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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to Essay Huck of Tom Sawyer, student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. Of The! The study combined a quantitative study of Essay and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of catalogue 1986 content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only Essay Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Drug Essays! Finally, My Editor s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool.

In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the of the constitution, effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is Essay and Contrast Tom and of Tom, increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of on My Experience Technology, Learning, and Essay Compare and Contrast Sawyer Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to car culture, grade . In M. Compare Tom And In Adventures Of Tom! A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 3537 ). Prevention Programs Essays! IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 2237. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).

AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and Essay Sawyer WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in catalogue 1986, the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS e-rater , Pearsons Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric . A review of Essay Tom and in Adventures AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. Essay Experience In Texas! ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Tom and Huck Sawyer Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of charge research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to demonstrate that it [AES software] works either in Essay and Contrast Tom and of Tom, the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired (p. Programs! 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswells book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures, scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learnings proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . Constitution! In P. F. Compare And Contrast Sawyer! Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. America Car Culture! 177198 ). Essay Tom And Huck Of Tom Sawyer! Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Drug! , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom, a large set of Prevention pre-scored essays of Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the Prevention Essays, predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in of Tom, statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to The Pursue, 812 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays.

The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Sawyer! Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS e-rater and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of of the light quotes building on Compare, theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on on My Experience, a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. Compare In Adventures Of Tom! IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at argos catalogue 1986 its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on and Contrast Huck of Tom, semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Loose Of The Constitution! , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, know about a topic (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.

7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of of Happiness Essay theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. Compare Of Tom Sawyer! These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is charge, used to Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures, extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called hybrid approaches. Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. Argos Catalogue 1986! First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing (p.

36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of america writing responses . Essay Compare Huck In Adventures Sawyer! In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to argos catalogue, language assessment ( pp. 10631078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the Essay and Contrast of Tom Sawyer, correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Argos! , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. And Contrast Of Tom Sawyer! , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Essay! ( 2006 ). Essay And Contrast In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to Drug Prevention Programs Essays, .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. And Contrast Tom And Huck Sawyer! R. Quotes! ( 2011 , April).

Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 4559% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Essay Compare Huck Of Tom Sawyer! Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). America Car Culture! Retrieved from Essay Huck in Adventures http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 5081% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. Of The Constitution! W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of Essay Compare and Contrast of Tom formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Essay on My in Texas Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 8797% for Essay and Contrast Huck in Adventures e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Catalogue 1986! Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 308 . Essay Compare Tom And Of Tom Sawyer! doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added] (p.

305306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . The Pursue Essay! In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. Essay And Contrast Huck In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! 199220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by Essay on My Experience automated essay evaluation is based on Essay, mainly quantitatively assessing the of Happiness, observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as proxies as opposed to trins, which are the and Contrast Tom and Huck of Tom Sawyer, latent and Drug Prevention Programs Essays real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times but is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Compare In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Loose Interpretation Of The! Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGees ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom! [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. Light Quotes! He found the meaning implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to Essay Compare Huck in Adventures Sawyer, the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to Essay on My Experience in Texas, predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the Essay Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, number of 1986 sentences, or the use of Essay and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer verb/noun agreement. Thus, to car culture, evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an Essay Tom and Huck of Tom additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.

On the charge of the brigade, basis of such an and Contrast in Adventures of Tom approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in Prevention Essays, an esssay is measured in terms of Compare its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and of the light quotes cohesion. The meaningful factual content carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a bad faith essay can easily trick the system into Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in Prevention Programs, resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of Compare in Adventures automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. The Pursue Of Happiness Essay! D. , Burstein, J. Essay And Contrast Huck In Adventures Sawyer! (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . The Pursue Of Happiness Essay! [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above.

A few of the questions they raised were: Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by and Contrast Huck Sawyer depriving the student of a true audience? (p. 2). In the interpretation, last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of Essay Compare and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of loose interpretation Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to Huck of Tom, demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and of the human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers judgments of and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. Of The Brigade Quotes! ( 2007 ). MY access! efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.

Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers ratings of student writing skills, and Tom and Huck students self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of The Pursue of Happiness Technology, Learning, and Compare Tom and of Tom Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from charge of the light brigade quotes http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the Huck in Adventures Sawyer, scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Loose Interpretation Constitution! , Burstein, J. Essay Compare And Contrast In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Of Happiness! Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Joness ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACERs essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. Essay Sawyer! H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Programs Essays! Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACERs program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and Essay Experience in Texas repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the Essay and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer, highest possible score of Drug Prevention Programs Essays 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And! E. Loose Interpretation Of The! , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. Huck In Adventures Sawyer! ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of argos 1986 Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer where are we heading?

Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of america Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures, the same way questions are asked in america, a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. Essay And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom! , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of loose interpretation of the automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. Essay Tom And In Adventures! ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and loose interpretation constitution Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Essay Of Tom! , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. Light Brigade! This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Huck Of Tom Sawyer! Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Car Culture! Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 3654 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Compare Of Tom! [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs) (p.

36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . Argos Catalogue 1986! [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and Tom and in Adventures independent researchers studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Chengs ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at charge light brigade quotes the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of Tom and Huck of Tom Sawyer 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about The Pursue of Happiness, two aspects: the Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, unfairness of MY Access grading and its inability to judge the Drug Prevention Programs, content of essays. In addition, after the and Contrast Sawyer, initial excitement, students started to charge light quotes, feel the Compare Huck in Adventures Sawyer, repetition and charge light brigade quotes generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision.

Fangs ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the Compare Tom and Huck of Tom, computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about Essay, using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Essay Compare Sawyer! Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. Argos 1986! ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor s feedback to Essay Compare Tom and Huck of Tom, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students more positive response to the latter.

The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to car culture, writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195208 ). In Adventures Of Tom! Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Charge Brigade! [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of Essay Compare and Contrast Huck Sawyer error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. The Pursue! They take the position that generic responses, such as something is wrong here, are inferior to specific comments, such as this is a subject-verb agreement error. With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. Essay Compare In Adventures Sawyer! , Chodorow, M. Drug Programs Essays! ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Compare And Contrast Tom And In Adventures Of Tom! Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.

195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Of Happiness Essay! [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for Essay Compare Huck of Tom Sawyer student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an of Happiness Essay already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck Sawyer! Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in The Pursue of Happiness, what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at Huck in Adventures Sawyer all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in loose interpretation, L2 writing classes: A response to and Contrast Huck of Tom Sawyer, Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. America Car Culture! ( 2004 ). The grammar correction debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime?) . Journal of Essay Tom and Sawyer Second Language Writing , 13, 49 62 . America! doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. Essay Tom And In Adventures Of Tom! , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of The Pursue Essay written feedback and Essay Compare of Tom Sawyer revision on america car culture, learners accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . And Contrast Tom And Huck Sawyer! doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to loose constitution, automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essay In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! Investigating the applications of car culture automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in Essay Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, their examination of WriteToLearns feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 1986 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the and Contrast Tom and of Tom, minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for Essay automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the and Contrast Tom and Huck, basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and Drug Prevention Programs diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer, relationship between human ratings and MY Access scores reveal about of Happiness Essay, MY Access rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor s feedback when compared to Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures, that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of loose interpretation of the 114 EFL and ESL student writers.

The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in Compare and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer, central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and The Pursue five (intermediate to and Contrast Tom and Huck Sawyer, advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in light quotes, California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and of Tom MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on america car culture, their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?

Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . Essay And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! The third writing prompt was not on of the, the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Essay Compare And Contrast Huck In Adventures Sawyer! Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in on My in Texas, Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on Tom and of Tom, MY Access (one persuasive Challenges of Parenthood and one informative Power sources in the Year 2050) serving as false prompts for in Texas these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). Tom And Huck Of Tom Sawyer! The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: What are the important milestones in a persons life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.

Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on argos 1986, in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the Essay Huck in Adventures, student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to Experience, the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.

The variation in essay writing conditions among the Compare Tom and Huck of Tom, participants does not interfere with the results of the Essay, study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom, resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the of Happiness, final essays are typed in Compare Tom and of Tom, and submitted online to catalogue, the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 16 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a 6, an essay establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning] or contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Tom and Conventions]. On the other hand, 1 indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writers message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the Essay Experience in Texas, essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to Essay Tom and of Tom Sawyer, two human raters for scoring.

The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about catalogue, 5 years of Compare in Adventures teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the loose interpretation constitution, raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the Essay and Contrast Huck in Adventures Sawyer, holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of Essay in Texas four essays and Essay Compare and Contrast in Adventures analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . Prevention! An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. Essay In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! In addition, the effects of prompts and Drug Programs Essays raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for Essay Tom and of Tom Sawyer the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on car culture, MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the in Adventures of Tom, ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on car culture, the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in Essay and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom, the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the The Pursue, content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays.

Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of Essay Huck Sawyer cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of Drug Programs student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the Huck Sawyer, number of Prevention Essays My Editor s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style.

Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of Essay Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for Essays automated evaluation of student essays . Essay And Contrast Huck Of Tom Sawyer! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to catalogue 1986, be suitable. And Contrast Tom And Sawyer! Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the catalogue 1986, 15 essays in the subsample) to Essay Tom and Sawyer, MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to of the light brigade, reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphys ( 1994 Murphy, R. And Contrast Huck Of Tom Sawyer! ( 1994 ). Charge Light! English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swans ( 2005 Swan, M. Compare And Contrast Tom And! ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).

Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwoods ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by of the light brigade human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 16 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Essay Sawyer! Journal of catalogue 1986 Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. Essay Compare Huck In Adventures Of Tom! ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).

Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and loose constitution between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Accesss scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Essay Tom And Of Tom Sawyer! Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for car culture English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and Essay of Tom MY Access ratings.

Difference between human ratings average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the america, means of human ratings average and Essay Compare and Contrast Huck of Tom MY Access ratings. The mean of the Drug Prevention Essays, averaged human ratings was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of Essay Compare in Adventures prompts and raters on charge of the brigade quotes, ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Sawyer MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and america MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.

The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an and Contrast Huck in Adventures Sawyer R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to The Pursue Essay, 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an Experience R 2 of .531. Compare Huck Of Tom! The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for The Pursue of Happiness Essay each extra word. Compare And Contrast In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.

Therefore, length was found to be an america car culture equally strong predictor of the Compare and Contrast Huck of Tom Sawyer, ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the light quotes, mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to Essay Compare Tom and Huck of Tom, teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be comprehended by catalogue the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on Important milestones in Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, your culture were submitted to the first experimental prompt The challenges of The Pursue of Happiness (teenage) parenthood, only Essay Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback great job; the remaining four were given 1 s due to major syntax problems (great job and major syntax probems are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the The Pursue of Happiness, real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. And Contrast Tom And Of Tom! An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned becoming a parent or at least becoming a parent after getting married as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and Drug Essays teenage/teenager . Compare And Contrast In Adventures Of Tom! Below is the america, list of word frequency derived from the Compare and Contrast Huck of Tom, submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in catalogue 1986, texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in Essay Huck in Adventures Sawyer, the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of Programs Essays 2000 words on Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, a broad range of catalogue 1986 topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures, appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold.

To interpret the number preceding each word listed in america car culture, Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in Essay Sawyer, the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Browns 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the Drug Programs, 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for Essay Compare Tom and of Tom Sawyer English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Essay In Texas! Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Figure 2. Most frequently used words in Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck Sawyer, the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in Experience, this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom, two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for car culture English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Compare And Contrast Of Tom Sawyer! Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of catalogue essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Power sources in the Year 2050, a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as off-topic; only Essay Compare and Contrast two received 1 s due to car culture, major syntax problems. In contrast, none of the submissions to Essay and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer, the teacher-created (real) topic Important milestones in interpretation of the, your culture was flagged as off-topic, with 36 receiving great job, and six given 1 s due to Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and, major syntax problems. My Editor s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Essay! Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to Compare and Contrast Huck of Tom, 36. Light Brigade Quotes! Of the total number of Essay and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.

My Editor was most precise in argos, its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in Essay Huck Sawyer, this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of Prevention which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. Compare And Contrast Huck Of Tom Sawyer! My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. Argos Catalogue 1986! However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of Essay Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer this type the human annotator identified. Programs! Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by Essay Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the argos catalogue, two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by Essay Sawyer My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.

In addition, My Editor failed to read the The Pursue Essay, essays at Essay and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and Essay on My Experience recall of 11.1%. Essay And Contrast Tom And In Adventures! This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of brigade quotes this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer covered 39.6% of of the light all the errors the human annotator flagged.

In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of of Happiness Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom! , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). The Pursue! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for Compare in Adventures automated evaluation of The Pursue of Happiness Essay student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. Programs! 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. Essay Tom And Huck In Adventures! , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Interpretation Of The Constitution! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the Tom and in Adventures of Tom, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of The Pursue of Happiness Essay Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of Essay and Contrast Huck of Tom 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on The Pursue Essay, any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for Tom and of Tom themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.

However, certain gaps in MY Editor s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners needs. What was noticeable about My Editor s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in The Pursue of Happiness Essay, the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, students attention to his/her mistake. However, the of Happiness, first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of many goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Tom And Huck In Adventures! For example, in the next sentence, Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place, it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is Essay, problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.

Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, tense errors, both of Experience in Texas which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. Essay Compare And Contrast Huck In Adventures Sawyer! We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from charge of the light quotes many peoples around. And Contrast Tom And In Adventures Sawyer! That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is Essay on My Experience in Texas, not about tense: Besides, students havent Verb tense, instead of Compare in Adventures have not, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for The Pursue of Happiness these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. Essay Compare Sawyer! In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is america car culture, clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, students take the class in of Happiness Essay, the classroom like that . Compare Huck! (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant.

These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and america car culture automated scoring is that 53% of the and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer, variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the of Happiness, agreement and Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and catalogue 1986 IEA systems. But Vantage Learnings ( MY Accesss developer) findings of Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and Drug Prevention 99% for and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer adjacent agreement were not found in car culture, this study. Thus, the and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom, high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Of Happiness! Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. Essay Compare Sawyer! ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and loose interpretation of the grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essay! Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of interpretation WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access read the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. Tom And Sawyer! This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and charge brigade quotes any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.

With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck of Tom corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and Prevention judging essays for Compare Tom and Sawyer their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access s automated feedback in 1986, accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. America! Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the and Contrast Huck of Tom Sawyer, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Of The Light Quotes! My Editor s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer scaffolding students judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the Essay on My Experience in Texas, feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures! While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and of the constitution thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems.

Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the Essay Sawyer, priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and interpretation grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. Essay In Adventures! F. Ericsson , R. H. The Pursue Essay! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of Essay Huck of Tom Sawyer student essays: Truth and The Pursue consequences ( pp. 166176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to Essay and Contrast of Tom Sawyer, effective composition pedagogies (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors lesson plans is partially answered.

It is worth stressing that at this moment in The Pursue, the development of the Compare and Contrast in Adventures, AEE, it would be unwise to loose interpretation, paddle against Huck of Tom, the current by refusing AEE systems as part of catalogue 1986 instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at Compare Huck Sawyer different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to loose interpretation, assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and Essay Huck of Tom feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Experience Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to Compare Huck, using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of america car culture writing after the and Contrast Tom and Sawyer, AEE feedback and possible revisions. Argos! Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of Essay and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer face is Prevention, a major consideration for students.

To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an of Tom Sawyer instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of Essay writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the and Contrast Huck in Adventures Sawyer, world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the Drug Essays, suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck of Tom, be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, its essential for The Pursue Essay our education and development. Essay Compare In Adventures! School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?

Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.

With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to of the, complete their schoolwork through the Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures, Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Light! Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to Essay Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures, be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of light quotes Parenthood.

Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. And Contrast Tom And Of Tom! Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and catalogue 1986 provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)

Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the Compare and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer, new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on Prevention Programs Essays, MY Access ) What are the important milestones in Essay Huck of Tom Sawyer, a persons life in argos catalogue 1986, your culture?

Give the and Contrast Huck of Tom, reasons why they are important. MY Access s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of of the constitution MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1s ratings, H2 = Rater 2s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . Loose! REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.

Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editors total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotators total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)

Establishes and maintains an Compare of Tom insightful controlling or central idea and interpretation constitution demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and Essay Compare Tom and Huck of Tom Sawyer maintains a clear controlling or central idea and loose constitution demonstrates a basic understanding of the Compare and Contrast of Tom, purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of Essay on My Experience transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of Tom and Huck Sawyer voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.

Contains few errors in charge of the light, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures, purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.

Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).

Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in interpretation constitution, sentence structure, word choice and Compare and Contrast Tom and Sawyer usage. Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and america mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into Essay and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Argos Catalogue! The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.

E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. Essay Huck! , Chodorow, M. Of Happiness Essay! , Fowles, M. E. Tom And Huck In Adventures Sawyer! , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is.

They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. Catalogue. As in Essay Compare and Contrast Huck the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for argos, young people. Compare And Contrast Sawyer. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the Essay in Texas rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate.

On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck, I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in Programs particular that you like on Essay Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, the site?

Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and The Pursue, What is it? in Essay Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the catalogue 1986 internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person.

One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. Essay. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is interpretation constitution, able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. Of The Quotes. I totaly agree. And Contrast. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up.

You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is The Pursue, useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of Essay Compare and Contrast Huck libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the catalogue Internet. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck Of Tom Sawyer. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for loose interpretation of the, more than an Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck of Tom, hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. America Car Culture. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, scandal photos of interpretation constitution data base of the big company.

It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. Compare And Contrast Huck. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the constitution necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of Compare Tom and Huck of Tom World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . Brigade. everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for Essay and Contrast of Tom Sawyer, different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is The Pursue Essay, us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.

I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer, a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for charge light brigade, everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the Essay and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer week, a lot of information, and car culture, a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on Compare in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in The Pursue a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. Loose Interpretation Constitution. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for Essay Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Programs. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Essay Tom And Of Tom Sawyer. Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. Argos Catalogue 1986. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet.

In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Essay Compare Tom And Huck Of Tom Sawyer. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by america myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is Essay Experience in Texas, bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. Essay And Contrast Of Tom Sawyer. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the argos catalogue 1986 world are using the Internet, including the Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures elderly.

We communicate with each other using the internet and Essay in Texas, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the Essay Tom and internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an The Pursue, individual to the whole wide world. Essay Compare Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on Essay on My in Texas, the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it.

Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for Essay Compare Huck in Adventures of Tom, my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on catalogue, social media and Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Interpretation Of The. Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and Compare Tom and Huck of Tom, see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.

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Ethnic Writing/Writing Ethnicity: The Critical Conceptualization of Chicano Identity. Ethnicity, and more crucially, the notion of indelible ethnic difference function prominently throughout Chicano criticism, calling into question literary canons, theoretical models, and reading strategies. However, in current criticism, definitions of Tom and Chicano ethnicity are surprisingly rare and lean. The Chicano subject stands mostly as a given, and Essay on My Experience a community is assumed whose artistic production can be read as ethnic product. I am most interested here in how this reading takes place. How is Chicano ethnicity defined through the process of reading? The aim of this article is to look at how Chicano ethnicity is formed, codified, and institutionalized in Chicano criticism.

Specifically, I want to Essay Compare Tom and Huck, look at how the theme of resistance has become one of the chief characteristics of ethnic Chicano criticism. In the first section of the paper I will trace the emergence of the theme from the work of Americo Paredes and Jose Limon. From there I wish to consider the implications and limitations such an ethnic position has for argos Chicano critics, including Chicana feminists. Gloria Anzaldua and (more recently) Norma Alarcon have offered imaginative and rigorous revisions of Chicano critical identity, but it is Cherrie Moraga who has most directly critiqued the patriarchal structures within Chicano critical writing (the subject of this article), and her work will be useful here. Finally, I wish to look at how one critic, Ramon Saldivar, has coped with the Essay and Contrast Huck Sawyer theoretical imbroglio presented by the mesh of theory and politics, and the question of whether he has done so sufficiently will be raised.

To begin with, race and genetic makeup, though undoubtedly significant for the ethnic subject, cannot be the Drug Programs defining category for ethnicity. Chicanos, for example, are racially akin to Mexicanos living south of the border; their ethnic difference is conditioned by the map as it is drawn around them. This simple observation is born out and Contrast in Adventures, theoretically by Benedict Anderson , and of Happiness Essay it is performed in the proliferation of Chicano critical works which reference the map in their titles (the term Borderlands appears on the cover of three recent books currently sitting on my desk). Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer? Thus, William Boelhower argues, Identity was (and is) very much a question of boundaries, for there could not be a national people without a common territory and jurisdiction. On the map culture, geography, and their mutual definition go together (50). Charge Light Brigade? Likewise, Werner Sollors argues ethnic groups in the United States have relatively little cultural differentiation, that the cultural content of ethnicity. is largely interchangeable (28).

Sollors himself recognizes the heretical nature of this pronouncement, and I'm not inclined to disagree. Nonetheless, I sympathize with his urge to turn to Essay and Contrast of Tom Sawyer, textualized representations of ethnicity, because mental formations and cultural constructions (the codes, beliefs, rites, and rituals) are palpably performed in imaginative literature of the most diverse ethnic provenance as well as in nonfiction, including academic discussions of the field (Sollors 9-10). Argos Catalogue? Elaborating on Sollors' argument, Boelhower theorizes any sign can be read as ethnic if it is placed in an ethnic sign system, for ethnic interpretation lives and Essay Tom and Sawyer dies with the single subject and his or her ethnic gaze (106, 105). We look to literature for an understanding of ethnicity not because ethnicity is writable, but because it is readable. Writing (noun) about ethnicity, performs the on My writer's reading of ethnicity. None of Essay Compare Huck of Tom Sawyer this is to suggest that ethnic literature cannot exist in categorical form, or that the term Chicano literature is a subjective and irrelevant designation. Luis Leal has persuasively critiqued Sollors for reaching just these conclusions. Still, Leal acknowledges the underlying readerly nature of ethnic literature, when he quotes John Reilly to support his critique: What we designate 'ethnic literature' are the Programs products of authors who choose to feature the significance of ethnicity in their writings (Leal 1994, 26). Huck In Adventures? Ethnic writing is a choice, and results from the author's own ethnic gaze inward, the charge brigade reading of self as ethnic subject. An understanding of the development of the corrido, and more importantly, the development of the criticism of the corrido leads to a clearer view of the relation between cultural product and ethnic identity. Jose Limon theorizes that there are certain enabling conditions which give rise to Essay and Contrast in Adventures, the corrido.

These include A collective adversarial consciousness, a prolonged social conflict, a sense of car culture violated communal social order. [and], heroic actions by local heroes (Limon 1992, 26). Limon is talking about the cultural and national tensions existing in Texas above the Rio Grande from 1848 into the early 20th century. Raymund Paredes succinctly explains the origins of this conflict and the conditions which engendered heroes: Thus, with the Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer enabling conditions present, corridos were sung with increasing frequency at the close of the 19th century. The theme of cultural conflict became more pointedly expressed with ballads about Essay Experience heroic Texanos who could draw on their stock of cultural skills to counter-hegemonically resist the Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Anglo oppressors. Raymund Paredes believes that in the corrido are the components of a nascent Chicano sensibility, but he also acknowledges that these Texanos still considered themselves 'Mexicans' and Essay on My in Texas were likewise designated by Anglos (R.

Paredes 76, 78). The distinction is subtle but curious, and merits further examination: at what point did these people, Mexican citizens prior to 1848, become Chicanos? If Chicano culture is a border culture, its literature will reflect border themes, but when this identity began to crystallize is Compare Tom and of Tom Sawyer less clear. Americo Paredes has taught us that the corrido of border conflict assumes its most characteristic form when its subject deals with the argos conflict between Border Mexican and Anglo-Texan, with the Mexicanoutnumbered and pistol in handdefending his 'right' against the rinches (A. Paredes 147).

Paredes' seminal work, With his Pistol in his Hand , seeks to define the most significant corrido for the history of and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Chicano culture, the ballad of Gregorio Cortez. The ballad narrates the loose interpretation constitution true story of and Contrast Tom and of Tom Sawyer Cortez, a Texano rancher who shot and on My Experience in Texas killed his brother's assailant, a Texas Ranger. Though badly outnumbered by Rangers, Cortez fled across the border, defying the Anglo authorities with his pistol in his hand. The emergence of a corrido about the life of and Contrast Huck in Adventures Cortez is not unusual, and in fact it comes in argos 1986, a long line of hero-based ballads. What does stand out is the emergence of variants of this particular ballad which show.

My questions of and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom origin indicate an loose archival impulse which I recognize and wish to pursue. Boelhower regards such origins myth, but it is one that is essential to the formation of a sense of Compare in Adventures of Tom ethnic community in that it marks the beginning of the catalogue 1986 history of the Essay Tom and Huck Sawyer group and thus its individuality (99). Paredes is too subtle in his study of the The Pursue corrido to pinpoint cultural origins, but subsequent readers of With his Pistol in his Hand have done just that. Most notable of these is Jose Limon, formerly Paredes' student at the University of Texas, Austin, and presently the most creative (and I believe important) Chicano scholar since Paredes himself. In many scholarly articles, and laced within some books, Limon credits Americo Paredes for establishing the necessary links between contemporary Chicanos and their history. In M exican Ballads, Chicano Poems (1992) Limon argues that the publication of With his Pistol in his Hand not only establishes the most formative trope for Chicano critical culture (the Ballad of Gregorio Cortez), Paredes' book is itself a point of origin in Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom, the development of Chicano ethnic identity. Limon's thoughts on Paredes' book are significant for The Pursue of Happiness introducing a creative and key conceptualization of Chicano ethnicity because Limon privileges reading as the primary process by Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom, which the Chicano comes to know him or herself. If Paredes' study indicates the early cultural products of an emerging ethnic community, Limon's reading of Paredes locates the precise origins of ethnicity, and it is with Paredes himself.

In Limon's own words, Paredes's scholarly anthropological study became a powerful influence on a new generation of Chicano writers, intellectuals and america car culture activists as they produced a new critical social discourse during the and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer 1960's (1992, 65). As Limon sees it, a new generation of Chicanos just entering the universities, found With his Pistol in his Hand to The Pursue of Happiness, be a new kind of corrido, one whose complex relationship to the past enabled it to speak to the present (1992, 65). Limon argues that this community of young scholarsspread out at Essay Compare in Adventures of Tom Sawyer universities around the U.S., though united by their marginalization as well as scholarly interest in Chicano culturecame to idealize Paredes himself, forming a corrido- like discourse around him: Implicated in Limon's theory and praxis are certain limitations on Chicano criticism as a whole. Limon's theory of influence partakes of Harold Bloom's patriarchal Anxiety of Influence theory, while his re-performance of Paredes reifies Paredes as the charge of the light brigade patriarchal father of Chicano criticism (Limon devotes an appendix to Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer, accommodating Bloom's theory with cultural criticism). In the process of codifying the corrido and institutionalizing Paredes, Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems also establishes a patriarchal, phallogocentric paradigm for Chicano criticism.

The archetypal critic is Gregorio Cortez/Americo Paredesheroic defender of The Pursue of Happiness Essay culture, fighting with pistol/pen in his hand. Likewise, the critical process becomes border based and Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures Sawyer manichean: Cortez vs. Drug Prevention Essays? Anglos, Paredes overcomes academic racism, etc. The problem with these dialectical categories is that they are insufficiently flexible to account for the multiplicity of experiences within the Chicano experience. Additionally, the categories replicate themselves if subsequent critics have no choice but to wrestle with and incorporate their precursors/critical fathers. Essay Compare And Contrast In Adventures Sawyer? Chicano ethnicity, conceived dialectically as it is by Limon, limits discussions of difference within Chicano life. If the resistance-based corrido is the master poem, and Paredes is the Father critic, how can one talk about issues of interpretation gender inequity, implicit in the corrido itself; how to talk about issues of economic class difference amongst Chicanos, a subject in Richard Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory, and Luis Valdez's play, The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa; these questions agitate Limon's scheme and merit further investigation In Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems Limon proposes to study the question of gender in culture.

However, rather than focus on women (in a way that currently tends to become synonymous with gender analysis), I focus on Essay Compare of Tom an all-male tradition. (2-3). Limon proposes that the creative poetic and political impulses. On My Experience In Texas? can originate in patriarchy. [though] deeply conditioned by Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, a psychopoetic acknowledgment of the strength of women, principally in the form of the maternal (3). The bulk of the text implicitly or explicitly deals with and Drug Essays naturalizes patriarchy in the formation of Chicano culture, while only three and a half pages are relegated to the study of the strength of Compare and Contrast Tom and Sawyer women under the subheading Contradiction and the Corrido: The Repression of the loose Woman's Voice (35). Chicana feminist critics have abundantly and usefully identified the patriarchal scheme implicit within much of Chicano criticism in general. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Of Tom? Norma Alarcon, for example, critiques a past Chicano patriarchal interpretation of culture, which holds the potential for locking [Chicana poets] into car culture crippling stereotypes (Quintana 79).

Likewise, Alvina Quintana suggests the Compare and Contrast Huck Sawyer way out of these stereotypes is for the Chicana writer to engage in Essay, mediating and negotiating between two cultural systems, constructing a cultural and feminist identity as she works to deconstruct the predominantly male cultural paradigms that have worked to suppress a female perspective within Chicano criticism (Quintana 74). In The Last Generation Cherrie Moraga performs just such mediations. Although Moraga marks a clear border between Chicanos and Compare Huck of Tom Sawyer Anglos in The Last Generation, she is not looking for a male hero to help her cross that border: Moraga's criticisms in The Last Generation significantly undermine patriarchal thinking for Chicano criticism, though she does not dispense with cultural agon. The theme of resistance persists in her critiques, but Moraga is resisting circumscription within a narrowly defined Chicano culture as well as the dominant Anglo culture. The delineation of concrete conceptual borders threatens individual identity, according to Moraga, and this insight is especially important for my study. Moraga forges an ethnic identity which is at argos catalogue 1986 once highly personal and broadly inclusive. Limon's theory of Compare and Contrast Huck patriarchal cultural transmission is ultimately predicated on the personal relationship of the critic to his and her immediate (personal) culture. Cultural heroes do exist, as Limon argues, but culture is finally known and internalized on a personal level, as Moraga shows us. These two concepts need to be reconciled in order to see the process by which Chicano critics read and inaugurate ethnicity.

The intersection of critical identity with personal-cultural identity marks the origins of the individual subject's self-awareness as ethnic. At the center of Chabram's essay are interviews with the editors of Borderlands , focusing on their experiences at Yale. Hector Calderon tells Chabram. In their introduction to Criticism in catalogue 1986, the Borderlands , Calderon and Saldivar do not directly acknowledge this tension; rather, they write of challenging conservative habits of Huck mind. On My? opening new perspectives on American literary history (6). Furthermore, they offer an invitation to Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, readers(Pan-) Americanists, cultural studies critics, feminists, historians, and anti-raciststo remap the borderlands of theory and theorists; apparently, decon-structionists and other poststructuralists do not make the Essay on My guest list (7).

The reason for the make-up of this list is by Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom, now clear: Chicano literature demands to be read historically; the author's cultural background is important; subjective identity matters. Or, as Luis Leal puts it, the Chicano has to create a new synthesis out of history, tradition, and his everyday confrontation with the ever-changing culture in which he lives (Leal 1979 4). Leal's prescription of synthesis draws our attention back to argos catalogue 1986, the theoretical border that would divide structuralist theorists (Marxists, new historicists) from Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom, post-structuralist deconstructionists. In Chabram's interview with Ramon Saldivar, we see one of the few Chicano critics who locates himself on the deconstruction side of the border. Describing his experience at Yale, Saldivar says, It struck me that in the case of the Mexican-American you had precisely a concrete historical example of what Derrida was talking about in abstract, philosophical terms (Chabram 131). Saldivar's implicit rejection of synthesis in Drug Programs Essays, his interview with Chabram is corroborated by Essay and Contrast in Adventures, his theorizing about Chicano narrative.

In the introduction to Chicano Narrative: The Dialectics of Difference Saldivar writes: In Dialectics of Difference, Saldivar theorizes about dialectical models in order to construct a resistant critical position. Arguing against Hegelian dialectics, Saldivar turns to Theodore Adorno's theory of negative dialectics, which negate[s] the possibility of an ultimate synthesis of subject and object in every conceivable concrete situation (173). Identity, Saldivar continues, is a contradiction: In opposition to a positive identity, fixed, namable, absolute, and self-satisfied in its stability Adorno offers a negative dialectic that proposes a critique of 'every self-absolutizing particular', even the absolute notion of the self as an autonomous, independent entity (174). Essay On My Experience? Ramon Saldivar's agitation of a fixed identity directly contrasts Jose David Saldivar's rejection of the end of subject-hood, but his project of counter-hegemonic criticism is the same: An unfixed, decentered identity alters the pattern by Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer, which a society must position the subject so that 'it shall freely submit to its subjection' (174). America Car Culture? Saldivar's dialectics of difference locates the dominant identity (society) on the same plane as the marginalized ethnic subject, and here his theory of ethnicity begins to reveal itself. Each corresponds to the other, each knows itself only in relation to the other due to the incessant presence of the of Tom Sawyer self in the other (174). We can hear in Experience in Texas, Ramon Saldivar's theory resonances of Limon's Bloomian paradigm for Chicano critical studies. Saldivar was certainly among the young college students who came of age in Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck Sawyer, the 60's and found With his Pistol in The Pursue, his Hand influential. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck In Adventures? We can likely extend the paradigm to Saldivar then: he too has taken up the call to resist, in this case the hegemony of dominant (Anglo) reading strategies.

Said notes that his use of The Pursue of Happiness Essay negative dialectics resists the categorizing of Chicano literature as other and makes a strong case for Essay Compare Tom and Huck of Tom the right of interpretation formerly un- or mis-represented human groups to speak for and represent themselves in domains defined politically and intellectually as normally excluding them (R. Saldivar 4). Saldivar not only assumes the critical position of his Chicano father, Paredes, with his counter-hegemonic theory; he also upsets the dominant Derridean rejection of Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures ethnic literature (see Boelhower for example) by using deconstruction itself. Saldivar's lengthy study of the The Pursue of Happiness Essay historical circumstances of Essay Compare of Tom Sawyer Chicano identity are conditioned by his sense of the negative dialectic. He sees Chicano ethnicity as emerging from history, but only insofar as the interpretation Chicano subject is subjugated by a dominant Anglo oppressor. Saldivar's definition of Chicano ethnicity is historically and politically based, and it is helpful to have it in front of us to discuss: If we read the main text of Compare Tom and Huck Saldivar's argument, however, we will have yet another incomplete accounting of the formation of Chicano identity.

True, he shows us the rising awareness of difference, but not the rising ethnic sensibility of resistance which Paredes and Limon insist is crucial to understanding Chicano culture. Where in Saldivar's historical survey are we to find an account of the ethnic subject's awareness of and resistance to his own marginalization? Appropriately enough, and literally, in the margins, the footnotes of history. Saldivar provides a particularly provocative footnote which does much to explain the readerly nature of Chicano identity. I will turn to that footnote momentarily and use it to show the evolving sense of resistance in Chicano history. Of Happiness? But first it is worth observing that the information in question is marginalized to a footnote by Saldivar. Derrida has written that footnotes, to the one who knows how to read. are sometimes more important than the so-called principal or capital text (203). Footnotes are less deliberately tautological than the main-text, and more reader-oriented in nature. Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck Of Tom Sawyer? There is a looseness about footnotes due to their marginalized placement, but it is from the margins that history might speak most loudly. The footnote in question describes a process of reading and identification which runs counter to Saldivar's perception of subject-object relations.

The footnote describes not a negative dialectic, but a Hegelian one, recounting a historical synthesis between reader and text. Of Happiness Essay? To this we now turn. The footnote in Essay Compare Tom and Sawyer, question is appended to Essay, a poem Saldivar cites by Americo Paredes. The poem, The Mexico-Texan, is Essay and Contrast Sawyer cited because it tells in brief the history of the Chicano in the Southwest (11). The poem parodies an already parodic stereotypical Texano voice, and tells the story of the emblematic Texano's plight: The Mexico-Texan he's one fonny man. Who leeves in the regin tha's north of the Gran' of Mexican father he born in these part, And sometimes he rues it dip down in he's heart. For the Mexico-Texan he no gotta lan. He stomped on the neck on both sides of the Gran. (Paredes quoted in R. Saldivar 11)

Here is constitution what the footnote tells us: the poem quickly caught on as an anonymous folk expression of popular resistance (11). The poem was written in 1934, and in Adventures of Tom was picked up and circulated fairly widely in ensuing years, verbally for the most part (11). The poem, popular for its defiance, appears in Essay, a Latino news journal in 1937, and again in a Latino yearbook in 1939. It became a part of local folklore, informing the culture of resistance that developed in Brownsville during the 1940's. In a conversation with Americo Paredes. Of Tom? Saldivar notes the poem was used in political campaigns, was anonymously reprinted a few times, and entered oral tradition locally. Collected in Brownsville as 'folk poetry' in car culture, the 1960's. (R. Saldivar 11). And Contrast Tom And Huck Sawyer? Two recent critical works quote The Mexico-Texan to establish a folk-based political sensibility (11). In Texas? And of course, the Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer poem appears as a point of reference in Ramon Saldivar's theory of the dialectics of difference.

The lengthy footnote, including the of the quotes apparent conversation with Paredes, indicates that the poem is significant to Saldivar, but he closes the footnote only by and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom, mentioning the interesting way oral poems become written texts. I am struck by the uncanny triptych of loose of the The Mexico-Texan. The peripatetic itinerary of the poem replicates Limon's theory of the Compare and Contrast of Tom spiraling influence of With his Pistol in his Hand . Both works move from argos, cultural product to political product to critical product. Paredes' poem, like his book, originally traveled in local circles, influential for individuals though not yet formative for ethnic identity. Then the poem, also like the book, became overtly politicized at and Contrast Huck in Adventures a formative moment in the development of Chicano ethnic identity. Finally, the poem was placed in critical works, retrospectively, to synechdocally represent a culture it helped to form. Here we see that criticism, as Terry Eagleton has noted, is bound to the culture which it critiques, serving to loose interpretation of the, naturalize and institutionalize that culture. The movement of Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer Paredes' poem from Drug Prevention Programs, folkloric artifact of the political unconscious into the contemporary critical conscious is typical of the and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom politicized, historically-based Chicano critical movement. The poem's history is illustrative of the way ethnic folk culture informs political culture.

True, the poem was a political act to loose interpretation constitution, begin with, but during the 60's, Chicano activists asserted it, to use Teresa McKenna's terms, as a root metaphor. It is during the Movement that folk culture becomes transformed from a genre of cultural performance to the status of Essay Compare Huck Sawyer a root metaphor for the paradigmatic contestation between the Anglo-American 'other' and Mexicans on this side of the border (McKenna 193). Loose Of The? Participants in the Movement who are now scholars of literature are synthesized with objects of study like the Paredes poem. Compare Sawyer? The root metaphor becomes a metaphor of the text. furnish[ing] the terms in which the text can know itself' (Eagleton 19). Eagleton seeks to charge brigade, break down the imagined ideological distinctions between the Essay Huck of Tom criticism and loose interpretation its object, but here, in the case of Chicano criticism, there is no initial positing of such a difference.

In the case of and Contrast Tom and Sawyer The Mexico-Texan, the poem enters the scene with its politics already intact. Of The Light Quotes? It becomes a political instrument throughout the 60's and a critical tool in the 80's and 90's. The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez has the same itinerary as The Mexico-Texan. The poem appears to Americo Paredes to be linked to his own personal identity, but at the same time representative of a broader cultural identity. Paredes' reading of this particular corrido distills it on the one hand by drawing out its potent thematics. At the same time, Paredes locates the poem in Essay Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, time and place, thereby increasing its accessibility. Subsequent readers of Paredes come to know the history of the america southwest border conflicts via the corrido. The poem becomes the Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures Sawyer historicizing force distilling the past, while it sets up cultural codes and ethics for the present and future. Thus the corrido, read as history by argos catalogue 1986, Paredes, makes history during the sixties by serving as an ethnic model for Chicano activists.

Later, it is the catalyst for a set of essays, papers, even the Compare Tom and operational trope for books, in which authors see their own present history as a mirror or continuation of the past. The theory being offered here is about the Drug way in which ethnic identity receives its definitions. Let me clear: I am not arguing that there is one fixed Chicano ethnic identity, nor do I propose there is one defining moment in the history of Chicano ethnicity. Instead, I see in the criticism of contemporary Chicano scholars implicit definitions of ethnicity. Some of the Essay Compare and Contrast of Tom Sawyer most influential critics of Chicano literature are studying their subject with an implicit perception of ethnic identity, but often that identity comes from the literature itself. Jose Limon knows this, and his reading of With his Pistol in his Hand as a strong poem is his attempt to 1986, locate Americo Paredes at the genesis of Chicano ethnicity, at least as it is currently manifested. The question lingers, how does one understand ethnicity? The emphasis of that question should be on the word how by Essay of Tom Sawyer, now, for ethnicity is both an idea and a process.

As Cherrie Moraga has shown us, ethnicity is fluid, political, and generally more inclusive than not. I'm not sure we've yet developed a critical theory (a reading strategy) that knows this, but perhaps this is not an epistemological issue. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York: Verso, 1991.

Boelhower, William. Through a Glass Darkly: Ethnic Semiosis in American Literature. Essays? New York: Oxford UP, 1987. Calderon, Hector, and Jose David Saldivar. Introduction. Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994.

1-7. Calderon, Hector. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Of Tom Sawyer? The Novel and the Community of Readers: Rereading Tomas Rivera's Y no se lo trago la tierra. Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 97-113. Cixous, Helene. The Laugh of Medusa.

The Critical Tradition: Classic Texts and Contemporary Trends. Ed. Of Happiness Essay? David H. Richter. New York: St. Martin's, 1989. 1090-102. Chabram, Angie. Conceptualizing Chicano Critical Discourse. Essay Tom And Huck? Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar.

Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 127-48. Derrida, Jacques. Dissemination. Trans. Barbara Johnson. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1981. Eagleton Terry. Criticism and Ideology: A Study in Marxist Literary Theory.

London: NLB, 1976. Leal, Luis. Of The Light Brigade? The Rewriting of American Literary History. Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 21-7. . The Problem of ldentifying Chicano Literature. The Identification and and Contrast in Adventures of Tom Analysis of Chicano Literature. Ed.

Francisco Jimenez. New York: Bilingual Press,1979. 2-6. Limon, Jose. Dancing with the Devil: Society and Cultural Poetics in Mexican-American South Texas. Argos? Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1994. . Essay Compare Tom And Huck In Adventures? Mexican Ballads, Chicano Poems: History and america car culture Influence in Essay Compare Huck in Adventures of Tom, Mexican-American Social Poetry, Los Angeles: U of California P, 1992. . The Return of the Mexican Ballad: Americo Paredes and His Anthropological Text as Persuasive Political Performance.

Working Paper Series .No. 16. Stanford: SCCR, 1986. McKenna, Teresa. On Chicano Poetry and the Political Age: Corridos as Social Drama. Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Hector Calderon and Drug Programs Essays Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 181-202. Moraga, Cherrie.

The Last Generation: Prose and Poetry. Boston: South End Press, 1993. Padillo, Genaro. Imprisoned Narrative? Or Lies, Secrets, and Silence in New Mexico Women's Autobiography. Criticism in the Borderlands.

Ed. Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 43-60. Paredes, Americo. Essay Compare Of Tom Sawyer? With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero. Austin: U of Texas P, 1958. Paredes, Raymund A. The Evolution of Chicano Literature. MELUS 5.2 (1978): 71-110. Quintana, Alvina. Ana Castillo's Mixquiahuala Letters: The Novelist as Ethnographer.

Criticism in the Borderlands. Ed. Programs? Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar. Durham: Duke UP, 1994. 72-83. Sollors, Werner. Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Williams, Raymond. Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory.

Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Robert Con Davis and Ronald Schleifer. New York: Longman, 1989. 489-501.

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Homophobia: The Fear Behind The Hatred. I f you look up homophobia in the dictionary, it will probably tell you that it is the fear of homosexuals. While many would take issue with that definition, it is nevertheless true that in many ways, it really is a fear of Essay and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, homosexuality or at least homosexuals, as we will see in this essay. Homophobia is widespread in America, far more widespread than most heterosexuals realize, and it is far more subtle, too. The discrimination it inspires touches the lives of many Americans, not just gay Americans, but all Americans. Light Quotes! And America pays a very dear price for it as we shall see. The Effects of Homophobia On American Society. There are the obvious murders inspired by hatred. In the U.S., they number in the dozens every year. Abroad, the numbers run to the hundreds to thousands, no one knows the precise number for sure, as in many countries, the deaths of Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures Sawyer, homosexuals are not considered worth recording as a separate category. But there are other ways in which homophobia kills.

There are countless suicides every year by gay men and lesbians, particularly youth, which mental health professionals tell us 1 are not the loose of the constitution, direct result of the victim's homosexuality, but is actually the result of how the homosexual is treated by society. When one lives with rejection day after day, and Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck society discounts one's value constantly, it is difficult to maintain perspective and realize that the problem is of the constitution others' perceptions, not one's own, which is why suicide is several times as common among gay men as it is among straight men. Perhaps the highest price is paid by youth. The young person just emerging into adulthood who has begun to Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures of Tom realize that he is different, and the difference is not approved of, finds acceptance of self particularly difficult. This is especially true when others perceive the young person as different, and persecute him as a result, with little effort made by authority figures to of the light stop the torment. This is Compare Tom and why gay youth commit suicide at a rate of about seven times that of straight youth. Yet it is surprising how often homophobes actually try to prevent intervention by teachers in Essays the schools!

The Reasons Homophobes Give For Their Hatred. Among humans, homosexuality is found in all cultures and and Contrast Huck Sawyer with about the same frequency it is of the light quotes found in Huck of Tom Sawyer America. Argos! Cultural norms seem to have little influence on the incidence of homosexual behavior. So the claim that it isn't natural becomes rather difficult to support. It's a perversion. Essay And Contrast Huck In Adventures Of Tom! This is really a variation of the it's not natural argument, and so there's no need to reiterate what has been said in the above paragraphs, other than to say that it is the 'natural' argument with a religious overtone. And being essentially a religious argument, it has little place in a society that believes in the separation of the powers of car culture, church and state.

It's against God's law. Well, of course this is a purely religious argument, and it presumes that the homosexual is or should be bound by the religious principles that are propounded here by the religionist. The fact of the matter is that since this society and its government were founded on the notion of the Compare Tom and Sawyer, separation of church and state, to of the quotes encode in Essay and Contrast in Adventures Sawyer a secular law an idea that has purely religious purposes, is loose interpretation a clear violation of the principle of the separation of church and state. Until the Compare Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom Sawyer, religionist can come up with a sound reason why society benefits by the outlawing of homosexual activity, then there is no moral basis for Drug Programs such a law if one accepts the principle of religious freedom as encoded in the doctrine of the separation of church and state. It's disgusting. Has the person who says that ever watched sausage being made? There are many things that go on in society that we would consider disgusting, but we don't outlaw them just because of that. Essay And Contrast Huck In Adventures Of Tom! In fact, many of these activities are quite essential to the functioning of a modern society, but we simply turn our minds to other matters and don't concern ourselves with them.

Heterosexuals need to remember that they themselves are 'disgusting' to many homosexuals; it will come as quite a surprise for them to discover that the feeling is mutual. Yet it would be ludicrous for the gay person to suggest that heterosexuality ought to be persecuted; why shouldn't it work just as well the in Texas, other way around? Isn't respect and tolerance a two way street? The Real Reasons Behind Their Hatred. Obviously, this reason is an emotional reaction rather than a reasoned argument. Yet the fact that it is Compare Sawyer simply an emotional reaction is Experience not relevant to the bigot; he believes that since he believes it, it must be true. And that is Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer good enough.

No evidence is neccessary. Loss of america car culture, control: It has been my experience that the more conservative an individual he is, the more concerned he is about being able to control his environment. Someone who lives life in a manner quite different that oneself represents a threat to Compare Huck Sawyer that individual. The threat is a threat to the ego in the sense that one's own choices may prove not to be optimal; it is also a subconscious threat to one's security in the sense that the other may prove to be more successful. Again, the threat here is an The Pursue, emotional one, not a real, tangible threat. And again, there's no real-world evidence to support it. Essay And Contrast! But emotion is argos what drives the bigot. The reason for the emotion is in Adventures actually a primal instinct. When one examines the america car culture, dominance-submission behaviors in other species, they often have sexual overtones, especially in and Contrast Huck in Adventures Sawyer other primate species.

If a dominant male wants the food or mate posessed by a subordinate, he'll often bite the subordinate, causing him to yelp in of Happiness Essay pain and Essay Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer drop the food or the female, and light then present his rump. It is the Compare Tom and of Tom Sawyer, presentation of the rump that is key here. It's saying to loose interpretation of the the dominant male and the rest of the troupe that the subordinant male is submissive and that the dominant male can have his way with him, regardless of the extent that may take. It's essentially a submission to rape, should the dominant male desire to do so. It is that instinctual fear of rape that drives much of homophobia. Straight men often instinctually see gay men as a threat, and they instictively fear that threat. Essay Compare And Contrast Tom And Huck Of Tom! It's a fear of Essay on My Experience, a loss of control, of dominance, of status. The threat is very real - in some rare, isolated circumstances. This instinctive means of asserting dominance is the source of prison rape. It's why men, who on Essay Compare and Contrast of Tom the inside of prisons rape other men with brutal frequency become promiscuous heterosexuals on the outside. Such men almost never have sex with other men as a means of emotional sharing, it's rather a violent act, intended to control, assert dominance and force other men into a subordinate position.

Well, straight men, you can relax. The vast majority of us gay men don't want our way with you. We have sex for the same reason that most of you do - as a part of the interpretation of the, expression of love, caring, concern and commitment. In Adventures Of Tom! Since we're not likely to get it from of the you, you're not attractive to us and you have nothing to Essay in Adventures Sawyer fear from us. The small minority (and it's a very small minority) of gay men who actually do enjoy seducing straight men invariably do so with understanding and respect for argos catalogue 1986 the straight man's concerns and fears. Such encounters are conducted in Compare and Contrast Tom and an atmosphere of equality of the shared emotional experience, and a recognition and respect for the straight man's need for parity and discretion. Threat to one's world-view: When someone has held to the same ideas and has staunchly advocated them all of his life, someone else who says he's wrong can be rather threatening.

The notion that that old time religion is good enough for me is one that is of the a lot more than just an old song, it represents a fundamental attitude towards one's roots that make it difficult to Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures of Tom accept that one has been wrong all of one's life. If a gay person comes along and says, hey, look at me, I'm a productive, contributing member of society with values and ideals that make me little different than you, that person is a threat to someone who has believed all his life what he may have been told since he was young; that gay people are somehow perverted, miserable, lonely people who live short, desperate lives. Yet to the amazement of many, as the AIDS epidemic has forced thousands of gay people out Essay, of the closet, these gay people have proved not to be the stereotypes people had believed; but rather ordinary folks like themselves. Another unsupported emotional reaction, not a real threat. Again, not worthy of Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Sawyer, consideration as a real reason for being the basis of public policy. Fear of rape: This is probably the most emotional and irrational of all of the catalogue, homophobe's fears, but is probably the Essay in Adventures Sawyer, most universal.

It is the origin of the old saw about 'covering your butt' and numerous other similar admonitions. Yet the of the light quotes, fact is Essay and Contrast of Tom Sawyer that there are very, very few gay men who would prefer to have sex with heterosexual men, particularly those who would not be willing to charge of the light cooperate. Why go to Compare and Contrast Huck in Adventures the trouble? Only a narcissist would believe that forced sex with himself would be preferable to cooperative and appreciated sex with someone else. Of The Brigade! Yet it is amazing to me how many heterosexual men actually, subconsciously, at least, feel this way. Maybe this says something about the Essay Compare Huck, universality of narcissism!

This is obviously an emotional reaction. Again, there are very few incidents of car culture, homosexual rape of heterosexuals, and the chances of becoming a victim are far less than being struck by lightening. But that doesn't assuage the fear. Fear that one may actually be homosexual himself: Homosexuality is, by Compare Huck Sawyer even the most conservative estimates, far more common than the number of charge of the light brigade quotes, open homosexuals would imply. And with the Essay Tom and Huck in Adventures, realization that bisexuality is actually fairly common, particularly among women, there is a genuine fear among the more conservative that they, themselves, may be homosexual, particularly if they have had a homosexual experience in their past which they actually enjoyed. And since surveys indicate that approximately 64% of adult males in the United States have, there are lots of of Happiness Essay, candidates out there for that fear. Essay And Contrast Tom And In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! Compounding this can be religion-based guilt, often promoted by televangelists who have made a career of promoting homophobia. The fear leads to car culture a subconscious reaction: hate and/or kill the queer and you're not like him, because you've distanced yourself from him. Irrational, isn't it? Yet that's the subconscious logic involved.

One robin does not a summer make and one homosexual experience does not a queer make. It's really that simple. For me, being gay means that I prefer relationships with men. Essay Compare Huck In Adventures! I've had them with women, but I prefer them with men. Both sexually and emotionally. That's what qualifies me as being gay. So all you heterosexual men who've experimented at some time in your youth: relax. Just because you have, even if you enjoyed it, it doesn't mean you're gay. Even if you are, isn't it important to know yourself?

Why are people so afraid of accepting themselves as they really are? Doing so is the Buddhist path to nirvana; knowing and accepting yourself is interpretation constitution one of the greatest achievements of life. Why fight it? Fear? If fear is the reason, what does this say about the person who's allowing his life to be governed by it?

Isn't that the definition of 'coward?' Personally, I'd be much more concerned about being a coward than being gay. Used by permission of The Star Tribune. Most social conservatives fail to Compare Huck of Tom consider the Essay Experience in Texas, effects. of homophobia. The special rights argument wouldn't. be applied to religious minorities, but is Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures liberally.

applied to Programs the one group it is still acceptable for. them to Essay Tom and in Adventures hate. This Steve Sack cartoon commented on. the murder of Matthew Shepard, a crime which shocked. the world with its brutality and callousness. It was. inspired by homophobia. Consider that the outright fear of homosexuality skews how our culture deals with sex, sexuality, relations with strangers, co-workers and others, dealing with public health issues, and Drug the untold opportunities it presents unscrupulous religionists with the Huck in Adventures of Tom, opportunity to Drug Prevention appeal to prejudice and call it religion. The cost to society is enormous.

In the simple matter of sex, the Compare Tom and of Tom, fear of homosexuality among heterosexuals, particularly heterosexual men fearing that they themselves may be gay, has been the cause of a great deal of sexual dysfunction. Many a marriage has broken up because the man was unable to perform simply because of charge of the brigade, this fear. Businessmen face the problem of sexual harassment and intimidation against Tom and Huck of Tom, their gay workers, and the resulting loss of productivity costs business an enormous amount of money every year. It may not seem like much when you're not faced with it, but a gesture, a joke, an innuendo can have a very disturbing effect when you're not always sure what the other person meant. And this can lead to serious loss of self esteem, which in turn, leads to Prevention loss of productivity. Intimidated employees are less likely to try to be innovative and forward thinking in problem solving; someone suffering from self esteem problems will be more conservative and unwilling to risk being innovative. So business loses. The U.S. military spends about Essay Compare Huck $30 million a year hunting down and expelling homosexuals from its ranks, in a clear and open defiance of the don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue law, even though its own studies, from the 1950's to the present, have shown time and time again that they do not represent the threat to catalogue 1986 unit cohesion that is the reason usually given for Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and expelling them. America! 2. In spite of the military's insistence that unit cohesion is a problem, the fact remains that during times of war, expelling homosexuals from the ranks goes way down (and was practically halted during the Gulf War), when unit cohesion is actually of greatest importance. If unit cohesion were really the motivator, why do they quit expelling that 'threat' when the need for cohesion is greatest?

No one at the Pentagon has ever answered that question. The answer is obvious to any thinking person: it's institutionalized homophobia. And this is a case where homophobia directly costs the taxpayers $30 million each and every year it is allowed to govern military policy. And Contrast Huck Sawyer! And that doesn't count the cost in thousands of destroyed lives caused by the illegally issued general discharges that sully the reputations of these honorable men and women. The AIDS epidemic has cost tens of in Texas, thousands of Americans their lives. Compare And Contrast Tom And Of Tom! Millions of america, Americans have lost someone they know, often a close and loved family member, to this terrible scourge. Yet few people know that when this epidemic first got started, the president of the United States actually obstructed efforts to halt it. 3 Because of the narrow-mindedness of one politician, now hundreds of thousands have suffered and died, many of them not even gay, and millions have known grievous personal loss. And the frightening thing is that the homophobia of one politician is responsible. The reason that the famous gay ghettos of San Francisco, West Hollywood, Provincetown, Massachusetts and others have come into Essay in Adventures, existence is simply that gay people have felt much more safe and of Happiness Essay secure among their own kind.

This is the same reason that for centuries, Jews, Native Americans, blacks, Latinos, Chinese and Essay Tom and in Adventures of Tom Sawyer many other minorities have gathered together in their own ghettos. The cost of this ghettoization has been high -- families are torn apart, talented people end up chronically underemployed, friendships lost and loneliness and a sense of rejection become lifelong companions. But it need not be this way. The gay ghettos wouldn't exist if gay people felt at home in a heterosexual world. Charge Of The Brigade! And that would be possible, if the fears that drive heterosexuals to Essay Compare and Contrast Tom and Huck in Adventures reject homosexuals, didn't exist. Clearly, it is time to drop our silly notions that homosexuals somehow aren't worthy of full, unreserved participation in American life, and recognize that there are no exceptions in the 14th Amendment for gay people.

Homophobia: How We All Pay The Price is argos catalogue Warren Blumenfeld's analysis of this problem and Essay Huck of Tom why everyone concerned with the decline of civility in America needs to be concerned about argos catalogue it. Created Equal: Why Gay Rights Matter to America by Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff is an excellent analysis of why homophobia is a costly problem and how America in general, not just the gay community, would benefit by ending it. And The Band Played On by Randy Shilts is in Adventures Sawyer one of the great classics of investigative journalism, showing how the AIDS epidemic could have easily been halted in its early days if the politics of homophobia hadn't been allowed to prevent the Center for Disease Control from doing its job. Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in argos catalogue the U.S. Essay Tom And Huck In Adventures Of Tom Sawyer! Military by Randy Shilts. His last book and one of lasting importance to the debate over gays in the military.

Shows conclusively why the opposition to allowing gays to serve openly in the military is Essay on My Experience in Texas really based on the homophobia of the Pentagon brass. 2 Conduct Unbecoming, by Randy Shilts (p. 280). Not just one suppressed Pentagon study, but many, have concluded that there is no rational reason for banning openly gay men from Compare Tom and in Adventures Sawyer serving in Drug Prevention Programs Essays the U.S. military. 3 And the Band Played On by Randy Shilts, describes in great detail how President Reagan, falsely believing that AIDS was a disease only of homosexuals, obstructed every attempt by Tom and in Adventures Sawyer the Center for Disease Control to halt the AIDS epidemic early on, when it was still feasible to do so. Source URL: http://www.pe.net/

Copyright 1997, 2000 by Scott Bidstrup. All rights reserved.