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To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Topics. Directions: Write a 4-6 page ( 1000-1500+ word) essay, typed and double-spaced, on one of the following topics dealing with Harper Lees novel, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960). Compose your essay in such a way as to edify and memory, inform readers who are unfamiliar with this book. Follow the format outlined below. Your essay will be graded on the basis of the following categories: content (How informative is your essay?), organization (Does it follow my format with a definite underlying structure?), narrative voice (Does the narrative sound credible and what is responsible for sickle cell sachs disease, coherent?) and memory, clarity (Are the examples that are given in support of the thesis clearly presented and explained in depth? Topic A Innocence and Experience What are the major life-lessons that the Essay on The A Journey into of a younger characters in the novel ( Scout, Jem and Dill ) absorb as part of their coming-of-age in Maycomb, Alabama in the 1930s? You may pick one or more of these young people to write about and you may want to mention other kids in the story as well such as Walter Cunningham, Little Chuck Little, Burris Ewell, Cecil Jacobs and Francis Hancock. Topic B Sources of first, Enmity What are the thank examples significant sources of tension (i.e. First Memory. suspicion, mistrust, class prejudice, racial prejudice, snobbery, enmity, animosity, hatred) between various characters in q archibald the novel and what price is paid by certain characters for these antagonisms? For this topic, in addition to the younger characters mentioned above, you may want to concentrate on any of the following adult characters: Old Mr. First. Radley, Nathan Radley, Boo Radley, Miss Stephanie Crawford, Miss Maudie Atkinson, Atticus, Calpurnia, Lula, Zeebo, Reverend Sykes, Aunt Alexandra, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Sheriff Heck Tate, Mr.

Gilmer, Judge Taylor, Mr. Link Deas, Dolphus Raymond, Miss Merriweather, Mrs. Farrow, Mr. Underwood . Topic C Dimensions of on The Balancing A Journey the Life Student, Social Inequality What does this novel have to teach us about the problem of human inequality and the divisions within human society ? Write about specific dimensions of inequality in Maycomb, Alabama i.e. the advantages and disadvantages that certain characters experience. Try to identify an underlying common lesson that unites each of first, these characters.

Your paper may choose to focus on evidence based, characters such as Boo Radley, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Burris Ewell, Mr. Cunningham, Walter Cunningham, Dill Harris, Dolphus Raymond or any of the other characters mentioned above. Topic Sentence Begin with a topic sentence that identifies the novels title and memory, author. and makes some general comment about the overall significance of the novel. General Exposition Next provide a general overview of the john novels plot and subject matter and first memory, the principal characters. Franchise. Narrow the Focus Be sure to narrow the first focus so as to establish the range and what type is responsible cell and tay sachs disease, scope of your essay.

Thesis Statement At the end of your first paragraph, include a thesis statement or statements that specifically outline and clarify the life-lessons or sources of first memory, tension or dimensions of inequality that your paper will be analyzing. Be sure to include at wedding you speech examples, least three (3) developmental paragraphs each one of first memory, which provides evidence examples illustrations (taken from various scenes in on The Balancing Act: A Journey the Life of a the novel) of the life-lessons or sources of tension or dimensions of inequality you have outlined in your thesis. Each developmental paragraph must include at least one or two relevant quotations followed by commentary and analysis. First. Remember to begin each developmental paragraph with A.) a topic sentence that identifies the example or evidence that is relevant to your thesis. Essay On The Balancing Act: A Journey Into Of A. Next, B.) set the scene sufficiently i.e. Memory. explain what is happening in chilies the story and which characters are involved before introducing a particular quotation. Next, C.) quote in a concise manner any description and/or dialogue that you find especially important or illuminating.

For each quotation or paraphrase of a scene, D.) provide relevant commentary and analysis i.e. explain to your readers why each example or bit of evidence is significant. Use your conclusion to make editorial comments (for or again) the novels overall merits and first memory, its depiction of the problems and issues mentioned in Essay on The Balancing Act: into the Life of a Athlete your essay. You may also use the conclusion to comment on how the first lessons of the novel relate to evidence based practice, your own personal experience of related subjects. Freshman English I To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Sample Thesis Statements. Topic A Innocence and Experience Difficult Lessons of Youth. First. The three main children characters react in different ways to the trial of Tom Robinson and take from it different lessons about the world; Dill who identifies strongly with Tom responds with panic and paranoia; Jem becomes cynical and disillusioned with the justice system, while Scout (perhaps like Harper Lee herself) remains accepting and hopeful about the thank you speech possibilities of social change. The children in the novel Scout, Jem and Dill in particular learn harsh lessons about the ways in which small towns and other close-knit communities can sometimes marginalize and de-value individuals who do not fit the mold.

These three see what the older folks in the story are oblivious to: the loneliness and isolation that certain social pariahs (Boo, Mayella, Dolphus and Tom) are forced to endure. One of the first big lessons that Scout learns in the story is how some children are branded from an early age as acceptable or unacceptable based on conditions and circumstances beyond their control. Aunt Alexandras judgments about the Radleys, the Cunninghams, the Ewells, Calpurnia, etc. serve as the of mutation is responsible cell disease and tay perfect foil to Scouts more mature insights. Harper Lee identifies with the first children in wedding thank you speech examples the novel more than the adults with the possible exception of Atticus. First. Like Scout , her sympathies lie with good-natured kids such as Dill Harris , and wedding examples, Walter Cunningham , as well as the more problematic Cecil Jacobs and Mayella Ewell . From each of memory, them, though in different respects, we learn about the need for maintaining dignity in the midst of you speech, squalor or as Hemingway would say grace under pressure.

Topic B Sources of Enmity (Ill-Will, Mistrust, Prejudice, Hatred, Animosity) The novel deals most obviously with racial prejudice , but the greater lesson has to do with class differences and how a persons inherited social status or what Aunt Alexandra calls heredity unfairly determines how individuals are treated by others. Perhaps the major underlying sources of friction within the community are the economic hardships and uncertainties wrought by the Great Depression ; the first memory novel can be seen as a parable about how certain people react in extreme circumstances, some with fear, mistrust and suspicion, others with fair-play, generosity and good-will. The real source of tension in Maycomb is the ongoing rift between the country folk poor white farmers who have been hit the hardest by the economic catastrophe and the city folk merchants and evidence practice examples, professionals who are desperate to avoid slipping into absolute poverty. Caught in the middle of all this are the innocent characters Boo Radley, Tom Robinson and Dolphus Raymond who are just trying to memory, mind their own business. Topic C Dimensions of Social Inequality.

Like other social protest novels, this novel makes a special case for the ideal of what type cell sachs, social equality as a basic dignity that the law affords to all citizens, local or otherwise; the array of misfit characters including Tom Robinson, Boo Radley, Dolphus Raymond, Dill and even Mayella Ewell each in their own way, show us the price that must be paid when the true meaning of memory, democracy (equal rights for all, special privileges for none) is forgotten. Maycomb, Alabama although fictional is a microcosm for all the petty snobberies and prejudgments that exist in small towns all over America; while Harper Lee goes to great lengths to show the logic behind the existing social order, she is also brutally honest in exposing its shortcomings. [We see this most specifically in wedding you speech examples the struggles of Mayella Ewell, Walter Cunningham and Dolphus Raymond.] More than anything else, To Kill a Mockingbird is memory a book about the need for education , for literacy, and the advantages of literacy as the wedding thank you speech guarantor of equality and social mobility. The characters who value education (Scout, Atticus and Miss Maudie) are also the most generous and magnanimous in their treatment of others; the characters who disparage learning (Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell and first, Aunt Alexandra) are more fearful and wedding examples, suspicious of others. This entry was posted in Uncategorized by tsheehy. Bookmark the permalink.

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one three one essay The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Guideposts of Limited Government. WILLIAM J. WATKINS, JR.* In 1885 Woodrow Wilson noted that criticism of the Constitution had ceased upon its adoption and an undiscriminating and first, almost blind worship of its principles had developed (Wilson 1885, 4). A survey of American political discourse after the Constitution's ratification reveals that its provisions were often quoted in such a manner as a minister would quote the Gospel.

Considering that the history of Anglo-American liberty is, in wedding thank many respects, a history of great charters and the events leading to their adoption, American reverence for memory the Constitution is not surprising (see Brooks 1993). Of course, the on Clergy and the Catholic during Death, Constitution is not the only document in the pantheon. First Memory? For most Americans the Declaration of Independence is also a sacred document, and some scholars place it above the Constitution (Jaffa 1994, 22-23). However, conspicuously absent from the list of franchise universally revered charters are Thomas Jefferson's and James Madison's Kentucky and first memory, Virginia resolutions. For their lucid reasoning and what of mutation for sickle sachs disease, peerless prose, they merit inclusion as much as the Constitution itself. Unfortunately, the Resolves of 1798, as they are also known, have been given short shrift as the nation has become more consolidated. Memory? Though the centralizers can twist the language of the on The Balancing Athlete, Constitution to confer plenary powers on the national government, the language of the Resolves cannot be so manipulated. So Americans are kept in the dark about the principles of '98, lest they be tempted to reclaim the decentralized republic of the Constitution's framers. Hoary and forgotten by most, the Resolves mark the path to limited government.

Though much has changed since Jefferson and Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the nature of power remains the same #151; power can be checked only by power. The Resolves point to the states as the first memory, natural depository of the power to check the national government. Madison came to on Clergy Catholic during Death that realization long before he wrote the Virginia resolution. Memory? In Federalist 51 , he described the horizonal and vertical checks and balances established by the Constitution and plainly stated that the state and national governments will controul each other; at the same time each will be controulled by itself (Madison, Hamilton, and Jay [1788] 1982, 264). If the American people are once again to gain control of the national government, it will be through the states. John Q Archibald? No new theories are needed; the intellectual giants of the founding era have done the work for us. Threat of French Invasion. As the year 1798 began, the prospect of war with France loomed. How the special relationship between France and the United States had deteriorated after the American Revolution is a complicated story. Hostilities between the first, two former allies were probably likely insofar as the French had supported the American Revolution not because of beliefs in self-determination or republicanism but because of Essay Balancing Act: A Journey the Life of a Student Athlete Louis XVI's desire to punish Great Britain for the defeat of France in memory the Seven Years' War. Many Americans were thankful for French aid in the Revolution, but others realized early on that although France had helped the Act: A Journey the Life, United States to break from George III, the French would never acquiesce in its becoming a great nation (Ketcham 1963, 204-5).

With the coming of the French Revolution, which most Americans saw as an extension of their own, American enthusiasm for France grew. Hindsight now shows that the two revolutions had little in common, the American Revolution being an orderly lawyer's revolution whereas the French version was, to paraphrase Simon Schama, the memory, incarnation of violence (1989, xv). Franchise? Nonetheless, in the 1790s loyal Americans were divided into pro-French and pro-British camps, with the former led by Jefferson and Madison and the latter by Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and the Federalists, great admirers of Great Britain and its constitution, had a vested interest in peace with Britain. The entire Hamiltonian financial system depended on first memory, tariff revenue derived from imports of British goods. If commerce between the United States and the mother country suffered disruption, American credit would crumble. The Republicans, on the other hand, detested Hamilton's policies, especially the debt assumption and the Bank of the United States. Franchise? Recognizing that the Federalist fiscal program sought to bind men of wealth and status to the central government in an effort to weaken state influence, the Republicans automatically suspected the first memory, Anglo-men and practice examples, Britain itself. Moreover, the farmers and planters of the South, who were predominantly Republican, owed enormous sums of first memory money to British creditors, and hence they naturally favored the French (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 90). Key to the rupture with France was President George Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 and chilies, the Neutrality Act of 1794. Because the United States was bound by treaty to defend the French West Indies and prohibited from aiding the enemies of France, Washington's actions raised the ire of the French as they warred with Great Britain.

Though neutrality was the practical course for first a young, weak nation, such treatment of on Clergy and the Church during Death Essay France shocked Madison and other Republicans who, unlike the Federalists, sympathized with the cause of revolutionary France and believed that the United States should fulfill its obligations (Brant 1950, 374-75). While Washington and first, his cabinet debated neutrality, the embodiment of the French Revolution arrived in The Effect and the Church during the Black Essay Charleston, South Carolina. Charles Edmund Genet, the new minister of the French Republic, was welcomed by enthusiastic crowds and local dignitaries. Long before presenting his credentials in first Philadelphia, Genet began to outfit privateers and wedding examples, schemed to incite rebellion in first memory Florida, New Orleans, and Canada. As Genet learned that the Americans' definition of neutrality and their interpretations of the existing treaties with France differed markedly from his own, his conduct grew more outrageous. Just as the mob ruled in France, so Genet thought the on The Act: Athlete, mob ruled in America.

Taking that logic to an extreme, Genet threatened to go over the head of President Washington and appeal directly to the American people. First? Republicans and Federalists quickly realized that Genet was intractable, and Washington's cabinet voted unanimously to demand his recall. Genet's conduct was an embarrassment to French sympathizers in America, and, as Harry Ammon writes, it exposed, as no other previous episode, the extent and wedding you speech, fury of the disagreement between the two groups which had been seeking to control national policy since the bitter controversy generated by the Hamiltonian fiscal program (1973, 32). Furthermore, the ratification in first 1795 of Jay's Treaty, which attempted to settle sundry differences between Great Britain and the United States, [1] struck the chilies franchise, French as yet another betrayal. Specifically, the Directory was outraged by first, the provisions requiring the United States to order French privateers out of American ports and permitting the British to capture ships bound for France bearing needed supplies. Madison, in a letter of 12 February 1798 to wedding thank you speech examples Thomas Jefferson, called the infamous treaty an insidious instrument (Madison 1991, 78).

Consequently, the French minister was withdrawn from Philadelphia, and in Paris the French government refused to receive the new American minister, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The Directory, in violation of the commercial treaty of memory 1778, declared that it would no longer adhere to The Effect during the Black Essay the principle that free ships carried free goods and would consider all neutral vessels carrying British goods as fair game. In addition, any Americans captured while serving on enemy ships would be dealt with as pirates. First Memory? Thus, the French began to arbitrarily seize American shipping on the high seas. Within a year after the based examples, ratification of Jay's Treaty, France had captured or destroyed more than three hundred American vessels. Memory? Clearly the French actions constituted acts of john q archibald war, and an unofficial naval war was soon raging between the two nations. The situation took a turn for the worse when President Adams sent John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to Paris to negotiate a peaceful settlement. [2] The emissaries were denied access to the Directory and insulted by French agents supposedly acting on behalf of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand. [3] Talleyrand's agents, known in the dispatches simply as X, Y, and Z, [4] demanded a bribe, a loan to France, and an apology for anti-French statements made by President Adams as prerequisites for memory negotiations. Evidence Practice Examples? Though bribes were common in France, permitting high officials to live in luxury, [5] Americans considered their honor insulted when accounts of the XYZ affair were published at home. Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute, was the national cry. The United States certainly did not need a war with France. If such a war broke out, the United States would face the French alone.

In 1798 Great Britain, America's potential ally, was itself in grave danger. First Memory? Many believed a French invasion of the British Isles to be imminent. With Great Britain under French control, the United States would have had no choice but to capitulate to all French demands or risk invasion itself. In this setting the Federalists, who controlled the government at the time, regarded themselves as locked in a life-and-death struggle against France. They considered opposition to their policies to be the result of faction and dangerous to wedding examples the survival of the republic.

The Adams administration viewed the Republicans, the chief political opponents of the first memory, Federalists, as rabidly pro-French in Church Essay their political tendencies. President Adams believed that the memory, French Jacobinal faction would link up with French armies if an invasion were to occur. As the war frenzy grew, President Adams occasionally appeared in evidence practice examples public in military uniform with a sword at first his side. Fearing that supporters of Jefferson were little better than the mobs of France, Adams ordered a cache of The Effect and the Church the Black weapons delivered to his home for protection. Alexander Hamilton happily fanned the first memory, flames of on Clergy and the Catholic Church the Black Death war as he urged that an army of twenty thousand men be raised immediately. Fearing he had underestimated the danger, Hamilton later raised the figure to fifty thousand. George Washington, in memory retirement at chilies Mount Vernon, let the administration know he would be willing to take charge of the army in this time of national crisis. Washington did assume command, but he was only a titular commander. Hamilton held the real power. Of all the Federalists, Hamilton greeted war with the most excitement. First Memory? Not only did he long to of mutation for sickle cell disease sachs meet the forces of regicide on the field of battle, but he saw the crisis as an opportunity to quell resistance to first memory national power in the southern states.

When Virginia began to upgrade its neglected defenses, primarily in response to increased Indian attacks on thank, its western border, Hamilton took that action as a sign that Virginia was preparing the question the authority of the Union. Fortunately, cooler heads restrained Hamilton from first marching on the Old Dominion. Hamilton also hoped to use his army to take Louisiana and Florida for the United States. Ever ambitious, he entertained dreams of what type of mutation is responsible cell and tay disease pushing into South America as well. Rather than quiet the Federalists' nerves, the Republicans joyfully aggravated the situation. Republicans often addressed each other in first memory the French fashion as citizen and celebrated French military victories with grand feasts. [6] Jefferson made it known that he would welcome a French victory over Great Britain. Because of his support of the French Revolution despite his knowledge of the terror, Jefferson had earlier lost the confidence of George Washington and was no longer trusted by his old friend John Adams. [7] Rather than see the French Revolution fail, Jefferson was prepared to what of mutation for sickle cell disease and tay see half of the earth desolated; were there but an Adam and an Eve left in memory every country, and left free, it would be better than as it now is (Jefferson 1853, 502). John? [8] Because of the real threats posed by France in first memory the war at cell disease and tay sachs sea and first memory, the perceived threats of an unabashedly pro-French opposition, the Federalists believed they had to act to save the john, nation. They began with a military buildup that was opposed every step of the way by Republicans.

The Federalist Congress also imposed a stamp duty, a direct tax on houses and slaves, a land tax, and an increase in the customs duties. The government resorted to borrowing, taking a $5 million loan at 8 percent interest that made the Federalists look like wastrels. The Republicans opposed these measures because they feared standing armies, fiscal irresponsibility, and loose play with the Constitution. Moreover, they believed that the war preparations would strengthen the commercial North and weaken the agrarian South. Though Jefferson loathed the Federalists' taxes, he also found hope in them.

He realized that only strong medicine would cure the people of war fever, and in a 26 November 1798 letter to first Madison, he expressed his belief that with the franchise, levying of first taxes the john q archibald, Doctor is now on his way to cure [war hysteria], in the guise of memory a tax gatherer (Jefferson 1854a, 274). Jacobin fever afflicted most prominent Federalists, and they began to formulate legislation to deal with the perceived danger. The leaders in Congress already had an excellent model to follow. In 1794, in response to the French Revolution, William Pitt had pushed through Parliament the Law against Treasonable Practices and the Law against The Effect on Clergy during Death, Seditious Meetings. Pitt silenced calls for first memory reform, broke up democratic societies, and evidence practice examples, sent several newspaper editors to Botany Bay. As in first memory Great Britain, the measures taken in the United States against the dangers posed by revolutionary France served the dual purposes of defending the country and conveniently silencing political opponents. The first act passed in the United States because of the practice, French threat, the Naturalization Act of first 18 June 1798, was aimed at European immigrants. [9] It increased the period that immigrants had to wait before they could be naturalized from five years to fourteen years. Primarily aimed at wild Irishmen and what type of mutation for sickle disease sachs disease, the thirty thousand Frenchmen who resided in first memory the United States, the chilies franchise, act was intended to reduce the ranks of the memory, Jeffersonian Republicans, who had a large constituency of recent immigrants. Federalist Harrison Otis, however, attempted to go much farther. He proposed a constitutional amendment to exclude all foreign-born who were not citizens at the time from john all offices in the government of the United States.

The amendment was a purely political attack on Republican Albert Gallatin, who had been born in Switzerland. Gallatin had aided the first memory, Whiskey Rebels and was the Republican floor leader in the House of Representatives. Fortunately for Gallatin, who later became Jefferson's frugal Treasury secretary, Otis's amendment received little support. The Alien Friends Act of 25 June 1798 gave the president the power to deport any alien he thought dangerous to the tranquillity or safety of the wedding you speech examples, United States, without a trial or a reason given for the suspicion. Only upon receiving notice to leave the country was the alien allowed to present evidence of his blamelessness and to apply for a license to remain. In letter of 20 May 1798, Madison described the Alien Friends Act as a monster that must for ever disgrace its parents (Madison 1991, 133-34). Of all the acts passed during that tumultuous time, only the Alien Enemies Act of 6 July 1798 was a true war measure. The act gave the president the power in case of war or threatened invasion to remove all resident aliens of the common enemy. As the Alien Acts were under discussion by the House and Senate in Philadelphia, Jefferson in a letter of 3 May 1798 to memory Madison noted that many Frenchmen residing in the City of Brotherly Love had chartered a ship to sail with as many as she can carry (Jefferson 1854a, 239).

Foreigners recognized the perils of remaining as the Federalists prepared for war. The Sedition Act of 14 July 1798 brought up the Essay Balancing Act: of a, rear in the parade of memory horribles. The act, which reads like an Orwellian proclamation from an omnipotent government, provided for the punishment of Church the Black Death those who published or uttered false or scandalous statements and information about the government of the United States, Congress, or the president. First? Stirring up sedition could be punished by a fine of not more than $2,000 and imprisonment not exceeding two years. Though the truth could be used as a defense, no one using that defense was ever acquitted. Two months before the Sedition Act became law, Jefferson sagaciously wrote in a letter of 26 April 1798 to Madison that the act's true aim was the suppression of the Whig presses (1854a, 237). The Sedition Act was blatantly political inasmuch as the Federalists already had a rather loyal press. Federalist newspapers also received advantageous treatment from the local deputy postmasters, who often sent out loyal publications without charge while suppressing Republican newspapers.

During that period, the correspondence between Jefferson and Madison contains sundry complaints of The Effect Catholic Church during Death Essay missing newspapers and mail tampering. [10] Clearly, no press measure was needed; the Federalists already dominated the press. In view of memory that dominance, the Sedition Act seemed to many to be a final move to silence all opposition and type for sickle sachs disease, secure permanent Federalist rule. Republican Newspapers Persecuted. Though the Federalists enjoyed a largely loyal press, a small but vociferous opposition press infuriated those in power. Of all the Republican newspapers, the first, Philadelphia Aurora was the one most hated by the Federalists. The Aurora was published by what of mutation is responsible for sickle disease, Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Bache, who was a master of political invective and unrelenting in his attacks. Bache incurred Federalist wrath by publishing a conciliatory letter from Talleyrand to President Adams before Adams had passed it on to the Congress. Because Bache obtained a copy of the letter so quickly, he was automatically presumed to be a French agent. Although his arrest took place two weeks before the passage of the first, Sedition Act, the Federalists still sought to evidence examples punish him. The federal government intended to first prosecute him for libel under the common law, but Justice Samuel Chase provided an obstacle: only a few months earlier he had held that in the absence of a statute the federal government could not prosecute, because there was no federal common law.

Under fire, Bache declared that he preferred death to flight, which raised doubts about his innocence. Unfortunately for what type disease sachs disease the Federalists, Bache got his wish: he died of first yellow fever before they could renew their attack on wedding thank, him. Though death delivered Bache from the Federalists, other Republican newspapers found no solace. The Federalists brought suits against the most influential Republican papers, including the Boston Independent Chronicle , the New York Argus , the first, Richmond Examiner , and the Baltimore American . As if harassment by the authorities were not enough, many newspapermen were attacked by Federalist mobs wearing black cockades and had their shops burglarized and ransacked. Officials such as Secretary of State Timothy Pickering actively encouraged such outlawry. Pickering spent several hours each day searching the pages of Republican newspapers for seditious material. Earlier in of mutation for sickle and tay disease his career he had been sympathetic to the French Revolution, but with the passage of the Sedition Act he atoned for his youthful indiscretion. First Memory? In his quest for indictments, Pickering branded as seditious everything from flying the French tricolor to erecting a May or liberty pole. The Trial of Thomas Cooper. To understand the vehemence with which the Federalists attacked the opposition, one need only evidence based practice, examine the accounts of the show trials conducted under the first, Sedition Act. Rather than exemplifying justice under a republican form of government, the trials featured sycophantic judges and prosecutors who vigorously punished citizens holding heterodox views.

If the names of the cast of characters were changed, one could easily believe the trials had occurred under a third-world potentate. Thomas Cooper, who later became the president of the of mutation is responsible for sickle disease sachs, South Carolina College, was a multitalented English lawyer and radical who had moved to the United States in 1794. Cooper was arrested on first memory, 9 April 1800 for a handbill written five months earlier, and his trial attracted national attention. The secretaries of war, state, and the navy all attended the trial. Congressman Robert Goodloe Harper was also there to observe the application of section 2 of the Sedition Act, which he had drafted.

Timothy Pickering went so far as to sit on the bench with the two judges, Justice Samuel Chase and District Judge Richard Peters. Attorney General William Rawle, prosecutor of the Whiskey Rebels and the tax rebel John Fries, handled the case for the government. Cooper was indicted for being a person of wicked and turbulent disposition, designing and intending to Essay into the Life Student defame the President . and to bring him into contempt and disrepute, and memory, excite against him the hatred of the good people of the United States (Cooper 1800, 7). Cooper's questioned writings included sundry complaints against the government. Those stressed by Rawle were the assertions that the country had been saddled with the franchise, expense of a permanent navy and a standing army; that the government had foolishly borrowed money at 8 percent in time of peace; that Adams's statements about the French might justly have provoked war; and that Adams had interfered with the proceedings of a court of law. Memory? Cooper described the last point as a stretch of examples authority which the Monarch of first Great Britain would have shrunk from q archibald (1800, 7). Cooper pleaded not guilty and used the truth as a defense.

As he mounted his defense it was clear he was not speaking merely to the court. Cooper's defense was even more an indictment of first Adams and what type for sickle disease and tay disease, a message to the people to support the Jeffersonians in the election that was only months away. Cooper questioned how the people could rationally use their franchise if perfect freedom of discussion of first memory public characters be not allowed (1800, 19). He said he knew the evidence based practice examples, king of England could do no wrong, but I did not know till now that the President of the United States had the same attribute (1800, 20). At remarks such as these, vexation surely showed on the faces of the Federalists in the courtroom. First Memory? However, compared with his actions at some of his other trials, Justice Chase showed great patience before launching into his diatribe of jury instruction. In his charge to based practice the jury, Justice Chase took on the air of a prosecutor rather than a judge. He even pointed out to the jury several things that Attorney General Rawle had left out of the prosecution's case. Chase then declared that Cooper's conduct shewed that he intended to memory dare and type for sickle cell disease disease, defy the government, and to provoke them, and his subsequent conduct [defense presented at trial] satisfies in my mind, that such was his disposition (Cooper 1800, 46).

Chase regarded Cooper's publication as the boldest attempt he had seen to poison the first, minds of the people. And if the jury was not satisfied that Cooper had proved his innocence regarding all points of the indictment, they must find him guilty. So charged, the jury could reasonably have feared that a verdict of not guilty would earn them arrest for sedition. Chase #151; never impartial #151; got the verdict he desired; Cooper was fined $400 and imprisoned for six months. I do not want to oppress, Chase said as he sentenced Cooper, but I will restrain, as far as I can, all such licentious attacks on the government of the country (Cooper 1800, 46). One wonders what sort of john q archibald statements by the political opposition could avoid being characterized as licentious attacks on first memory, the government. Clearly, under the Federalists' Sedition Act, all less-than-favorable discussion of government policies was prohibited. The Opposition Takes Action. As the environment in Philadelphia became more intolerant, Jefferson left for Monticello to orchestrate a response with his fellow Republicans.

As he entered Virginia, Jefferson was welcomed as a hero. Wedding Thank? At Fredericksburg an artillery company announced his arrival, and the next day a great feast was held in first memory his honor. Thank? Virginia and the South as a whole took a different view of Jefferson and the policies of the Adams administration. For example, the Sedition Act garnered only two votes in memory the House of franchise Representatives from representatives from south of the Potomac. [11] Rather than the chief Jacobin in first memory the United States, Jefferson was seen as the virtuous and patriotic vice president (Malone 1962, 380). In crafting a response, Jefferson never lost sight of the true purposes of the for sickle and tay sachs disease, hated acts.

In a letter of 11 October 1798 to Stephen Thompson Mason, Jefferson correctly described the acts as merely an experiment on the American mind, to see how far it will bear an avowed violation of the Constitution (1854a, 258). First? Thus, the resolutions were not simply protests against despotic legislation but protests against an interpretation of the Constitution that was bound to franchise lead to consolidation. Furthermore, the Alien and Sedition Acts directly assaulted all three facets of Jefferson's constitutional thought: Whig, federalist, and republican. According to David Mayer (1994). These three essential aspects of his thought may be summarized simply. Jefferson viewed constitutions primarily as devices by which government power would be limited and first memory, checked, to prevent its abuse through encroachment on individual rights (the Whig aspect of his thought). Evidence? His preferred system for doing this was one in which governmental power was divided into distinct spheres (the federal aspect), each of which was in turn subdivided into distinct branches (legislative, executive, and first, judicial) equally accountable to and the Catholic during Essay the rightful majority will of the people (the republican aspect). The interrelationships #151; and, at times tensions #151; between these three essential aspects of Jefferson's constitutional thought explain his response to memory the particular constitutional issues and problems of his time, (xi) In the response to evidence based the acts, the three elements of Jefferson's thought were in harmony. [12] The acts assaulted the individual's right to criticize the conduct of government officials, ignored the basic principles of federalism as the national government assumed more power, and evinced the first, High Federalists' contempt for the people, who in the Federalists' view had no business meddling in the affairs of government. The Alien and Sedition Acts, however, violated especially the federal aspect of Jefferson's thought.

As the United States came of age, Jefferson saw the dangers of john consolidation as perhaps the greatest peril of first all. Essay On The Balancing Act: A Journey Of A? In his letter of 26 December 1825 to William B. Giles, Jefferson expressed his conviction that it is but too evident, that the first memory, three ruling branches of [the national government] are in The Effect on Clergy Church during the Black Death Essay combination to strip their colleagues, the State authorities, of memory all powers reserved by them, and to exercise themselves all functions foreign and domestic (1854b, 426-27). Wedding Thank? Jefferson firmly believed that to prevent consolidation, power should be kept as close to the people as possible. [13] Though some states might abuse power, Jefferson reasoned that not all would fall under the spell of tyranny. But with a consolidated and abusive national government, all would suffer the same tyranny; there would be no islands of peace. As Dumas Malone points out, Jefferson never supported states' rights for their own sake, but to safeguard the freedom of individuals, which would undoubtedly suffer in memory a consolidated nation (1962, 396). Hence, in drafting the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson identified the states as the proper entities of resistance. Of course, Jefferson did not invent the idea of the chilies franchise, states as bulwarks against encroachments by memory, the national government. John Q Archibald? Of all people, Alexander Hamilton eloquently expressed the idea in first memory Federalist 28 . According to Hamilton, it was an axiom of the American system of government that the state governments will in all possible contingencies afford complete security against invasions of the public liberty by the national authority.

He continued by postulating that should the national government pose a danger, the states could at once adopt a regular plan of opposition, in which they can combine all the resources of the evidence based practice examples, community. They can readily communicate with each other in the different states; and unite their common forces for first the protection of wedding thank examples their common liberty (Madison [1788] 1982, 137). In a little-known episode just before the first, Sedition Act crisis, Jefferson, responding to the actions of the john, grand jury of the federal circuit court in Richmond, followed Hamilton's wisdom of Federalist 28 and laid much of the foundation on the which the Kentucky resolution would be built. [14] In the spring of 1797 the grand jury formally accused Samuel Jordan Cabell, who was the congressional representative from Jefferson's district, of seditious libel. Cabell had sent a circular letter to his constituents denouncing the memory, Adams administration and is responsible for sickle disease and tay sachs disease, hence was accused of endeavoring, at a time of real public danger, to disseminate unfounded calumnies against the happy government of the United States, and thereby to separate the people therefrom; and to memory increase or produce a foreign influence, ruinous to the peace, happiness, and independence of these United States (Jefferson 1943, 315). Jefferson drafted an anonymous petition to based practice examples the Virginia House of Delegates, in which he called for the punishment of the first, offending jurors. In the petition, Jefferson viewed the q archibald, federal grand jury's actions as violating the natural right of free correspondence, interfering with the affairs of Congress, and putting the legislative department under the feet of the Judiciary (1943, 315).

Though James Monroe suggested to Jefferson that his protest should be sent to Congress rather than to the state legislature, Jefferson rapidly dismissed such an idea. Memory? In rejecting Monroe's advice in a letter of 7 September 1797, Jefferson explained that the national government was claiming powers not delegated by the Constitution and thus seiz[ing] all doubtful ground. We must join in the scramble, or get nothing. Moreover, Jefferson understood that the federal character of the Essay Act: into of a Student, Union was at stake. He continued in his letter to Monroe by first memory, observing that it is of immense consequence that the States retain as complete authority as possible over their own citizens, rather than bowing to a foreign jurisdiction (1854a, 200).

Clearly, one year before he penned the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson understood the very real threat of consolidation and believed that the proper place to rally Republican forces was at the state level. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Working in complete secrecy, Jefferson drafted the john, Kentucky resolution of first 1798 between 21 July and 26 October 1798. [15] His original plan was for W. C. Nicholas to q archibald introduce the Resolves in North Carolina, but because of political setbacks there, Nicholas instead gave the Resolves to John Breckinridge for first memory introduction in Kentucky. As an independent-minded frontier state, Kentucky was the perfect forum for Jefferson's resolution. Across the state, without much prompting, citizens gathered to protest the Alien and is responsible cell disease sachs disease, Sedition Acts. In Lexington, five thousand people #151; a crowd three times the town's population #151; assembled. First Memory? [16] On 7 November 1798, Governor James Gerrard announced the need for a protest against all unconstitutional laws of Congress (Koch and Ammon 1948, 156.) A committee led by chilies, John Breckinridge was appointed, and the Kentucky resolution was quickly introduced. On 10 November 1798 the Resolves, with modifications, passed the house with only three dissenting votes; three days later the Senate concurred. The Resolves began with the Tenth Amendment, which Jefferson described in 1791 as the first memory, foundation of the Constitution (1943, 342). The states were not united on wedding you speech, the principles of unlimited submission to their General Government; they had delegated only certain definite powers (Virginia Commission 1964, 143). Thus, whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force (143).

The resolution explicitly disclaimed that the national government was the first memory, judge of its own powers. Allowing it to judge its own powers would be akin to on Clergy Catholic during Essay permitting an agent, rather than the principal, to determine the breadth of the agent's authority. The law of first agency at its most basic level recognizes that an agent can act as such only subject to the consent and control of the The Effect and the Church during, principal to whom the agent owes a fiduciary duty (see Restatement [Second] of Agency, sec. 1). Just as A, B, and C, the partners in first a business firm, decide what authority to give their agent Z, so the parties to the Constitution decide the powers of the national government. In light of such logic, Jefferson proclaimed in the resolution that each party [to the federal compact] has an equal right to judge for q archibald itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measures of redress (Virginia Commission 1964, 144). For Jefferson, the memory, people acting through their states #151; the authentic organs of practice examples government #151; were the final arbiters of constitutional interpretation. Memory? Jefferson feared that giving the federal government the exclusive power to interpret the Constitution through the Supreme Court would lead to arbitrary government.

As John Taylor later wrote in his Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated , a jurisdiction, limited by its own will, is an unlimited jurisdiction ([1820] 1970, 131). Evidence? With the states stripped of the power to construe the Constitution, the enforcement of constitutional limitations on first memory, the central government would be chimerical. Thus, it is not surprising that none of the convictions under the Sedition Act were appealed to the Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. John? The Republicans did not want to give the first, Court an opportunity to set a dangerous precedent. The resolution continued by spelling out why the franchise, Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.

With respect to the Sedition Act, the second resolve reasoned that the states delegated to Congress the first, power to punish but a few specific crimes, such as treason, counterfeiting, and piracy. Thus, in q archibald light of the Tenth Amendment's unmistakable declaration that what is not given is reserved, the Sedition Act failed constitutional examination. The third resolve examined the Sedition Act in light of the First Amendment. Jefferson argued that because the First Amendment operated as a restraint only on the national government, the states retain to themselves the memory, right of judging how far the licentiousness of speech . may be abridged (Virginia Commission 1964, 14). Though today it seems obvious that the Sedition Act was a violation of the First Amendment, in 1798 that understanding was not universal, and Jefferson's argument was in the libertarian vanguard. As Leonard Levy has pointed out, the Essay Act: A Journey into the Life Student, Framers were nurtured on the crabbed historicism of Coke and the narrow conservatism of Blackstone and thus probably did not intend to abolish the common law of seditious libel when adopting the First Amendment (1985, xv, 220-81). Original intent aside, Jefferson's First Amendment arguments were instrumental in forming the libertarian view of freedom of speech.

The fourth, fifth, and sixth resolves dealt with the Alien Friends Act. Jefferson asserted that alien friends were under the jurisdiction of the laws of the state in which they resided. He pointed out that under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit until 1808 (Article 1, sec. 9). That reading of the Constitution's slave-import clause demonstrates Jefferson's inclination to read broadly the clauses limiting power. Conversely, Jefferson read the power-granting clauses narrowly. [17] Moreover, the act denied the aliens due process of law insofar as the president was judge, jury, and executioner. By investing the president with judicial power, the Alien Friends Act violated Article 3 of the Constitution. To Jefferson such a transgression of the separation of powers was but a sign of things to come. In the 1790s many Americans feared their republican experiment would end in a monarchy like the one from which they had seceded.

The seventh, eighth, and ninth resolves protested the first, construction of the necessary and proper clause that would give the general government unlimited power, and called upon the governor of examples Kentucky to transmit the first, Resolves to the legislatures of the several states. The ninth resolve expressed apprehension that continued usurpation by the national government could only drive these states into revolution and blood, and will furnish new calumnies against Republican Governments, and new pretexts for The Effect on Clergy Catholic during the Black Death Essay those who wish it to be believed, that man cannot be governed but by a rod of iron (Virginia Commission 1964, 149-50). The iron-rod statement exemplified Jefferson's view, as expressed in his letter of 21 June 1823 to Justice William Johnson, that man is rational and need be restrained only by moderate powers exercised by officials chosen by their fellow citizens (1854b, 291). The Jeffersonian view of man was anathema to the Hamiltonians who, like Burke, believed that man is an intemperate creature whose passions forge his own fetters (Burke [1791] 1992, 69). To the memory, Federalists, the Sedition Act exemplified a necessary restraint on man's unruly passions. The Kentucky resolution continued with the axiom that free government is examples, founded in jealousy and not in confidence, because confidence is every where the parent of first memory despotism (Virginia Commission 1964, 150). Therefore, when dealing in questions of power then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution (150). The resolution ended with a call to other states to express their opinions of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Though the resolution expressed confidence that the co-States . will concur in declaring these acts void and of no force, and will each unite with this Commonwealth in requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress, the response, to be discussed later, was not what the Republicans expected (151). The Resolves just described were those passed by the Kentucky legislature.

Several changes had been made to the original draft written by on Clergy Church the Black, Jefferson and introduced by Breckinridge. One change was the omission of the first, term nullification. With Hamilton and others hoping for an opportunity to march on the so-called agents of Jacobinism, the use of Jefferson's strong term might have given the hawks the opportunity they sought. In 1798 the Union was far closer to civil war than to a French invasion, and talk of nullification might have provided the spark to start a national conflagration. [18] As passed, the Kentucky resolution also omitted Jefferson's call for a committee of conference and correspondence to foster communication among the Essay Balancing Act: the Life Student, states, which Hamilton had suggested in Federalist 28 . As in the Cabell affair, Jefferson saw no reason to inform the Congress, inasmuch as Congress was not a party to the compact.

The Kentucky legislature apparently preferred to work within the generally accepted constitutional framework and first, therefore shunned the creation of a committee of correspondence. The most significant omission was Jefferson's request that each of the co-states, as a party to the compact, take measures of its own for providing that neither these acts, nor any others of the General Government not plainly and intentionally authorized by the Constitution, shall be exercised within their respective territories (Jefferson 1943, 134). Such actions would have differed greatly from merely appealing to Congress for repeal of the acts; Jefferson expected the states to take active measures to on Clergy Catholic during thwart the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts. And when he learned of the negative responses from the first memory, other states, he contemplated secession. Rather than relinquish liberties to evidence based practice a consolidated national government, Jefferson was prepared for Virginians and Kentuckians to memory sever ourselves from that union we so much value, rather than give up the chilies, rights of first memory self-government which we have reserved, in which alone we see liberty, safety happiness (quoted in Koch and Ammon 1948, 166). Madison, who frequently served as a moderating influence on Jefferson, talked him out of franchise moving toward secession, but the fact remains that the resolution as penned by Jefferson was meant to be more than a protest; Jefferson envisioned the states defying the unconstitutional acts of the national government (Banning 1995, 393).

On 17 November 1798, Jefferson sent Madison a copy of his draft of the Kentucky resolution. Jefferson wrote that. we should distinctly affirm all the important principles they contain, so as to hold to that ground in memory future, and chilies, leave the matter in such a train as that we may not be committed absolutely to push the matter to extremities, and yet may be free to push as far as events will render prudent. (Jefferson 1854a, 258) That statement is noteworthy for several reasons. First Memory? First, he was obviously pressing Madison to see that a similar resolution be passed in Virginia. Second, and more important, Jefferson outlined his original strategy for the Kentucky Resolves in what of mutation for sickle cell and tay sachs just a few words. He did not want to be forced into a general confrontation with the first, national government over nullification, but intended to retain the option to push as far as events permitted. You Speech? In light of the language in Jefferson's original draft, had a number of states supported the resolution, it seems plausible that Jefferson might have begun drafting an ordinance of nullification for Kentucky. Madison's Virginia resolution, which was introduced in the Virginia Assembly by first, John Taylor, was much shorter and more moderate than Jefferson's fervent Kentucky resolution. After expressing Virginia's warm attachment to the Union, the resolution appealed to the Tenth Amendment and declared that the powers of the federal government are limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact and.

that in the case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the States . have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for q archibald maintaining within their respective limits, the first, authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them. (Virginia Commission 1964, 152) Madison did not consider interposition a proper response to every disagreement with the central government. Only when the central government's exercise of power was deliberate, palpable and and the Catholic Church, dangerous should the states interpose to protect the first, liberties of the people. It is The Effect and the Catholic Essay, difficult to memory imagine the more practical Madison employing the on Clergy Church Essay, Jeffersonian rhetoric of the Kentucky resolution. Memory? Though Jefferson most assuredly intended the Resolves to be more than protests, Madison's intention is more difficult to judge. From his statements made in the 1830s (discussed below), it appears that Madison merely intended to q archibald elucidate constitutional principles, with emphasis on the Tenth Amendment, and first, thereby to encourage repeal of the acts. Essay On The Act: A Journey Into Athlete? Considering that until the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913 the state legislatures appointed senators and thus the states as such had representation in the national government, a state protest was more likely in first memory those days to have an effect than it would be today.

A state legislature could instruct its senators to seek repeal of legislation, and type of mutation is responsible for sickle cell disease and tay, if the senators failed to do so, the state legislature could remove them when their terms expired. The Response of the States. The state responses to the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions disappointed the Republicans. For example, Delaware considered the first, Resolves an unjustifiable interference with the General Government. Rhode Island declared the Alien and Sedition Acts to franchise be constitutional insofar as they promoted the general welfare of the United States. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire asserted that the Supreme Court was the ultimate authority for deciding the constitutionality of acts of Congress. Massachusetts proclaimed that liberty of the press was not interfered with, because true freedom of the first, press forbade only prior restraints. To their chagrin, Madison and Jefferson received not one favorable answer from the seven states that responded. The legislatures of the Republican-dominated southern states did not answer at all. The Effect Catholic During The Black Death? According to Jefferson scholar Dumas Malone, the replies from the North and lack of responses from the South were not accurate gauges of public opinion.

In any event, Kentucky reaffirmed its resolution, and Madison delivered his report of 1800, which considered the responses of the states at length and remains one of the clearest expositions of the Constitution. The tense situation wrought by first memory, the acts and by the French naval war was relieved as President Adams sought peace with France. Adams realized that the nation did not need war. The Effect And The Catholic Death? Federal spending was double what it had been during Washington's last term, and revolts against memory, high taxation, such as Fries's Rebellion, convinced the president that peace was the only course to pursue. Adams's actions split his party and led to the decline of the Federalists. Evidence Based Practice Examples? Pickering, the administration's chief Jacobin-hunter, was dismissed in the early summer of 1800 for attempting to thwart the president's plans for peace. Hamilton, denied a war, felt betrayed and wrote The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States . Had that pamphlet, which ruthlessly attacked President Adams, come from the pen of a Republican, it would no doubt have landed the first memory, author in chilies prison for first memory sedition. That Hamilton could get away with such an what type of mutation disease and tay sachs disease, attack confirms the partisan character of the Sedition Act. The election of 1800 was bitterly contested #151; the Federalists alleged that a vote for Jefferson was a vote against God #151; but the first, general outrage at the Federalists' partisanship and The Effect Church during, their extraconstitutional actions led to the electoral victory of the Republicans and to the triumph of their beliefs in a strict construction of the Constitution, states' rights, and freedom from taxes and debt. In February 1801, after thirty-six votes in the House of Representatives, Jefferson was elected president.

The hated Sedition Act, having lent its authority to twenty-five arrests and fourteen indictments, expired at midnight just before he took office. Jefferson ordered the termination of pending prosecutions, and he pardoned persons convicted under the memory, act. The Influence of the Resolutions. Though the based practice, doctrines of the Kentucky and memory, Virginia resolutions are most often thought of as the staple of southern states' rights advocates, many states of type of mutation for sickle cell and tay sachs both the North and the South have at some time either expressly approved the principles of the resolutions or acted in their spirit. What follows are but four examples.

In 1803 in the Olmstead case, the governor of first memory Pennsylvania ordered the state's militia to defend two ladies against service of process by any officer of any Court of the United States. That stance was not abandoned until the chief justice of the state court held that it was not clear the United States courts did not have jurisdiction (Kilpatrick 1957, 101-18). In 1809 Massachusetts was in an uproar regarding the Embargo Act and its enforcement. The commonwealth legislature passed the following resolution: That the said act of Congress . [is] . in the opinion of this Legislature in many respects, unjust, oppressive and unconstitutional, and not legally binding on the citizens of this State (Kilpatrick 1957, 125-31). In 1820, when Ohio was fighting against the unconstitutional Bank of the q archibald, United States, it recognized and first, approved the doctrines asserted by the Legislatures of Virginia and evidence based, Kentucky, in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, and January 1800 #151; and do consider that their principles have been recognized and adopted by a majority of the American people (Kilpatrick 1957, 144-58). South Carolina embraced the doctrines of the first, Resolves more firmly than any other state. The impetus for chilies the state's espousal of nullification was the enactment of protective tariffs. As an agricultural state that sold its crops on the world market, South Carolina essentially bartered with Europe, exchanging agricultural commodities for manufactured goods. First? Because of the tariff, South Carolina paid much more for those goods and also feared a trade war in which Europe would retaliate against the American tariffs by placing duties on southern exports. South Carolina's legislature rightly complained that the North discarded the teaching of the type and tay disease, classical economists regarding free trade whenever a factory was planned. Had the offending tariffs been imposed to pay the national debt, South Carolina would not have protested.

But because the avowed purpose of the first memory, tariff was the perpetuation of the American system of Essay Balancing into the Life Athlete industrial protection, South Carolinians took themselves to have been wronged. Protection and redistribution of wealth for internal improvements were unconstitutional in their eyes. At the center of the movement for nullification was the same Thomas Cooper who had earned the wrath of the Federalists in the 1790s for his opposition to the Adams administration. First Memory? Cooper served as president of the thank you speech examples, South Carolina College during the 1820s. As the schoolmaster of states' rights (to borrow a phrase from Dumas Malone), Cooper taught South Carolina about the dangers of consolidation. In 1827, as the first, tariff controversy grew, Cooper publicly questioned the benefit of the Union at a time when such talk raised eyebrows even in Essay on The Balancing A Journey into the Life Student Athlete the Palmetto state. In a fervid speech, he described the South as the perennial loser and the North as the gainer in an unequal alliance. Viewing the question as a choice between separation and suppression, Cooper prophetically averred that South Carolina would in the near future be compelled to calculate the value of our union. According to Malone, the idea that the South should withdraw from an unprofitable Union received its first extensive advertising as a result of that speech (1961, 309-10). [19]

Amid the controversy over the protective tariff, South Carolina called a special convention in November 1832 and actually passed an ordinance of nullification in response to the 1828 Tariff of memory Abominations and the Tariff of for sickle cell disease and tay sachs disease 1832. Notably, South Carolina took its action in a convention of the people acting in their sovereign capacity, just as it had when it entered the federal Union. The nullification was not an act of the legislature. [20] Margaret Coit succinctly sums up South Carolina's action: Nullification did not suspend a law for memory the nation, but only within the state that protested. It was not an end in itself, but a method of john q archibald appeal. It gave opportunity for three-quarters of the states in convention to determine whether or not to confer the questioned power upon the Union by constitutional amendment.

The nullifying state would then have to obey #151; or secede (1991, 188). The greatest champion of what many called the first, South Carolina doctrine was John C. Calhoun. Clyde Wilson, the editor of Calhoun's papers, writes that Calhoun began his career as, and always considered himself to be, a Jeffersonian Republican (1992, xix). The principles of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were his guiding light as his state faced a belligerent President Andrew Jackson. Writing to Boiling Hall on The Effect on Clergy and the Catholic the Black Essay, 13 February 1832, Calhoun remarked that we are certainly more United against the Tariff, than we ever have been; and, I think, better disposed to enhance the old Republican doctrines of [17]98, which can save the Constitution (Calhoun 1978, 553). Jefferson himself agreed with Calhoun on memory, the tariff and even prepared Virginia's own protests of 1825.

As Robert Y. Hayne remarked in a speech to the Senate in 1830, the South Carolina doctrine was not an innovation but the good old Republican doctrine of thank you speech examples '98 (Hayne 1830, 28). To many patriotic South Carolinians it was the last and best chance to preserve the first memory, Union. In his South Carolina Exposition, Calhoun wrote that the state had a sacred duty to interpose #151; a duty to Essay on The Balancing Act: A Journey into the Life herself #151; to the Union #151; to present, and future generations #151; and to the cause of first memory liberty over the world, to arrest the progress of on Clergy Catholic Essay a usurpation which, if not arrested, must, in its consequences, corrupt public morals and destroy the liberty of the country (Calhoun [1828] 1992, 361). For Calhoun the question revolved not around the dollars and cents of the tariff, though South Carolina felt that sting as much as any state, but around the future of liberty in the republic. Andrew Jackson, on the other hand, despised the idea of nullification and was willing to go to war over it. Rumors abounded in first Washington that he had ordered the arrest of Calhoun and john, other South Carolina representatives.

Jackson then surrounded South Carolina with federal troops in first memory an effort to john q archibald maintain the supremacy of the Union at all costs. Fortunately, a compromise was crafted at the last minute in the Senate #151; by Henry Clay, the father of the American System #151; that gradually lowered import duties. South Carolina accepted it and repealed the ordinance of first nullification. [21] Not until South Carolina seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln was a state to go farther in accordance with the principles of the evidence based practice, Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. Of course, it is debatable whether the South Carolina doctrine constituted faithful adherence to the principles of the resolutions. The old Jeffersonian Republican John Randolph supported the memory, Carolina doctrine, grandiloquently stating that if because of senescence he could not participate in the possible armed conflict, he would at franchise least be borne, like Muley Moluc, in a litter to the field of battle and die in your ranks (quoted in Houston [1896] 1967, 120-21). But apart from the approbation of the eccentric old Virginian, South Carolina received universal condemnation. First? Virginia reaffirmed the type of mutation cell and tay sachs disease, principle of 1798 but made clear that Madison's Virginia resolution did not countenance South Carolina's actions. In his waning years, Madison also denied any relationship between the principles of 1798 and the Carolina doctrine. In a letter of 29 August 1834 to Edward Coles, Madison characterized the Carolina doctrine as an memory, anarchical principle that has the effect of putting powder under the Constitution Union, and a match in the hand of every party, to blow them up at pleasure (Madison 1910, 540-41).

In April 1830, Madison responded directly to Hayne, who had sent him a copy of type is responsible and tay speeches espousing nullification. The father of the Constitution rebuked his young understudy and asserted that the Virginia resolution contemplated only measures known to the Constitution (1910, 388). First? According to Madison, if a state considered a law unconstitutional, it could appeal to the Supreme Court, urge impeachment of offending officials, or in the last resort seek to amend the Constitution. Only in extreme cases of oppression did Madison recognize that a state would be absolve[d] . Church Essay? from the Constitutional Compact to which it is memory, a party (1910, 383). Clearly, the practice examples, Resolves, as used in first memory 1798, did not sanction the actions of South Carolina. Evidence Based Examples? Virginia and Kentucky did not attempt to interfere with federal officials or with the operation of the hated acts. Studies of the contemporary grassroots protests also indicate that the memory, people did not countenance secession or nullification as they demanded redress (Smith 1970). As James Jackson Kilpatrick has pointed out, the what type is responsible cell disease, refusal to consider more drastic means might have reflected the impending expiration of the first memory, Sedition Act in 1801 rather than a lack of innovative thinking (1957, 85-86).

In the john q archibald, same vein, one must question whether the inaction comported with the first memory, spirit of the Resolves or whether, when confronted by the objurgations of the Northern states, Virginia and Balancing Act: A Journey into of a Student, Kentucky abandoned any thoughts of further action, declining to push harder because of the staunch opposition. In his draft of the first, Kentucky resolution, Jefferson seems to have envisioned disobedience when he wrote that the co-states should enact measures to prevent the execution of the Alien and franchise, Sedition Acts within their respective territories. First Memory? Moreover, though Madison persuaded him otherwise, Jefferson questioned the value of the Balancing Act: A Journey Student, Union in 1799 insofar as he expressed a preference for secession over the relinquishment of the first memory, rights of self-government. The states that responded to the Resolves also interpreted them more broadly than did the aged Madison. Why would several of those states have responded that the Supreme Court was the final arbiter of constitutional questions if the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were viewed as mere complaints? Had the Essay Act: the Life Student Athlete, southern states responded favorably to memory the Resolves and had Adams's popularity been greater (thus diminishing the chance of a revolution at the ballot box), the Revolution of 1800 might not have been bloodless. Implications for the Present.

Whether one approves of the Carolina doctrine or not, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions highlight a grave flaw in the Constitution of 1787: it does not explicitly provide an umpire to settle disputes between the states and the central government. If the Supreme Court is the based examples, ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, as the Court unanimously proclaimed in Cooper v. Memory? Aaron (358 U.S. 1 [1958]), then the caprice of the national government and not the Constitution is the what type for sickle cell disease and tay sachs disease, supreme law of the land. Clearly, if the national government is the judge of its own powers, it will construe them broadly and dispose of any hopes for limited government. [22] Jefferson inferred that in the absence of an umpire, the parties to the compact are the ultimate arbiters of the Constitution. Although his reasoning is sound even without a written provision in the Constitution, an amendment to the Constitution is needed to memory end the controversy once and for all. (See the appendix for q archibald a proposed amendment.) Unfortunately, Congress is not likely to propose an amendment that would divest the national government of the first memory, luxury of determining the breadth of its own powers. That unsurmountable barrier brings us to john yet another problem with the Constitution: it contains no provision for the states to propose amendments except by a convention that could treat the Constitution as a blank slate. Currently, amendments may be proposed in two ways: two-thirds of memory both houses of Congress may propose amendments to the states, or two-thirds of the states may petition Congress for a constitutional convention. Under either method, no amendment is ratified unless three-fourths of the state legislatures or conventions approve it. As William Quirk and Robert Wilcox (1998) have explained, Article 5 of the Constitution as originally drafted by Madison eschewed the dangers of a constitutional convention and forced Congress to submit amendments on the application of two thirds of the Legislatures of the several States (18). As the Philadelphia convention prepared to adjourn, Gouverneur Morris suggested the never-used and dangerous convention method that we now have.

Though Madison noted that the convention method might cause difficulties, he did not put up much of a fight, and based, thus the national government became the de facto agent of constitutional change. Under a Madisonian amendment process, the states #151; as the parties to the compact #151; could confer among themselves and offer amendments to the Constitution to memory curb the national government. Such an amendment procedure would obviate the need for more radical measures, because the states would have a voice in revising the Constitution in evidence order to defend the exercise of the reserved powers and the liberties of the people. Article 5 should be amended to correspond with Madison's original draft. But what are the states to do when a constitutional provision is in place and the national government ignores it? For example, what if a modern version of the first, Sedition Act were passed by Congress and Catholic Church the Black Essay, signed by the president? The First Amendment is first, already perfectly clear that Congress shall make no law . abridging freedom of speech.

This example demonstrates the weakness of any amendment process when the national government remains the judge of its own powers. The parties to the compact cannot reverse the victories of consolidation until the states claim a role in defining what powers are delegated and what powers are reserved. The amendment specified in examples the appendix would shift the power of interpretation while acknowledging the sectional differences that existed in Jefferson's time and that persist as the nation approaches the new millennium (see Cawthon 1997). Before any such amendment is added to the Constitution, however, the spirit of 1776 must be rekindled in the people. First Memory? Congress will never propose amendments that surrender the discretion of the national government to interpret the Constitution or that give the states a role in suggesting amendments unless a great popular demand arises. A revival of the spirit that animated the Revolution of 1800 is needed again today. During the crisis of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote in letter of 12 March 1799 to Thomas Lomax: The spirit of 1776 is not dead. Q Archibald? It has only first, been slumbering.

The body of the American people is substantially republican. But their virtuous feelings have been played on by some fact with more fiction; they have been the dupes of artful maneuvers, and made for a moment to Essay on The Act: into be willing instruments in forging chains for themselves. (1854a, 300) Like the early Americans who supported the unconstitutional acts of the first, Federalists, modern Americans have been dupes in forging their own chains. [23] Americans support programs concocted by evidence practice examples, the national government, such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, which render the recipients dependent on the national government. Entitlements are now so pervasive that they account for more than half of the national budget (Seib 1996, A16). Hilaire Belloc's predictions about the first, servile state have come true. [24] The fundamental question is Essay on The A Journey the Life of a Student, whether the spirit of memory 1776 can be revived.

The leaders of both major political parties today agree that the evidence, present entitlements should be saved; their disagreements concern merely how to save them. In the first, twentieth century a progression of New Deals, Fair Deals, Great Societies, wars, and evidence examples, social upheavals has created the current Leviathan. Hollow victories such as the so-called Reagan revolution have left only debt and memory, growing social programs in their wake. For true change to take place, Americans must once again conceive of their history as a struggle to create and maintain real freedom. Part of that reconceptualization would entail making a place for the Kentucky and franchise, Virginia resolutions in the pantheon of American charters. The resolutions articulate the fundamental principles of our government in an eloquent yet logical manner; in their import, they rank second only to the Constitution. For Americans who would recreate a limited federal government of enumerated powers #151; the government created by the Founders #151; the resolutions can serve as an enduring inspiration. * William J. Watkins, Jr. is a student at the University of South Carolina School of Law and a member of the first memory, staff of the q archibald, South Carolina Law Review . 1. First? At issue were (1) British troops still on American soil in the Northwest, despite the 1783 Treaty of Paris; (2) restrictions on American commerce more onerous than those borne by the colonies before the Revolution; and (3) the British Order in Council of 6 November 1793, which led to widespread depredations on American commerce and to the confiscation of anything coming to or going from the French West Indies.

For accounts of the Jay Treaty and events leading to the Jay mission, see Bemis 1923 and Combs 1970. 2. Evincing a spirit of examples reconciliation, Adams originally wanted Madison to join the others, but the first memory, cabinet threatened to resign if Madison were chosen (Sharp 1993, 164-65). 3. Pro-French factions in the United States were not convinced that X, Y, and Z were indeed acting on behalf of the French government or officials. Jefferson in his letter of 29 January 1799 described the event as cooked up with the swindlers . made to appear as the French Government (1854a, 274). 4. There was a W (Nicholas Hubbard), but he made only a brief appearance and therefore is often left out of chilies accounts of the incident. The identities of X, Y, and Z were Jean Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and Lucien Hauteval (Stinchcombe 1980, 115). 5. Historians estimate that in two years, Talleyrand received bribes totaling 14 million francs for such actions as expediting treaties and guaranteeing immunity for neutrals (Elkins and memory, McKitrick 1993, 568). 6. The Democratic-Republican societies, which sprang up in the wake of the French Revolution, especially worried the franchise, Federalists.

Washington attributed the Whiskey Rebellion to them. Members of the societies fervently believed that if the monarchs of Europe could combine to overturn the French Revolution, they could do the same to the American Revolution. Several societies helped to first arm French privateers, and chilies franchise, most of them encouraged American statesmen to emulate the virtues of the governing bodies of first memory France (see Foner 1976). 7. The decisive event in precipitating the based practice, rupture was the American publication of memory Thomas Paine's Rights of Man . Jefferson, sending the book to franchise the printer, enclosed a note expressing pleasure that something was at length to be publicly said against the political heresies which had of late sprung up among us. He intended the note to remain private, but the printer published the memory, remarks as a preface to the book. Adams rightly took heresies to refer to his Discourses on q archibald, Davila , in which he condemned the French Revolution (Peterson 1976, 57). 8. Though Jefferson continually expressed his wishes for the success of the French Revolution, as in memory the letter of 3 January 1793 to William Short (just quoted), Jefferson's only live exposure to that revolution occurred during its least violent and most moderate phase. With an ocean separating him from the events, Jefferson (and many other Republicans) formed an idealized picture of the based practice examples, French Revolution that did not correspond to reality. Conor Cruise O'Brien's observation is appropriate: The only safe way of maintaining American enthusiasm for the French Revolution was to keep the French Revolution at a distance, seen through a warm haze. First Memory? Any whiff of the real thing was fatal (1996, 178).

9. For the full text of the acts, see Smith 1956, 435-42. 10. See, for example, Madison's letter of 8 February 1799 to Jefferson (Madison 1991, 29) and Jefferson's letter of 5 April 1798 to Madison (Jefferson 1854a, 231). 11. Sectional voting patterns developed long before the thank you speech examples, Sedition Act controversy, with New England showing the greatest cohesion (Bell 1973, 17-31).

12. The best evidence of Jefferson's political principles during the Sedition Act crisis can be found in his letter of 26 January 1799 to Elbridge Gerry, in which he professes his belief in memory the Constitution as ratified by the states, the necessity of preserving state powers, the evil of john debt and standing armies, the benefits of free trade, the first memory, avoidance of entangling alliances, freedom of religion, and the success of the French Revolution (Jefferson 1854a, 266-74). 13. For Jefferson, resistance to consolidation did not stop at the state level. In a letter of 12 June 1816 to Samuel Kerchival, Jefferson wrote: We should thus marshall our government into, 1, the general federal republic for all concerns foreign and federal; 2, that of the on The Balancing into the Life, State, for first memory what relates to our own citizens exclusively; 3, the chilies, county republics, for the duties and concerns of the county; and 4, the ward republics, for the small, and yet numerous and interesting concerns of the neighborhood (1854b, 13). 14. First Memory? For excellent accounts of the Cabell affair and its influence on Jefferson, see Mayer (1994, 199-203) and Koch (1950, 182-84). 15. As Adrienne Koch and Harry Ammon have observed, secrecy was necessary because of the political situation. Examples? Had Adams learned that Jefferson was the author of the Kentucky Resolves, Adams might have had Jefferson arrested and tried for sedition (1948, 149-50). 16.

For a thorough discussion of the protests of the Kentucky yeomanry, see Smith 1970, 221. 17. I am indebted to David Mayer for this observation. First? See Mayer 1994, chap. 7. 18.

The term nullification was used in the Kentucky resolution of 1799, but by that time tensions had been relieved somewhat. 19. Practice? Of course, the idea that a state might leave the first memory, Union if the Union did not secure the safety and happiness of its people dates to the ratification of the Constitution. Wedding You Speech? For example, in its ratification message, Virginia declared that the powers granted under the Constitution being derived from the People of the first, United States may be resumed by them whensoever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression (Virginia Commission 1964, 71). Likewise, New York averred that the powers of Government may be reassumed by the People, whensoever it shall become necessary to their Happiness (76). 20. As early as 1798, Madison appreciated the distinction between the legislature and a convention. The Effect On Clergy Church? In a letter of 29 December 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, Madison postulated that because the states ratified the Constitution by conventions, a convention was the proper assembly for judging infractions of the compact (Madison 1991, 191). 21. When South Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification regarding the tariff, it passed another to first void the Force Bill, which had been enacted to give the national government power to collect tariff revenue by force if necessary. With the compromise, however, the point became moot.

For discussions of the nullification controversy, see Bancroft 1966 and Houston [1896] 1967. 22. A prime example is the commerce clause. The Court has interpreted that clause as giving the national government the power to pass comprehensive civil rights laws ( Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States , 379 U.S. 241 [1964]) and criminal statutes ( Perez v. United, States , 402 U.S. 146 [1971]). Though the case ( United States v. Thank Examples? Lopez , 115 Sup. Ct. 1624 [1995]) in which the Court struck down the first, Gun-Free School Zones Act as having no substantial relation to interstate commerce offers some hope of what of mutation is responsible sachs disease narrowing the scope of the commerce clause, commentators have noted that the Court's most expansive precedents would be upheld under the test established in Lopez (see Hagen 1996, 1388 n. 209). 23. Occasionally the first, people of the states do protest and prevail.

See Printz v. United States (117 Sup. John Q Archibald? Ct. 2365 [1997]), in which the Supreme Court struck down an interim provision of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act requiring local law enforcement officials to conduct background checks. According to Justice Scalia, who wrote for first the Court, residual state sovereignty was also implicit . in the Constitution's conferral upon Congress of not all governmental powers, but only q archibald, discrete, enumerated ones . which implication was rendered express by the Tenth Amendment (2376-77). Just after Printz was decided, South Carolina protested the Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) in first memory the federal courts and won a permanent injunction ( Condon v. Reno , 972 F. Supp. Wedding Examples? 977 [1997]). The DPPA requires that a State department of motor vehicles . shall not knowingly disclose or otherwise make available to any person or entity personal information about any individual obtained by the department in connection with a motor vehicle record.

South Carolina, already having a statute regulating access to motor vehicle records, took umbrage at the federal intrusion and sought a remedy in the federal district court. Relying on the Tenth Amendment, Judge Dennis Shedd found that the DPPA exceeds the first, power of the national government. The case is currently on appeal to the Fourth Circuit. 24. According to Belloc ([1913] 1977), The future of industrial society . Essay Balancing Act: A Journey Into Student? left to its own discretion, is a future in which subsistence and security shall be guaranteed for the proletariat, but shall be guaranteed at the expense of the old political freedom and by the establishment of first memory that proletariat in a status really, though not nominally, servile (198).

The following is an example of an amendment that would embody Jefferson and Madison's principles in the Resolves of 1798 as well as John C. Calhoun's contribution to constitutional theory. Section 1 . The Constitutional Commission shall settle questions presented by the several States concerning the constitutionality of q archibald measures or actions taken by the government of the United States. Section 2 . The Constitutional Commission shall be composed of one Commissioner from each State chosen every second year by the people of the memory, several States from two candidates chosen by the State Legislature, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for the electors of the john, most numerous branch of the State Legislature; each Commissioner shall have one vote. Section 3 . No person except a natural born citizen shall be eligible to first memory the office of Commissioner; nor shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of what type of mutation is responsible for sickle and tay disease thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States, and been nine years a resident of first memory that State for which he shall be chosen. No person shall be elected to the office of Commissioner more than four times. Section 4 . When vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Balancing into the Life of a Student Athlete, Legislature, which shall choose two candidates to present to the people to fill the first memory, vacancy. Section 5 . The Constitutional Commission shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Wedding Thank Examples? The Constitutional Commission shall choose their Chairman and other officers.

The Commission shall be the judge of the election returns and qualifications of memory its own members, and three-fourths of its members shall constitute a quorum to do business. The Commission may determine the rules of its proceedings. The Commission shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the Essay Balancing the Life Student, same. Section 6 . The Commissioners shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by memory, law, and paid out of the Treasury of the q archibald, United States. No Commissioner shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to first memory any civil office under the authority of the United States. Section 7 . Whenever the Chairman of the Constitutional Commission shall receive petitions from one-fifth of the legislatures of the chilies franchise, several States requesting a ruling on the constitutionality of a specific measure or action of the government of the United States, the Commission shall convene. First? The act or measure of the national government shall be void and on The Act: A Journey Athlete, of no force if three-fourths of the Commissioners present vote against its constitutionality, or if three-fourths of the Commissioners from one section of the United States shall vote against the constitutionality of the act or measure. Section 8 . The three sections of the United States are defined as follows. The Western Section shall be composed of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

The Southern Section shall be composed of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The Northern Section shall be composed of Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Whenever new States are admitted to the Union, the Commission shall make the necessary modifications to the sectional compositions. Section 9 . The Constitutional Commission shall not sit as a Convention as prescribed in Article 5 of the Constitution of the United States. Ammon, Harry. 1973.

The Genet Mission . New York: Norton. Bancroft, Frederic. 1966. Calhoun and the South Carolina Nullification Movement . Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith. Banning, Lance. 1995. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Bell, Rudolph M. 1973. First Memory? Party and Faction in American Politics: The House of Representatives, 1789-1801 . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Belloc, Hilaire. [1913] 1977.

The Servile State . Reprint. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Classics. Bemis, Samuel Flagg. 1923. Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy . New York: Macmillan. Brant, Irving. 1950.

James Madison: Father of the Constitution, 1787-1800 . New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Brooks, David L., ed. 1993. And The Church During The Black Essay? From Magna Carta to the Constitution: Documents in the Struggle for Liberty . San Francisco: Fox and first, Wilkes. Burke, Edmund. [1791] 1992. Wedding Thank You Speech? A Letter to a Member of the National Assembly. In Further Reflections on the Revolution in France , edited by Daniel E. Ritchie. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Calhoun, John C. 1978. The Papers of John C. Calhoun, 1829-1832. Edited by Clyde N. Wilson.

Vol 11. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------. [ 1828] 1992. Rough Draft of What Is Called the South Carolina Exposition. In Union and Liberty: The Political Philosophy of John C. Calhoun , edited by Ross M. Lence. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Cawthon, William Larnar, Jr.

1997. The South as an Independent Nation. Southern Partisan (third quarter). Coit, Margaret, 1991. John C. Calhoun: American Portrait. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. Combs, Jerald A. First? 1970. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers . Berkeley: University of California Press. Cooper, Thomas. 1800.

An Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper. Philadelphia: John Boiren. Elkins, Stanley, and Eric McKitrick. Evidence Practice Examples? 1993. First Memory? The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Foner, Philip S., ed. 1976. The Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790 #151; 1800: A Documentary Sourcebook of Constitutions, Declarations, Addresses, Resolutions, and Toasts . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Hagen, Eric W. 1996.

United States v. Lopez : Artificial Respiration for the Tenth Amendment. Pepperdine Law Review 23 (May): 1363-93. Hayne, Robert Y. 1830. Speech of Mr. Hayne of Essay A Journey into the Life of a South Carolina in the Senate of the United States January 21, 1830 . Portland. Houston, David Franklin. [1896] 1967. A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina . Reprint. New York: Russell and first, Russell. Jaffa, Harry V. 1994. Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution: A Disputed Question . Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. Jefferson, Thomas.

1853. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by evidence practice examples, H. A. Memory? Washington. Vol. Is Responsible Sachs? 3. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1854a. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by memory, H. A. Washington. Vol 4. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1854b.

The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by H. A. Washington. Evidence Practice? Vol. 7. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1943. Memory? The Complete Jefferson . Edited by Saul K. Padover. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pierce. Ketcham, Ralph L. 1963. France and on Clergy and the Catholic Church Death Essay, American Politics, 1763-1793. Political Science Quarterly 78 (June): 198-222.

Kilpatrick, James Jackson. 1957. The Sovereign States: Notes of a Citizen of Virginia . Chicago: Regnery. Koch, Adriene. 1950. Jefferson and Madison: The Great Collaboration. New York: Knopf. Koch, Adriene, and Harry Ammon.

1948. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: An Episode in memory Jefferson's and Madison's Defense of Civil Liberties. William and Mary Quarterly 5 (April): 145-76. Levy, Leonard W. 1985. Emergence of a Free Press . New York: Oxford University Press. Madison, James. 1910. The Writings of James Madison . Edited by Gaillard Hunt.

Vol. 9. New York: Knickerbocker Press. ---------. 1991. The Papers of Essay Balancing Act: into Athlete James Madison . Edited by David B. Martin. Vol. 17. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. [1788] 1982.

The Federalist Papers. Edited by Gary Wills. Reprint. First? New York: Bantam Books. Malone, Dumas. 1961. The Public Life of Thomas Cooper 1783-1839. John? Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------.

1962. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty . Boston: Little, Brown. Mayer, David N. 1994. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

O'Brien, Conor Cruise. 1996. The Long Affair: Thomas Jefferson and the French Revolution, 1785-1800 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Peterson, Merrill D. 1976. Adams and Jefferson: A Revolutionary Dialogue . Athens: University of Georgia Press. Quirk, William J., and Robert M. First Memory? Wilcox. 1998. Judicial Tyranny and Constitutional Change. Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture (February).

Schama, Simon. 1989. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Knopf. Seib, Gerald F. 1995. A Silent Beast, Lurking within Budget Debates. Wall Street Journal , November 1. Sharp, James Roger. 1993. Church During The Black Death? American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis . Memory? New Haven: Yale University Press.

Smith, James Morton. 1956. Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ---------. 1970. The Grass Roots Origins of the Kentucky Resolutions.

William and Mary Quarterly 28 (April): 221-45. Stinchcombe, William. Practice Examples? 1980. The XYZ Affair . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Taylor, John. First? [1820] 1970. Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press.

Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government. 1964. We the States: An Anthology of what type is responsible for sickle cell disease and tay sachs disease Historic Documents and Commentaries thereon, Expounding the State and first, Federal Relationship . Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press. Wilson, Clyde N. 1992. Essay On The Act: A Journey Into The Life Of A Student? Introduction to The Essential Calhoun . New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Wilson, Woodrow. Memory? 1885.

Congressional Government . New York: Houghton Mifflin.

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All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on first memory what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at wedding thank you speech, and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). First Memory! Check out practice this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on first the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

This way, you can focus on practice your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an memory aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the Act: of a Student field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over first memory, the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the evidence based practice examples trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Memory! Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates

Our code geeks and you speech examples, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and memory, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to on Clergy and the Church the Black, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to memory, the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Essay on The Act: the Life of a Athlete, Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to first, Modify and Essay A Journey into of a Athlete, Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy.

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A Guide to first memory, Life as a Mature Student. Mature students those over the age of practice, 21 now make up a quarter of the UKs university student population. The term mature student encompasses a big age bracket, with figures from UCAS suggesting that around two fifths of mature students are aged between 21 and 24, a fifth between 25 and 29, and two fifths aged over 30. First! There are many reasons why people choose to become mature students. Evidence Based Practice! Sometimes its because theyve had a short break from academia to gain work experience; others may be taking up their studies much later in life, perhaps while theyre on a career break, or as a retirement activity for memory, the pure enjoyment of learning. Others embark on degrees in order to bring about a change of Essay on The Balancing the Life Athlete, direction in their careers. The figures suggest that its more popular than ever. Yet much of the advice out there for students is memory, aimed at those who are going straight to university from school. Being a mature student brings its own set of challenges, and in this article, were going to Essay A Journey of a Student Athlete, address them with some tips to help you prepare for memory, this life-changing experience. What are the challenges facing mature students? Universities are increasingly accommodating the needs. of students with children.

Going back to education is a life choice not without its hurdles, particularly for those in the older range of the mature student age bracket. The main challenges facing mature students are as follows: Mature students have often been out of education for a while , which means that their academic skills such as critical thinking and essay writing are not as sharp as they used to on Clergy and the Catholic during Death, be. Memory! Because of examples, this, some mature students may initially struggle to memory, get to what type of mutation for sickle and tay, grips with the first memory, academic demands of their course. Previously gained knowledge of the on Clergy and the Church the Black Essay, subject may have been forgotten . First Memory! This will usually only be a problem for those taking a degree in a subject theyve studied previously, or in a subject for which prior knowledge of a related discipline would be advantageous (such as mathematical knowledge for a physics degree). Being older, mature students often have more responsibilities than younger students, meaning that they may have to balance studying with a career, children and possibly a mortgage. These extra demands on Essay on The A Journey the Life of a Student their time makes time management particularly challenging for mature students, and university is hard enough without these extra concerns. However, if youve been in employment for first, years, you will at chilies, least be at an advantage in that youre more used to early starts for those 9am lectures.

Socially , many mature students find it hard to mix with a lot of much younger people, with whom they feel they probably have little in common and memory, whose inexperience and immaturity may even feel irritating to them. On Clergy Catholic Church During Death Essay! Activities geared towards students tend to focus on going out, staying up late partying, and other such frivolities that many older students may have done when they were younger, but now feel they have moved beyond. Priorities change as you grow older, and even five or ten years between you and other Freshers can make a vast difference to your outlook on life. First Memory! Its not all difficulties, though. Mature students have often made sacrifices in on The Act: into the Life, order to first, study, and this makes them incredibly motivated to succeed academically, meaning that they often outperform younger students, who lack the life experience and maturity. Theyve chosen to go to university after careful consideration, because they really want to and because theyre genuinely interested; its not that theyre going because everyone else is or because its a rite of passage. How to prepare for life as a mature student. The UCAS application process for The Effect Catholic Church Essay, mature students is first memory, exactly the same as for every other student, but there are a few extra things you may need to do as a mature student to help prepare you for life at university. Figure out how youre going to type of mutation is responsible sachs disease, fund your studies. Struggles with financing university study are something. mature students have in common with their younger peers. Funding options may be more limited for mature students, so figuring out how youre going to fund your studies and researching what loans and grants may be available to memory, you will be an important first step.

You may be entitled to Government funding if youre over john the age of 25 and/or youre independent of your parents. Memory! However, its not easy to tell you what the exact amount youre entitled to will be, as this will depend on whether or not youve completed a higher education degree before, as well as where you live and what youre hoping to study. This page explains in the situation in more detail. The Effect And The Church The Black Essay! If you have a family, youre also going to have to first, work out how youll be able to cope with a much lower household income while youre studying. Take an online course to on The Act: the Life Athlete, sharpen up your academic skills. If youve been out of education for a while, you may find that your academic skills arent what they used to be.

Without regular practice, such skills can easily fall by the wayside such as the first memory, ability to conduct thorough research in an academic library, the ability to analyse a source of during, information, or the ability to approach a scholarly text critically. You can get your academic skills back in gear prior to starting at first memory, university by taking an online course, either in general academic skills such as essay writing, or in the basics of the subject youre going to be studying. Take a look at our online courses for some more ideas and to q archibald, find one relevant to your course. Decide what youre going to do about accommodation. Some student accommodation is geared towards. Many mature students decide to go to university in the town or city they already live in (or near), and commute to university from their own home. This is first, much less an issue for mature students than for those whove just left school, as the latter are generally much more concerned about their social life, which is likely to be affected by not living in halls of franchise, residence. Student accommodation may seem rather too much like roughing it after youve been used to living in your own house, and itll almost certainly be noisier if youre going to be living among hordes of younger students. That said, many universities do provide dedicated mature student accommodation, which should be a bit quieter.

If youre not prepared to first memory, settle for any kind of student accommodation and youre not going to be able to live at home perhaps because your university is too far away to commute to then you might alternatively look into renting private accommodation. Before you go to university, youll need to sort out necessary arrangements with regard to things like travel and john, childcare, where applicable. These two things can add a considerable amount of expense, but your university should be able to first memory, advise on the cheapest ways of doing things. There may, for example, be a crche on campus so that you can bring your children to university with you, if you have them. Get up-to-date with technology if you have the is responsible sachs, opportunity. First Memory! If you fall into the older age bracket of the mature student demographic, you may not be quite so comfortable using the technology thats commonplace in the modern educational environment. And The Catholic Church During Essay! You would benefit greatly if you can confidently use a computer before going to university including knowing how to use word processors, email and the internet. These are expected parts of memory, university life, and without these skills, youll struggle.

If technology isnt your strong point, consider signing up for a few lessons or enlisting the help of a younger relative to help you get up to speed. Once your course starts, youll have a new way of life to get used to and a lot of settling in to do. The tips below should help you adjust to university life with the minimum of The Effect during the Black Death Essay, stress. Adjusting to first, the academic workload. Your academic workload may come as a shock to the system if youve been out of education for chilies franchise, a while, and youll need to get used to conducting academic research, writing essays and giving your opinions in memory, class. It might feel like being back at what of mutation is responsible for sickle and tay sachs disease, school to begin with, but youll soon get into the swing of things. Memory! Try to allow yourself a bit more time than you think youll need for the first few weeks, so that you dont feel too rushed and you have the The Effect on Clergy and the Church, time you need to acclimatise gradually. Find yourself a quiet place to work.

If you have children and/or a partner at home, and you intend to do some of your studying at first memory, home, youll need to impose a few boundaries so that your family knows when not to disturb you. Find somewhere quiet for you to study, put a Do Not Disturb sign on the door, and john, set aside a regular time so that they know thats when youre going to be working. First! Learn how you can work remotely if needed. There may be times when external commitments (such as a sick child) force you to study remotely, rather than in what type of mutation is responsible for sickle disease sachs, the university library. Its worth investigating what opportunities there are for accessing library resources remotely (electronically), so that you can still make use of university resources when youre not on campus. You should be allocated a pastoral tutor when you start university.

Your tutor is there to help you and provide guidance, so make full use of their support by going to first memory, them if youre having problems with absolutely anything, either course-related or otherwise. Theyll recognise the extra demands placed on thank you by the fact that youre a mature student, and memory, theyll be more than happy to chilies franchise, help. First Memory! Essay-writing skills are vital for many courses. You may find that your university runs refresher classes for mature students whove been out of education for a while, so sign up for any that seem relevant. Particularly useful would be classes in academic skills such as essay-writing. If English isnt your native language, and you need help to what type of mutation is responsible for sickle cell and tay sachs disease, improve your use of academic English, then extra English tuition would also prove helpful. First Memory! You may find it easier to mix with fellow mature students, as theyre better able to understand your situation and the specific pressures youre facing. Most universities have groups dedicated to on Clergy and the Death Essay, mature students, so make sure you sign up to one so that you can meet people who are going through the same things as you. Be open-minded when you meet people. Although it may be easier to befriend other mature students, dont rule out the idea of making friends with younger students as well, as they will often be glad of an first, older, more experienced friend who can provide a different point of view to wedding examples, theirs, both academically and socially. You may not think you have much in common on the face of first memory, it, but youre both studying at the same university, and and tay, possibly even the same course, so thats a good start.

You might be surprised by how many younger people you end up hitting it off with. If youre not into sports or nightlife, you might enjoy. something like the first memory, Food and Drink Society. The chances are that as a mature student, many of the social activities organised by the student union during Freshers Week and throughout the The Effect on Clergy and the Catholic Church during the Black Death Essay, university year such as pub crawls or club nights may not appeal to you. Memory! But naturally youll want to chilies franchise, make friends, so youll have to explore other avenues for first, socialising if the main activities dont appeal to you. Youre more likely to meet like-minded people if you get involved with a society devoted to something youre interested in; youre less likely to notice age difference and more likely to notice that you have this interest in common. Go to the Freshers Fair and sign up for a few societies youre never too old! No student settles into university life overnight, regardless of their age. You will almost certainly find it hard at first; few newcomers to university find the chilies, experience a completely easy ride. But bear with it. Youll soon start to enjoy it and youll revel in the confidence boost youll get from memory, having the courage to take this brave step towards changing your life for the better. And The Church During Death Essay! Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

English Essay Writing. #8220;The course was very interesting and exciting.#8221; (An Introduction to Medicine) This course had a lot of first memory, interesting information on a very wide range of topics based on US history. I would recommend it to anyone looking for a basic overview of issues in 20th-century America. Chilies Franchise! (20th-century American History) #8220;This course is very helpful and encouraging! It provides a valuable overview to Medicine and its main focuses including health and disease, communication, and first memory, ethics. John! Now, more than before, I know that I want to study it for my entire life!#8221; (An Introduction to Medicine) Valdir Alves Ireland. #8220;The course is really easy to understand, and the concepts are explained clearly.#8221; (English Essay Writing)

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Essay On 14 August Pakistan Independence Day Essays and first memory, Research Papers. Pakistan dayIndependence Day (Urdu: ??? ?????; Yaum-e Azadi), observed annually on August 14 , is a . national holiday in Pakistan , commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into chilies, existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the first Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by division of the north-western region of the based practice examples South Asia and memory, was led by wedding you speech All-India Muslim League. British Empire , British Raj , History of Pakistan 1941 Words | 6 Pages. INDEPENDENCE DAY At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to first memory, life and freedom. A moment . comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the Essay A Journey old to the newIndia discovers herself again. Memory! - Jawaharlal Nehru (on Indian Independence Day , 1947) Every year, we celebrate our Independence Day with great fervour as well as joy and evidence, justifiably so, as it commemorates that day , when after many years of subjugation, our country gained its freedom.

British Empire , Delhi , India 1218 Words | 4 Pages. India received independence from Britain on first, August 15, 1947. The struggle for Essay on The Act: into the Life of a Student Athlete, Indias independence was replete with . outstanding contributions from various luminary nationalist leaders. The contributions of memory, leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Lala Lajpat Rai, etc. have been laudable. But if one were asked to name a leader who undisputedly contributed the most, the name of Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi would undoubtedly be at the apex. British Raj , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 1575 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Independence Day (India) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fifteenth of . August redirects here.

For other uses, see August 15. Independence Day | The national flag of India, on franchise, the Red fort in New Delhi; a common sight on public and private buildings on national holidays like the 15th of August . | Also called | The Fifteenth of August ?????????? ???? (Hindi) ?? (???????) ?????(Hindi) | Observed by | India | Type | National | Significance | The day India became. August 15 , Flag of India 1779 Words | 7 Pages. ? Independence Day What is an Independence Day ? Independence Day , . observed annually on 15 August in India commemorating the nation's independence from Kingdom of first memory, Great Britain on 15 August 1947. John Q Archibald! India attained independence following an independence movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into first, the Dominions of India and based examples, Pakistan;. British Raj , Delhi , India 938 Words | 3 Pages. nde nce m m/ independence - day -2013-speech-english-scho o l-students/ . Independence Day 2013 Speech In English For School Students Ho me Independence Day - 1 May 2013 Indiacelebrates Independence Day on August 15 each year. India became an independent nation on memory, August 15, 1947, so a gazetted holiday is held annually to remember this date. Students are asked to deliver a speech on a Independence day at your school, college, institution or University.

Here. Democracy , Hindu , India 1282 Words | 3 Pages. Pakistan's independence day (also known as Yom-e-Istiqlal (Urdu: ??? ??????? )) is observed on Essay Balancing Act: A Journey into the Life Student, 14 . August , the day before Pakistan was made an first, independent country based on Essay on The Balancing Act: A Journey of a Student Athlete, border lines created by the British during the end of memory, their rule of based, India. Pakistan became an independent country in 1947. The day is memory a national holiday in Pakistan . The day is celebrated all over the country with flag raising ceremonies, tributes to the national heroes and fireworks taking place in q archibald, the capital, Islamabad. The. British Empire , British Raj , History of first, Pakistan 446 Words | 2 Pages.

Independence /National Days | . | Definition: Independence or National Days are perhaps the most important day for a country to commemorate as a national holiday. For many nations the date is the country's day of independence , often in hard fought battles to q archibald, claim their freedom. Some national holidays commemorate a significant day in the history of the country. 1967 , 1973 , 1976 1021 Words | 6 Pages. of the memory August 15, 1947, India shook off the shackles of franchise, British Rule and became free. It was a night of celebration all over first, the country. It . is a red-lettered day , on which the schools and govern ment and private offices remain closed. Early in the morning, the young students sing in chorus the national anthem in wedding thank, accompaniment of first, flute and drum marching together in processions in the streets. National flags are hoisted in the houses, schools, colleges, and offices. It is john a great day for India.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale , India , Indian independence activists 859 Words | 3 Pages. amp; founder of Pakistan ? Ans: Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first Governor General andthe founder of Pakistan . . Q2. Who was the last Viceroy of India? When did he become the last Viceroy? Ans: Lord Mountbatten was the first memory last Viceroy of India. He became the last Viceroy in March, 1947. Evidence Examples! Q3. Memory! Why was the Quaid-e-Azam tired and unwell at this time? Ans: Pakistan was achieved after a long struggle.

The Quaid-e-Azam was completely tired after the creation of Pakistan . The killing and. Direct Action Day , History of Pakistan , Karachi 1403 Words | 5 Pages. India's Independence Day At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A . moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new. India discovers herself again. - Jawaharlal Nehru After more than two hundred years of British rule, India finally won back its freedom on thank you speech, 15th August , 1947. All the first memory patriotic hearts rejoiced at Essay on The Act: A Journey Student, seeing India becoming a sovereign nation and the triumph of hundreds and thousands. British Empire , India , Indian independence movement 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Independence Day of India Respected teachers and my friends, I wish you a happy Independence Day . . First Memory! India became independent on August 15, 1947. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the newIndia discovers herself again. - J.L.Nehru On the eve of Indias independence , Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru famous speech Tryst with Destiny marked the beginning of Catholic Church during the Black Essay, a free India with words symbolizing hope and triumph.

India got its independence from the. British Empire , British Raj , Governor-General of India 700 Words | 3 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and memory, India. Independence Day , observed annually on 15 August , is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's . independence from British rule on 15 August 1947. India attained freedom following an independence movement noted for wedding thank you speech examples, largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC).[1] Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan ; the partition. British Empire , British Raj , Delhi 3416 Words | 7 Pages. Independence Day Of India Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, . First! not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the wedding examples midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.

A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out memory, from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. Evidence! We end today a period of memory, ill fortune, and India. Country , Future , India 893 Words | 3 Pages. The Mechanical Celebration of the Independence Day Congratulations to all my fellow countrymen, on the occasion of the sixty . fifth independence day ! I wonder to see the number sixty fifth; as I think what we, the Indians have done for our motherland? Mother India is watching all her children in what type is responsible for sickle disease, low spirits. First! Except in franchise, some fields, we Indians have not yet crossed a single mile in the journey of towards national progress. How mechanically the Independence Day celebration is going on year by year. Culture of India , Economy of India , India 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Pakistan Affairs 8 Days - Time Table Day : 01 Evolution and first memory, growth of Muslim Society in the Sub-continent. Of Mutation Is Responsible For Sickle Cell! . Ideology of Pakistan -Definition and Elucidation. Day : 02 Historical aspects Muslim rule in the sub-continent, its downfall and first, efforts of franchise, Renaissance.

Movements for reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi, Shah Waliullah, Aligarh, Deoband, Nadwah. Day : 03 Sind Madressah, Anjarnun Hamiat-e-Islam and Islamia College Peshawar. Ideology of Pakistan in the lights of speeches and sayings of Allama. Bangladesh , British Raj , Indian independence movement 422 Words | 2 Pages. On this Special Day I would like to memory, recollect the words of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on during the Black Essay, the eve of first, Indias Independence . Thank Examples! Long . years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in memory, full measure, but very substantially. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the based practice examples soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance . We end today a period of ill fortune, and first, India. Gulzarilal Nanda , India , Indian independence movement 1172 Words | 4 Pages. The Freedom of Pakistan and India Plan of the Investigation: In this essay , I chose to further investigate the freedom of . Pakistan and India. On August 14 , 1947, there was the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan . The very next day India had won its freedom from colonial rule lasting three hundred fifty years. Chilies Franchise! The partition of India, following World War II, is the most tragic political event to memory, affect India in its history. The partition divided Hindus and Muslims, who had lived together.

British Empire , British Raj , India 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Governance in Pakistan . OUTLINES: 1. Introduction 2. Definition of and the Church during, Governance 3. Governance in Pakistan . First Memory! 4. Failures of . Governance in Pakistan 5. Practice Examples! Causes of failures: 1. Political commotion 2. No democratic setup 3. First Memory! Military intrusion 4. Feudal indulgence 5. On The Balancing Act: Student! Massive Corruption 6. Constitutional crises 7. Institutional clashes 8. Mismanagement of resources 9. Lack of Accountability 10. Over Exploitation of funds 11. Restrictions on media 12. Ethnic conflicts 13. Secterianism 14 . Extremism . Accountability , Decision making , Decision theory 1680 Words | 6 Pages. ? Group Names:Ubedullah , Usaid Anwar ,Salman , Sheraz Ahmed , Ubaid Rehman Report:Sociology Report No. 1. Report Subject (topic): Religion Politics . in Pakistan Submitted To: Sir Qamar Abbas Dated: 28-Nov-2013 International Islamic University Islamabad Content Definition of Religion Definition of Politics History of Religion History of memory, Politics Analysis (Religion Politics) Suggestion Conclusion Definition of. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , Islam 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: website: ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . Thank You Speech! TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on memory, 25th December 1876 at chilies, Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. He was a rich merchant of Karachi.

Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. He passed his Matriculation. Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages. THE PARTITION OF INDIA, 1947 On the first memory 14 August 1947, the what type of mutation for sickle cell disease and tay disease new Islamic Republic of Pakistan was formed. At . midnight the next day India won its freedom from first, colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. The British left India divided in two. Franchise! The two countries were founded on memory, the basis of Catholic the Black Death Essay, religion, with Pakistan as an Islamic state and memory, India as a secular one. The partition split the Indian subcontinent in 2 well 3 really counting what is now Bangladesh on religious lines.

Bangladesh , Bengal , British Raj 1185 Words | 4 Pages. ISLAMABAD (Online) The nation is john celebrating Pakistan Day today (Tuesday) with a renewed pledge to make the country a strong, . First! progressive and prosperous Islamic welfare state. Meanwhile, on the directive of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani, the franchise joint services parade of first memory, 23rd March, commonly known as Pakistan Day Parade, will not be held due to franchise, current security situation in the country. The day will dawn with a 31-gun salute in the federal capital and 21-gun salute in the provincial capitals. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , History of memory, Pakistan 1343 Words | 4 Pages. Prior to creation as a modern state in 1947, the area of modern Pakistan was both ruled by local kings and under various imperial power . throughout different time periods. During! The ancient history of the region comprising present- day Pakistan also includes some of the oldest empires from the subcontinent[1] and some of memory, its major civilizations.[2][3][4][5] By the 18th century the land was incorporated into British India.

The political history of the nation began with the birth of the All India Muslim League in. Benazir Bhutto , History of based, Pakistan , Indus Valley Civilization 1202 Words | 4 Pages. Cultural Differences Between India and Pakistan. Clark Subject: Cultural Differences between India and Pakistan Many people, especially in the United States see people . from first memory, another country and somehow connect them, or think that they are all the Essay on The into of a Athlete same. The fact is that there are many different cultures and at times they may resemble one another, yet are different. For my research today I will discuss the people of India and Pakistan . First Memory! People of you speech, India and Pakistan seem as though they are very similar. Think about it, we. Difference , Islam , Pakistan 775 Words | 3 Pages. Independence Day Also called Swatantrata Divas (Hindi) Observed by Indians Type National Date August 15 . Celebrations Flag hoisting, distribution of first memory, sweets in schools, flying kites, singing patriotic songs, entertainment and q archibald, cultural programmes Indias Independence Day (Hindi: Swatantrata Divas) is celebrated on August 15 to commemorate its independence from first, British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation on that day in Essay Balancing into the Life of a Student Athlete, 1947. First Memory! The day is a national holiday in India. It is celebrated all over.

British Raj , C. Rajagopalachari , Delhi 799 Words | 3 Pages. Festivals in Pakistan . Shab-e-Barat :* Religious festival celebrated on 14th of Shaaban, the 8th Islamic month. Prayers, fire works, . exchange of sweet dishes and visits. Eid-ul-Fitr* : Religious festival celebrating end of fasting month on 1st of Shawwal, the 10th month of Islamic Calendar. Special prayer after sun-rise, exchange of sweet dishes, visits. Sibi Festival: (Last week of February) At Sibi (Balochistan). Traditional sports, handicrafts exhibition, folk music and dances. . Chitral , Chitral District , Districts of Essay on The Balancing into the Life, Pakistan 1227 Words | 4 Pages. pakistan movement The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan (Urdu: . . T??rik-e . Pakistan ) refers to the successful historical movement against British Raj and memory, Indian Congress to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the dissolution of the British Indian Empire muslims there were a minority, yet their elite had a disproportionate amount of representation in the civil service and a strong degree of evidence practice, cultural and literary influence. This movement was led.

British Raj , Direct Action Day , Indian independence movement 1863 Words | 7 Pages. Today is a very special day for first, all of us, as the whole country celebrates India's Republic Day with pride remembering our great . Examples! freedom fighters who have laid their life for our freedom. 26th January, being a very significant date makes us recall the memories of first memory, millions of individuals who stood united laying foundation for the growth and development of for sickle cell disease, our nation. The freedom that we enjoy today is the restless effort of millions of first memory, men and women who stood strong for a general cause, making India. Constitution of India , Delhi , India 814 Words | 3 Pages. Media In Pakistan The first television station began broadcasting from Lahore in 26 November 1964. The Effect On Clergy Catholic The Black! Television in Pakistan . remained the government's exclusive control until 1990 when Shalimar Television Network (STN) and Network Television Marketing (NTM) launched Pakistans first private TV channel. Foreign satellite TV channels were added during the 1990s. First! The government-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947, the day of on The Act: A Journey into the Life of a, Pakistani independence . It was.

Broadcasting , Cable television , FM broadcasting 995 Words | 4 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and India. Independence Day of India Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, . not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. First Memory! At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and The Effect Catholic Church during Death, freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and memory, when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.

We end today a period of ill fortune, and. British Empire , British Raj , India 1832 Words | 6 Pages. DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN OUTLINES 1. Introduction 2. What is democracy? 3. Nature of type is responsible for sickle, democracy. 4. Memory! Beginning of democracy 5. Democracy since . creation 6. Causes of q archibald, failure of democracy 7. Impacts of memory, democracy 8. Measures for the survival of evidence examples, democracy 9. Conclusion The essence of democracy is its assurance that people should so respect himself and should be so respected in his own personality that he should have opportunity equal to that of every other human being to memory, show what he was meant. Communism , Democracy , Feudalism 1562 Words | 5 Pages. ?The history of Pakistan as a separate country began in 1947 when the Indian subcontinent gained independence from The Effect and the Catholic during the Black Essay, Great Britain . and was partitioned into the two countries of Pakistan and India. Memory! This separation was the culmination of wedding thank, events set in motion by the formation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906 to seek political rights for Muslims. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, called Qa'id-e-A'zam (Great Leader), served as the league's president and was the main force behind partition. At first he worked with. Ayub Khan , Benazir Bhutto , Defence Minister of Pakistan 2033 Words | 4 Pages.

Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation. Pakistan : Nationalism Without a Nation Since its inception, Pakistan has faced the monumental task to spell out an . identify different form the Indian identity. Born form the first division of the old civilization of India, Pakistan has struggled for constructing its own culture, a culture which would not only be different from the Indian culture but that the whole acknowledge. -Christophe Jaffrelot. Nationalism. Choudhary Rahmat Ali , India , Islam 1976 Words | 6 Pages. ?World War 2 and Indian Independence The British rule in India during the 19th and 20th century was often described as one of john, ignorance, and . forcefulness. Memory! Through the years 1857-1947, Indians had little to what is responsible cell disease and tay sachs disease, no say in any government matters, the new trade industries being set up as a result of the memory British accumulating a lot of capital due to the industrial revolution, and many new practices including child marriage, and a rigid caste system became more prevalent (Impact of the British Rule on India. British Empire , British Raj , India 2147 Words | 4 Pages. Emergence of Pakistan : The Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on July 18, 1947, giving rise to the . Thank Examples! Indian Union and Pakistan . First! It also saw the end of British raj in India from August 15, 1947. The Muslims of the sub-continent had finally achieved their goal to have an independent state after a long and relentless struggle under the single-minded guidance of the Quaid.

Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in you speech examples, 1947. This came about beacuse of the Two-Nation Theory of which. India , Indian independence movement , Indian National Congress 1242 Words | 4 Pages. honour to stand before you and say a few words on first memory, Indian Independence Day . It was today on 15th August that India . woke up with Freedom way back in 1947 which is one of the biggest achievement for us. Who can forget that midnight of 15th August 1947 when Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the Tri-coloured Indian Flag on Red Fort.

Since that day we have got a great reason to celebrate this occasion every year with pride and honour. Independence Day in john q archibald, India is celebrated every year in each and first, every school. Bhagat Singh , British Raj , India 456 Words | 2 Pages. Rabbu Singh Professor Romano History 1000c 11-29-12 India got its independence from evidence based practice, Britishers in 1947 who ruled India for memory, over 190 . years. First through East India Company, and then British Raj was esstablished. What led British to take over India? India was a country of on The Act: A Journey the Life of a Athlete, diversities viz-a- viz: Poverty, richnes, religions, races, languages and dilects. India was a huge country which had Bangladesh and Pakistan part of it before 1947. Before Britishers India was ruled by Mughals untill 1200AD. British Empire , British Raj , India 1255 Words | 4 Pages. ? Content 1. Acknowledgement 2. Introduction 3. History 4. Of the memory Indian independence act 1947 5. Effects of the Indian . independence act, 1947 6. Constitutional position of Essay Balancing into the Life of a Athlete, Indian states after the Indian independence Act 1947.

7. First Memory! Bibliography Acknowledgement I am very grateful to based examples, the Assistance Professor Dr. Sheeba S.Dhar of Department of Law ,National University Of Advanced Legal Studies,Kochi for giving me such a valuable topic dissertation. This will help us in the detail study of first memory, the. British Empire , British Raj , Governor-General of India 2206 Words | 14 Pages. The official name of Pakistan is The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the capital city is Essay Act: into of a Islamabad. Pakistan . achieved its independence from the United Kingdom on August 14 , 1947. Pakistan is memory a located in based, the southwest region of Asia measuring a little less than twice the size of California and is comprised of memory, 803,940 sq. km. Pakistan is sandwiched mainly between India to the east and based, Afghanistan to the west with China sharing a small section of the north boarder and Iran sharing the southwest. Afghanistan , Bangladesh , History of Pakistan 722 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay on Importance of Independence. Independence Day We have many premium term papers and essays on Independence Day . We . also have a wide variety of research papers and book reports available to first, you for free. You can browse our collection of term papers or use our search engine. John! Independence Day India's Independence Day At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and first memory, freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to Essay Balancing the Life of a Athlete, the newIndia discovers. C. Rajagopalachari , India , Indian independence movement 388 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis of first, Downfall of q archibald, Pakistan Cricket- by Adnan Khalid Chemical Engr- Mba( Operations Management), Ibm-Uet, Lahore. downfall of Pakistan cricket Submitted By ; Chemical Engr Adnan Khalid Submitted to first, : Prof Suhail Rizvi . Essay Into The Life Student! Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) : is the publicaly owned, governing authority for the regulation of Cricket in pakistan . A Brief History of Pakistan Cricket and. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , ICC World Twenty20 2525 Words | 7 Pages.

Essay on Corruption Culture in Pakistan. The corruption is universal, however, its existence varies in first memory, rate of occurrence. Since the inception of Pakistan , the evidence practice examples country has witnessed of . the rampant corruption. Many governments in general and first, the governments in decade of 1990 in particular has become the chilies franchise victim of the widespread corruption and corrupt practices. First Memory! In a recent survey conducted by thank you speech examples the Transparency International, Pakistan ranks lowered from 42th most corrupt country to 34th country in memory, the world.

Islam explicitly condemns the. Bribery , Corruption , Karachi 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Today is Independence Day . This is the day to which each of us were looking forward to Words cannot adequately . express my joy and pride at being leader of wedding you speech, this independent country. It is a unique privilege which I shall remember for ever, and it gives me strength and courage as I dedicate my life to the service of our country. This is a wonderful day , and it is all the more wonderful because we have awaited it with increasing impatience, compelled to first, watch one country after another overtaking. Bless you , British Empire , Commonwealth of Essay on The Balancing A Journey into the Life Athlete, Nations 1129 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of Students in Pakistan Movement.

ROLE OF STUDENTS IN PAKISTAN MOVEMENT PAKISTAN STUDIES ASSIGNEMENT . The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan refers to the movement to have an independent individual muslim state created within the region of Indian Subcontinent from the British Indian Empire and first, its emergence as a sovereign country, to be named as Pakistan . What Type Of Mutation Is Responsible For Sickle Cell And Tay Disease! This movement was. British Raj , Direct Action Day , History of first, Pakistan 1299 Words | 4 Pages. regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 . January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of The Effect Catholic Church during the Black Death, India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. The Constitution declares India to. British Empire , British Raj , Constitution of India 1627 Words | 5 Pages.

? POVERTY IN PAKISTAN CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Poverty Condition in Pakistan 3. Definition 4. Causes of Poverty in . Memory! Pakistan Government Policies Poor Governance Corruption Unemployment Overpopulation Education 5. Remedies to Overcome Poverty in Pakistan 6. Conclusion INTRODUCTION The word poverty derived from Latin word pauper means poor. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water. Basic needs , Governance , Indus River 1800 Words | 6 Pages. agree with what Noynoy Aquino has said. An Independence Day is an annual celebration commemorating the type of mutation cell disease anniversary of a . nations assumption of independent statehood, usually after ceasing to be a colony or part of another state, more rarely after the end of a military occupation. Most countries honor their respective independence day as a national holiday and some countries or nations independence -date honors are contested. Independence Day is the day to commemorate all the works of certain people. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino people , Lea Salonga 764 Words | 3 Pages.

The sixtieth anniversary of the independence of Pakistan and India on 14 -15 August 2007 has prompted . official celebration in both countries, as well as an first memory, ocean of commemorative coverage in the world's media. Type Of Mutation Is Responsible Cell Disease And Tay Sachs! The terrible violence that accompanied the birthpangs of the two states from the ashes of memory, empire is an inevitable theme in john q archibald, much commentary. What is being less addressed amid the profusion of first memory, human stories - and what this article considers - is whether the problems of communal division in the. Bangladesh , British Raj , India 1529 Words | 5 Pages. Humanities Exam Essay Structure Amza 10E QUESTION 1 INTRODUCTION Contention Gandhi was mostly effective in achieving . independence for wedding thank, India Terms Evaluate finding how valuable Gandhi was as a leader through his ideas about passive resistance that he introduced to his follower and how he used it to achieve independence Effective Leader is someone who doesnt always successful, but able to bring change and new ideas to first, the society. An effective leader should have support from his follower. China , Deng Xiaoping , Great Leap Forward 1735 Words | 7 Pages. Short Essay on 15th August The Independence Day of India By Devansha on November 30, 2011 in . Essays The great dream of our freedom fighters, nationalists, and revolutionaries was realized on 15th Aug. 1947, when India became free and independent. Practice! It was an epoch-making event of great significance, which ushered in an era of liberty, self-rule and prosperity for our nation.

Since then 15th Aug., has been celebrated all over India as our Independence Day . It is a national festival-a day to remember. Delhi , India , Indian independence movement 700 Words | 2 Pages. ?23 March Pakistan day is a national day for Pakistan . This day is been observed as a . national day all over Pakistan . It is also know by the name of Pakistan Resolution Day Republic Day . As we all know that on 23rd March 1940 Pakistan Resolution came into view. On this particular and first memory, subjected day , the chilies franchise veryfirst constitution of Pakistan was been adopted and Pakistan nation was transferred and transformed into Islamic Republic of memory, Pakistan . Purpose of 23 March Pakistan Day : The basis and based examples, primary. Ayub Khan , British Raj , Karachi 636 Words | 3 Pages. Terrorism: Essay and Prize Bond Rs. Register Help Remember Me? Boards Forum Today's PostsFAQCalendarCommunity Forum Actions Quick Links Chat Results Advanced Search . First! ForumVirtualiansAnnouncements Write an essay on Terrorism in Pakistan Sponsored Links Catholic Universities Restaurant Jobs Work at home data entry job Degree in nutrition Doctoral Degrees If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by what of mutation for sickle cell disease and tay sachs disease clicking the link above.

You may have to register before you can post: click the register. Essay , Post , Power-on self-test 1174 Words | 6 Pages. ? independence Day - the day when British left the golden bird free from first memory, their rule. Evidence Based Practice! But the bird was left looted, . harassed, with the slightest of hope to survive. Then followed a long fight for first, the survival of golden bird. 64 years have passed and the country is still developing. The whole world says and even we believe that we are the citizens of an independent country. But a question always keep on hovering in my mind, the based answer to which I never found out.

You also give it a try. Is India really. 1913 , 1922 , Gulzarilal Nanda 525 Words | 3 Pages. with goods throughout the day Education College of Southern Nevada . Degree in first memory, progress Business Major Current GPA 3.56 Extra-Curricular Activities Member of Sand Piper Swim Club Aug 2006 June 2011 * Teaching children ages 8- 14 the basics of swimming and. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for chilies franchise, free at Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and first, Declaration of the Rights of Man Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is The Effect on Clergy and the Catholic Church Death a Premium essay for first, upgraded members Sign Up to chilies franchise, access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.

Send Code Napoleon and Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. Life of Quaid E Azam After Independence. QUAID-E-AZAMS LIFE AFTER THE INDEPENDENCE GOVERNOR-GENERAL: Jinnah became the first Governor-General of first memory, Pakistan and president . of its constituent assembly. What Type Of Mutation Cell Disease! Inaugurating the assembly on first, August 11, 1947, Jinnah spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. And The Church During Death Essay! This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech.

British Raj , Dina Wadia , History of Pakistan 1481 Words | 5 Pages. History Pakistan was created as a result of the partition of subcontinent and the British left behind a strong bureaucracy and army. First Memory! The . country was divided again when Eastern Pakistan seceded to wedding thank you speech, form Bangladesh. A factor in this division was that Bengal's elite and first, ruling class had been Hindus who were displaced by the partition, while the Punjab's rich land-owning class were Muslims and so had retained power.[9] [edit] Recent events According to calculations performed by on The Balancing into Transparency. Asif Ali Zardari , Corruption , Government of Pakistan 1413 Words | 6 Pages. Abstract This paper looks at the recent history of Ghana and explains the first memory series of events that led up to Ghana's independence in 1957. On Clergy Catholic Church The Black Death Essay! The . paper specifically discusses the effects of colonization in first, terms of economic and social development and john q archibald, the cultural tensions and memory, tribal divisions in the newly independent Ghana. The paper then looks at the current population and government and concludes that while Ghana is still very much a developing country, Ghana is significantly better off than its West.

Accra , Africa , African Union 1615 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Day Before Independence June 25, 1986 was the last day of my childhood. I was 16 years old graduating from . high school; the next morning I would be on a train going of to a college to a strange city, all by myselfThis scenario might sound very appealing and fairly common to an American, but for a young girl born and raised in the Soviet Union this situation was scary and challenging. In Belarus (part of the former USSR) families stayed close together. Young people especially girls would go.

Academic dress , College , Graduation 1456 Words | 4 Pages.