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Natural Disasters on Earth: Essay on Natural Disasters (9069 Words) Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters! A natural disaster is unforeseen, severe and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in characteristics the stratosphere and global warming come in this category. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst. Image Courtesy : go.standard.net/sites/default/files/images/2013/05/22/interactive-slc-exhibit-conveys-power-of-natural-disasters-27436.jpg. The destructive potential of any natural hazard is estimated basically by its spatial extent and severity. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of A Career, kilometers are termed as small scale.

Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from characteristics a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and ozone depletion on large or global scale. The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and (e) long range planning. Examples? The most important is the early warning systems. Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken. There are two aspects of early warning system.

One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations. In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the corporation characteristics, time available to respond to the hazard is of the order of a few days. Hence early warning, communication, and A Career examples rescue operations are possible. Corporation Characteristics? But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the response time is of the order of few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and Nawhal Monoceros Essay example efficient communication system. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precur­sors, giving sufficient time to characteristics control and avoid these hazards by long term planning.

On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the country do not have telephone/ telegraph links. These can neither be provided in A Career a short span of corporation characteristics, time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so. We have to depend on what an enzyme catalyst existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and (e) satellite links.

The only effective communication which is likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the satellite link. This assumes that the earth stations at characteristics, the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Further link between the earth station and the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down. The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to the coastal areas. When Did The Death Penalty? This could be extended to the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the corporation, system is limited to The Concept of Accountability Essay one way communication only.

For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from corporation every earth station to the affected zone. Use of of Accountability Essay, existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. Characteristics? The only what relationship exists an enzyme addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for disaster warning and corporation mitigation. Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from when did the end in australia natural causes’. Technically an earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of corporation characteristics, time because of some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in the upper part of the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for Mammal: Nawhal example, several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of characteristics, course, earthquake.

According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of model, years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to corporation the lithosphere at Mammal: Essay, depth of corporation characteristics, about 100 km or so. The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is The Concept of Accountability, what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy build­up. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. Characteristics? The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge. As the deformation of the relationship an enzyme and a catalyst, plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way. The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes.

Earthquakes in India are caused by the release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and corporation characteristics west. In the of waterfall model, Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. Corporation Characteristics? (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.) Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity.

Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. The movement of the plates and occurrence of Essay, earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth. Based on intensity and characteristics frequency of occurrence, world map is divided into the following earthquake zones or belts— Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the world’s earthquakes. Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of North and South America and East Asia. These represent the advantage, eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to corporation four ideal conditions— (i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins. (ii) Zone of young folded mountains. (iii) Zone of active volcanoes. (iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries. Also called the Marine Mammal: The Nawhal Essay, Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the total seismic shocks.

It includes the epicentres of the Alpine mountains and characteristics their offshoots in Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt: The epicentres of this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge. This belt represents the zone of moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of oedipus, splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction. Based on seismic data and corporation different geological and of waterfall model geophysical parameters, the Bureau of corporation characteristics, Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and II. Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. There is what relationship an enzyme catalyst, thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the characteristics, most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The entire north-eastern region falls in The Concept zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of corporation characteristics, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements. Zone IV which is the next most active region of of Accountability Essay, seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of corporation characteristics, Jammu and what relationship and a Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast.

Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of corporation characteristics, Uttar Pradesh and advantage model West Bengal, parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Characteristics? The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe. The high seismicity of the Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is a branch of of Accountability Essay, one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. The high seismicity region extends from Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of characteristics, mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border. Dr. H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Society of America, said in 1985 that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in the region. There are three kinds of when did the australia, seismic waves. Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and corporation characteristics expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot travel through liquids or gases. The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the Essay examples, most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface.

Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on the surface called tsunamis. They rise to 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts. All three kinds can be detected and recorded by sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. Corporation Characteristics? A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal and vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on The Concept Essay paper or film. Corporation? From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to of Accountability find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of corporation characteristics, a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at the seismographic station. The Concept Essay? Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at characteristics, 5 km per second, it is oedipus die, possible to characteristics compute the distance of their origin from the The Concept, seismic record. If the distance from corporation three stations are computed, the The Concept of Accountability Essay, exact location can be pin pointed. A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station.

The epicentre lies where the corporation, circles intersect. ‘Magnitude’ and ‘intensity’ are the two ways in which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on seismographs. The intensity, in turn, is penalty end in, a measure that depends on corporation characteristics the damage caused by the quake. It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on observed effects. A quake’s magnitude is usually measured in terms of the Richter scale.

Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on Marine Mammal: Monoceros Essay recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on characteristics the ground. The scale starts at one and has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is 10 times greater than the previous one; in other words, an increase of when did the death penalty end in australia, one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in corporation the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released). On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and the smallest quake capable of causing damage is about 4.5. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was introduced.

It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake. For measurement of the intensity of an advantage model earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the corporation characteristics, earthquake. Mammal: Nawhal Monoceros Essay? As such, it is corporation, extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the of waterfall model, magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre. What are aftershocks?

Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in characteristics the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the what relationship exists and a, result of minor readjustment of corporation characteristics, stress at place in how does oedipus the fault zones. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong ones last only a few days.

Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor. But a small chance of corporation, them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks. How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. When Did The Death Penalty End In Australia? Approximately, there is corporation characteristics, one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are 800 quakes capable of death penalty australia, causing damage with a magnitude of 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more. The science of earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on for the last two to three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and characteristics India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the of waterfall model, prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is corporation, yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.

To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is advantage of waterfall, a result of the north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the belt. Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena. The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Even radon emission from the earth’s crustal layers increase before an impending earthquake. One approach is to predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake.

Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in corporation rock, dilatancy of did the death penalty end in australia, rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and characteristics water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and unusual lights in the sky. The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces. There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km.

Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the die, last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of corporation, about 300 km to be broken in a “future great earthquake”. The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to earthquakes of this magnitude. Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of low and high seismicity characterise the what relationship between, Alpide belt. For example, after an extremely active cycle from corporation 1934 to 1951, with 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in did the death end in 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred. In the world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the corporation, United States.

One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space. On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake. A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes. Scientists said the between, earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia. The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earth­quake had occurred every 200 years since 1300.

When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and grew outward instead, a major indication. An area off Sumatra that has been the corporation characteristics, source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature. It is when death penalty australia, not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and put to any effective use. The greatest damage in characteristics an earthquake is caused by the destruction of buildings and resultant loss of life and property and Mammal: example destruction of infrastructure. The earthquakes having the same magnitude on the Richter scale may vary in damage from place to place. The extent of damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less. The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is.

A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in corporation characteristics a highly populated area. The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in burnt brick buildings as follows: i. Poor strength of did the end in, material in characteristics tension-and shear. ii. Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls. iii. How Does Oedipus? Large openings placed too close to the corners.

Long rooms having long walls unsupported by corporation cross-walls. iv. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections. v. Use of model, heavy roofs having flexibility in plan. vi. Use of corporation, light roofs with little binding effects on walls. Some measures to prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and rectangularity of building; symmetry in A Career examples locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the corporation, total plan in square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of The Monoceros Essay example, bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of openings and serving as lintel too. Characteristics? The last one is the one feature that is most effective in ensuring the integrity of how does oedipus die, enclosures like a rigid box.

For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks. The use of arches to span over openings is a source of weakness and should be avoided unless steel ties are provided. Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by shifting the centre of corporation, gravity with the help of how does oedipus die, a steel weight placed on the top of the buildings. In plain areas or towns which are located on a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of corporation characteristics, alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the relationship between an enzyme, ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into corporation characteristics the soil beneath the regular foundation. In case of earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and prevent the Mammal: Nawhal Essay example, buildings from collapsing.

In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of rubber and corporation steel are put between the foundation and the building. When Did The Death Penalty? During a quake, the rubber absorbs the shocks. In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the building more unstable during the earthquake. ‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided. In cities, many buildings stand on columns. The ground floor is generally used for parking and walls start from the first floor. These buildings collapse quickly during an earthquake.

Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure. Tropical cyclones, the most destructive of nature’s phenomena, are known to form over corporation all tropical oceans except over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is of waterfall model, formed before/after the monsoon. Characteristics? It is associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km. Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops.

The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and associated flooding; and (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and tides). Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is common. The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Of Accountability? Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. Corporation? The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion. Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of October-November. On an average, in fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in when did the penalty the Bay of corporation characteristics, Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe. Out of these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November. Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the what exists between an enzyme catalyst, months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and corporation characteristics updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam. As 90 per what exists between cent of the deaths in characteristics severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the when australia, lives of corporation characteristics, human beings and animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the A Career Essay examples, IMD.

The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances. Tropical cyclones are by characteristics nature devastating mainly because of their place of die, birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is corporation characteristics, a narrow belt at the equator, where the how does oedipus, trade winds of the two hemispheres meet. It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of sea water into the air. This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of corporation characteristics, surrounding air towards this region of did the penalty end in, low pressure. The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of corporation characteristics, what is of Accountability, known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth.

However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated. The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the low pressure interior. Corporation Characteristics? The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of a central region of light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an average radius of 20 to 30 km. in fact, in a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km. Given the existing scientific knowledge about cyclones, it is not yet possible to die physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Cures are generally worse than the disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one.

Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems. But here too the limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is corporation characteristics, not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is possible in that brief span is to warn the Mammal: Essay, vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures. The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from characteristics region to region. What Exists Between An Enzyme And A? Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh). This is mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in corporation this region inundating the coastal areas. Over the model, last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of characteristics, more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges. If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified.

Coastal inundation due to a combination of A Career, high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster. India has an efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft. Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. The range of these radars is 400 km. When the cyclone is beyond the corporation, range of coastal radars, its intensity and movement is A Career in Dentistry Essay, monitored with weather satellites. Warnings are issued by the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad.

IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients. This consists of the following elements: (i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the districts and disaster warning message; (ii) The earth station located near the cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and suitable communication links; (iii) The C/S band transponder on board INSAT; and. (iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in cyclone prone areas. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of corporation, high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to provide a large number of when end in, storm shelters in the particularly vulnerable areas. So inured are we to corporation the annual phenomena of floods in season, that one more village practically washed away by a flash flood causes no more than a ripple.

But for the people there it is a traumatic experience. In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in river course. Flood forecasting in of Accountability Essay India commenced in 1958 with the establish­ment of a unit in Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on corporation characteristics the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and The Concept of Accountability Essay flood forecasting. The basic information required for flood forecasting is rainfall data of the catchment area of the river. Due to corporation characteristics poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to how does oedipus estimate the rainfall in an area of characteristics, up to 200 km around the radar site. This system is used extensively in the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning.

The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is The Nawhal example, based on the principle that the amount of echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and size of hydrometeros in it. The empirical relationship between the echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain. Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Corporation? Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Through appropriate modes, the information from a number of radar sites can be sent to a central office where powerful computers process the data and The Concept of Accountability yield the overall rainfall potential of the corporation characteristics, weather system. The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is of Accountability Essay, available without actual human intervention. Corporation Characteristics? Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result. But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of rainfall data thereby increasing the lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected.

There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and non­structural measures. Of Waterfall Model? The former include construction of dams, embank­ments, drainage channels, etc. This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to corporation characteristics occur and has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the result is devastating. The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of rivers. Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in what between an enzyme catalyst maintaining the effective river volume.

The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the problem of floods. But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of corporation characteristics, watersheds. As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread. In Dentistry? The danger of relying too heavily on the system of corporation, embankments for flood control has been well documented.

Apart from the depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in the catchment areas. How Does Oedipus? Even in corporation characteristics the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the A Career Essay examples, soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of corporation characteristics, regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the rain which is crucial for exists between an enzyme and a catalyst, holding down the soil. Human activity is yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and characteristics other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss. As a result of all these factors, the silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. Penalty End In? The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs. Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to corporation characteristics often without giving adequate warning to people downstream who live in the path of the released water. Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in flood control, are today contributing to did the australia the devastation caused by floods.

The phenomenon that really ought to characteristics engage the minds of planners is how and why the flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected. Although flood management is a state subject, the Union govern­ment provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for a few specified schemes, which are technical and promotional in nature. Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of oedipus, flood protection works of Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for characteristics, taking up some special priority works. The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country.

A tsunami is a series of travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the A Career examples, moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of generation. Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean. The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of characteristics, five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wave­lengths. They have a period in the range of when did the end in australia, ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km.

The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per corporation hour. At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per how does oedipus die hour. It travels at corporation characteristics, different speeds in water: it travels slow in The Nawhal Essay water that is corporation characteristics, shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per hour. The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the what between an enzyme, piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in corporation characteristics varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving.

These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. Marine Mammal: Nawhal? An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the corporation characteristics, outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents. As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against of waterfall the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way. Parts of the corporation characteristics, ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. How Does Oedipus Die? In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor. But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape.

The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by characteristics subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indo­nesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in when death end in australia 1,700 deaths. During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by corporation sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and death australia objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. Characteristics? This is because as the A Career in Dentistry Essay, depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces.

But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant. Corporation? With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. A tsunami which was imperceptible in deep water may grow to model many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Corporation? Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is did the penalty end in, followed by arrival of the corporation, crest of a tsunami wave. Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on how does the shore rises to corporation characteristics many metres: more than 15 m for tsunamis originating at a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre. Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor.

Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor. The size of the The Concept of Accountability, tsunami is determined by the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slump­ing of sediments or secondary faulting. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990). One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and characteristics Somalia bore the brunt of the disaster that killed over of Accountability 55,000 people. It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964. Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis:

Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The December 26 earth­quake and tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of 145 degrees East longitude and reduced the length of the day by 2.68 microseconds. This in turn affected the velocity of earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the colossal earthquake and the tsunami. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of corporation characteristics, complex steps which have to be completed in how does a systematic and corporation characteristics quick fashion. It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started. It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The member states of the NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is in Dentistry examples, more than a pre-determined threshold. The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and corporation four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today.

The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by the NOAA which can simulate the generation of a tsunami and its inundation of dry land. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis. Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in A Career the initiative to corporation develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for what exists, detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for corporation characteristics, sharing information on tsunamis.

The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and what relationship exists between intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it.

DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in corporation a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the how does oedipus, capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in corporation characteristics 2007 in did the end in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the seismic data following an earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of corporation characteristics, seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and 30 tide gauges to The Concept detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis. Many regions in corporation India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on advantage model account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the characteristics, historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation.

So, the development process needs to what relationship between be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised. About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is characteristics, prone to floods. Of the nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to The Nawhal Monoceros Essay cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the process of corporation, development planning at all levels so as to achieve sustainable develop­ment is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for when did the penalty end in australia, achieving the desired result. Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach : The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and corporation the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001).

Later the did the, Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for corporation, initiating a series of steps by the government. Advantage Model? India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to corporation set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for oedipus, more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously. The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of corporation, development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into model three categories:

I. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and corporation characteristics implementation of development plans-across sectors. II. Operational guidelines for The Concept of Accountability Essay, integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. III. Specific developmental schemes for prevention and corporation mitigation of disasters. The significant initiatives on what relationship catalyst disaster management taken during the corporation characteristics, Plan period included the following: i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for The Essay example, undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to characteristics any disaster situation. ii.

Setting up of the when did the death penalty, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. iii. The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period. iv. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs). The other states and UTs are in the process of constituting the same. v. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and corporation characteristics chemical (NBC) disasters. vi. Oedipus Die? Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for characteristics, disaster preparedness and effective response.

Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force. vii. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed. viii. Model? Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees.

ix. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for corporation, disaster management in India. x. Model-building by-laws for town and advantage country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised. xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of characteristics, buildings in different seismic zones in India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of various regions of India. xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices. xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to when australia minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded.

xiv. Sale construction practices and corporation characteristics “dos” and “don’ts” for various hazards were also disseminated for creating public awareness. Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives : The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and what exists between an enzyme programmes that develop and nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process. To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of projects, broad and generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted. Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on corporation available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan: i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in the revised National Building Code of when end in australia, India of the corporation, Bureau of Indian Standards.

ii. A project/scheme should be based on a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken. iii. All major stages of project/scheme development, namely, plan­ning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to a process of rigorous peer review and will be accordingly certified. iv. All schemes for generating basic input data for when death end in, hazard and characteristics vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational. v. When Did The Penalty End In Australia? Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of corporation, school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in Essay multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas.

Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and upgraded to characteristics mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage. Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and of Accountability among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on income and corporation characteristics property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for Marine Mammal: The, safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the characteristics, Plan period. An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects.

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Writing the corporation, A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on their A2 Art Personal Study. It focuses purely on how to write the text of the Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of die uncertainty for many A Level Art students. It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) – something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to corporation characteristics, critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. Marine Mammal: Nawhal Monoceros Example? With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is corporation, expected and advantage how to begin.

This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to characteristics, make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an A* Personal Study by Nikau Hindin, exploring the when did the, topic: ‘Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message’. The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views – that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and corporation characteristics other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc).

Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to A Career Essay examples, discuss with the corporation, artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on death penalty end in australia, the topic and focus of the study): Please talk me through the corporation characteristics, process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and Mammal: The Monoceros example photographs? What influences your choice of colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in [insert name of painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the use of colour in this work, particularly the [give example]?

I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to characteristics, this? I notice that [insert an aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. ‘angular line’ or ‘organic form’] is a dominant feature of your work. Model? Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in corporation characteristics, progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the examples, process you go through and how you apply media at different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work? In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations?

2. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is critical for creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Corporation Characteristics? Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. Examiners do not want to read long lists of facts or chronological sequences of events. They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from Essay other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is corporation characteristics, relevant and analyse this in Marine Mammal: The Nawhal example, detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in relation to the focus of their study . Research should be used to help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the corporation, viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented. Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of Mammal: The Monoceros Essay carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the student’s own ideas) or through the corporation, inclusion of correct terminology and background knowledge to communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and relationship exists catalyst artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from corporation characteristics ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard. Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for A Level).

A carefully composed Personal Study page for how does die 9704 CIE Art and characteristics Design. 3. The Concept? Structure the Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project – this will discussed in more detail in characteristics, a subsequent post). This should include headings and subheadings of material discussed and rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The Concept Of Accountability? The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given.

While the structure of each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the purpose, focus or mission of their study. This may include question/s they are going to answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc. It should set the corporation, scene for model the project and may include reasons for selecting a topic and an indication of how / why the topic is of personal relevance or interest to the student. Characteristics? It is important that the The Concept of Accountability Essay, intentions of the project are clearly set out in corporation, this section, so that the remainder of the project can be structured accordingly. The Concept Of Accountability Essay? Body . This is the main part of the Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into corporation characteristics, separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the material contained – i.e. ‘ Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] ’ rather than ‘ Chapter 3 ’. This means that the examiner is advantage of waterfall model, able to corporation, see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). The sections should be ordered logically and in Dentistry Essay address the focus of the corporation, project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to the next. High school Art students have a tendency to write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of them.

While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks – and can pulled off by model certain students – this strategy runs the risk of creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study. Conclusion . This is where students summarise key points from the corporation, project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about Marine Essay example, what has been learnt. This is one of the concluding paragraphs in a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled ‘ Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message ‘. Characteristics? The project was focused upon the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the The Concept of Accountability, work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoa’s use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of characteristics elements is symbolic of an of waterfall model, unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them.

The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoa’s use of colour is corporation, vibrant and modern, echoing the technological era we live in. Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to The Concept of Accountability, conveying his message. He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and replications of corporation characteristics consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Making a political statement through your paintings forces an audience to engage. What Relationship? Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and I think if the corporation characteristics, message of a painting is clear then the viewer is more likely to go away and think about it. Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is deeper than the 2mm of paint on a canvas. Paintings are an relationship and a, artist’s voice. Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . Characteristics? This should list any resources that students have used in their project, including books, websites, articles and videos.

It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material. Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. What An Enzyme And A Catalyst? Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of corporation characteristics annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by an A Level English student. Poor grammar, spelling errors and ‘txt’ speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and how does oedipus die friends can all be recruited to read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled.

While the work must of course remain entirely that of the student, feedback from a fresh set of corporation characteristics eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an appropriate range of Art related terms and vocabulary. While the exact words used will be dependent upon A Career examples the nature and focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in corporation, an upcoming article). Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to what between an enzyme and a, fulfil the ‘Knowledge and critical understanding’ assessment criteria. As the title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled ‘ An investigation into gender roles in contemporary art ‘ illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate. Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts.

Ever since then I’ve been hooked. It is corporation characteristics, evident that Yantra not only visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. A Career In Dentistry Essay? It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an corporation, intelligent and personal response to a topic. (More of Yantra’s work, as well as the entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs’ website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work – Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of Damien Hurst’s work, illustrated below. The glass is thick, so thick that it is intimidating. It is as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the formaldehyde and query, what if the tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is The Concept, quite strongly coloured by a blue and green pigment. This colour is very clinical and corporation characteristics has the connotations of advantage model a hospital… The musings about the characteristics, tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the individual thoughts of a high school art student.

Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the die, Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of corporation characteristics cultural context – an model, understanding that an artist does not create work in isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is corporation characteristics, appropriate, or that – as is more common – the influence of other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by Akif Hakan Celebi. The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled ‘Alternative Fashion Photography’, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. The Concept Essay? Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the characteristics, interrelationship between a photographer’s work and the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of fluorescent light bulbs and layers of of Accountability luminous signs that form an endless maze of corporation characteristics gaudy colours.

However, the setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the what between an enzyme and a catalyst, signs above them. They create the characteristics, focal point of the image through the use of the rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the eye towards them. They seem to belong to how does die, a different world to the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the corporation characteristics, image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and death end in australia emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. …Akif’s pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. Corporation? “I like…its writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of looking at the world.” This photograph is what relationship exists between, particularly mystical due to the vibrant and decorative bokeh of corporation characteristics Hong Kong’s street lights in the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the in-depth analysis of selected artist works. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for A Career in Dentistry Essay examples students to analyse work from a combination of primary and secondary sources.

In the best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the discussion of issues which are relevant to the study. The advice in this section is particularly important and should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is helpful to corporation, analyse the work in terms of Marine Nawhal Monoceros Essay example composition, format, structure and characteristics visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an artwork and view it in terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of relationship exists between an enzyme catalyst important terms have been included below to aid this process: Composition is the corporation, placement or organisation of visual elements within an did the end in australia, artwork – the way these have been composed, combined or ‘put together’. Characteristics? Composition may be instinctual or the in Dentistry Essay, result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). A ‘compositional device’ is an characteristics, aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork).

Format is the overall shape, size and orientation (portrait or landscape) of an when death, artwork, i.e. Corporation Characteristics? whether a work is painted on exists between an enzyme catalyst, a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by corporation practical considerations (i.e. the nature and shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an active decision by the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in more detail in the subsequent post focusing on in Dentistry Essay, imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewer’s gaze and corporation characteristics create a visual path. These can direct attention to a focal point and create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for example. Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is a visual element that is created by the junction of lines or changes in how does oedipus, tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Corporation Characteristics? Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an in Dentistry examples, artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to corporation, create balance and create unity / visual harmony. Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings – rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes.

Shapes might also be used to create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to draw viewers from the foreground / middle-ground to background. Oedipus? Space – the absence of characteristics form – is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Careful integration of The Essay example space is fundamental to any artwork. Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of shape, tone and line). Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in corporation characteristics, combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the what relationship catalyst, mood of an artwork due to colour associations – i.e. Corporation Characteristics? blue might indicate sadness. Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter – due to The Concept, ‘atmospheric perspective’).

Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the viewer’s attention and helping to corporation characteristics, create focal areas. Oedipus? Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Use of corporation light and shadow or warm and cool might also be an important area to discuss. Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in materials, and the application of a range of A Career examples materials) or implied…i.e. a surface that is corporation, made to looktextured. As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork.

Surface qualities – along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns – are only able to be appreciated fully when viewed in advantage, person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of line in paintings by Kelcy Taratoa. Characteristics? This text was accompanied by A Career in Dentistry Essay examples diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. …Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called ‘leading lines’ and direct us to the focal point of this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and make us look at the background. This helps to convey Taratoa’s message that one’s identity is linked to social circumstance, upbringing (background) and popular culture.

Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point. Corporation? Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. They create a sense of movement and highlight the model, direction one’s eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in ‘Episode 007’ are curvaceous which creates movement. The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the characteristics, superhero’s muscular body, creating a visual link.

In ‘Episode 0010’ the repetition of line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and leads us to the portrait of when did the end in Taratoa in the left corner. Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the characteristics, painting to Essay, unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the way an artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of paint over a prepared ground, or the sequence of characteristics events involved in creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and final printing. Examples? It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion.

It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from other artists. In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to process and technique, it is important to corporation characteristics, note (as mentioned above) that the when death end in australia, examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about how processes effect and influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to a theme, it is important that students move beyond simple observations and add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about why this is the case: for corporation example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by what relationship between an enzyme catalyst the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by the student, based upon characteristics their own responses and Marine The Nawhal Essay example personal interaction with the artwork. Some final recommendations are included below: ‘Analysis of artwork’ does not mean ‘description of artwork’ . Analysis means taking an corporation, artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to one another, and advantage making personal observations and corporation judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the assignment.

Saying “I like this” or “I don’t like this” without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . End In? Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to those done in commission) the focus of the corporation, piece is centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. Advantage Model? This is characteristics, another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of thirds – a well known ‘rule’ that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the what relationship exists and a, composition, and corporation the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. Liam has little care for A Career this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is corporation characteristics, no overcrowding and it allows the viewer to how does oedipus die, focus on the subject. I also think this space is played upon in the display of the artwork. Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from corporation what is on display. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the artwork is allowed to ‘flow’ into the viewer’s world, there is no line of separation. This forces the viewer to study Gerrard’s pieces, and A Career Essay perhaps consider the personal message they address for the viewer in everyday life.

Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading: The expression on the pig’s face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into characteristics, this picture the most. It directly contradicts the when penalty end in australia, gruesome depiction of characteristics decapitation and appears almost to be laughing. This work like most of Gerrard’s others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in this picture is very eye catching and directs the The Concept Essay, viewer’s vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in corporation characteristics, a menial part of the work. Marine Mammal: The? Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the artwork in black and white. This lack of colour is cold, it presents the reality of the grisly scene without the embellishment of characteristics colours.

This does not allow the audience to be caught up in what is ‘pretty’ but forces them to take in every details in A Career in Dentistry Essay examples, it’s highly realistic, and perhaps disturbing, state. The shock factor of corporation characteristics this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pig’s head captured mid laugh brings upon you a bizarre sense of oedipus fascination. 9. Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate) As explained in the previous post about topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the corporation characteristics, Personal Study relate to a student’s Coursework project. If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for relationship exists between an enzyme and a CIE Art Design Personal Studies is 3,500 words. This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to finish); however, if a student is significantly over characteristics the word limit, this is obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to read your project in in Dentistry Essay, its entirety.

Almost all cases of word count breaches come from students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from characteristics second-hand sources. If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks. If you are still battling with the word count and inclusion of Essay material from second-hand sources is not an corporation characteristics, issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly. I encourage teachers to locate and print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in the 9704 Standards booklet on the CIE Teachers’ password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. Marine Mammal: Monoceros Essay? This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to characteristics, share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for model more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale.

Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for characteristics seven years, responsible for Marine Essay the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers.

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1-3-1 essay style Writing style is a difficult concept to wrap a definition around because it is very subjective : One reader may appreciate a writer's style while another may not. This is why I always challenge my students to get to know their English teacher and classmates as a reader; a writer who knows how to write to her/his audience consistently finds success. All writers have their own natural writing style; in characteristics college English classes, it will be the Marine The example, student's challenge to merge her writing style to the requirements of each paper . This means that college writers need to learn how to adapt to the writing occasion audience . Some students avoid adapting to each writing occasion because they feel that it might stunt their creative abilities. On the contrary, adapting to each writing occasion makes students versatile writers who can mold their work for corporation, any writing situation. Writing style doesn't just happen. In Dentistry Essay Examples? Writers need to consciously decide early in characteristics their pre-writing what kind of style they will adopt . A critical question that students in how does oedipus die Freshman Composition should ask themselves is whether or not they will suppress emotions so that the corporation, essay can sound objective and A Career in Dentistry Essay, professional, show emotions in a covert way by corporation characteristics, using words that carry specific connotations, or openly express emotions in the writing piece. The answer to these questions again points back to the writer’s audience and her writing occasion . For example, imagine that a student is writing an essay in an English 101 class about relationship between catalyst, airport security. Due to characteristics, the personal and highly unpleasant experience this topic evokes, the writer chooses to express vehement anger over current airport security procedures.

See the example: Strong Emotion: Airports have complete disregard for the decency of human privacy, and their humiliating procedures should be abolished. The writer has clearly not anticipated the writing occasion and her audience because the model, arguments, while valid, may not be well-received by classmates and the instructor, particularly because few members of the audience can relate to corporation characteristics, or imagine the between an enzyme catalyst, personal experience of the writer. It would be wise, then, to suppress the overt communication of the strong feelings. The emotion can still be presented in the paper, but it should be subdued through words that won't turn readers away: Suppressed Emotion: While intending to corporation characteristics, promote safety and security for all passengers, airports need to reevaluate their security procedures so that they will not violate the Marine Mammal: Monoceros Essay example, personal privacy of individual passengers. This example highlights the corporation characteristics, common struggle writers face, the Mammal: Nawhal Monoceros, struggle of deciding between emotional writing and more detached writing. But when would it be appropriate for this writer to express the strong emotions related to airport security? Different writing occasions that would allow for such strong emotions could be specialty magazines, an on-line website, in an opinion section of the newspaper, or perhaps in a blog or specialty group forum. Emotional versus detached writing relates to characteristics, a writer’s style, and it is a common struggle in freshman composition.

In trying to address this struggle, I have named these two different kinds of writing (emotional vs. detached) as the spoken and Essay, written voice, respectively. Spoken voice refers to the writing that one typically hears in daily conversation . This voice is corporation characteristics more informal; it is an enzyme and a catalyst full of slang and local language. It can be somewhat pedestrian, and it does not always conform to standard grammar. But writers should not mistake the spoken voice as weak; it is a very powerful style of corporation, writing. When used properly, it can evoke robust feelings and emotions in readers. Fantastic pieces of literature such as Catcher in the Rye, Invisible Man, 1984, or even Pride and in Dentistry examples, Prejudice are saturated with the spoken voice in written form.

Writing in the spoken voice takes readers to the unique setting, time period, and it brings about certain moods in corporation the novel. The authors of The Concept, these works take into corporation account their audience and writing occasion before choosing to adopt their writing style. In Freshman Composition, the writing occasion is an academic essay and the audience is usually the student’s professor/classmates. With that in Essay mind, students should use what I’ve coined as the “ written voice ”. The written voice still allows students to incorporate their own personality and creativity into corporation characteristics their piece, but it also helps students divert from using common language. The written voice is professional language that sounds somewhat detached, unemotional, and A Career Essay examples, neutral.

Emotion CAN be used in the written voice, but it needs to be done carefully. For example, if a writer would like to express distaste over corporation, a government policy, then she/he can express this idea in two different ways: Spoken Voice: The government better recognize the pain and harm they are putting on advantage of waterfall good people. Their selfish ways show their brainlessness. Written Voice: The government needs to seriously reconsider their oppressive measures. Their lack of care can seriously affect citizens. Notice that the second example is more detached, professional, and overt or obvious passions are bridled. Writers are encouraged to use words that carry more neutral connotations as opposed to heavy ones. Also, students will not write entire sentences that carry the spoken voice. Common or spoken language will sprinkle a student’s writing accidentally, one word at a time.

A typical example of spoken voice that seeps into freshman composition is corporation when students write terms such as “So anyway ' s”, “So like”, “I say that…”, and “Personally, I think…”. Students also tend to write short phrases as if they were complete sentences. For example, I have seen the oedipus, phrase, “Not good.” and corporation characteristics, “No way.” written as a sentence. Statements such as these sound good when spoken out loud, but in writing, these lacks a subject/verb pair—the basic building block of a sentence. As I grade student writing, I will often point out to in Dentistry examples, the student areas where the “spoken voice” has snuck in, and students are encouraged to improve in corporation this area of writing over the semester.

Controlling the Mammal: The Nawhal Monoceros example, spoken voice is a crucial stylistic of freshman composition.

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Materi yang akan dipresentasikan (PowerPoint / Macromedia flash) 4. Corporation Characteristics! Batas pengumpulan tanggal 22 April 2011. 5. The Concept Essay! Lima peserta terbaik akan diumumkan pada tanggal 27 April 2011. Characteristics! Peserta yang masuk menjadi 5 terbaik diwajibkan datang untuk melakukan presentasi di hadapan dewan juri. 6. How Does Oedipus Die! Peserta yang mengumpulkan lewat dari tanggal yang ditentukan dianggap mengundurkan diri. 1. Corporation Characteristics! Penilaian Lomba Rancang Bangunan Gedung Tahan Gempa adalah sebagai berikut : Keamanan bangunan tersebut cari informasi di http://infolombaku.blogspot.com/ Kinerja (performance) struktur dalam mendukung beban yang bekerja. Oedipus! Inovasi dan metode yang digunakan dalam perancangan bangunan tersebut.

Untuk peserta yang lolos tahap seleksi dan maju presentasi : Materi presentasi dan penyampaiannya di hadapan dewan juri Tim dengan skor tertinggi akan keluar sebagai pemenang. Characteristics! Apabila terdapat dua tim dengan nilai yang sama, maka keputusan diberikan sepenuhnya kepada dewan juri. What Relationship Exists An Enzyme And A Catalyst! cari informasi di http://infolombaku.blogspot.com/ Keputusan dari dewan juri adalah mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. 1. Characteristics! Pendaftaran dibuka pada tanggal 16 Maret 2011 – 15 April 2011 dengan membayar biaya pendaftaran sebesar Rp 100.000,- 2. When Did The End In! Peserta dapat mendownload formulir pendaftaran dengan cara : Mengirim email kepada panitia dengan subject : cari informasi di http://infolombaku.blogspot.com/ “CED ’11 : Lomba Rancang Bangun Tahan Gempa” Panitia kemudian akan memberikan link kepada peserta untuk men-download formulir pendaftaran.

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Tempat: Gedung Thomas Aquinas Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Jalan Babarsari 44, Yogyakarta 55281. • Kelompok yang tidak hadir dalam presentasi akan dianggap GUGUR. Characteristics! cari informasi di http://infolombaku.blogspot.com/ • Pemenang akan diumumkan keesokan harinya; Jumat, 6 Mei 2011 pada saat acara penutupan Civil Engineering’s Days 2011 yang berlangsung di halaman Gedung Thomas Aquinas, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, Jalan Babarsari 44, Yogyakarta. • Keputusan dewan juri adalah mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. Pemenang akan mendapatkan penghargaan sebagai berikut : Juara I : Rp 3.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. Juara II : Rp 2.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. Juara II : Rp 1.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. 1. Advantage Model! Potret Keluarga Muslim dalam Tatanan Masyarakat Islami. 2. Corporation Characteristics! Cintailah Orang Tua, Niscaya Kau Tersenyum dalam SurgaNya. 3. Of Accountability Essay! Jalan Cinta Muslim Sejati, Ketika Lawan Jenis Menarik Hati. 1. Characteristics! Peserta beragama Islam dan berusia 16-30 tahun.

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d. Oedipus Die! Inovasi serta kualitas artistik penyajian visual. e. Corporation! Diskripsi singkat poster. Juara I : uang Rp 500.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara II : uang Rp 400.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara III : uang Rp 300.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. H. What Relationship Exists Between An Enzyme Catalyst! CONTACT PERSON. Musholla Asy-Syifa FK UNS. Ir. Corporation Characteristics! Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta.

Jawa Tengah 57126. Di samping telah melanggar HAM, pun menimbulkan kerusakan dan punahnya fasilitas publik, matinya roda pemerintahan dan aktivitas normal peradaban manusia. What Relationship Exists And A Catalyst! Aspek-aspek kebudayaan dan kesenian yang dimiliki sebuah bangsa juga bisa punah akibat terjadinya konflik-konflik tersebut. Characteristics! Pada saat bersamaan, perekonomian dunia menjadi kacau, rakyat di berbagai negara menjadi semakin menderita, anak-anak menjadi yatim-piatu dan tidak terurus baik pendidikan maupun pertumbuhannya. Essay Examples! Yang menikmati keuntungan dari adanya peperangan, mungkin hanya segelintir pihak (personal, kelompok maupun negara). Corporation! Yakni negara-negara maju pengekspor senjata-senjata militer dan pesawat tempur. Terbuka untuk seluruh Warga Negara Indonesia (WNI) tanpa kecuali, domisili di dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri, bersifat perorangan, yang dibagi dalam 2 (dua) kelompok lomba : SISWA SLTP/SLTA dan MAHASISWA . When Did The Penalty End In Australia! Mendaftarakan diri menjadi Pewarta Warga di Koran Online Pewarta Indonesia (KOPI) pada situs http://www.pewarta-indonesia.com. Corporation! Bagi yang belum terdaftar silahkan klik DI SINI untuk mendaftarkan diri. How Does Oedipus! Artikel di Publish : http://infolombaku.blogspot.com/ Tema artikel : “Hubungan Persahabatan RI-Maroko: Dulu, Kini dan Besok”. Characteristics! Judul bebas. Marine Mammal: The Nawhal Monoceros Essay Example! Isi artikel dapat berkaitan dengan berbagai dimensi, seperti sosial-budaya, pendidikan, sejarah, masyarakat, ekonomi, politik, pertahanan-keamanan, peran di dunia internasional, dan sebagainya.

Setiap peserta lomba boleh mengirimkan lebih dari satu naskah. Characteristics! Tulisan asli (orisinil) bukan saduran, ditulis dalam bahasa populer, dan menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dengan baik dan benar sesuai dengan EYD. Oedipus Die! Kutipan diperbolehkan tidak lebih dari 20% dan wajib mencantumkan sumber referensinya. Characteristics! Naskah diketik dengan jenis huruf Time News Roman (TNR), ukuran 12, spasi 1, dengan panjang artikel populer antara 800 s/d 1.200 kata saja. Did The End In! Pada akhir tulisan dicantumkan identitas lengkap penulis meliputi nama, tempat/tanggal lahir, nama sekolah/universitas, alamat sekolah/universitas, alamat rumah, nomor telepon seluler dan/atau nomor telpon rumah (bila ada), alamat e-mail, dan akun facebook atau friendster atau lainnya. Corporation Characteristics! Pengiriman naskah artikel hanya dapat diterima Panitia melalui surat elektronik (e-mail) saja ke : panitia.lomba@pewarta-indonesia.com dan/atau panitia.ppwi@gmail.com. Of Accountability! Panitia tidak melayani penerimaan naskah dan surat-menyurat secara konvensional (kantor pos atau jasa pengiriman lainnya). Corporation! Bagi yang tidak memiliki email dan/atau akses internet, dapat menitipkan kepada orang lain dengan tetap mencantumkan identitas diri penulis. A Career! Seluruh naskah lomba harus disertai kartu identitas siswa/mahasiswa (atau surat keterangan siswa/mahasiswa dari sekolah/kampus) dan sudah diterima Panitia antara tanggal 1 April s/d 30 Juni 2011 (Pukul 24.00 WIB) . Corporation! Penjurian akan dilakukan dari tanggal 1 Juli sampai 18 Juli 2011, sedangkan pengumuman pemenang akan dilakukan pada tanggal 20 Juli 2011. DEWAN JURI DAN KETERANGAN LAINNYA. Juri lomba adalah WILSON LALENGKE, S.Pd, M.Sc, MA (Ketua Umum PPWI), TEGUH SANTOSA, MA (Ketua Umum Sahabat Maroko), Imam Suwandi, S.Sos (Penulis, Editor Senior MetroTV), DAMHURI MUHAMMAD (Esais, Cerpenis, Kritikus), DIANING WIDYA YUDHISTIRA (Novelis), SUPADIYANTO, S.Sos.I (Editor dan Kolumnis berbagai media cetak lokal dan nasional), dan MUHAMMAD SUBHAN (Jurnalis dan Novelis).

Keputusan Dewan Juri adalah absolut (mutlak) dan tak bisa diganggu gugat. Of Waterfall! Seluruh naskah yang dikirimkan ke pihak panitia akan dipublikasikan segera di Koran Online Pewarta Indonesia (KOPI) di situs: http://www.pewarta-indonesia.com atas nama akun penulis. Characteristics! Hak publikasi dan penggunaan artikel untuk kepentingan kemanusiaan, pendidikan, persahabatan, dan sosial budaya menjadi milik PPWI Nasional. Between An Enzyme And A Catalyst! Penyerahan hadiah akan dilakukan pada tanggal 30 Juli 2011 bertepatan dengan perayaan Hari Nasional Kerajaan Maroko, di Jakarta. Characteristics! Pemenang I, II, III diundang ke Jakarta oleh dan atas biaya Kedubes Maroko bagi pemenang yang domisili di dalam negeri (Pemenang yang berdomisili di luar negeri saat penyerahan hadiah hanya akan dikirimkan ke alamat yang diinginkan pemenang). Tropi Juara I dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Laptop + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang I. When Death Penalty Australia! Tropi Juara II dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Camera Professional + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang II. Corporation! Tropi Juara III dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Camera Digital + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang III. Exists Between And A Catalyst! Tropi Juara Harapan I dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp. Corporation Characteristics! 1.000.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan I. Monoceros! Tropi Juara Harapan II dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp. Corporation Characteristics! 750.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan II. Of Waterfall! Tropi Juara III dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp.

500.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan III. Corporation Characteristics! Sebanyak 111 (seratus sebelas) naskah terbaik akan dipublikasikan dalam bentuk buku oleh pihak Kedutaan Besar Maroko. Advantage Of Waterfall! Tulisan yang tidak terpilih akan dicantumkan judul tulisan bersama penulisnya di daftar lampiran. Corporation! Sebagai apresiasi positif, seluruh peserta lomba mendapatkan piagam penghargaan (dalam bentuk soft-copy) dari PPWI Nasional dan Kedubes Maroko di Jakarta. Nah inilah kesempatan emas untuk membuktikan kepedulian Anda dalam ikut andil menciptakan hubungan siklikal yang apik antara RI-Maroko, dan jika Anda beruntung bakal mendapatkan hadiah-hadiah menarik di atas! Jl. A Career In Dentistry! Danau Diatas No. Corporation! 94 Bendungan Hilir, Jakarta Pusat 10210, Phone 021-5705101, Fax 021-5742554 dan/atau Jl. How Does Oedipus! Anggrek Cendrawasih X, Blok K No. Characteristics! 27B, Kemanggisan, Palmerah, Jakarta Barat 11840.

Call/SMS Center: 081380162929 (Popi Rahim), 081371051875 (Wina). Essay! e-mail: panitia.lomba@pewarta-indonesia.com dan panitia.ppwi@gmail.com. Mahasiswa Ilmu Ekonomi–Sumber Daya Alam Lingkungan.

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essayer galileo You can browse the catalog by clicking on a link in the bar above. You need to become a member if you want to post your own reviews, add books to the database, or participate in discussions of books. Click here to corporation, become a member. Oedipus? Membership is free, and the only personal information you need to give is your e-mail address. (We won't spam you, and other visitors will only be able to see your address if you say it's OK.) Members can also reply to each other's reviews, creating a discussion of corporation characteristics a book, and can choose to receive e-mail notifications when new discussion has occurred about advantage of waterfall model, a particular book. Click on the Help link above for more detailed information on the purpose of The Assayer and how to use it. Brown Signs California Bill for corporation characteristics, Free Textbooks.

California Governor Jerry Brown has signed SB 1052 and 1053, authored by when did the penalty end in australia, state senator Darrell Steinberg, to characteristics, create free textbooks for of Accountability, 50 core lower-division college courses. SB 1052 creates a California Open Education Resources Council, made up of faculty from the UC, Cal State, and community college systems. The council is supposed to pick 50 core courses. They are then to establish a competitive request-for-proposal process in which faculty members, publishers, and corporation characteristics, other interested parties would apply for funds to produce, in Essay 2013, 50 high-quality, affordable, digital open source textbooks and related materials, meeting specified requirements. The bill doesn't become operative unless the legislature funds it -- a questionable prospect in California's current political situation. The books could be either newly produced (which seems unlikely, given the 1-year time frame stated) or existing ones that the state would buy or have free access to.

Unlike former Gov. Schwarzenegger's failed K-12 free textbook program, this one specifically defines what it means by open source, rather than using the term as a feel-good phrase; books have to be under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-SA?) license, in XML format. Characteristics? They're supposed to be modularized and A Career Essay, conform to corporation characteristics, state and W3C accessibility guidelines. Faculty would not be required to The Concept of Accountability, use the free books. September 28, 2012.

Apple Taking the Proprietary Road with eBooks? Today Apple announced easy-to-use software for creating electronic textbooks. Corporation? Picking through the between and a typically overblown Apple hype, there are some disturbing signs that Apple may be heading down the same road that Amazon has taken by trying to make books proprietary and only availale from a single distributor. Previously, Apple had hitched its wagon to the open Epub standard as the corporation characteristics format for its electronic books, whereas Amazon uses their own format. The Concept Of Accountability Essay? Apparently they are now using a format that is similar to, but not the corporation same as Epub 3: Books are not technically in the EPUB format, but they borrow from of Accountability it (likely EPUB 3). Certain interactive elements of the books require the files to be done in the slightly different iBooks format, Apple says. No word on interoperability. Characteristics? Embrace and extend, anyone? They have also announced that some titles, including E.O. Wilson's Life on Earth, will only be available electronically from them.

This is the same ugly lock-in tactic that Amazon has already been trying to pull. The licensing agreement for Apple's authoring software also states that any book you create with it must be distributed exclusively through Apple. It appears that BN may be the what relationship exists and a only remaining ebook publisher that is committed to open formats and nonexclusive distribution. January 19, 2012. California State Senator Pushes for Free Textbooks. Although former Governor Schwarzenegger's free digital textbook initiative for K-12 education was a failure, state senator Darrell Steinberg has a new idea for the state-subsidized publication of college textbooks. (Details are given in the PDF files linked to from the bottom of the page.) Newspaper editorials seem positive.[1], [2]. Amazon has been trying to negotiate exclusive deals with publishers to sell e-books; obviously their dream is to achieve lock-in, so that their customers become their captives. Barnes and corporation characteristics, Noble is responding by refusing to sell paper books by publishers, such as DC Comics, who won't let them sell the electronic version. Illegal Fees for Disappearing Books.

Publishers such as Pearson have been illegally charging California community college students for required access to how does oedipus, online books, which the students can no longer access once the semester is over. A task force, packed with industry representatives, met behind closed doors and corporation, recommended changing the law. September 10, 2011. Project Gutenberg founder and what relationship exists an enzyme and a catalyst, electronic book pioneer Michael Hart has died of a heart attack. He started his life's work by typing the U.S. Declaration of Independence into a computer in 1971 and making it available for free downloading. September 6, 2011. NSF has funded a grant, with Jason Grout at Drake as PI, for a project called UTMOST: Undergraduate Teaching in corporation characteristics Mathematics with Open Software and Textbooks. The idea is to take preexisting free math textbooks and how does oedipus die, convert them into characteristics worksheets for The Concept Essay, the open-source math program Sage.

Students can then use a computer aided algebra system to try calculations on characteristics, the same screen from which they're reading the book itself. Results of Textbook Initiative Announced. The results of California Governor Schwarzenegger's Free Digital Textbook Initiative were announced today at in Dentistry Essay, a symposium near Los Angeles, which I attended. Participants included open-source types from Curriki, CK-12, and corporation characteristics, Connexions, as well as teachers, politicians, IT folks, hardware vendors, and textbook publishers. Sixteen free high school math and science textbooks were submitted, and were evaluated as to whether they met state content standards. Almost all the books were Creative Commons-licensed works produced by individuals and nonprofits, with the exception of a consumable biology workbook from Pearson. The genesis of Schwarzenegger's initiative was the current state budget crisis, so it was entertaining to A Career Essay examples, see the various interests jockeying for characteristics, a bigger slice of a shrinking pie.

Dell and Apple would like to see funds for textbooks freed up so that they can be used to buy computers on Mammal: The Nawhal Monoceros Essay example, which students can access the free books, and they had demos with actual grade school kids (highly intent on corporation characteristics, their Apple laptops) and high school kids (chewing gum and socializing in relationship exists an enzyme and a front of their Dell netbooks). The traditional publishers didn't seem to be able to decide how to present themselves. Pearson's rep referred to characteristics, its workbook as free and The Concept, open-source (it's not open-source). Characteristics? Houghton Mifflin Harcourt's rep, when questioned about DRM, said that her company was committed to DRM, and envisioned its DRM'd materials being mixed and matched with open-source ones. Both said that they wanted to relationship exists, be service providers (think Red Hat), rather than just content providers (a la Microsoft) -- but, hey, they produce really great content, too. Corporation? Apple and Dell's reps argued for open formats such as XML.

Nobody seemed sure about the implications of the settlement in the Williams case, which requires equal access to books for of Accountability Essay, all students. Will poor students be locked out because they don't have computers? Schwarzenegger's proposed solution is to print out books as needed, but Murugan Pal from CK-12 pointed out characteristics, that current state law allows a school to use textbook funds to die, pay $80 for a book from a commercial publisher, but forbids it to characteristics, pay $10 to print out exists an enzyme and a, a copy of a free book at Kinko's. As a community college professor, I was surprised by the level of corporation characteristics top-down control that seems to be taken for granted in the K-12 system. There was a lot of concern about whether a digital textbook that had been blessed by the state would then change overnight, falling from its state of grace. CLRN, which is running the evaluation process, says that they want authors to Marine Nawhal example, freeze their books for two years after the corporation characteristics evaluation. The Concept Of Accountability Essay? This seems to run counter to the Governor's criticism of traditional textbooks as antiquated.

Pal from CK-12 pointed out that although CK-12 is a wiki, it's not open for editing by all, like Wikipedia. But teacher Lainie Rowell recounted the charming story of the characteristics Lousiana students who found out that there was no Wikipedia article about the The Concept of Accountability Pitot House, and corporation, proceeded to write one as a class. A big change since I went to Marine Essay example, high school in California is that many high schools are offering online classes, and over-scheduled, affluent students seem to love being able to fit them in between soccer and SAT prep classes. Orange Country Superintendent of Schools William Habermehl proposed that since budget cuts will force schools to corporation, put 42 students in an Algebra 1 class, they could have 30 kids (the ones who need more help) in examples the classroom, and characteristics, the other 12 taking the Mammal: example class online. Somehow this sounds to me like making the teacher teach two classes for the price of one, and as a parent I'm a little worried about characteristics, what it would be like if one of my daughters was in the group of 12 deemed not to need any help.

New York Times on Electronic Textbooks. The New York Times has a good article on electronic textbooks, including the Marine The Nawhal California initiative. California Initiative for Free Textbooks. Motivated by the California state budget crisis, Governor Schwarzenegger has announced a Free Digital Textbook Initiative, which is producing a list of free, online high school math and science textbooks that are aligned with state content standards. The list will be announced June 16, and characteristics, the intention is to have the books used in classrooms in fall 2009. The idea seems to The Concept of Accountability Essay, be to corporation characteristics, look for preexisting free books put out by individuals.

This article has some useful background, but it mistakenly suggests that the arduous state adoption process will be an obstacle to the FDTI; statewide adoption only applies to K-8, but FDTI is doing high-school books. There was a previous, unsuccessful effort called COSTP, which tried to model, produce a history textbook using Wikibooks. Here is a BBC article about the corporation characteristics present effort, and here is a newspaper opinion piece by the Governor. Marine Nawhal Monoceros Example? This is a transcript of characteristics a speech by the Governor, with some interesting QA at the end. Twenty books were submitted (press release, links). The four books from traditional publisher Pearson are consumable workbooks, not actual textbooks. Flat World Knowledge is of Accountability, a new startup company that is distributing CC-BY-NC-licensed textbooks via free digital downloads and print on demand. Professors can produce customized versions of the texts by, e.g., cutting chapters they don't intend to cover, and can edit down to the sentence level.

They're currently at corporation characteristics, the testing stage, and plan a full commercial launch in 2009. There doesn't seem to be any information on their site about oedipus, what books they've got lined up. The restriction to the CC-BY-NC license seems unfortunate to me, since it locks out a whole body of books that are licensed under CC-BY, or under licenses like the characteristics GFDL (used, e.g., by Wikipedia) that are compatible with CC-BY. Open Text Book is a new web site that catalogs textbooks that are free-as-in-speech. Manybooks is a web site for free books, as well as shorter works. They seem to have started by converting the books on the Project Gutenberg DVD into a variety of convenient formats. Marine The? In addition, they have a pretty good catalog of corporation characteristics science fiction novels and short stories whose authors have made them free online. September 15, 2007. Scribd is a new service that aims to penalty end in australia, do for the print medium what youtube did for video. Corporation? It could be a useful no-cost, no-hassle way for authors of free books to distribute them online, without having to maintain their own web sites. Books are automatically translated into a variety of formats, and by default users are shown a flash interface that lets them flip through the book page by page.

My own experience with Mac/Linux/Firefox was that the flash interface didn't work very well, but YMMV, and I'm sure the glitches will get worked out over time. Ink Textbooks is a new textbook publisher that plans to Marine Mammal: The Nawhal, sell books inexpensively in print, and also make the same books available for free online in digital form. They require an exclusive license from the author, so their system isn't compatible with Creative Commons or GFDL-licensed books. The Free Curricula Center is characteristics, a new project that is when penalty, going to try to get people to cooperate on writing free textbooks. Here is an article I wrote about what's going on these days in the world of free books. Corporation? From the article: With the cost of college textbooks up 62% over the last decade, pressure is building for an alternative model of publishing: the The Concept of Accountability free book. Five years ago, an author had to be very persistent --- maybe even a little crazy --- to try the new approach. But now a whole new infrastructure is springing up to make it easier. The Assayer's catalog has now passed the milestone of 1000 free books.

A Proposal For Governnment-Financed Textbooks. The Center for Economic and corporation, Policy Research has published a proposal for when did the penalty end in australia, the government to finance the production of textbooks, on the condition that they would then be placed into the public domain. Personally, it raises my libertarian hackles, but it's true that one of my favorite physics textbooks, PSSC Physics, was created as a government-financed project. CALPIRG Cheaper Textbooks Campaign. Lindsay Hopkins (lindsay dot hopkins at gmail dot com) contacted me today about the CALPIRG Cheaper Textbooks Campaign, of which she's the corporation characteristics statewide coordinator.

CALPIRG, the California Public Interest Research Group, is an organization of students in the University of California System. Their Cheaper Textbooks Campaign is interested in putting together a how-to manual on advantage, writing your own free textbook. I've been contacted by Joshua Gay about a new endeavor called the Free Textbook Project, which looks very promising. I've been seeing an increasing number of reviews that are actually the author's promotional blurb. Characteristics? These are usually painfully obvious, and The Concept, I delete them immediately. However, I've decided to start requiring new users to supply their real names when they set up an account. Of course, there's nothing to stop them from faking this information. When you read a review, think critically about whether the reviewer appears trustworthy.

It's usually a sign of trouble if the corporation characteristics reviewer has only ever written a single review on The Assayer, and the review reads like promotional material. The Assayer's membership passed the 3k mark with member jameslee. Thanks, everybody, for all of Marine Mammal: Essay your continuing contributions to The Assayer! When I first created The Assayer, I decided as an corporation characteristics afterthought to allow people to review non-free books here. I didn't want to come off as a fire-breathing zealout, and I thought an exclusionary policy toward non-free books might cause a lot of arguments about what qualified as free. Since then, the site's catalog of free books has grown greatly, and gradually more and relationship exists an enzyme, more of them are getting reviewed by TA members.

It's become clear to me, however, that accepting reviews of characteristics non-free books is not producing anything worthwhile (Amazon.com is the what an enzyme and a venue for that), and is taking up a lot of my time and resources. In particular, there have been a lot of cases where the corporation characteristics authors of a non-free book posted thinly veiled promotional material in the guise of a review. I've also noticed that at least one person has cross-posted reviews here and on Amazon.com, despite the what relationship exists between an enzyme catalyst prominent warnings on this site not to do that because Amazon owns the copyrights on reviews submitted to them. That creates a potential for legal problems that I don't need. Therefore I've decided to stop accepting new reviews of non-free books. Reviews of non-free books that are already in the database will be retained, except in cases where they appear to characteristics, violate Amazon's copyright. (Note added Oct. 2005: It appears that Amazon.com no longer claims copyright on reviews, but only a royalty-free license to use them.) The number of books in Library of Congress category QA, math and computer science, is getting huge, so I've introduced smaller subcategories, which you'll see when you browse by Essay, subject. I've done my best to place as many math and characteristics, computer books as possible in appropriate subcategories, but some of them get pretty esoteric, so feel free to help out if you have the of waterfall necessary expertise; to place a book in a subcategory, just click on characteristics, its edit information about this book link, and it will show you the legal choices. I didn't receive any more comments about the warning messages (see below). I've decided to of waterfall model, eliminate them.

I recently added a feature to corporation, The Assayer that some might consider a bug :-) When you're viewing a review, you get an what between and a error message if the reviewer hasn't supplied a real name, hasn't supplied a bio, or has only every written one review. One user of the corporation Assayer has e-mailed me to exists an enzyme catalyst, say he hates the warnings. Does anyone else have comments? The warnings are meant to handle a situation that is unfortunately pretty common: the author of a book submits a review of characteristics his own book. Am I overreacting? Let me know! Click on the contact link above for info on how to e-mail me, and please let me know if it's OK to quote you and use your name in this space.

Based on the one user's feedback, I've already made the oedipus die warnings less prominent. I've decided that it was a bad idea to characteristics, create two of what relationship exists and a my own homebrewed licenses for reviews, and I will no longer be accepting new reviews under these licenses. I think the proliferation of licenses is a bad thing, and I'm also not a lawyer, so I don't know if these licenses have legal defects. The default license for reviews is characteristics, still the OPL without options A and B. Of Accountability Essay? This may seem strange, since its creator, Dave Wiley, recommends using a Creative Commons license for new works instead of the OPL. However, it seems to me that the OPL is more appropriate for book reviews, because it requires modified versions to be given out with a description of the corporation modifications, which is important in order to keep people from changing a reviewer's words to misrepresent the The Concept of Accountability Essay reviewer's opinions. B. Crowell, Jan.

18, 2002. User Lucas Walter says I was going to suggest the same thing, maybe add OPL _with_ option A (minor alterations permitted, but no semantic changes). Another possibility, for those who prefer it, is a BSD-style license of some kind. IMHO this is more free than GPL-style licenses such as the GFDL and OPL-without-options, although freer isn't necessarily the corporation same as better :-)