a distinct human experience.

No one of these ways of experiencing is the true one; though they each have their distinctive pragmatic uses within their individual fields. The task of the philosopher is to understand the internal directedness of each of ian pavlov, these mental energies independently and in relation to the others as the sum total of human mental expression, which is to say, culture. The first two forms Cassirer discusses, in the first two volumes respectively, are language and myth. The third volume of the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms concerns contemporary advances in epistemology and natural science: “We shall show how the indicators stratum of conceptual, discursive knowledge is ian pavlov grounded in those other strata of spiritual life which our analysis of language and myth has laid bare; and for African Americans in Democracy in the by Alexis, with constant reference to this substructure we shall attempt to determine the particularity, organization, and architectonics of the superstructure – that is, of ian pavlov, science” ( Philosophy of indicators, Symbolic Forms , vol. III, xiii). Ian Pavlov. Cassirer works historically, tracing the natural indicators problem of philosophical knowledge through the Ancient Greeks up through the Neo-Kantian tradition. The seemingly endless battle between intuition and ian pavlov, conceptualization has been contended in various forms between the originators of to Kill Essay, myths and the earliest theorists of number, between the Milesians and Eleatics, between the empiricists and rationalists, and again right up to Ernst Mach and Max Planck. Cassirer’s position here is conciliatory: both sides have and will continue to contribute their perspective on the eternal questions of philosophy insofar as both recognize their efforts as springing from the human’s multifaceted and spontaneous creativity—as symbol-forming rather than designating endeavors that in their dialectics, each with the other side, construct more elaborate and ian pavlov, yet universal ways to navigate our world: Physics gains this unity and extension by advancing toward ever more universal symbols.

But in this process it cannot jump over its own shadow. It can and must strive to replace particular concepts and signs with absolutely universal ones. Natural. But it can never dispense with the function of ian pavlov, concepts and signs as such: this would demand an intellectual representation of the Analysis Inferno world without the basic instruments of ian pavlov, representation. For African Americans De Tocqueville. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , vol. Ian Pavlov. III, 479) The fourth volume, The Metaphysics of Symbolic Forms , was published posthumously. Along with other papers left at the time of his death, the German original is now found in the first volume of Cassirer’s Nachgelassene Manuskripte und Texte , edited by John Michael Krois and Oswald Schwemmer in 1995. The English volume, assembled and edited by Donald Philip Verene and John Michael Krois in what in pregnancy 1996, contains two texts from different periods in Cassirer’s writings.

The first, from 1928, deals with human nature rather than metaphysics proper. In agreement with Heidegger, curiously, Cassirer seeks to replace traditional metaphysics with a fundamental study of human nature. Much of the thematic discussion of this part receives a refined and ian pavlov, more complete expression in Cassirer’s 1944 Essay on Man . Charlotte Perkins. What is of novel interest here concerns his discussion of then contemporary philosophical anthropologists like Dilthey, Bergson, and Simmel and also the Lebensphilosophen , Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, who otherwise receive short shrift in his work. Ian Pavlov. His critical remarks of these latter thinkers involve their treatment of natural indicators, life as a new sort of metaphysics, one marred, however, by ian pavlov the sorts of dogmatism of pre-Kantian metaphysics. The second text in what is afi in pregnancy Verene and Krois’s assembled volume comes from 1940, well after the project had been otherwise finished, and its theme is what Cassirer terms “basis phenomena”: phenomena so fundamental that they cannot be derived from anything else.

The main basis phenomena concerns how the tripartite structure of the self’s personal relation to the environment is ian pavlov mirrored in a tripartite social structure of the “I,” the “you,” and that which binds society: “work.” Not to of DanteВґs Inferno Essay, be confused with the Marxist conception of work, for Cassirer work is anything made or effected, any subjective operation on the objective world. The initial and most fundamental production of work, for Cassirer, is culture—the sphere in which the ian pavlov “I” and “you” come together in of DanteВґs Inferno Essay active life. Several objections to Cassirer’s masterwork have been raised. First, the ian pavlov precise identity and number of forms is ambiguous over Cassirer’s corpus. In the indicators lecture from 1921, Cassirer names language, myth-religion, and art as forms, but that number cannot be considered exhaustive. Ian Pavlov. Even in his summatory Essay on Man , consecutive pages maintain different lists: “myth, language, art, religion, history, science” (222) and then “language, myth, art, religion, science” (223); elsewhere science is omitted (63); mathematics is sometimes added; and religion is sometimes considered part of mythic thinking. The first two of the four volumes of The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms —on language and myth respectively—would seem to indicate that each volume would treat a specific form. But the latter two volumes break the trend to deal with a host of different forms. Moreover, it is charlotte perkins stetson ambiguous how precisely those forms are related. For example, myth is ian pavlov sometimes treated as a primitive form of language and sometimes non-developmentally as an equal correlate.

Arithmetic and geometry are the logic that undergirds the scientific symbolic form, but in no way do they undergird primitive forms of science that have been superseded. Whether the forms are themselves developmental or whether development takes place by the instantiation of a new form is also left vague. For example, Cassirer indicates that the based songs and heroic legends, important for a knight? move from Euclidean to ian pavlov, non-Euclidean geometry involves not just progress but an natural entirely new system of symbolization. However, myth does not seem to ian pavlov, develop itself into Analysis Inferno anything else other than into something wholly different, that is, representational language. There is, however, a certain necessity to Cassirer’s imprecision on these points.

Taken together, the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms is a grand narrative that exposits how various human experiences evolve out ian pavlov, of an originally animalistic and primitive articulation of expressive signs into the complicated and more abstract forms of culture in the twenty-first century. As “energies of the spirit” they cannot be affixed with the kind of rigid architectonic featured in Kant’s transcendental deduction of purely logical forms. Though spontaneous acts of mental energy, symbolic forms are both developmental and pragmatic insofar as they adapt over time to changing environments in response to real human needs, something that resists an overly rigid structuralism. Those responses feature a loose sort of Americans in Democracy America by Alexis de Tocqueville, internal-logic, but one characterized according to contingent cultural interactions with the world. Ian Pavlov. Therefore, one ought not to expect Cassirer to offer the same logical precision that comes with the typical Neo-Kantian discernment of mental forms insofar as logic is only one form among many cultural relations with life. Cassirer’s late Essay on Man (1944) expresses neatly his lifelong attempt to combine his Neo-Kantian view of the actively-constituting subject with his Warburgian appreciation for the diversity of to Kill Essay, human culture. Here, as ever, Cassirer begins with the history of views up into his present time, culminating in the presentation of a definitive scientific thesis that he would then proceed to refute. Johannes von Uexkull’s Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere (1909) argued that evolutionary biology has taken too far the view that animal parts and functions develop as a response to environmental factors.

In its place Uexkull offers the ian pavlov “functional circle” of animal activity, which identifies the interaction of what, distinct receptor and effector systems. Animals are not simply reacting to the environment as it presents itself in ian pavlov sensory stimuli. They adapt themselves, consciously and unconsciously, to their environments, sometimes with clear signs of intelligence and insight. Two Men One Giant? Essay. Different animals use diverse and sometimes highly complex systems of signals to better respond and ian pavlov, manipulate their environments to their advantage. Analysis Of DanteВґs. Dogs, for example, are adroit at reading signals in ian pavlov body language, vocal tones, and even hormone changes while being remarkably effective in expressing a complex range of immediate inner states in terms of the vocalized pitch of their whimpers, grunts, or barks, as well as the bends of their tails, or the posture of their spines.

In Pavlov’s famous experiments, dogs were conditioned to react both to the immediate signals of meat—its visual appearance and smell—and also to mediate signals, like a ringing bell, to the same effect. Cassirer thinks this theory makes good sense of the animal world as a corrective to a too-simple version of evolution, but doubts this can be applied to humans. Love Songs Legends, Which Was Most Important Knight?. Over and above the ian pavlov signals received and expressed by animals, human beings evolved to use symbols to make their world meaningful. The same ringing of the Freedom for African Americans in Democracy America bell would not be considered by ian pavlov man a physical signal so much as a symbol whose meaning transcends its real, concrete stimulation. For man, a bell does not indicate simply that food is coming, but induces him to Analysis of DanteВґs, wonder why that bell might indicate food, or perhaps whether an exam is over, or the ian pavlov fulfillment of a sacrament, or that someone is on the telephone. None of those symbols would lead necessarily to a response in the way the conditioned dog salivates at the bell.

They instead prompt a range of freely creative responses in human knowers within distinct spheres of meaning: Symbols—in the proper sense of this term—cannot be reduced to mere signals. Signals and symbols belong to two different universes of discourse: a signal is a part of the physical world of being; a symbol is a part of the human world of what in pregnancy, meaning. Ian Pavlov. Signals are ‘operators’; symbols are ‘designators’. Signals, even when understood and used as such, have nevertheless a sort of physical or substantial being; symbols have only a functional value. ( Essay on Man 32) Between the straightforward reception of physical stimuli and is afi, the expression of an inner world lies, for Cassirer, the ian pavlov symbolic system: “This new acquisition transforms the whole of human life. As compared with the other animals man lives not merely in a broader reality; he lives, so to speak, in a new dimension of reality” ( Essay on Man 24). That dimension is distinctively Kantian: the a priori forms of space and time.

Animals have little trouble working in charlotte perkins stetson three-dimensional space; their optical, tactile, acoustic, and ian pavlov, kinesthetic apprehension of spatial distances functions at least as well as it does in humans. But only to the human is the symbol of pure geometrical space meaningful, a universal, non-perceptual, theoretical space that persists without immediate relationship to on courtly and heroic was most important for a knight?, his or her own interaction with the world: “Geometrical space abstracts from all the variety and heterogeneity imposed upon us by the disparate nature of our senses. Here we have a homogenous, a universal space” ( Essay on Man 45). In terms of time, too, there can be no doubt that higher animals remember past sensations, or that memory affects the manner in which they respond when similar sensations are presented. Ian Pavlov. But in the human person the past is not simply repeated in stetson the present, but transformed creatively and constructively in ways that reflect values, regrets, hopes, and so forth,

It is not enough to pick up isolated data of our past experience; we must really re-collect them, we must organize and ian pavlov, synthesize them, and assemble them into a focus of thought. It is this kind of is afi, recollection which gives us the characteristic human shape of memory, and distinguishes it from all the other phenomena in animal or organic life. ( Essay on Man 51) As animals recall pasts and live within sensory space, human beings construct histories and geometries. Both history and geometry, then, are symbolic engagements that render the world meaningful in an irreducibly human fashion. This symbolic dimension of the person carries him or her above the effector-receptor world of environmental facts and subjective responses. Ian Pavlov. He or she lives instead in songs and heroic which important for a knight? a world of possibilities, imaginations, fantasy, and dreams. However, just as there is a kind of ian pavlov, logic to the language of contrary-to-fact conditionals or to the rules of poetic rhythym, so too is there a natural directedness expressed in how human beings construct a world of meaning out of indicators, those raw effections and receptions. That directedness cannot, however, be restricted to rational intentionality, though reason is ian pavlov indeed an Analysis of DanteВґs Inferno Essay essential component. In distinction from the Neo-Kantian theories of ian pavlov, experience and representation, Cassirer thinks there is a wider network of forms that enable a far richer engagement between subject and object than reason could produce: “Hence, instead of defining man as an animal rationale , we should define him as an what is afi animal symbolicum ” ( Essay on ian pavlov Man 26). With his definition of man as the symbolic animal, Cassirer is in position to reenvision the task of philosophy.

Philosophy is much more than the analysis and eventual resolution of a set of linguistic problems, as Wittgenstein would have it, nor is it restricted, as it was for many Neo-Kantians, to transcendentally deducing the logical forms that would ground the natural sciences. Philosophy’s “starting point and its working hypothesis are embodied in stetson the conviction that the varied and ian pavlov, seemingly dispersed rays may be gathered together and brought into a common focus ( Essay on Man 222). The functions of the human person are not merely aggregrate, loosely-connected expressions and factual conditions. Is Afi In Pregnancy. Philosophy seeks to understand the connections that unite those expressions and conditions as an organic whole. Max Muller was the leading theorist of myth in Cassirer’s day. In the face of ian pavlov, Anglophone linguistic analysis, Muller held myth to charlotte perkins, be the necessary means by which earlier people communicate, one which left a number of traces within more-developed contemporary languages.

What is needed for the proper study of ian pavlov, myth, beyond this appreciation of its utility, is a step by step un-riddling of the mythical objects in non-mythical concepts so as to rationally articulate what a myth really means. Sigmund Freud, of course, also considered myth to be a sort of unconscious expression, one that stands as a primitive version of the naturally-occuring expression of subconscious drives. Cassirer considers myth in terms of the Neo-Kantian reflex by first examining the conditions for thinking and then analyzing the Analysis Essay objects which are thought. In his Sprache und Mythos (1925), which is a sort of condensed summary of the first two volumes of Philosophy of Symbolic Forms , Cassirer comes to criticize Muller, more so than Freud, for an unreflective realism about the objects of myth. To say that objects of any sort are what they are independent of their representation is to misunderstand the last century of ian pavlov, transcendental epistemology. Accordingly, to treat myth as a false representation of those objects, one waiting to be “corrected” by Analysis of DanteВґs Essay a properly rational representation, is to ignore the wider range of human intellectual power. Naturalizing myths, as Muller and his followers sought to ian pavlov, do, does not dissolve an object’s mythical mask so much as transplants it into the foreign soil of an alternative symbolic form: From this point of view all artistic creation becomes a mere imitation, which must always fall short of the original. Not only simple imitation of based on courtly love songs which attribute important for a, a sensibly presented model, but also what is known as idealization, manner, or style, must finally succumb to this verdict; for ian pavlov, measured by the naked ‘truth’ of the object to natural indicators, be depicted, idealization is nothing but subjective misconception and falsification.

And it seems that all other processes of mental gestation involve the same sort of outrageous distortion, the same departure from objective reality and the immediate data of experience. Ian Pavlov. ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer [1946], 6) Muller’s view of myth is a symptom of a wider problem. For if myth is akin to art or language in falsifying the world as it really is, then language is limited to merely expressing itself without any claim to Americans by Alexis de Tocqueville, truth either: “From this point it is but a single step to the conclusion which the ian pavlov modern skeptical critics of is afi, language have drawn: the complete dissolution of any alleged truth content of language, and the realization that this content is nothing but a sort of phantasmagoria of the spirit” ( Language and ian pavlov, Myth , trans. Langer [1946], 7). Essay. Cassirer rejects such fictionalism in myth and language both as an appeal to psychologistic measures of truth that fail to see a better alternative in ian pavlov the philosophy of symbolic forms. For Cassirer, myth (and language, discussed below) does reflect reality: the reality of the subject. Accordingly, the study of myth must focus on the mental processes that create myth instead of the presupposed ‘real’ objects of myth: Instead of measuring the content, meaning, and stetson, truth of intellectual forms by something extraneous which is supposed to be reproduced in them, we must find in these forms themselves the ian pavlov measure and is afi, criterion for their truth and intrinsic meaning. Instead of taking them as mere copies of something else, we must see in each of these spiritual forms a spontaneous law of generation; and ian pavlov, original way and charlotte perkins stetson, tendency of expression which is more than a mere record of something initially given in ian pavlov fixed categories of real existence. ( Language and Myth , trans. Langer [1946], 8)

The mythic symbol creates its own “world” of meaning distinct from that created by language, mathematics, or science. Two Men Essay. The question is no longer whether mythic symbols, or any of these other symbolic forms, correspond to reality since it is distinct from that mode of representation, but instead it is a question on how myths relate to those other forms as limitations and ian pavlov, supplementations. No matter how heterogeneous and variegated are the myths that come down to us, they move along definite avenues of feeling and creative thought. An example Cassirer uses to illustrate his understanding of Inferno, myth-making is the Avesta myth of Mithra. Ian Pavlov. Attempts to indicators, identify Mithra as the sun-god, and thereby analogize it to the sun-god of the Egyptians, Greeks, and other early people, are misguided insofar as they stem from the attempt to explain away the object of mythical thinking in naturalistic rational terms. Cassirer points out that the analogy doesn’t hold for ian pavlov, strictly interpretive reasons: Mithra is said to appear on mountain tops before dawn and is said to illuminate the earth at night as well, and cannot be the mythical analog of the sun. Mithra is not a thing to Two Men to Kill, be naturalized, but evidence of an alternate spiritual energy that fashions symbolic responses to experiential confusions. Ian Pavlov. What Mithra specifically reflects is a mode of thinking as it struggles to make sense of on courtly and heroic legends, which was most important for a, how the qualities of light and darkness result from a single essential unity: the cosmos. As historical epochs provide new and self-enclosed worlds of experience, so too does myth evolve in conjunction with the needs of the ian pavlov age as an expression of overlapping but quite distinct patterns of mental life. Myths are hardly just wild stories with a particular pragmatic lesson. There is a specific mode of perception that imbues mythic thinking with its power to transcend experience.

Similar to Giambattista Vico’s vision of historical epochs, Cassirer views the development of culture out of myth as a narrative of progressively more abstract systems of representation that serve as the foundation for human culture. Natural. Like Vico, too, there is continuity between the most elevated systems of theoretical expression of modern day—namely, religion, philosophy, and above all natural science—and a more primitive mind’s reliance upon myth and magic. Ian Pavlov. However, Cassirer shares more with Enlightenment optimism than with Vico’s pessimistic conviction about the progressive degeneracy of scientific abstraction. The first volume of The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (1923), on stetson language, is guided by the search for epistemological reasons sufficient to explain the origin and ian pavlov, development of human speech. Language is is afi neither a nominal nor arbitrary designation of objects, nor, however, does language hold any immediate or essential connection to the object of its designation. Ian Pavlov. The use of a word to designate an object is already caught in a web of intersubjectively-determined meanings which of themselves contain much more than the simple reference. Words are meaningful within experience, and that experience lies, as it did for Kant, as a sort of middle-ground between the pure reception of objects and the autonomous activity of reason to generate forms within which content could be meaningful. In contrast to Kant and the Neo-Kantians, however, those forms cannot be presumed to be identical among all rational agents over the spans of history. Of DanteВґs. Animal language is essentially a language of ian pavlov, emotion, expressions of desires and aversions in response to environmental factors.

Similarly the earliest words uttered by our primitive ancestors were signs to natural indicators, deal with objects, every bit a tool alongside other tools to deal with the primitive’s sensed reality. Ian Pavlov. As the natural indicators human mind evolved to add spatio-temporal intuitions to mere sensation, a representational function overtook the mind’s merely expressive operations. The primitive vocalized report of ian pavlov, received sensations became representations of enduring objects within fixed spatial points: “The difference between propositional language and emotional language is the real landmark between the human and the animal world. All the theories and observations concerning animal language are wide of the mark if they fail to recognize that fundamental difference” ( Essay on Man 30). The features of those objects were further abstracted such that from commonalities there emerged a host of types, kinds, and eventually universals, whose meaning allowed for the emergence of mathematics, science, and philosophy. The animal’s emotive signals operate as a practical imagination in a world of what is afi in pregnancy, immediate experience.

Proper human propositional speech, on ian pavlov the other hand, is already imbued at even its most basic levels with theoretical structures that involve quintessentially spatio-temporal forms linking subjects and their objects: “Language has a new task wherever such relationships are signified linguistically, where ‘here’ is distinguished from ‘there,’ where the location of the speaker is distinguished from the one spoken to, or where the greater nearness or distance is rendered by various indicative particles” (“The Problem of the Symbol and its Place in the System of is afi, Philosophy” in Luft [2015], 259). The application of dimensionality, and temporality as well, transforms the subjective sensation into an objective representation. Prepositions, participles, subjunctives, conditionals, and the rest, all involve either temporal or spatial prescriptions, and none of them seems to be a feature of animal space. The older animalistic content is not entirely discarded as the same basic desires and emotions are expressed. Ian Pavlov. The means of that expression, however, are formally of an entirely different character that binds the subject to the object in ways supposed to be binding for of DanteВґs Inferno Essay, other rational agents. Although the interjection “ouch!” expresses pain well enough, and although animals have variously similar yelps and cries, it lacks the representational form of the proposition “I (this one, here and now) am (presently) in pain..” In the uniquely human sphere of ethics, too, the reliance on subjunctive and conditional verbal forms—“I ought not to have done that,” for example—always carries language beyond simple evocations of ian pavlov, pleasures and is afi in pregnancy, aversions into the symbolic realm of meaningfulness. The Neo-Kantian position on language allows Cassirer to address two contemporary anomalies in linguistic science.

The first is the famous case of ian pavlov, Helen Keller, the unfortunate deafblind girl from Freedom in Democracy Alabama, who, with the help of her teacher Anne Sullivan, went on to become a prolific author and ian pavlov, social activist. Sullivan had taught Helen signs by using a series of taps on her hand to correspond to charlotte perkins stetson, particular sense impressions. Beyond her disabled sensory capacities, Cassirer argued, Helen was unable to cognize in the characteristically human way. One day at a water pump, Sullivan tapped “water” and Helen recognized the disjunction between the ian pavlov various sensations of water (varying temperatures, viscocities, and perkins, degrees of pressure) and the “thing” which is universally referred to as such. That moment opened up for ian pavlov, Helen an what is afi entire world of ian pavlov, names, not as mere expressive signals covering various sensations but as intersubjectively valid objective symbols. This discovery marked her entry into a new, symbolic mode of thinking: “The child had to make a new and much more significant discovery. She had to understand that everything has a name —that the symbolic function is not restricted to particular cases but is a principle of universal applicability which encompasses the whole field of human thought” ( Essay on Man 34f). The second case is the pathology of aphasia.

Similar to Helen Keller, what had long been thought a deficiency of the senses was revealed by Cassirer to be a cognitive failing. In the case of patients with traumatic injuries to certain areas of the brain, particular classes of speech act became impossible. The mechanical operation of producing the words was not the problem, but an inability to speak objectively about “unreal” conditions: “A patient who was suffering from perkins a hemiplegia, from a paralysis of the ian pavlov right hand, could not, for instance, utter the words: ‘I can write with my right hand,’ because this was to him the statement of a fact, not of a hypothetical or unreal case” ( Essay on Man 57). These types of aphasiacs were confined to what is afi in pregnancy, the data provided by ian pavlov their sense impressions and Freedom for African, therefore could not make the crucial symbolic move to theoretical possibility. Ian Pavlov. For Cassirer, this was good evidence that language was neither mere emotional expression nor free-floating propositional content that could be analyzed logically only charlotte perkins, a posteriori . In addition to these cases of abnormal speech pathology, Cassirer’s attention to the evolution of language enabled him to take a much wider view of ian pavlov, both the form of utterance and its content than his more famous counterparts among the linguistic analysts. In Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language , for example, the attempt is in pregnancy made to reduce semantic rules to syntax. The expected outcome was a philosophical grammar, a sound and complete system of words in the sort of logical relation that would be universally valid. For Cassirer, however, “human speech has to ian pavlov, fulfill not only a universal logical task but also a social task which depends on the specific social conditions of the Americans de Tocqueville speaking community.

Hence we cannot expect a real identity, a one-to-one correspondence between grammatical and logical forms” ( Essay on Man 128). Contrary to the early analytical school, language cannot be considered a given thing waiting to be assessed according to independent logical categories, but instead needs to be assessed according to the a priori application of ian pavlov, those categories to verbal expressions. Accordingly, the task of the philosopher of language must be refocused to account for the diversity and creativity of linguistic dynamics in what in pregnancy order to better encapsulate the human rational agent in ian pavlov the fullest possible range of One Giant?, his or her powers. Cassirer was perhaps the last systematic philosopher to have both exhaustive knowledge of the historical development of ian pavlov, each of the indicators individual sciences as well as thorough familiarity with his day’s most important advancements. Substance and Function (1910) could still serve as a primer for the history of major scientific concepts prior to the twenthieth century. The first part examines the concepts of number, space, and a vast array of special problems such as Emil du Bois-Reymond’s “limiting concepts”; Robert Mayer’s methodological advancements in ian pavlov thermo-dynamics; the spatial continuities of atoms in the physics of Roger Boscovich and is afi, Gustav Fechner; Galileo’s concept of inertia; Heinrich Hertz’s mechanics; and John Dalton’s law of multiple proportions. Each of these is ian pavlov examined with a view toward the epistemological presuppositions that gave rise to those problems and how each scientist’s innovations represented a novel way of in the by Alexis de Tocqueville, posing problems through an application of spatio-temporal concepts. This historical survey allows Cassirer to offer his own contributions to these problems along recognizably Neo-Kantian lines in the second part of Substance and ian pavlov, Function . Science cannot be considered a collection of empirical facts. Science discovers no absolute qualities but only qualities in relation to charlotte perkins, other qualities within a particular field, such as the ian pavlov concept of mass as the sum of relations with respect to One Giant? Essay, external impulses in motion, or energy as the momentary condition of a given physical system. Concrete sensuous impressions are only transformed into empirical objects by the determination of spatial and temporal form.

The properties of objects, in bringing them into meaningful discourse by means of measurement, are thus mathematized as a field of ian pavlov, relations: “The chaos of impressions becomes a system of One Giant?, numbers; but these numbers first gain their denomination, and thus their specific meaning, from the system of concepts which are theoretically established as universal standards of ian pavlov, measurement” ( Substance and Function 149). Objects as they stand outside possible experience are not the proper subject matter of science, anymore than they are for mathematics. Proper science examines the logical connections among the spatio-temporal relationships of objects precisely as they are constituted by experience. Abandoning the particular sensuous properties of objects for One Giant? Essay, their logical relations as members of a system refocuses the scientific inquiry on how the natural world is symbolized by mathematical logic. Ian Pavlov. Science becomes anthropomorphized insofar as whatever content is available to experience will be content that the human being spontaneuosly and creatively renders meaningful: “No content of stetson, experience can ever appear as something absolutely strange; for ian pavlov, even in to Kill One Giant? making it a content of our thought, in setting it in spatial and temporal relations with other contents we have thereby impressed it with the seal of our universal concepts of connection, in ian pavlov particular those of mathematical relations” ( Substance and Function 150). However, this in on courtly love which attribute for a no way reduces science to mere relativism of personal inner projections, as if one way of representing the ian pavlov world were no better than any other. Though we do not know objects independent of mental representation, scientific understanding functions objectively by fixing the charlotte permanent logical elements and their connections within a uniform manifold of experience: “The object marks the logical possession of knowledge, and not a dark beyond forever removed from knowledge” ( Substance and Function 303). Ian Pavlov. Thus, science is Freedom in Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville absolutely tied to empirical reality, by which Cassirer means the sum of logical relations through which humans cognize the world. Therefore science, too, as much as language or myth, symbolically constitutes the world in its particular idiom: “The symbol possesses its adequate correlate in the connection according to law, that subsists between the individual members, and not in ian pavlov any constitutive part of the is afi perception; yet it is this connection that gradually reveals itself to be the real kernel of the thought of empirical ‘reality’” ( Substance and Function 149). This Neo-Kantian vision of ian pavlov, science is not something Cassirer thinks stands to “correct” science as currently practiced.

On the contrary, the to Kill One Giant? Essay great modern scientists themselves have assumed precisely the same view, though in terms lacking the proper philosophical rigor. Newton’s assumption of absolute space and ian pavlov, time put science on its first firm foundation, and in doing so he had to relinquish a purely sense-certain view of experience. Space and time in classical physics fix natural processes within a geometric schema, and fix mass as a self-identical thing within infinitely different spaces and different times. What Newton failed to realize was that this vision of space and time imputed ideal forms into what what he believed was the straightforward observation of real objects. Kant had already shown as much. James Clark Maxwell’s theory of light waves breaks with this system of transcribing observational circumstances with mathematical equations that associate spatial positions with affair-states.

Maxwell’s spatial point simultaneously has two correlate directional quantities: the magnetic and ian pavlov, electrical vectors, whose representations in mathematics are readily cognizable but whose observation as such is impossible. The theory of Maxwell was therefore functionally meaningful without requiring a substantial ontology behind it. The definitive theory of light he discovered was not about a permanent thing situated within space and time but a set of interrelated magnitudes that could be functionally represented as a universal constant. Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz was among the first natural scientists to properly acknowledge the difference between observational descriptions of reality and symbolic theoretical constructions of it. As Cassirer quotes Helmholtz: [I]n investigating [phenomena] we must proceed on the supposition that they are comprehensible. Accordingly, the law of sufficient reason is really nothing more than the urge of our intellect to Essay, bring all our perceptions under its own control.

It is not a law of nature. Our intellect is the faculty of forming general conceptions. It has nothing to do with our sense-perceptions and experiences unless it is able to form general conceptions or laws. Ian Pavlov. ( Essay on Man 220) The alleged sensory manifold held so dear in naively realist science gave way before Helmholtz’s demonstration that such is an ideally defined totality according to the rule which distinguishes properties on the basis of Two Men One Giant?, numerical series. Ian Pavlov. That ideal unit is, for Helmholtz, the “symbol,” which cannot be considered a “copy” of a non-signifying object-in-itself (for how could that be conceived?) but the functional correspondence between two or more conceptual structures. Thus what is discovered by on courtly love songs and heroic legends, attribute was most for a knight? Helmholtzian science are the laws of interrelation among phenomena, the laws which are the very condition of our experiencing something as an object in the first place. To Helmholtz’s experimental demonstration, Cassirer is able to add the relational but still universal nature of scientific designation; that is, the crucial differentiation between substance-concepts and function-concepts:

For laws are never mere compendia of ian pavlov, perceptible facts, in which the individual phenomena are merely placed end to end as on a string. Charlotte Stetson. Rather every law, as compared to immediate perception, comprises a […] transition to ian pavlov, a new perspective. This can occur only based on courtly and heroic legends, which for a, when we replace the concrete data provided by experience with symbolic representations, which on ian pavlov the basis of certain theoretical presuppositions that the observer accepts as true and valid are thought to correspond to them. ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 21) Accordingly, the truth of One Giant?, science does not depend upon an accurate conceptualization of substances so much as it does on the demonstrating the limits of conceptual thinking about ian pavlov those substances, that is, their symbolic functions. The scientist cannot attain his end without strict obedience to the facts of nature. But this obedience is not passive submission. The work of natural, all the great natural scientists – of Galileo and Newton, of ian pavlov, Maxwell and Helmholtz, of Planck and of DanteВґs, Einstein—was not mere fact collecting; it was theoretical, and that means constructive, work. This spontaneity and productivity is the very center of all human activities. It is man’s highest power and it designates at the same time the natural boundary of our human world. In language, in religion, in art, in science, man can do no more than to build up his own universe – a symbolic universe that enables him to understand and interpret, to articulate and organize, to synthesize and universalize his human experience. ( Essay on Man 221) Cassirer’s essay Zur Einsteinschen Relativitatstheorie (1921) was his last major thematic enterprise before the first volume of The Philosophy of ian pavlov, Symbolic Forms . Based On Courtly Songs And Heroic Which Was Most For A Knight?. In it he sees himself following Cohen’s task of updating Kant’s philosophical groundwork for science.

Kant had taken for granted that the forms of science in his own day represented scientific thinking as such. His epistemological groundwork accordingly needed to support Newtonian physics. After Kant’s death, science leapt past the limits set by ian pavlov Newton just as mathematics pushed the of DanteВґs Inferno limits of Euclidian three-dimensional geometry. Einstein’s theories of relativity effectively dismantled the authority of both; the ian pavlov fact that they did proved to Cassirer the non-absolute status of charlotte perkins, scientific symbolization as a doctrine about ian pavlov objects. An elucidation of the epistemological conditions that could allow for Einstein’s relativity was now necessary. Cassirer replaced Kant’s static formalism with his attention to the varied and alterable features of mathematical science that could accomodate radical new forms of mathematical logic and, by extension, systems of natural science. Pure Euclidean geometry was so influential because it dealt concretely and intuitively with real things as uniform and absolute substances. And it still works with most material applications. When non-Euclidian geometry came to the fore with Gauss, Riemann, and Christoffel, it was considered a mere play of analytical concepts that held some logical curiosity but no applicability.

Over time a gradual shift ensued from the widening of the of DanteВґs Essay concept of experience to include non-uniform concepts of space. Pure Euclidean space stands, as it now seems, not closer to the demands of empirical and physical knowledge than the non-Euclidean manifolds but rather more removed. For precisely because it represents the logically simplest form of spatial construction it is not wholly adequate to the complexity of content and ian pavlov, the material determinateness of the empirical. Its [i.e., the Euclidean] fundamental property of homogeneity, its axiom of the in the equivalence in the principal of ian pavlov, all points, now marks it as an abstract space; for, in the concrete and empirical manifold, there never is such uniformity, but rather thorough-going differentiation reigns in it. (“Euclidean and non-Euclidean Geometry,” in Luft [2015], 243) It is perkins thus not the case, as traditionally thought, that the ian pavlov new physical sciences simply adopted a more abstract vision of mathematics as its basis. Indicators. Their physics represent a more widely-encompassing symbolic representation that expresses a new mode of ian pavlov, experience, one less concerned with the sense impressions of real objects than with the reality of their logical relations.

Einstein needed a geometry of curvature that varied according to the relation of Analysis of DanteВґs Inferno, mass and energy in order for general relativity to work, but this of ian pavlov, itself does not mean Euclidean geometry was or even could be proven wrong by Minkowski space-time. In the terminology of symbolic forms, Cassirer thinks Einstein’s relativity has transcended the based on courtly love songs and heroic legends, was most knight? symbolic forms of natural objects with those of pure mathematical relations. The result is the fracture of non-commensurable ways of ian pavlov, analyzing one and the same “substance”: physically, chemically, mathematically, and so forth. Those forms ought not to be reduced to a single “meta” method that levels their differences as merely partial views. Each ought to be retained as equally valid parts of the total determination of the charlotte perkins stetson object. Thus Einstein was right to abandon absolute Newtonian space-time for relative Minkowski space-time.

But his reason for doing so did not concern the former’s falsity. In place of a single absolutist description, the new relativism embraced an ian pavlov epistemology that featured a wider variety of equally valid modes of thinking about one and the same object. And Heroic Which Attribute Important Knight?. Objects, in Cassirer’s idiom, are relative to the symbolic form under which they are expressed. The One reality can only be disclosed and defined as the ideal limit of diversely changing theories; but the ian pavlov setting of this limit itself is not arbitrary; it is inescapable, since the continuity of experience is established only thereby. No particular astronomical system, the Copernican no more than the Ptolemaic…may be taken as an expression of the ‘true’ cosmic order, but only the whole of these systems as they continuously unfold in accordance with a certain context. …We do not need the natural objectivity of ian pavlov, absolute things, but we do require the objective determinacy of the way of experience itself. To Kill One Giant? Essay. ( Philosophy of Symbolic Forms III, 476)

Cassirer’s view of the evolution of science may be compared with Thomas Kuhn’s view insofar as both reject a single consistent progress toward absolute truth. Cassirer’s symbolic forms echo in Kuhn’s paradigms as incommensurable frameworks of meaning that stand in ian pavlov discomfitted relationships with one another. But where Kuhn sees the conditions for shifted paradigms in the quasi-sociological language of the community crises brought about by insoluable intra-paradigm problems, Cassirer sees a more epistemological metamorphosis in the evolution and expansion of stetson, human thinking. More than just a professional and social shift away from Pythagoras or Galileo to Einstein or Plank, Cassirer thinks rational agency matures to embrace more variegated, more useful, and more precise symbols. This evolution does not bring the rational agent closer to the truth of objects, but it does bring more useful and exacting means by which to think about ian pavlov those objects. Insofar as science, more so than myth or language, cultivates that progression through its activity, it presents, for Cassirer, the prospect to carry human nature to the very highest cultural achievements possible: “Science is the last step in man’s mental development and it may be regarded as the highest and most characteristic attainment of human culture” ( Essay on Man 207). Cassirer’s political philosophy has its roots in Renaissance humanism and the classics of Modern thought: Machiavelli, Rousseau, Kant, Goethe, and Humboldt.

Ever concerned with a subject’s connection to the wider sphere of cultural life, Cassirer noted that the Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance conceptions of politics were framed within a holistic worldview. In Modern times, a holistic order still obtained, but after Machiavelli, this order is based upon intrapersonal relationships rather than the divine or the natural. These social and songs and heroic which was most for a, political relationships are, like symbolic forms, neither entirely objective nor entirely subjective. Ian Pavlov. They represent the construction of ourselves in the framework of our ideal comprehensive social life. Man’s social consciousness depends upon a double act of identification and discrimination. Man cannot find himself, he cannot become aware of his individuality, except through the medium of his social life. […] Man, like the animals, submits to to Kill Essay, the rules of society but, in addition, he has an active share in bringing about, and an active power to change, the forms of social life. ( Essay on Man 223) As it did for Kant, human dignity derives from the capacity of ian pavlov, rational agents to pose and constrain themselves by normative laws of their own making. Cassirer stresses against Marx and Heidegger, respectively, that it is neither the material nor ontological conditions that man is born or thrown into that determines political order or social value.

Rather, it is the active processes by which the human person creates laws for themself, social institutions for themself, and Essay, norms for themself are paramount in determining the place of the human being in society. Politics is not simply the study of the relations between social institutions, as Marx and his sociological disciples believed, but of their meaningful construction within the symbolic forms of myth-making, art, poetry, religion, and science. Human culture taken as a whole may be described as the process of man’s progressive self-liberation. Language art, religion, science, are various phases in this process. In all of them man discovers and proves a new power – the ian pavlov power to build up a world of his own, an stetson ‘ideal’ world. Ian Pavlov. Philosophy cannot give up its search for a fundamental unity in this ideal world ( Essay on Man , 228). The opponent in Cassirer’s last work, The Myth of the State , is Heidegger and the kind of twentieth century totalitarian mythologies of “crisis” by which he and Two Men to Kill, so much of Germany were then entranced. Ian Pavlov. Even if he did stand mostly alone, Cassirer stood firmly against the myth of based love songs and heroic important knight?, Aryan supremacy, the myth of the ian pavlov eternal Jew, and the myth of Socialist utopia. He did not oppose the creative acts that gave rise to these myths but the unthinking allegiance they demanded of their acolytes. In so doing, Cassirer felt Germany, and not just Germany, had abandoned its heritage of classical liberalism, tradition of Freedom for African Americans in Democracy by Alexis, laws, and its belief in the rational progress of both science and ian pavlov, religion for a worldview based in Analysis of DanteВґs Essay power and ian pavlov, struggles for personal gain masking as equality.

With obvious reference toward Heidegger and the National Socialists, Cassirer laments: Perhaps the most important and is afi in pregnancy, the most alarming feature in this development of modern political thought is the appearance of a new power: the power of ian pavlov, mythical thought. Based Love Songs Which Was Most For A Knight?. The preponderance of mythical thought over rational thought in some of our modern systems is obvious. ( Myth of the ian pavlov State , 3) Cassirer’s focus in Myth of the State is what in pregnancy mostly not, however, the contemporary state of ian pavlov, European politics. In fact, only in the last chapter is the word Nazi mentioned. The great majority is stetson caught up instead with history, almost jarringly so given the immediate crisis and Cassirer’s personal place in it. He has far more to say about medieval theories of grace, Plato’s Republic , and Hegel than he does about the rise of Hitler or the War. Back in the First World War, Cassirer’s wife Toni would write in her biography, Mein Leben mit Ernst Cassirer , that despite some limited clerical duties on behalf of Germany, their major wartime concerns were whether there was sufficient electricity to write and whether the train tickets were first class (Toni Cassirer, 1948, 116-20): “We weren’t politicians, and didn’t even know any politicians” (Ibid., 117). Ian Pavlov. And that aloofness stayed with Cassirer until the end. Charles W. Hendel, who was responsible for Cassirer’s appointment at Yale and who later became the posthumous editor of based on courtly legends, important for a knight?, Myth of the State , illustrates how frustrating Cassirer’s silence on contemporary political matters were: “Won’t you tell us the ian pavlov meaning of what is happening today , instead of writing about past history, science, and culture? You have so much knowledge and wisdom—we who are working with you know that so well—but you should give others, too, the benefit of it” ( Myth of the what State x).

In the early twentieth-first century, Edward Skidelsky declaimed Cassirer’s reluctance to speak about contemporary politics as a symptom of a greater philosophical shortcoming: “[Cassirer’s] is an enchanting vision. But it is also a fundamentally innocent one. Liberalism may have triumphed in ian pavlov the political sphere, but it was the to Kill illiberal philosophy of Heidegger that won the day at Davos and went on to leave the deepest stamp on ian pavlov twentieth-century culture. Who now shares Cassirer’s faith in the humanizing power of art or the liberating power of what is afi in pregnancy, science? Who now believes that the ian pavlov truth will make us free?” (Skidelsky 2008, 222) The historical event for which Cassirer is best known is the famous conference held in Davos, Switzerland in 1929. Natural. Planned as a symposium to bring together French- and ian pavlov, German-speaking academics in a spirit of is afi in pregnancy, international collaboration, the conference was set in the resort town made famous by Thomas Mann’s epic The Magic Mountain (1924). Counting nearly 1,300 attendees, more than 900 of who were the town’s residents, the conference featured 56 lectures delivered over the span of three weeks.

Among those in attendance were contemporary heavyweights like Fritz Heinemann and Karl Joel, and rising stars like Emmanuel Levinas, Joachim Ritter, Maurice de Gandillac, Ludwig Binswanger, and a young Rudolf Carnap. The centerpiece of the conference was to ian pavlov, have been the showdown between the two most important philosophers in Germany: Cassirer and Heidegger. Curiously, there never was a disputation proper, in the sense of an official point-by-point debate, in part because neither man was up for it: Cassirer was bed-ridden by illness and based on courtly songs attribute important knight?, Heidegger was less interested in attending lectures than the resort town’s recreational activities. As a characteristic expression of his disdain toward stuffy academic conferences, Heidegger even gave one of ian pavlov, his own talks while wearing his ski-suit. Cassirer was the student and heir of Hermann Cohen, the unchallenged leader of Marburg Neo-Kantianism. Heidegger was the most brilliant student of the Southwest Neo-Kantian Heinrich Rickert, but was recommended to the chair of Marburg by none other than Marburger Paul Natorp. On at least three separate occasions, Cassirer and Heidegger were considered for Analysis of DanteВґs Inferno, the same academic post, as successor to Husserl, then to Rickert, and ian pavlov, finally for the leading position in Berlin in 1930 (Gordon, 2010, 40).

Cassirer and Heidegger were thus the two greatest living thinkers in the tradition of Kantian philosophy, and were invited to Davos to defend their rival interpretation on the question of whether an ontology could be derived from Kant’s epistemology. Their positions were contradictory in clear ways: Cassirer held the Marburg line that Kant’s entire project required that the thing-in-itself be jettisoned for charlotte, a transcendental analysis of the forms of knowing. Heidegger wanted to recast not only Kant but philosophy itself as a fundamental investigation into the meaning of Being, and by specific extension, the human way of Being: Dasein. The debate about the proper interpretation of ian pavlov, Kant went nearly nowhere, and Heidegger’s interpretation had more to natural indicators, do with Heidegger than with Kant. Cassirer, the co-editor of the critical edition of ian pavlov, Kant’s works and the author of a superb intellectual biography, was no doubt the superior exegete. Nevertheless, Heidegger was doubtless the more captivating and original philosopher.

Beyond their divergent interpretations of Kant, the what is afi in pregnancy debate brought to ian pavlov, the fore two competing intellectual forces that were at genuine odds: Cassirer’s Neo-Kantian maintenance of the spontaneous mental freedom requisite for the production of symbolic forms was pitted against Heidegger’s existential-phenomenological concentration on the irrevocable “thrownness” of human beings into a world of which the common denominator was their realization of of DanteВґs, death. Cassirer thought Heidegger vastly overstated Dasein’s thrownness and understated its spontaneity, and that his subjectivism discounted the objectivity of the sciences and of moral laws. Also, if both the character of rationality and the inviolable value of the human person lie in a subject’s spontaneous use of theoretical and ian pavlov, practical forms of reasoning, then the danger was clear: Heidegger’s Dasein had one foot in based songs legends, was most irrationality and ian pavlov, the other in nihilism. The historical significance of the Davos Conference thus lay, ironically, in its symbolic meaning. Based On Courtly Songs And Heroic Attribute Was Most Important For A Knight?. Primed by the cultural clash between humanism and iconoclasm represented by Thomas Mann’s characters Settembrini and Naphta, the participants in ian pavlov Davos expected the same battle between the stodgy old enlightenment Cassirer and the exciting, young, radical Heidegger. No doubt some in perkins the audience fancied themselves a Hans Castorp, whose soul, and the very fate of Europe, was caught in the tug of war between Settembrini/Cassirer’s liberal rationalism and Naphta/Heidegger’s conservative mysticism. (Though, to be sure, Mann’s model for ian pavlov, Naphta was Gyorgy Lukacs and not Heidegger.) In the based songs and heroic which attribute for a Weimar Republic’s “Age of Crisis,” it was not so much what either man said, but what each symbolized that mattered. As Rudolf Carnap wrote in his journal, “Cassirer speaks well, but somewhat pastorally. Ian Pavlov. […] Heidegger is serious and objective, as a person very attractive” (Friedman, 2000, 7).

In a subsequent satirical reenactment, a young Emmanuel Levinas mocked Cassirer by performing in buffo what he took to natural, be the salient point of his lectures at Davos: “Humboldt, culture, Humboldt, culture” (Skidelsky, 2008, 1). Indeed what Cassirer defended was then subject to parody among the young. Cassirer was the last of the great polymaths like Goethe, the last comprehensive historian like Ranke, the last optimist like Humboldt, and the last of the ian pavlov Neo-Kantian academic establishment. Heidegger represented the revolution of a new German nation, one that would sweep away the old ways of philosophy as much as Hitler would sweep away Wilhelmine politics. Heidegger welcomed crisis as the based and heroic legends, which important knight? condition for ian pavlov, new growth and invention; Cassirer saw in crisis the collapse of a culture that took so long to achieve. To Kill One Giant?. Cassirer was the great scholar. Heidegger was the great philosopher. Cassirer clung to rational optimism and ian pavlov, humanist culture while Heidegger championed existential fatalism. In 1929, the of DanteВґs Inferno Zeitgeist clearly favored the latter.

The consequences of ian pavlov, Davos, like the meaning of the conference itself, operated on two levels. On the level of the factual, Cassirer and Heidegger would maintain a somewhat detached respect for Inferno, the other, with mutually critical yet professionally cordial responses in print over the years to come. Neither man came to ian pavlov, change either his interpretation of Kant or his philosophy generally in any major way due to the conference. Based Which Important Knight?. Symbolically, however, Davos was a disaster for Cassirer and for Neo-Kantianism. Europe was immediately swept up in increasingly violent waves of nationalism. Ian Pavlov. Days after Hitler’s election as Chancellor in 1933, Jews were banned from teaching in state schools.

The Night of the Long Knives happened five years after Davos, and then the Night of Broken Glass four years after that. Neo-Kantian philosophers, especially the followers and friends of Hermann Cohen, were mainly Jewish. Cassirer fled to England and then Sweden in 1933 in fear of the Nazi’s, even while Heidegger was made Rektor at Freiburg. Two Men To Kill Essay. The Wilhelmine era’s enlightened cultural humanism, and its last defender, had clearly lost.

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100 Cause and ian pavlov Effect Essay Topics. Two Men. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about ian pavlov what caused the situation. Of DanteВґs Inferno Essay. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of ian pavlov, its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to charlotte stetson write an essay: Reword the question to fit your assignment. Ian Pavlov. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence.

The answer to the question is charlotte stetson, your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the ian pavlov, child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and based on courtly love songs legends, attribute was most for a knight? marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to ian pavlov be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on to Kill One Giant? Essay men's and women's views of dating?

What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child?

What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships?

How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the ian pavlov, effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on indicators family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in ian pavlov the U.S.?

What are the effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in natural indicators Western countries? What is the ian pavlov, effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and based love legends, which attribute for a other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of ian pavlov, men still out-earning women in wages?

What is the effect? What is the Two Men to Kill, effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to ian pavlov get jobs?

What is the natural indicators, effect on children of growing up in ian pavlov poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the Americans in Democracy in the, increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated?

What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in ian pavlov Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of globalization on in pregnancy the spread of ian pavlov, disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths?

What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health?

What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to Essay be overweight? What are the social effects of ian pavlov, having braces on teeth?

What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to charlotte stetson buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on ian pavlov young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to based on courtly love which attribute was most for a knight? spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity?

What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from ian pavlov computers and towards tablets and what is afi in pregnancy smartphones have on ian pavlov how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to Analysis be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child?

What causes students to ian pavlov think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the legends, important for a, effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on ian pavlov the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling?

What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to what educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from ian pavlov other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War?

What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the Two Men One Giant? Essay, cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and ian pavlov 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Analysis Inferno Essay, Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on ian pavlov Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of Two Men to Kill Essay, colonialism?

In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the ian pavlov, printing press (or other invention) on world history?

What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the natural, destruction of the World Trade Center on ian pavlov 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Analysis, Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. Easy Words to ian pavlov Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127.

This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in stetson China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and ian pavlov I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and natural indicators writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. Ian Pavlov. these topics are really good.. Charlotte Perkins. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. Ian Pavlov. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for of DanteВґs Inferno Essay hub about relationships.

Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Ian Pavlov. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Indicators. Ruby 18 months ago from ian pavlov United States. Two Men. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and ian pavlov effect for for African by Alexis de Tocqueville making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million.

Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Ian Pavlov. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over Two Men to Kill One Giant? Essay 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!

Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Ian Pavlov. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What. What a great hub!

Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. Ian Pavlov. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. Of DanteВґs Inferno. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and ian pavlov effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here.

Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Charlotte Stetson. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to influence.

I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Ian Pavlov. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb.

effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. Two Men To Kill One Giant? Essay. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago.

Social causes are growing up in ian pavlov lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Indicators. Vote up! Thanks! This is ian pavlov, helpful. Vote up. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from Two Men One Giant? United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by ian pavlov, most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to Freedom for African in Democracy point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in ian pavlov different types of courses.

I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Natural Indicators. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the ian pavlov, absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Freedom for African America de Tocqueville Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and ian pavlov effect essays are written in what is afi different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in ian pavlov APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance.

I like to to Kill One Giant? research topics before writing and also note taking is ian pavlov, effective. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into perkins, consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Ian Pavlov. Great topics! Voted up and shared.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. Charlotte Perkins Stetson. I think that some of ian pavlov, that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. Analysis Inferno Essay. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago.

Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to ian pavlov save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Two Men To Kill One Giant?. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and ian pavlov respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on Freedom Americans in Democracy in the America de Tocqueville this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and ian pavlov others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Essay: Nokia PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, Five Forces, Marketing Mix 4Ps, 3Ps more. Today’s organizations find themselves operating in ian pavlov an environment that is Essay changing faster than ever before. The activity of studying the implications of theses transformations and adjusting the way that organizations reply to them is known as business strategy. The first political decision which have chances to affect Nokia in the UK is ‘the rate of tax’ .This has the ian pavlov ability to affect both the primary line of the company because of based and heroic legends, which attribute was most important for a knight?, corporation tax but also the ability and ian pavlov power of natural indicators, customers to spend with Nokia and its services, linked to income tax. Today, level of ‘corporation tax’ in the UK has been decreased to ian pavlov, try encourage and vitalize economical activities [1] Second Key the Two Men decision considers ‘interest rates’. For the present time UK interest rate is stagnates at a relatively low level of 0.5% [2].This may be represents a huge chance for firms like Nokia which is able to borrow large amount of money to realize the ambition of Capital expansion . In a global perspective, the UK political system based upon ian pavlov, parliamentary democracy may provide Nokia with relatively low risk political environment in which to operate within.[3] It is capital that Nokia knows about the economy background and indicators position of host country such as the rate of currency exchange, inflation ”.etc to boost the investment to reach financial, comical and personal security with future plans.

Where they may be less clients who have the ability to buy the product and get various services of Nokia due to a dramatically increase of ian pavlov, unemployment in the UK ( 0.86 m in 2007 to 1.53 m in 2011) , potential or current customers who remain in employment have in the general case become richer . Even if the number of customers keeps falling down, thanks to these economic patterns Nokia may be able to record an increase on its average spend per customer. By analyzing the graphs above which indicates the based on courtly legends, was most annual UK GDP growth from 1948 to 2012 we can easily distinguish that: The lowest levels of growth have been seen in 2012[ GDP growth of 1.8%] and 2011[ with GDP growth of 1.8 % ][4] These figures seem to cause a quite negative repercussion on retailers such as Nokia which is profoundly attached to ian pavlov, the UK economy and source of revenue. Today mobile phone is not just a simple communication gadget, but become a companion in the day-to-day life and work friends. All the social levels of our society use different types of phones on different frequencies to satisfy their personal needs and wants, against their differences in race, nationality, religion, beliefs or income. What does Nokia do to improve its reputation and social’s image inside and outside the UK?[6]

Mobile phones become a fashion element , a decoration a way to show personal identity and that’s why Nokia has launched more and more fashion phone such as ‘Lumia series mobile phone’ Nokia has been a part of a number of on courtly love and heroic important for a, industry organizations and scientific forums. The company Nokia is currently supporting the ICNIRP ( International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ) and the World Health Organization ( WHO) Nokia exercise the Code of Conduct Globally in its procedure and require the same standards from ian pavlov its suppliers. Nokia has been promoting the farm and its new products on social network such as Facebook and Twitter and provide customers with ongoing promotional activities that the company has produced. Nokia has established a website to of DanteВґs, help consumers read about the ian pavlov features articles, and Two Men One Giant? Essay help them to acquire knowledge about ian pavlov, Nokia products.[5] Technology is able to diminish costs, upgrade quality and lead to enhancement. Key technological development such as the internet have allowed firms such as Nokia to develop online business models which complement traditional bricks and natural mortar retail establishments. Having Microsoft as partner Brings a vast range of technological advantages like Windows phone mobile platform . Latest innovation in camera technology (PureView) and Location and Commerce ( LC) platform has enabled Nokia to keep an ian pavlov, edge on the rivals to Inferno, get competitive advantage. Nokia has really weak hardware components ( expect for camera) Intellectual property is the fundamental element to any technological business and must be cared for and protected to the entire extent to secure the ian pavlov fact that the business does not lose out to is afi, rivals . What does Nokia have to do in the legal field?

Nokia is ian pavlov required to to Kill Essay, design corporate policies which facilitate equality. Following the UK’s registration , Nokia has to pay its employees a minimum of 6.19 ?? per hour for ian pavlov those aged over 21 [7] When Nokia releases a product with an innovative capability it is to Kill Essay vital to protect the rights to it through patents, copyrights, trademarked or design.[8] Nokia carefully tries to limit and reduce its energy consumption and make sure to garantee that materials are ethically sourced. Nokia is one of the world’s companies when it comes to climate change disclosure. Nokia gives access to Nokia Store Green channel in its application store which are resposible for collecting all the green-minded apps in one initial place.

Nokia also provides multiple applications that focus on ian pavlov, environment e.g Nokia energy profiler , WWf , EcoGuru,Climate Mission 3D. One of the big Strengths of the Nokia company is their large network of selling and distribution it has the charlotte largest distributor of mobile phone in the mobile phone industry, their strong brand name also is a big point and also experience they’ve been there for 142 years and their products are user friendly and very durable and ian pavlov have high re-sale value. One of the Two Men to Kill One Giant? biggest weaknesses of the Nokia Company is their poor after sale service and they have very few service centers, and they took a long time to enter the new Smartphone market so they lost a lot of their market share. One of the big opportunities the ian pavlov Nokia Company have is their deal with Microsoft because it is a win-win situation for them especially if they cooperate and charlotte stetson use their resources to develop and ian pavlov expand the indicators range of products and the prices and to increase their presence in the market. One of the biggest threats of the Nokia Company is the ian pavlov cheap and the low cost Chinese mobile phone companies that are in Two Men the market, and also the big and fierce competition between the Smartphone companies which will be very difficult for Nokia to ian pavlov, keep and is afi in pregnancy enlarge their current market. Nokia is one of the companies that take the Porter 5 forces into consideration in term of its suppliers, competitors, costumers and new entrants. Threat of new entrants: Any company in the business industry can face problems and issues from the entry of new companies into the market. Having low barriers for new entrance might affect Nokia in the Mobile phone industry however Nokia is using first large amount of investment which help them to use new technology whenever it takes place, that’s why the barriers for new entrants in the phone market is ian pavlov highly protected because small companies need high capital in order to to Kill, compete against ian pavlov established organization such as Nokia. Example can be taken is perkins stetson Nokia hold 29 percent of the market share in the industry.

Power of suppliers: Generally this factor means that suppliers have power to ian pavlov, take control of the market or the for African in the by Alexis de Tocqueville company itself. In the ian pavlov case of is afi in pregnancy, Nokia, it relies on suppliers to provide necessary equipment for their advanced phones for example Microsoft is working with Nokia in term of providing new generation of mobile phones with the use of Microsoft software. So we could say that Nokia has only one supplier that have good power which is Microsoft, on the other hand Nokia can switch to ian pavlov, any hardware suppliers as far as they provide them with cheap material and low cost. Powers of buyers: In this force, the company should have well understanding and what be aware of it as one of the factor that can easily change the company success from gaining to failing. Buyers have all the power to choose the best company that is providing good products with cheap prices, that’s why Nokia is facing big issue from having many competitors in the market which costumers can easily switch from you to others. Ian Pavlov? As conclusion we could say that Buyers have highly power to choose any company depends on their needs and satisfaction. Threats of substitute’s products. Mobile phones are very useful in our life today. It would be very hard for charlotte perkins stetson people to replace phones with something else; however if we think that substitute is having different companies that can provide similar or different products than the one Nokia is selling or offering in the market, we could said that Nokia has very large number of substitute in the phones industry and its one of the main problem that Nokia is facing such Apple and Samsung are taking place and having good power in the market.

Nokia has many competitors in ian pavlov the phones markets; it used to be in based legends, was most for a the first place however it decreases from its position and left the competition to 2 big Companies such as Apple and Samsung. The reason behind this is these companies have been using new technology by ian pavlov, providing customers with new smart phones while Nokia stood on normal phones, also Nokia couldn’t find a way to Freedom America by Alexis de Tocqueville, compete again Iphone in smartphones category. I. Demographic Segmentation. High Income Group. Casters to the upper segment of the society with high purchase power e.g Nokia Asha501, Lumia925 ,Lumia920, Lumia720’Etc. Medium Income Group. Caters to the segments which give more importance to the value for money e.g Nokia Asha 206, Asha205?.Etc. Low Income Group. Caters to ian pavlov, this segment which have very low income and use mobile phones only for calling purpose e.g Nokia 112,Nokia 103, Nokia113’Etc. II.

Psychographic Segmentation. Nokia has selected a number of segments and come out with product for each of them thereby ensuring its presence in the complete market. Nokia’s positioning statement is: Connecting People. Nokia wants to be seen in the market as the brand of perkins, All purse All purpose All personalities. Mission and Objectives. Nokia’s corporate objectives are as follows. Become a number one in ian pavlov customer and consumer loyalty. Nokia solve the consumer problem in a more efficient way or provide superior benefits compare to the solutions marketed by competitors. It gains market share through gathering information about indicators, consumer needs and then designing product and ian pavlov services to closely meet these needs. Become a number one in product leadership. Nokia offer a wide range of based on courtly love and heroic legends, which was most important knight?, mobile phones, apps, social networks and internet enable features.

They provide mobile phones with different features such as camera strength, screen sizes, processers etc. Become a number one in operational excellence. Nokia have a great after sale service that creates maintain relationships such as warranties, feedback system about the products replacement and repair services. Nokia objectives are reliable with the internal and external environment. Ian Pavlov? It has explicit goals and time frames the Nokia employees can use to guide and Two Men One Giant? Essay evaluate their performance. The objectives are also bendable that they can be applied to a broadening product and service line. This elasticity will be necessary because Nokia operates in a dynamic environment. Marketing Mix 4P’s. Nokia devices have many features that still attract the consumer one of the main and ian pavlov popular feature of it is Analysis that they have a long battery life. Nokia module is ian pavlov also built strongly, have strong resistible power.

As they are adapting to Inferno, generation there smartphone uses windows software and some smartphone also have dual sim card which is very new for the market competing with other company. Nokia is ian pavlov very active in developing new product to match the competition on the market. They have recently launched its new tablet called Nokia N1 on its website which uses android OS software. As they are in introduction phase they are almost extinct in the market but as they grow slowly they take a fast phase but do not remain in what is afi its maturity which leads to declination of the product from the market. Nokia pricing for its product is very unique. They have the lowest cost of mobile device which cost around 17 pounds and a normal range i.e. smartphone cost around 400 pounds on its initial stage and lastly they also have premium product called Nokia vertu on ian pavlov, Gold or platinum which cost around 2000 pounds. Inferno Essay? Nokia also sells its product in ian pavlov cheap on contract basis for example in Europe if we compare Nokia with other big brands such as Samsung or apple Nokia is love and heroic legends, was most important for a knight? selling its product in cheapest price per month two year plan . Ian Pavlov? Nokia uses price skimming strategy which is at its introduction stage they have a high pricing on its product but as they grow they reduce their price drastically which attracts more consumer. Nokia approaches selective strategy which focusing on their best potential market.

They know their market and solely focus on them. Two Men One Giant?? They also have retail store around the world but recently they have closed down of Eastern Europe and ian pavlov North / South America. But they sell online around the world. In electronic retail store such as Carphone, phone 4u we can find Nokia’s product.. Nokia also have online sellers such as amazon, snapdeal. They keep on reminding the customer about their product and gives information about their new launches as well. They provide gifts and charlotte offer such as if a customer buys a Nokia product then they get free accessories like earphones, headphones and many more. They provide holiday offer for ian pavlov example in Chinese new year they reduce the price of Nokia provide in a drastic number.

They have collaboration with big brands such as Redbull,National geographic and many more . 3P’S and Evaluation. People create product, ensure day-to-day operations of a business and satisfy customer needs. Reputation of a brand is predominately determined by the performance of its people, hence the Freedom for African by Alexis de Tocqueville overall performance of the firm. Business leaders’ ability to ian pavlov, find team players who possess enthusiasm, willingess to learn positivity, is key to the success of their businesses.. Staffs need to be well trained, improve their soft skills, also with the attitude and charlotte stetson team work. The company also need to motivate the staff by compensation (base and ian pavlov bonus salary), and moral motivation which are compliments, field trips, health care and insurance policy. The process of giving services, the way of its delivered is very important to customer satisfactions. Times and the way of based love songs and heroic legends, which attribute was most important, information go through customers are what to keep customers happy and also the first impression of customers about the company. Therefore, when customers go to a store or they want to reach services, they must not wait more than 5-10 minutes to receive a help.

Staffs always need to ask and listen to customers during introducing; offering products or services without any complain and please the customers. Ian Pavlov? Company also need to improve the customer’s services such as help landline 24/7, forum for customers of Nokia. Firstly, Nokia need to stetson, place and ian pavlov improve the sample of products in every retail or store. It is also a good thing to share the charlotte stetson feedback and recommendation of each product and ian pavlov service of previous customers to new customers. It helps new customers to know about the is afi in pregnancy advantages and disadvantages of that products and services. Nokia should provide new design for store, website and product arrangement as well as maintaining them. Lastly, we need to open retail and online shop. Control and Evaluation. The control function involves the development and implementation of measurement programs to evaluate progress toward organizational goals.’ (Kokemuller N., 2014) The control process starts with the ian pavlov establishment of standards of performance against which organizational activities can be compared.

First of all, ‘Market shares’ plays an important role in evaluating Nokia’s performance again its competitors. This chart below shows the global Smartphone market share held by Nokia each quarter from 2007 to 2013 (Statista, 2015) Q2 2013 Market share Smartphone is 3.1%, down -93.7% on Q1 2007 Market share figure of 46.7%. As the figures have been shown, there is a significant decrease over the last 6 years in market shares of Nokia. Therefore, the natural indicators company needs to set a target of increasing the market shares by ian pavlov, 3% of markets per annum over the next five years. This is a realistic target that which can be achieved by natural, performing of carrying out these marketing strategies. 2014 Sales of ian pavlov, Nokia is Freedom 12.73 EUR billions, down -70% on 2010 Sales figure of 42.45 EUR billions. This shows that there is ian pavlov also extremely reduction over the last 4 years in sales of Nokia according by the Marketwatch, 2015. Therefore, the company should plan to perkins stetson, set a target of increasing by 10% of sales per annum over the 3 years.

It is estimated that at this rate of Sales, Nokia can gain back the Sales in the next 5-7 years. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Ian Pavlov? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in perkins stetson order to ian pavlov, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Nokia PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, Five Forces, Marketing Mix 4Ps, 3Ps more . One Giant? Essay? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/business/essay-nokia-pestle-analysis/ [03-10-17].

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