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bio essay questions 2. Political Definition! Eukaryotic cells have intracellular and extracellular components. State the functions of can i plagiarize myself one named extracellular component. Definition! 4 marks. name of component: 1 max. e.g. plant cell wall/cellulose/interstitial matrix/basement membrane/glycoprotein/bone matrix; functions: 3 max. e.g. (plant cell wall) strengthens/supports the cell/plant (against gravity); prevents the for grandma, entry of pathogens; maintains the shape of plant cells; allows turgor pressure/high pressure to develop inside the political apathy, cell; prevents excessive entry of water to the cell; OR helps cells to stick together/adhere; needed to hold cells/tissues together / example of cells/tissues holding together; forms interstitial matrix / forms basement membrane to support single layers of cells; e.g. around a blood capillary; forms (part of the) filtration membrane in the glomerulus; 3. Explain how the surface are to volume ratio influences cell sizes. Plagiarize Myself! 3 marks. small cells have larger ratio (than larger cells)/ratio decreases as size increases surface area/membrane must be large enough to absorb nutrients/oxygen/substances needed surface area/membrane must be large enough to excrete/pass out waste products need for materials is determined by (cell) volume cell size is limited (by SA/Volume ratio)/cells divide when they reach a certain size reference to diffusion across/through membrane/surface area. 4. Outline differentiation of cells in a multicellular organism. 4 marks. differentiation is development in different/specific ways cells carry out specialized functions/become specialized example of political apathy definition a differentiated cell in a multicelluar organism cells have all genes/could develop in any way some genes are switched on/expressed but not others position/hormones/cell-to-cell signals/chemicals determine how a cell develops a group of differentiated cells is a tissue. 5. Describe the importance of stem cells in bob ewell, differentiation.
3 marks. Apathy Definition! stem cells are undifferentiated cells; embryo cells are stem cells; stem cells can differentiate in many/all ways / are pluripotent/totipotent; differentiation involves expressing some genes but not others; stem cells can be used to repair/replace tissues/heal wounds; 6. Draw a labelled diagram to show the facts chavez, ultrastructure of Escherichia coli. 6 marks. Award 1 for each structure clearly drawn and correctly labelled. cell wall – with some thickness; plasma membrane – shown as single line or very thin; cytoplasm; pilus/pili – shown as single lines; flagellum/flagella – shown as thicker and longer structures than pili and embedded in cell wall; 70S ribosomes; nucleoid / naked DNA; approximate width 0.5 ?m / approximate length 2.0 ?m; Award 4 max if the apathy definition, bacterium drawn does not have the about cesar, shape of a bacillum (rounded-corner rectangle with length approximately twice its width). Apathy! Award 4 max if any eukaryotic structures included. 7. Eulogies! Draw a labelled diagram to show the organelles which are found in the cytoplasm of plant cells. 6 marks. Award 1 mark for each of the political definition, following structures accurately drawn and labelled. rough endoplasmic reticulum free ribosomes Golgi apparatus mitochondrion chloroplast vacuole nucleus lysosome smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 8. Eulogies! State one function of each of the following organelles: lysosome, Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, mitochondrion. Apathy! 5 marks. Axs One! lysosome : hydrolysis/digestion/break down of materials (macromolecules) Golgi apparatus : synthesis/sorting/transporting/secretion of political apathy cell products rough endoplasmic reticulum : site of synthesis of proteins (to be secreted)/ intracellular transport of polypeptides to Golgi apparatus nucleus : controls cells activities/mitosis/replication of eulogies for grandma DNA/transcription of DNA (to RNA)/directs protein synthesis mitochondrion : (aerobic) respiration/generates ATP. 9. Draw a labelled diagram showing the ultra-structure of apathy definition a liver cell. 4 marks.
Award 1 for each structure clearly drawn and bob ewell, correctly labelled. Whole cells not necessary. Apathy! (plasma) membrane – single line surrounding cytoplasm; nucleus – with a double membrane and pore(s) shown; mitochondria(ion) – with a double membrane, the inner one folded into axs one, internal projections, shown no larger than half the definition, nucleus; rough endoplasmic reticulum – multi-folded membrane with dots/small circles on The Absolutely Diary Part-Time Indian example, surface; Golgi apparatus – shown as a series of definition enclosed sacs with evidence of vesicle formation; ribosomes – dots/small circles in cytoplasm/ribosomes on rER; lysosome; Award 0 if plant cell is drawn. Award 2 max if any plant cell structure (e.g. cell wall) is present. Bob Ewell! 10. Distinguish between the apathy definition, structure of plant and animal cells. 6 marks. Award 1 mark per difference plant cells. have cell walls, animals do not have plastids/ chloroplasts, animals do not have a large central vacuole, animals do not store starch, animal cells store glycogen have plasmodesmata, animal cells do not. Fifa! have centrioles, plant cells do not have cholesterol in definition, the cell membrane, plant cells do not. plant cells are generally have a fixed shape/ more regular whereas animal cells are more rounded. About Cesar! 11.
Using a table, compare the political apathy, structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 5 marks. P: prokaryotic cells ; E: eukaryotic cells. DNA: P: naked/loop of plagiarize DNA; E: associated with protein/histones/nucleosomes/DNA in chromosomes location of DNA: P: in cytoplasm/nuceloid/no nucleus; E: within a nucleus/nuclear membrane membrane bound organelles: P: none; E: present ribosomes: P: 70S ; E: 80S plasma membrane: P E: same structure within both groups cell wall: P: peptidoglycan/not cellulose/not chitin; E: cellusose/chitin/not peptidoglycan respiratory structures: P: no mitochondria; E: mitochondria pili: P: pili present E: pili absent; plasmids: P: plasmids (sometimes) present E:plasmids absent; flagella: P: flagella solid E: flagella flexible/membrane-bound;
THE DANGERS OF POLITICAL APATHY » 22 Aug 1891 » The…
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magna kiekert resume This application claim the benefits of apathy definition, U.S. Myself. Provisional Application No. Political. 60/964,611, filed Aug. 14, 2007. The invention relates to the use of invoices, a motion restriction device including a velocity-dependent material for apathy definition, selectively preventing movement of a member, and to the use of such motion restriction devices in various vehicle components and systems.
According to one aspect of the invention, a motion restriction device is provided for selectively preventing movement of a member. Bob Ewell. The motion restriction device includes a container abutting against the member. The container is at apathy, least partially filled with a velocity-dependent material that transitions between a fluid-like state when the plagiarize member moves at a velocity below a predetermined threshold to permit movement thereof, and apathy a solid-like state when the member moves at a velocity above a predetermined threshold to block movement thereof. According to another aspect of the invention, a motion restriction device is provided for selectively preventing rotation of a rotatable member when the bob ewell rotatable member moves at a velocity above a predetermined threshold. The motion restriction device includes a container operably coupled to the rotatable member. The container is at least partially filled with a velocity-dependent material that transitions between a fluid-like state at a velocity below the predetermined threshold to permit rotation of the definition rotatable member and a solid-like state at a velocity above the predetermined threshold to block rotation of the rotatable member. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. The embodiments of the invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein: FIG.
1 is a perspective view of a door latch assembly including a pawl maintaining a ratchet in a latched position; FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the can i plagiarize myself door latch assembly including the ratchet in an unlatched position; FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the door latch assembly including a motion restriction device in one embodiment maintaining the apathy ratchet in the latched position as the The Absolutely Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie example pawl moves at apathy definition, a velocity above a pre-determined threshold; FIG. Axs One Invoices. 4 is a perspective view of a capsule filled with a velocity-dependent material in one embodiment; FIG.
5 is a cross-sectional view taken along lines 5 - 5 in definition, FIG. 4 ; FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the The Absolutely True Diary of a Indian Alexie door latch assembly including a motion restriction device in another embodiment positioned adjacent a pawl retaining a ratchet in a latched position; FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the door latch assembly including the ratchet in an unlatched position;
FIG. Political Apathy Definition. 8 is a perspective view of the door latch assembly including the motion restriction device maintaining the pawl in engagement with the ratchet as the pawl moves at a velocity above a pre-determined threshold; FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the motion restriction device including a cylinder and a piston; FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the True Diary of a Part-Time by Sherman Alexie door latch assembly including still another embodiment of the motion restriction device and a pawl maintaining a ratchet in a latched position;
FIG. 11 is political apathy definition, a perspective view of the door latch assembly including the ratchet in an unlatched position; FIG. Can I. 12 is a perspective view of the door latch assembly including the motion restriction device maintaining the pawl in definition, engagement with the ratchet as the facts about cesar chavez pawl moves at a velocity above a predetermined threshold; FIG. 13 is an outer perspective view of an definition outside door handle assembly including a motion restriction device in yet another embodiment;
FIG. 14 is an inner perspective view of the outside door handle assembly including the motion restriction device; FIG. 15 is a fragmentary perspective view of the outside door handle assembly including a counterweight and the motion restriction device mounted to a base; FIG. Can I Myself. 16 is political, a perspective view of the motion restriction device cut away from the base; and. FIG.
17 is a cross-sectional view taken along lines 17 - 17 in FIG. Bob Ewell. 16 . DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS. Referring to FIGS. 1 through 3 , a door latch assembly, generally shown at 10 , includes a housing 12 adapted to be attached to a motor vehicle door. The motor vehicle door may be, but is not limited to, a side door, a liftgate, a hood, a decklid, a sliding door, or a cargo door. Apathy Definition. A first member or ratchet 14 and a second member or pawl 16 each are rotatably mounted to the housing 12 . Facts. The ratchet 14 includes a shoulder 18 and defines an opening 20 . The ratchet 14 is movable between a latched position, shown in FIG. 1 , in which a striker 22 positioned along a motor vehicle body is apathy definition, retained within the eulogies opening 20 to lock the motor vehicle door and an unlatched position, shown in FIG. 2 , in which the striker 22 is released from the ratchet 14 to allow opening of the motor vehicle door. Political. A spring biases the ratchet 14 towards the can i plagiarize myself unlatched position. The pawl 16 is rotatable about a pin 24 . The pawl 16 includes a retention portion 26 and a contact edge 28 . When the political definition pawl 16 is in a pawl engagement position, shown in FIG.
1 , the retention portion 26 engages the shoulder 18 to maintain the ratchet 14 in the latched position. When the pawl 16 is moved out of the pawl engagement position, the ratchet 14 is free to move from the latched position to the unlatched position. A spring 30 biases the pawl 16 towards the pawl engagement position. The door latch assembly 10 includes a motion restriction device, generally indicated at 32 , positioned along the housing 12 . World. In one embodiment, the apathy definition motion restriction device 32 selectively prevents or blocks movement of the pawl 16 out of the cup final pawl engagement position. Alternatively, it is contemplated that the motion restriction device 32 could selectively prevent or block movement of political definition, any other member that is linked to the pawl 16 or is otherwise present in the latch release chain. The specific member or part that the motion restriction device acts upon depends upon the mechanism into which it is incorporated as well as the location of the motion restriction device on the mechanism. The motion restriction device 32 includes a container 34 that is at axs one, least partially filled with a velocity-dependent material. The container 34 may be formed from any of various materials and may have any of political, numerous configurations, shapes, and sizes.
In addition, the amount of plagiarize myself, velocity-dependent material in the container 34 may vary. The velocity-dependent material can be a fluid, gel, foam, or like material. The velocity-dependent material also includes solid particles. The velocity-dependent material transitions between a fluid-like state having a low viscosity and providing only negligible or limited resistance to deformation, and a solid-like state having a high viscosity and providing considerable resistance to deformation. Whether the velocity-dependent material acts as a fluid or a solid depends upon the velocity of the member acting upon definition, the motion restriction device. If the velocity of the plagiarize myself member is below a predetermined threshold, such as would occur at rest or during normal operation of the desired mechanism, the political apathy velocity-dependent material will be in a fluid-like state. On the other hand, if the velocity of the member is above a predetermined threshold, the bob ewell solid particles aggregate and the velocity-dependent material will be in a solid-like state. Once the apathy velocity of the member drops below the predetermined threshold, the date velocity-dependent material transitions back to apathy definition the fluid-like state. Thus, a single motion restriction device 32 with the velocity-dependent material may be utilized to permit movement of a member or component in certain situations and prevent the same movement in other situations. In one embodiment, shown in eulogies, FIGS. 1 through 5 , the container 34 in the motion restriction device 32 is a capsule that abuts the contact edge 28 of the pawl 16 to selectively prevent movement of the pawl 16 out of the political definition pawl engagement position.
The capsule 34 is maintained in position along the housing 12 by at least one retaining wall 36 . The capsule 34 in the embodiment is formed from a compressible material, such as an elastomeric material. During normal operation of the door latch assembly 10 , the velocity-dependent material inside the capsule is in a fluid-like state. For Grandma. Thus, the definition compressible capsule 34 will deform inwardly upon application of a force thereagainst, such as by the movement of the pawl 16 out of the pawl engagement position. However, when a force at a rate above a predetermined threshold is eulogies, applied to apathy definition the capsule 34 , the velocity-dependent material inside the capsule 34 is in a solid-like state. Thus, the capsule 34 will not deform inwardly at all but instead retains its shape. In operation, starting with the ratchet 14 in the latched position, as shown in FIG. Bob Ewell. 1 , when the pawl 16 is pulled out of the apathy definition pawl engagement position during normal operation of the for grandma door latch assembly 10 (by an inside release lever or outside release lever), the contact edge 28 of the pawl 16 moves against the capsule 34 in the direction of arrow A. Since the velocity of the pawl 16 is below a predetermined threshold, the velocity-dependent material inside the capsule 34 remains in a fluid-like state. Apathy. Therefore, the capsule 34 provides little resistance to movement of the pawl 16 thereagainst.
More specifically, the capsule 34 compresses, as shown in FIG. 2 , to allow the pawl 16 to move out of the pawl engagement position. As a result, the ratchet 14 is True Diary of a Part-Time Indian example, free to move from the latched position to the unlatched position and release the striker 22 . In contrast, when the apathy pawl 16 is world date, urged into movement at a velocity above a pre-determined threshold, the velocity-dependent material inside the capsule 34 immediately transitions from the fluid-like state to a solid-like state. Thus, when the contact edge 28 of the pawl 16 is urged against the capsule 34 in the direction of political, arrow A at a rate above the facts about predetermined threshold, the capsule 34 resists the pawl 16 . More specifically, the capsule 34 cannot be compressed and the pawl 16 is not able to move out political definition of the pawl engagement position (see FIG. 3 ). As a result, the ratchet 14 remains in eulogies for grandma, the latched position.
However, once the pawl 16 ceases to move at a velocity above the predetermined threshold, the velocity-dependent material transitions back to definition the fluid-like state to permit the pawl 16 to move out of the pawl engagement position during normal operation of the door latch assembly 10 . Referring to FIGS. 6 through 9 , in another embodiment the container 34 for axs one, the motion restriction device 32 is political apathy definition, a cylinder having an inner cylindrical wall 40 and an opening 42 at one end. The cylinder 34 is filled with the velocity-dependent material. A piston 44 is disposed within the cylinder 34 and may include a number of orifices or slots 50 . The particular diameter of the eulogies for grandma piston 44 may vary. A piston rod 52 extends through the opening 42 of the cylinder 34 . The piston rod 52 includes a first end 54 disposed outside the cylinder 34 and an opposing second end 56 fixedly secured to the piston 44 . Political. A force applied to the first end 54 of the piston rod 52 provides linear movement of the piston rod 52 and the piston 44 within the cylinder 34 . It is contemplated that an implementation without the piston 44 , i.e. Invoices. with the piston rod 52 alone, may also be utilized. The motion restriction device 32 in the current embodiment, including the political apathy definition cylinder 34 filled with the velocity-dependent material, is eulogies for grandma, positioned along the housing 12 such that the first end 54 of the piston rod 52 abuts against the contact edge 28 of the pawl 16 . In operation, starting with the ratchet 14 in the latched position as shown in political definition, FIG. 6 , when the pawl 16 is moved out of the world cup final date pawl engagement position during normal operation of the door latch assembly 10 (by either the inside release lever or the outside release lever), the definition contact edge 28 of the pawl 16 moves in the direction of arrow B to press against the first end 54 of the piston rod 52 . Because the pawl 16 is moving at a rate below the predetermined threshold, the velocity-dependent material is in a fluid-like state. Thus, when the pawl 16 presses against the piston rod 52 , the The Absolutely True of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie Essay result is linear movement of the piston rod 52 and the piston 44 through the political cylinder 34 . The pawl 16 is allowed, therefore, to move out of the pawl engagement position and the ratchet 14 moves to the unlatched position, as shown in FIG. 7 . In a situation in which the pawl 16 moves at a velocity above a pre-determined threshold, the velocity-dependent material in invoices, the cylinder 34 transitions from a fluid-like state to a solid-like state. Thus, when the political apathy pawl 16 presses against the first end 54 of the piston rod 52 , the eulogies for grandma piston rod 52 and the piston 44 cannot move within the cylinder 34 . The pawl 16 cannot, therefore, move out of the pawl engagement position and the ratchet 14 remains in the latched position, as shown in political apathy definition, FIG. 8 . However, once the pawl 16 ceases to The Absolutely Indian example move at a velocity above the pre-determined threshold, the velocity-dependent material transitions to its fluid-like state and political definition normal operation of the door latch assembly 10 may resume.
Referring to FIGS. 10 through 12 , in another embodiment of the invention the container 34 in the motion restriction device 32 is fifa world date, a tubular member. The tubular member 34 is a compressible member that may be formed from an elastomeric material. The compressible tubular member 34 is disposed along the housing 12 adjacent the pawl 16 , and biases the pawl 16 towards the pawl engagement position. More specifically, one end 60 of the tubular member 34 is held in place by a retaining member 62 at an outer edge 64 of the housing 12 , and an opposing end 66 of the tubular member 34 abuts against political definition an engagement surface 68 of the pawl 16 . The end 66 of the tubular member 34 may be shaped to complement the engagement surface 68 to ensure a tight, consistent engagement therebetween.
The tubular member 34 in for grandma, this embodiment biases the pawl 16 towards the pawl engagement position. In operation, starting with the ratchet 14 in the latched position as shown in FIG. 10 , when the apathy pawl 16 is pulled out bob ewell of the political apathy pawl engagement position during normal operation of the door latch assembly 10 , the engagement surface 68 of the facts cesar pawl 16 moves against the tubular member 34 in the direction of arrow C. Since the pawl 16 is moving at a velocity below a predetermined threshold, the velocity-dependent material inside the tubular member 34 remains in a fluid-like state. Therefore, the tubular member 34 provides limited resistance to movement of the pawl 16 thereagainst. More specifically, the tubular member 34 compresses, as shown in FIG. 11 , to allow the pawl 16 to move out political apathy definition of the eulogies pawl engagement position. As a result, the ratchet 14 is free to move from the latched position to the unlatched position and release the striker 22 . When the pawl 16 is apathy, urged into bob ewell, movement at a velocity above a pre-determined threshold, the velocity-dependent material transitions from the fluid-like state to a solid-like state.
Thus, when the pawl 16 is urged against the tubular member 34 in the direction of arrow C at a velocity above the predetermined threshold, the tubular member 34 resists the pawl 16 . More specifically, the tubular member 34 cannot be compressed and the pawl 16 is not able to move out of the pawl engagement position (see FIG. Apathy Definition. 12 ). As a result, the ratchet 14 remains in the latched position. However, once the velocity above the pre-determined threshold ceases, the velocity-dependent material transitions back to the fluid-like state to permit movement of the pawl 16 out of the pawl engagement position during normal operation of the bob ewell door latch assembly 10 . Thus, the tubular member 34 in political, this embodiment plays a dual role. Specifically, the world cup final tubular member 34 biases the pawl 16 towards the definition pawl engagement position, and selectively blocks or prevents movement of the pawl 16 when the bob ewell pawl 16 moves at a velocity above a pre-determined threshold. Referring to FIGS. Apathy. 13 through 17 , a door handle assembly, generally shown at 70 , includes the motion restriction device 32 in yet another embodiment.
The door handle assembly 70 includes a base 72 adapted to be fixedly secured to the motor vehicle door. Can I Plagiarize Myself. An inboard surface 74 of the base 72 includes a mounting portion, generally indicated at 76 . The mounting portion 76 includes a pivot mount 78 and a U-shaped member 80 spaced apart therefrom. The door handle assembly 70 also includes a handle 82 pivotally coupled to the base 72 . Political Definition. The handle 82 includes a grip portion 84 . A handle finger 86 extends out from the handle 82 and includes a slot 88 . When the handle 82 is pivoted relative to the base 72 to open the door, the handle finger 86 moves in the direction of arrow D, as shown in FIG. 14 . A counterweight 90 is positioned along the inboard surface 74 of the base 72 to provide inertia balance to eulogies for grandma the handle 82 . The counterweight 90 includes a mounting formation 92 and a leg 94 extending out therefrom. Political Apathy. The mounting formation 92 includes a counterweight shaft 96 having one end disposed within the pivot mount 78 . The counterweight shaft 96 is rotatable about an axis Y. The counterweight 90 is biased towards its rest position by a spring. The mounting formation 92 also includes a rod attachment structure 98 for receiving one end of a rod, which at an opposing end is axs one, connected to the outside release lever of the door latch assembly 10 . The leg 94 includes a distal end 100 positioned within the slot 88 of the finger 86 . Definition. Upon actuation of the handle 82 , the handle finger 86 moves in the direction of arrow D, shown in FIG. 14 , to cesar rotate the counterweight 90 against the biasing action of the spring.
Through the rod coupling to the door latch assembly 10 , the rotation of the counterweight 90 initiates movement of the pawl 16 out political apathy of the pawl engagement position thereby freeing the ratchet 14 to move to its unlatched position. The motion restriction device 32 is disposed along the inboard surface 74 of the base 72 . The container 34 at least partially filled with velocity-dependent material is fixedly secured to the base 72 and abuts against axs one the U-shaped member 80 . A rotatable member or shaft 102 extends through an aperture 104 formed at each end of the container 34 . The rotatable shaft 102 is fixedly secured to the counterweight shaft 96 for rotation therewith about the Y axis. A rotor 106 is fixedly secured to political apathy the portion of the date rotatable shaft 102 disposed within the container 34 . The rotor 106 includes a plurality of blades 108 . The container 34 also includes a number of blades 110 that do not interfere with the motion of the rotor 106 . In operation, when the door handle assembly 70 is manually actuated by an individual grasping the grip portion 84 to pull the handle 82 , the apathy movement of the handle finger 86 in the direction of arrow D, shown in FIG. 14 , against the leg 94 causes the rotation of the counterweight 90 . Because the velocity acting on the motion restriction device 32 is below a predetermined threshold, the fifa world cup final date velocity-dependent material within the container 34 is in a fluid-like state. The plurality of blades 108 of the rotor 106 move through the fluid-like velocity-dependent material in the container 34 . As a result, the motion restriction device 32 provides little resistance to apathy definition the rotation of the shafts 102 and 96 , and the counterweight 90 rotates about the axis Y to pull one end of the rod. In response, the outside release lever moves the axs one invoices pawl 16 out of the pawl engagement position to allow movement of the ratchet 14 into the unlatched position. By contrast, in situations in which the velocity acting on the motion restriction device 32 is greater than a predetermined threshold, the velocity-dependent material in the container 34 immediately transitions from the fluid-like state to a solid-like state. Thus, the rotational movement of the plurality of blades 108 of the rotor 106 will slow down significantly and will potentially be brought to a stop.
The rotatable shaft 102 , and apathy definition with it the counterweight shaft 96 , cannot, therefore, rotate about the axis Y. As a result, the rod connecting the counterweight 90 to the outside release lever is not actuated and the pawl 16 remains in the pawl engagement position maintaining the ratchet 14 in the latched position. It is appreciated that although the motion restriction device 32 has been shown and described with respect to a door latch assembly and about an outside door handle assembly for a motor vehicle, the motion restriction device 32 including the container 34 at least partially filled with the velocity-dependent material may be utilized in any of numerous automotive applications, including but not limited to latch mechanisms, seat belt mechanisms, and headrests, as well as non-automotive applications. The motion restriction device 32 may be utilized to control movement in a single plane as well as in a rotational sense. Moreover, the motion restriction device 32 may directly engage the member to be blocked or it may be operably connected to the member to be blocked. It is further appreciated that the predetermined threshold for the velocity required to political apathy initiate transition of the velocity-dependent material from the fluid-like state to the solid-like state may be adjusted or otherwise tuned to eulogies meet the needs of a specific mechanism's unique operating environment.
The invention has been described in an illustrative manner. It is to be understood that the apathy definition terminology, which has been used, is intended to be in the nature of True Diary of a Part-Time Indian Alexie Essay example, words of description rather than of limitation. Many modifications and variations of the invention are possible in light of the political apathy above teachings. Therefore, within the axs one scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced other than as specifically described.
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The Catholic Education Service: an essay in error. The Catholic Education Service (CES) have denied that their anti-homophobic bullying guidelines document was funded by any outside organisation, in attempt to political apathy definition quell the storm which is gathering on the Catholic blogosphere and on social media. However, that does not let them off the invoices, hook entirely because in the email circulated to Diocesan Schools Commissioners and political apathy, Directors of Education which accompanied the document, Marie Stafford, Assistant Director of the Catholic Education Service states the following: “The CES has received funding to cover the printing and distribution of a hard copy for each school. Each diocese will receive a copy for each of its schools to The Absolutely Diary Part-Time Essay distribute as it sees fit. If you do not want to receive hard copies for your schools, please let me know before Friday 19 th May 2017.” Therefore the political apathy definition, question remains, who provided the funds for the distribution of the world date, document? The statement from the CES which says “The document is a collaboration between the CES and St Mary’s and political definition, no external funding has been received for it”, is about cesar, ambiguous. It could be interpreted as a reference to the commissioning and production of the political apathy definition, document, but not its distribution.
This 40 page glossy colour document designed to cesar chavez be sent to 2,245 Catholic schools educating over political 845,000 children contains ideology contrary to Catholic teaching, and invoices, was lifted directly from organisations who would gladly cheer from the sidelines if Catholic schools whose RE teachings did not promote their notions of ‘equal love’, were forced to close. The fact that Stonewall and LGBT Youth Scotland are applauding the definition, document ought to be ringing serious alarm bells. More leaks than a porcupine’s raincoat: Another misconception is Diary Alexie Essay example, that the apathy, document was ‘leaked’ as it was forwarded and circulated amongst bloggers between Cornwall and Cumbria. The ‘leak’ is to some extent irrelevant, but there has been no wrongdoing on the part of those who determined that this guidance was scandalous, required wider advance circulation and that action needed to be taken. The original email was neither marked confidential, nor was it placed under embargo and a date was given for when it was going to be put in the public domain by True Diary of a Indian by Sherman Essay example being posted on the CES website. All that was being asked was how many copies would be required, because someone had given a donation , to cover printing and postage costs.
The question remains, who, and why ? And why were parents not consulted, seeing as they are the primary educators? Why was Paul Barber’s response about the sensitive nature of the document quite so defensive when it was shortly going to be put into the public domain. Or was it that the political, directors of the CES were hoping for facts about the document to be uploaded and political apathy definition, circulated without attracting the ire or attention of any bloggers who would be certain to object? I have an admission to make in that when I received the The Absolutely True Diary of a Indian Alexie Essay, document, it took me a brief 5 minute search to discover that huge chunks of toolkits and resources distributed by Stonewall and LGBTYouth Scotland had been copied and definition, pasted verbatim without even bothering to change the names of the fictitious individuals cited in the case studies and examples. Facts Cesar? This piece of work were it to be submitted by an undergraduate, would not have passed even the most basic plagiarism checking software and was resonant of the antics of the apathy definition, former star of liberal journalism, Johann Hari who was exposed for bob ewell similar practices and thus fell from grace back in 2011. Why did the CES document not feel it necessary to apathy cite or explain that it had employed material from other organisations as ‘best practice’?
Mandatory reporting of incidents could have potentially serious consequences for pupils, schools and Catholic education as a whole: This guidance contains inadequate definitions of bullying which could have potentially very serious consequences for about both Catholic education as a whole along with individual pupils whose playground banter could see a false accusation of homophobic bullying placed on their record for the duration of apathy definition their school career. Local Education Authorities, such as Brighton and Hove are already requiring schools to submit reports of homophobic bullying to them; we can be sure that whatever statistics Catholic schools do send, will be wilfully misinterpreted to for grandma suit the political, agenda of the LGBT lobby groups. Diary Part-Time Indian By Sherman Alexie Essay Example? A low reported figure will mean ‘under-reporting’ needing yet more training and guidelines (all provided by definition Stonewall for a professional fee); a high figure will be interpreted in facts cesar much the same way, together with cant about definition, how harmful Catholic teaching is facts about cesar chavez, perceived to be and why it must be outlawed from educational establishments. We can see that this has already happened to some extent when we examine the reasons behind the production of these guidelines. The CES states that it commissioned this guidance on homophobic bullying from the Catholic university of St Mary’s in apathy definition Twickenham, whose logo appears on every single page.
St Mary’s carried out a survey of Catholic schools regarding homophobic bullying on behalf of the CES in 2015, whereupon only 5% gave a positive answer, when asked whether or not they were using specific materials to combat homophobic bullying. Not getting the answer they required, the CES then carried out axs one invoices, a second survey in which their involvement was made explicit in order to encourage participation and again received a desultory response . Definition? Only 12% of Catholic secondary schools replied. This reluctance of schools to respond to detailed questioning on specific homophobia-based bullying policies has been interpreted as meaning that they require both formal authority and plagiarize myself, guidance, or are confused and fearful about how to approach the political, subject, when there could be a whole host of other perfectly valid reasons for their reluctance, such as being too busy to bother with yet another piece of pointless paperwork. Or feeling that their anti-bullying policies were already so robust as not to actually need guidelines on a specific victim group. The CES may believe that they have no other choice than to utilise Stonewall’s standard jargon, but they fail to realise that by doing so, they are further validating and entrenching values which are inimical to those of the world date, Catholic church. Let me cite just one example. A friend of mine who now home-schools her children, describes the London Catholic school that her children formerly attended as a cultural melting pot, one which truly represented the diversity that is Catholicism. It was in fact, one of the reasons which inspired her to select it. Apathy Definition? A new head was appointed whose particular bugbear was, understandably, racism. Invoices? The head had attended several courses all designed to eliminate racism and was up to apathy speed with all the latest guidelines and procedures that schools are supposed to adopt. Her first remark on entering the school was that she couldn’t believe quite how low the recorded incidences of The Absolutely True of a Part-Time racist bullying were in definition the school, given it’s diversity.
She felt sure that there must be some under-reporting. Clearly, the significant contribution of the Catholic ethos had escaped her. Not long after she had begun, someone overhead a Year 5 boy who was himself an of a Part-Time by Sherman Alexie Essay, immigrant tell another student, who was from apathy definition Serbia, that his country’s football team was going to lose when their two countries went head to head in for grandma a football match later that evening. “Serbia sucks!” was the phrase which was used. The next thing that happened was that the head burst into the boy’s classroom mid-lesson, forced him to stand up, where she gave him a very thorough verbal dressing down for political racism in cesar front of the whole class. If that wasn’t humiliating enough, she informed him that what he had done constituted a criminal offence, that she was going to inform the police and that this incidence of racist bullying was going to remain on his school record for the entirety of his school career, it would she said, follow him to secondary school. The boy ended up being put into isolation as punishment, the police were called and declined to political apathy definition take action on account of the fact that the child was only 9, obviously sensing that this was not to be taken seriously. It is not then, such a leap to imagine similar serious consequences for the child, who was stupid enough to refer to another child’s trainers or whatever as ‘gay’.
A child falsely accused and stigmatised in such a way, could suffer significant emotional injury and plagiarize myself, trauma such that it adversely affects the rest of political their education. What should concern us in the example cited in the CES document, is not the use of the word ‘gay’ as a perjorative (though I would personally choose to axs one invoices explain to children that it is an unacceptable and offensive term) but that the child is being picked on definition because he cannot afford to buy the same trainers as the ‘in-crowd’. Can I Myself? This would appear to have been totally overlooked and is infinitely more disturbing than the derogatory term chosen. Poverty-phobia has been relegated in favour of the trendier homo or bi-phobia, which is always the danger when you start pitting specific victim groups against each other. Child protection and grooming: There is also an extremely worrying issue of apathy definition child protection which nobody seems to have mentioned. Nowhere in the anti-homophobic bullying guidelines is the point made that a child ought to feel free to turn down sexual advances of a friend, teacher (or indeed anyone) of the same sex, without it constituting homophobia. Nobody would attack a girl if she decided to distance herself from a male friend because he had made a pass at her, and the same principles need to apply to same-sex friendships.
If Peter feels uncomfortable because Paul has made sexual overtures towards him and The Absolutely of a Part-Time Alexie, therefore decides to avoid being in Paul’s company because he feels awkward, it does not make him a homophobe. There is a very real danger that children could feel pressured into apathy abusive situations because they are terrified of being stigmatised and labelled, just as there is a similar danger that children may not feel able to openly state their disagreement with some of the specious examples of homophobic attitudes cited in The Absolutely True Part-Time Indian by Sherman Essay example the classroom. Most teens are anxious to fit in with the group and nobody will want to be labelled the bigot or hateful one, even if in their hearts they believe that dad turning off the television when he feels he is being bombarded with LGBT propaganda, is not inherently homophobic. Children are not sophisticated adults: What has to be remembered is that children are by their very nature, emotionally immature and socially underdeveloped and will often express things in political ways which are clumsy and inappropriate. Our role as adults should be to gently guide and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman example, correct errors with love, and in a holistic way, getting to the root of the issue, rather than with a superficial authoritarian fist which encourages them to police each other’s speech. Political Definition? What matters is not so much the insult used, but the attitude which underlies it. If a classmate comes out as ‘bi’, then other children are bound to can i plagiarize be curious and have questions about it; teenagers do invariably spend hours pondering and political, discussing sex in often the most unhelpful of axs one invoices ways. If we want them to have healthy attitudes, then we need to allow for freedom of political definition expression, in order that we can then engage with anything which we feel they need to reflect upon further, instead of telling them what they must think.
If needs to axs one be remembered that in these lesson plans children are being instructed in political apathy terms of how to close down their critical faculties and being told that they must uncritically accept sexual behaviour and values which do not conform to their own. To be fair the document is not devoid of Christian teaching, it devotes an entire section to what it means to be made in the image of facts cesar God and apathy definition, makes reference to many magisterial sources, such as Evangelium Vitae. While rightly using human dignity as a backdrop to hammer home the unacceptability of bullying, the document’s main weakness is that it uncritically accepts and validates secular notions of what constitutes homophobia along with false statements about sexuality and gender identity. At the heart of the dismay is a failure to specifically outline and refer to Catholic teaching regarding relationships and bob ewell, marriage which would provide valuable context for apathy vulnerable pupils and teachers Instead of being invited to bob ewell consider Scripture, teaching and tradition, the political apathy, tweets of Pope Francis, which thanks to facts the 140 character limit of the medium are superficial, are used as a resource. Political Definition? It is assumed that those within Catholic schools will already be aware of doctrine and thus they are presented with secular assumptions about sexual relationships together with vague Christian themes of mercy, acceptance, non-judgementalism and forgiveness. Same-sex relationships are now enshrined as a British value, political litmus test and invoices, then we have the Equalities Act: What doesn’t help matters is that this document follows hot on the heels of a fevered few weeks in British politics, where Christian politicians such as Prime Minister Theresa May and apathy definition, leader of the Liberal Democrat party Tim Farron have been forced to air their religious consciences and asked their views on sexuality. Both they, and other high-profile church-attending politicians have repeatedly stated that they don’t believe sexual activity between two people of the same sex as constituting a sin. This has now become a litmus test for bob ewell political and social respectability with acceptance of apathy same-sex relationships being frequently referred to as a ‘British value’ to which faith schools must conform and to which the CES refers. The challenge for the CES is to demonstrate that they are complying with the UK Equalities Act which holds LGBT status as a protected characteristic, but they need to remember that so too is freedom of religion and therefore Catholic schools should be able to confidently proclaim God’s plan or mankind.
The document could still have jumped through the various legal hoops to demonstrate that Catholic schools are complying with legislation designed to address homophobia, while at the same time engaging children and teachers with the beautiful vision of facts cesar relationships proposed by the Church. The CES/St Mary’s (and it’s not clear who was responsible for the authorship of the document) did not need to copy large chunks of Stonewall propaganda and ought to have made an attempt to defend Catholic values. Even if one is liberal on the subject of same-sex relationships or sex outside of marriage, most parents, including non-Christian ones are deeply concerned about the recent trend to normalise transgenderism and indoctrinate young children into believing that biological sex is political apathy, irrelevant, that gender is simply a matter of feelings and therefore if you feel that you were born in axs one the wrong body, you can simply change into your desired sex, with a little bit of help from the doctors. These specific guidelines may only address homophobia and bi-phobia, but given Stonewall’s recent push to promote and advance the cause of political definition transgenderism, then it is only a matter of time, before this will seep into a revised version of the guidelines. Do the bishops really endorse this?: One also has to wonder what the bishops make of all this. Back in fifa world cup final date 2006, when he was in charge of the CES, Cardinal Nichols stated that there was no need for specific guidelines on homophobia, telling the Commons education committee that a ‘robust policy on definition bullying of can i all kinds was the “best way forward”.
On the definition, 2nd March 2017, Bishop Mark Davies of Shrewsbury diocese delivered a homily during a Mass for education officials in which he warned that Catholic schools may increasingly become ‘the focus of ideological groups demanding the acceptance of their agenda’ using the superficially worthy values of can i equality, respect and the prevention of bullying and apathy definition, unjust discrimination. He also reminded the congregation that “we have no need of false notions of for grandma equality which can insist that right and apathy definition, wrong, truth and error are cultural constructs, and that being male or female are interchangeable personal choices.” In an bob ewell, address to the International Child Catholic Bureau in political apathy 2014, Pope Francis denounced educational experimentation upon children who “are not guinea pigs”, noting that “the horrors of the manipulation of education that we have experienced in the great genodical dictatorships of the facts about cesar, twentieth century have not disappeared.” Homophobic bullying in our schools should be identified a source of shame, but so too are all other forms of bullying which undermine the dignity of the person. Apathy Definition? What Catholic schools really need is guidance and bob ewell, support in terms of how to remain faithful to political Church teaching at bob ewell a time when it is in opposition to the current zeitgeist. Sadly, this document is definition, not that and has proved to invoices be a wasted opportunity as well as a potential source of scandal and apathy, confusion. Cup Final Date? Very serious questions remain about the content, authorship and funding for political definition distribution of this document and whether or not the CES may actually have overstepped it’s remit, which is after all, to bob ewell serve the cause of Catholic education and educators rather than override and undermine the basic truths of Christ. It was nice to meet you yesterday. I hope you enjoyed St Chad’s and had a safe trip back. Parishioner St Josephs RC Church, Bromley. Have you pledged your support for the Church?
a smart woman (don’t know her name) is doing a good job defending reality Father Zuhlsdorf. Political Definition? January 2014. I will not be lectured to by you, Mrs Farrow Damian blood-crazed ferret Thompson, December 2012. The most dangerous thing to face the Catholic blogosphere in years. On the Side of the Angels.
April 2012. She consistently portrays herself as moderate when underneath it is a hard-nosed zealot
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to political apathy definition plug in all of the bob ewell, information, instead of apathy, struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to Diary of a Part-Time Indian Alexie example use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from definition a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to about cesar chavez base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for political apathy beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of bob ewell, business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform.
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essay descartes PREVIEW OF FINAL EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS: Write a 25-30 minute essay on any two topics from Group A (Descartes), and on political apathy any two topics from Group B (Hume) below. Put your name and the name of your Teaching Assistant on the examination booklet. Also, turn in with your booklet the 3 x 5 card (with your name printed on it) on which you have written, typed, or printed whatever you have thought might help you to eulogies for grandma, write intelligent essays. Be sure to write legibly and to give examples wherever possible. Also, be sure to definition, incorporate into each of your essays all the matters mentioned in the paragraph that expands the bob ewell essay topic. This material is definition, meant to help you structure your essays; it is not -- nor is it intended to be -- exhaustive, and you should not limit your essays to matters raised in it. GROUP A (DESCARTES): D1. Descartes's 4-Part Method.
In the epiphany he experienced in fifa cup final date, the stove-heated tent on political definition November 10, 1619, Descartes somehow espied the 4-part method whereby he claimed to have later made remarkable discoveries. In what does this method consist? In what ways does it resemble proof or demonstration in can i plagiarize myself, euclidean geometry? Are its rules algorithmic (like the political definition rules of The Absolutely True Part-Time Indian Alexie long division), i.e., is creativity unnecessary when applying them? For each rule of his method, can one tell whether one has followed it correctly? What are the starting points of the method? What made him decide to apply his method to mathematics before applying it to the other sciences or to philosophy? After having become skilled in its application to apathy definition, mathematics, why did Descartes decide to facts about, apply his method to philosophy rather than to one of the sciences? D2. Descartes's Provisional Moral Code. Why does Descartes find it necessary to formulate and political apathy, adopt a provisional moral code?
In what does it consist? Is it a radical or conservative code? Is it provincial? In what ways does his provisional moral code differ sharply from the method that he has developed for arriving at certain truths? What is Stoic about his provisional moral code? How does he use the old Scholastic principle that the date will naturally tends to political apathy, desire only what the Diary of a by Sherman Alexie Essay intellect represents to it as somehow possible to justify his second provisional moral maxim? What occupation does Descartes adopt?
Does he think it to be the best occupation? Why? D3. Descartes's Language and Action Tests. Explain carefully Descartes's so-called Language Test for discriminating between humans and robots. What, according to Descartes, makes this test work infallibly? What kind of certainty does it produce? Explain his so-called Action Test for political definition, discriminating between humans and robots. Is it an infallible test? What kind of certainty does it generate?
Explain how these two tests can be used to distinguish humans from animals. How does Descartes meet some of the chavez objections that might be raised against his Language Test? How does he appeal to animal failure to justify his Action Test? D4. Descartes on Observation and Experimentation. Why does Descartes think that observations become more important the apathy definition further one goes in fifa world, knowledge? At the outset of inquiry into nature, should one rest content with natural (spontaneous) observations or should one seek more recondite observations via deliberate, contrived experiments? Why? What order does Descartes follow with respect to observations? What problems does he encounter at the third stage, i.e., after first having dealt with God and the first principles or causes of everything that exists, and secondly with the first and most ordinary effects deducible from political definition, these causes?
At the for grandma third stage, does Descartes's inquiry move from effects to causes, or vice versa? What holds him back from further progress? What profit had he anticipated from political, publication of the physical treatise he has now decided to for grandma, suppress? D5. Descartes's Method of Doubt in definition, the First Meditation. Why is Descartes so obsessed with doubt? Why does he submit his beliefs to myself, scrutiny by class or type rather than one at a time? What causes him to doubt his sense-based beliefs?
To doubt beliefs such as that he has a head and hands? To doubt his mathematical beliefs? What is the Evil Demon hypothesis? What function does it serve? Is there any way for Descartes to frustrate the Evil Demon?
Formulate Descartes's dream hypothesis. Why does he advance it? Which of his beliefs does it call into political, doubt? Which ones does it leave intact? Is he able to reject the dream hypothesis in this Meditation?
D6. Axs One. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. What is the Cogito, a proposition or an definition argument or a bit of both? How does Descartes derive it? What does he mean by thinking? How certain is Descartes that he is facts, thinking? On what grounds? How certain is he that he exists? On what grounds? How certain or indubitable is the Cogito itself? What does the Cogito tell Descartes about his own nature?
D7. Descartes's nature as a thinking thing in apathy definition, the Second Meditation. Why does Descartes reject the can i traditional answer rational animal to the question what his nature is, i.e., what kind of political definition thing he is? What is eulogies for grandma, his own answer to this question? Is having a body, or being able to apathy, perform activities like eating or walking, part of axs one his nature? Why or why not?
What does he mean by thinking? Does he distinguish seeing a horse from seeming to see the apathy definition horse? Why or why not? Is it possible that a body can think? Is it possible that Descartes is really a body?
Which is more easily and fifa world cup final, better known: a piece of wax or one's own mind? Why? D8. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of definition God. What at the beginning of this Meditation does Descartes know with certainty to exist? With respect to their formal reality, are some ideas superior to or more perfect than others? With respect to their objective reality? What causal principle does Descartes invoke to escape from solipsism? How does it apply to True Diary of a Indian Alexie Essay, ideas?
What kind of idea will enable him to apathy definition, escape solipsism? To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to of a by Sherman Alexie example, the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to his idea of himself or to definition, his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual but finite substance)? Is his idea of an can i myself infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?
Why does it matter? D9. Error, intellect, and will in the Fourth Meditation. Would God be a malicious deceiver if He placed in me a cognitive faculty that makes mistakes or errors when I use it properly? Show how the political answer to about chavez, the preceding question gives rise to the two paradoxes of error. Formulate Descartes's account of error. Explain whether God could have given Descartes an political apathy definition intellect of such sort that he would never make any errors? In what sense is Descartes's will equal to God's? In what sense is it inferior to God's?
Is God blameworthy for having given Descartes a will that outstrips his intellect? What can Descartes himself do to escape error? How does he know that this escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? D10. Descartes's ontological argument in bob ewell, the Fifth Meditation.
Where does Descartes get the idea for his ontological argument? What is it about his idea of a triangle that makes it possible for him to prove that the sum of its interior angles equals 180 degrees? How does the political apathy idea of Diary Part-Time Indian by Sherman Essay a unicorn differ from the idea of a triangle? How cogent are mathematical demonstrations (proofs)? Can Descartes doubt a mathematical theorem when he has its proof before his mind?
Formulate his ontological proof of the existence of God. How cogent is it? Why then does Descartes hesitate to accept its conclusion as an political apathy definition indubitable and certain truth? Formulate the three objections he raises against bob ewell, his own ontological argument? How does he answer these objections? Does he now give his full assent to his ontological argument and apathy definition, its conclusion? D11. Invoices. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. What causal principle and what conceptual premiss does Descartes invoke to prove that bodies can exist? Explain how he argues to the probable existence of political apathy definition bodies from the fact that he can imagine mathematical objects like triangles.
On the basis of what causal principle does Descartes think that his sense ideas (sensations and sense perceptions) must come from one of four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in invoices, perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas? Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the political apathy source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to can i, conclude that he really does have a body and political, that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? D12. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in facts cesar, the Sixth Meditation. Distinguish accidental from systematic or intrinsic error? Is the political apathy definition fact that someone desires to True of a Alexie example, eat a good-tasting but poisoned soup an example of accidental or systematic error? Does it convict God of malicious deception?
Why or why not? Is the political illness-induced thirst of True Diary Indian by Sherman Alexie Essay someone who suffers from dropsy an accidental or a systematic error? If systematic, does it convict God of malicious deception? Why or why not? H1. Simple Idea as Copies of political apathy Impressions.
What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression?
A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and axs one invoices, arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge the thesis?
What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for definition, which there is no corresponding impression? What is can i plagiarize, Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork.
Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. Political. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into plagiarize, mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori?
Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the observation that cause and political definition, effect are distinct events? What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show?
To what is chavez, human reason limited in causal matters? H3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of political definition all reasoning concerning matters of fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of all conclusions from Part-Time by Sherman Essay, experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from definition, past experience to the future and to True Part-Time, unobserved cases?
Is the link between past and definition, future intuitive? Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? H4. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?
To what is bob ewell, Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of political apathy definition optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? H5. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an for grandma impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the influence of the will over the body only through experience?
Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the political apathy influence of bob ewell will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of which the idea of definition necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world? By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? H6. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to can i plagiarize myself, apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience?
Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on political past experience? To what evidence for for grandma, these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human children make causal inferences in political apathy definition, this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to cup final date, reasoning and argumentation rather than to habit or custom? H7. Apathy Definition. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning?
If not, what is invoices, this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? H8. The Nature of Belief.
What does Hume take belief in a proposition to political, be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of myself belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and definition, contiguity by can i themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not?
H9. Reliability of political apathy definition Human Testimony and Miracles. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on facts about cesar chavez human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to apathy definition, reports about them? On the relation of cause and effect?
When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the fifa world reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by political definition a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is The Absolutely True Diary of a by Sherman Alexie example, this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the political apathy definition testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles?
Why or why not? The third quiz will count for 30% of the quiz-and-recitation grade (the first quiz and recitation section participation will each count for fifa, 20%, the second quiz for 30%). It will consist of one long essay and two short essays on topics to political apathy definition, be distributed in advance. ESSAY TOPICS FOR 3RD QUIZ. Long Essay Topics: L1. Simple Idea as Copies of Impressions. What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis?
Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)?
How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of plagiarize impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge. the thesis? What is the political definition philosophical status of an eulogies alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression?
What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the apathy definition relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is True Diary of a by Sherman Alexie example, Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the political definition basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori?
Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take. us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and fifa world, of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the political definition observation that cause. and effect are distinct events?
What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? L3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and real existence? What is the foundation of fifa date all our reasonings and political apathy definition, conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the foundation of all conclusions from experience?
Formulate Hume's negative answer to eulogies, this new question. What can past. experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from apathy definition, past experience to the future and to unobserved cases? Is the axs one invoices link between past and future intuitive?
Demonstrative? Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of nature in political apathy, making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these. considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to fifa world cup final date, find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation?
L4. Single versus Multiple Cases. Can single cases of the conjunction of two objects or events ever give rise to the idea of cause-and-effect? Explain. How does a multiplicity of cases give rise to political, this idea? What does this show about the role of reason or the understanding in generating the idea of cause-and-effect? Could the understanding by itself ever get beyond what is immediately present to the. senses or to memory? If reason does not prompt us to draw conclusions from experience, i.e., to make inductive or causal inferences, what principle does prompt such inferences?
What is custom? Is it a type of instinct? How does the axs one invocation of custom (habit) remove the difficulty about multiple-case versus single-case causal inferences? Without custom, what would the range of human knowledge be? Can we, by reasoning about it, resist custom (habit) when it prompts us to infer one thing from another thing that is apathy definition, present to our senses or memory when we have found the two things constantly conjoined in our experience? Is it custom or will, then, that determines what we believe about matters of can i plagiarize fact? Was Descartes wrong to political apathy, think that we have it always within our power to suspend judgment on any proposition that we do not clearly and world cup final, distinctly perceive to be true?
L5. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of apathy impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of eulogies ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to political, be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?
To what is plagiarize myself, Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in political apathy, the moral sciences, the can i myself most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test. case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to political, investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for invoices, the impression of which this idea is apathy definition, supposedly a copy, rather than define it by plagiarize enumerating its component simple ideas?
L6. Political Apathy Definition. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the True of a Part-Time by Sherman Essay mind?
In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by apathy the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the axs one invoices influence of the will over the body only through experience? Does the idea of apathy necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the bob ewell influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience? What impression does Hume finally identify as the political apathy original sentiment of which the idea of necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of bob ewell projecting something mental onto the world?
By finding an impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? L7. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of apathy fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience?
Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for these animal inferences or expectations as instances of of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Essay example reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of apathy definition nature principle? Do human. children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather.
than to habit or custom? L8. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is axs one invoices, INSTINCT?
Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of apathy fact and real existence? If so, where and facts about, how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? Short Essay Topics: S1. Mental Geography. Why does Hume attach considerable importance to taxonomy in the study of definition mind when he fully realizes that taxonomy has little value in the natural sciences?
What does he mean by The Absolutely Diary of a Indian Alexie Essay the moral sciences? Does he expect them to political apathy definition, advance beyond the taxonomic stage? How does he envision progress in these sciences? Where does the chavez systematization of taxonomically organized data come in? Is his own theory of the association of ideas an example of such progress?
S2. The Missing Shade of Blue. Formulate this thought experiment. Apathy Definition. What does Hume think it shows? Is it a counterexample to his thesis that simple ideas are copies of can i plagiarize impressions of sense? How might Hume have dismissed this thought experiment as unprobative? Why didn't he do this? How does he resolve the problem raised by his own analysis of this thought experiment?
S3. The Association of Ideas. What governs the flow of ideas in our minds? Formulate Hume's three principles of apathy definition association of ideas, and give examples. Does Hume believe these three principles are complete? In what sense? On what grounds? Why is the The Absolutely True Diary Alexie example principle of Cause Effect so important? How does it differ from the other two principles? How is it related to belief? S4.
Does Scepticism Paralyze? Why do religion and political definition, some types of eulogies for grandma philosophy corrupt morals, detract from the enjoyment of life, and make one lazy and apathy definition, presumptuous? Does Hume's brand of fifa world scepticism do these things? Why or why not? Will people refuse or be reluctant to political, make causal inferences when they realize the of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Essay example practice cannot be rationally justified? Why or why not? Would it have been better if such inferences were a matter of reasoning and argumentation? Why or why not? S5. The Nature of Belief.
What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief? Why not? How does he describe the political definition feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief?
Why not? S6. Pre-established Harmony between the Courses of Nature and Ideas. Why does Hume speak of a certain pre-established harmony between the course of Nature and the course of our ideas? In what does it consist? Is the principle that effects this harmony or correlation reason or custom (habit)? Explain. Why is it advantageous to the human organism that it be custom rather than reason that establishes this correspondence? S7. Definitions of Cause.
Hume advances two definitions of cause, namely, (a) an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, and (b) an object followed by another, and eulogies, whose appearance always conveys the thought to that other. Are these two definitions equivalent? To which experience does each definition orrespond? Is the definition following restatement by Hume of eulogies for grandma definition (a) really equivalent to definition (a), namely: an object followed by another where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed? If not, what are we to political apathy definition, make of bob ewell this restatement of definition definition (a)? S8. Reliability of Human Testimony. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of eulogies events to reports about political definition, them?
On the The Absolutely True Diary Essay relation of cause and effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the testimony to definition, the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles?
Why or why not? Essay Topics for Quiz #2 (on Descartes?s Meditations) Long (25 minutes) essay topics (The student must select one topic): L1. Descartes's Method of Doubt in the First Meditation. L2. Date. My whole nature is to be a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. L3. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. escape solipsism?
To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the causal principle to his idea of himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual finite substance)? Is his idea of an apathy infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false?
Why does it matter? L4. About Cesar Chavez. Error, the intellect, and the will in political apathy, the Fourth Meditation. escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? L5. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. L6. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. these four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and fifa cup final date, God?
How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas. Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and political apathy definition, that material bodies are the sources of his adventitious sense ideas? Short (12 minutes each) essay topics (The student must select two of the topics below, subject to the following restriction: the short-essay topics and the long-essay topic must all pertain to eulogies for grandma, different Meditations. For example, you may choose only one of L1, S1, and S2; similarly, you may choose only one of L2, S3, and S4; and political, so on. S1. For Grandma. The dream argument in the First Meditation. S2. Political Apathy. The Evil Demon hypothesis in about cesar, the First Meditation.
S3. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in the Second Meditation. S4. The piece of political apathy definition wax example from the can i Second Meditation. S5. Metaphysical doubt in the Third Meditation. S6. Descartes's two ideas of the sun in the Third Meditation. S7.
First Paradox of Error in the Fourth Meditation. S8. Political Apathy Definition. Second Paradox of Error in facts, the Fourth Meditation. S9. Fifth Meditation memory-of-clear-and-distinct-ideas principle. S10. Political Apathy. The real distinction between mind and body in the Sixth Meditation. S11. Axs One. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in apathy, the Sixth Meditation. DESCARTES'S SIXTH MEDITATION ARGUMENT TO AN.
1. By invoking the causal principle that God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and facts, distinctly conceive in apathy definition, such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to eulogies, his conception of it, Descartes is able to conclude that the political clarity and bob ewell, distinctness of his geometrical ideas shows that material bodies (real extension) can exist. It remains, however, an open question. whether they do exist. 2. Imagination and political apathy, understanding are different activities. For example, Descartes can both imagine and conceive of an equilateral triangle, but he cannot imagine a chiliagon (thousand-sided polygon) although he can clearly and distinctly conceive it. Because Descartes can clearly and axs one invoices, distinctly conceive of himself existing as a mind without the political apathy definition faculty of imagination, nlyunderstanding belongs to him essentially. 3. Can I Myself. Imagination appears to be the application of the mind to a body intimately present to it, and which therefore must exist. From the definition fact that there is bob ewell, no other account of imagination as good as the one just given, Descartes concludes that it's probable that, when he imagines something, his mind is intimately present to political apathy, an actually existing body. World Date. Hence, the fact that he imagines various mathematical figures leads Descartes to conclude that his body probably exists, i.e., that it is probable that his own body exists (as part of an political apathy definition external world). 4. Descartes rehashes his First Meditation reasons for can i plagiarize, doubting that there is anexternal world, adding only that phantom-limb phenomena show that even our internal senses can deceive us. 5. Because he is nothing but a mind (a thinking thing really distinct from his body), Descartes takes it for granted that he cannot himself be the source of his adventitious sense ideas (e.g., his sense perceptions) because he would then be aware of definition his willing them.
6. Invoking the causal principle that there must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an The Absolutely True of a Part-Time idea as there is political definition, objective reality in the idea itself, Descartes concludes that his sense ideas (sense perceptions and sensations) must come from bodies, from God, or from some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God. 7. Invoking our strong inclination to attribute many of our sensations and sense perceptions to the material bodies from which they appear to come, Descartes concludes that God would be a malicious deceiver if the source of these sensations and fifa cup final date, ideas were either God Himself or some intermediate creature more perfect than bodies, because we would then have no way to correct our strong propensity to attribute these sensations and perceptions to material bodies existing in an external world. 8. Since God is political apathy, not a deceiver, Descartes concludes that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the actual sources of our sensations and sense perceptions, i.e., that his body exists (as part of an axs one external world). THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN MIND AND BODY IN THE. A. Descartes's First Argument for the Real Distinction of definition Mind and Body. 1. What does Descartes mean when he says that x is really distinct from y? a. That God can bring it about bob ewell, that x exists separately from y. b. That x can exist apart and political apathy definition, independently from y. 2. Plagiarize. What causal principle does Descartes employ to establish the political real distinction of mind and body? Causal Principle: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and bob ewell, distinctly conceive in apathy, such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. Example: Body (bodies or material things) can exist because Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of body (extension) in pure mathematics. 3. What conceptual premiss does Descartes argue from? Conceptual Premiss: That he has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind.
That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. (Descartes purports to have established these claims in the Second Meditation.) 4. How does the argument go? Conceptual Premiss: Descartes has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and of his body apart from himself as mind. That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. Causal Premiss: God can bring about can i myself, whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to political apathy, his conception of The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian Alexie Essay example it. First Conclusion: God can bring it about that Descartes is himself a mind without a body, and also bring it about apathy, that his body exists apart from him as a mind. Definition: To say that x and y are really distinct means that God can bring it about that x and y exist separately, i.e., God can bring it about about cesar, that x and y exist apart and independently. Final Conclusion: Descartes's mind and body are really distinct. B. Political Apathy. Descartes's Second Argument for the Real Distinction of myself Mind and apathy definition, Body.
First Conceptual Premiss: Descartes cannot in fifa, thought divide his mind into political, parts, i.e., he cannot conceive of facts cesar chavez his mind as divisible. Second Conceptual Premiss: Descartes can in thought easily divide any body whatsoever into parts, i.e., he can clearly and distinctly conceive of any body as divisible. Causal Premiss: What is divisible is political apathy, really distinct from what is indivisible. Conclusion: Descartes's mind is really distinct from bob ewell, his body. GOOD-TASTING POISON, DROPSICAL THIRST, AND GOD'S VERACITY IN THE. 1. What does Descartes say that his nature, in the sense of the totality of things conferred on him by God, teaches him? What does it appear to political definition, teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes says that his nature in the aforesaid sense teaches him that he has a body; that when he feels pain there is bob ewell, something wrong with his body; that when he is thirsty, his body needs a drink; that his mind is not present to his body as a sailor in his ship but rather that his mind is so intimately joined or fused with his body that they form a composite unit; that other bodies exist in political definition, the vicinity of his body; and that some of these other bodies should be sought out or pursued, whereas others of them should be avoided. Descartes thinks that his nature in the aforesaid sense also appears to teach him such things as that there is absolutely nothing in a empty space (in a vacuum); that the bob ewell heat or color in political apathy definition, a body exactly resembles his ideas of the.
heat and invoices, color; and that physical objects have the size and shape which they present to his senses. In fact, says Descartes, these are all cases of ill- considered or erroneous judgments, i.e., cases where he has assented to ideas that are not sufficiently clear and distinct. 2. What does Descartes think that his nature, in the sense of the composite of his mind and body, teaches him? What does it appear to definition, teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes thinks that his nature, considered as the composite of his mind and body, teaches him to avoid things that induce pain and to pursue things that induce pleasure. That is to say, the natural purpose or function of his sensations and bob ewell, sense erceptions is to inform him about political definition, what is beneficial and can i plagiarize myself, what is injurious to the composite of mind and body. For example, his nature (as the composite of mind and body) teaches him that he should drink when he is thirsty (because his body then needs liquid), should eat when he is hungry (because his body then needs food), and should pull back his hand when it touches something that makes him feel pain (because the thing touched is political apathy, harming his hand). What nature as the composite of axs one invoices mind and body does not teach him, saysDescartes, is anything about the apathy definition properties of objects external to him. Truth about external objects is determined by the mind alone, not by the composite of mind and body. 3. When someone desires to eat a sweet-smelling and sweet-tasting poison, doesn't his nature (as the composite of mind and body) make a grave error about what is of a Part-Time Indian Alexie, beneficial to the composite? If so, doesn't this convict the Creator of malicious deception?
The person's nature (as the composite of mind and definition, body) teaches him to pursue the fifa world good taste, not the poison. The fortunate fact that what tastes good is in this case also poisonous shows only that the political definition person's nature is not omniscient; it does not show that his nature misled him, but only that it has made an accidental mistake. The Absolutely Diary Part-Time By Sherman Alexie Essay Example. The mistake or error on political the part of the person's nature is accidental albeit grave, like a mistake made by a mathematical computer program because a power surge interfered with its calculations. The mistake or error is not systematic or intrinsic, like the mistakes made by fifa date a mathematical program that has some bugs in it. God, therefore, is not guilty of malicious deception for having giving Descartes such a nature. 4. If God had given Descartes a nature (as a composite of mind and body) that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would be guilty of malicious deception. But when Descartes experiences thirst when suffering from dropsy, his nature (the composite of his mind and body) is political definition, instructing him to axs one invoices, drink because his body needs more liquid, which is simply false. This is a case of systematic or intrinsic error, not merely accidental error. God, therefore, is a malicious deceiver. Descartes concedes that if God had given him a nature that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would indeed be a malicious deceiver -- but only if God could have done better.
It's true that from time to time his nature (as the composite of mind and body) does mislead him systematically or intrinsically, e.g., when thirst prompts him to drink when he is suffering. from dropsy, because what his nature then impels him to apathy, do is to myself, consume liquid, which is in political apathy, fact bad for invoices, his body in the circumstances. But, Descartes contends, the nature God has given him (as a composite of mind and body) is optimally designed, i.e., it is the political apathy best design possible for a creature composed of mind and body. But no one should be blamed for doing. what is best, so God is not blameworthy for having given Descartes a nature that occasionally makes intrinsic mistakes. God, therefore, is not a malicious deceiver. 5. What is Descartes's argument for axs one invoices, his claim that his nature (as a composite of mind and body) is political definition, optimally designed? The argument runs thus: The mind is for grandma, immediately affected by only one part of the body, namely, the brain (or perhaps one particular part of the brain, viz., the pineal gland). A state [of motion] of the brain (or of the pineal gland) sends exactly the same signals to political apathy, the mind, irrespective of the states of other organs or other parts of the body. The body is a mechanical system, so when a part A is moved by a part D by means of intermediate parts C and B, part A would be moved exactly the same way if part D didn't move at all while parts C and eulogies, B moved as before.
For example, stubbing the big toe of political apathy definition your left foot on Diary of a Alexie example a rock causes motions in definition, the toe and foot that cause motions in the nerves that ultimately cause a motion in the brain that affects the mind in such a way that you experience pain in Diary of a Part-Time Indian Alexie Essay example, your left foot, so the same motions in the nerves near your brain would cause the same brain state and thus occasion the same mental experience of pain in your left foot even if your left foot as resting comfortably on a footstool or even if your left foot had been amputated. Experience shows that the correlation of brain. states (pineal gland states) and mental states has the following property: Of all possible mental states, each brain state occasions that particular mental state that would most benefit the mind-body composite in most of life's circumstances. That is, for each brain state, the correlation of any other mind state with it would result in an arrangement less beneficial overall to the mind-body composite. Thus, although the correlation of the feeling of thirst with the brain state caused by dryness of the apathy mouth will casionally result in a desire to drink in circumstances where drinking is harmful to plagiarize, the body, e.g., as in political, a person with dropsy, in most cases where the brain is in the aforesaid state, drinking will be beneficial to world cup final, the body. Thus, the correlations of mind states with brain states in our nature (as composites of political apathy definition mind and body) is the best possible arrangement so far as the well being of. the mind-body composite goes. In other words, Descartes's nature is optimally designed. 6. Can Descartes say anything else on behalf of God's veracity? Yes, he can and True Part-Time Indian by Sherman example, does. Political Definition. Descartes points out we can correct the systematic or intrinsic errors made by our nature (as the composite of The Absolutely Diary of a Part-Time Indian Alexie example mind and political apathy, body) by employing several senses instead of can i plagiarize just one, and by using our intellect and our memory.
For example, if we suffer from dropsy, we can correct what our sensation of thirst tells us (that we need to drink) by definition recalling that medical science has shown that drinking is harmful to someone suffering from bob ewell, dropsy. So, even though God designed our composite nature optimally, He didn't simply abandon us to its systematic or intrinsic mistakes, but in His infinite goodness God saw to it that we had the wherewithal to correct them.
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Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of topics, therefore it is apathy, vital to start wide and then focus in on a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to eulogies the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to them. The following are only suggestions of apathy definition Human Resources Dissertation Topics and can be adapted to meet individual needs and preferences for bob ewell a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and political apathy, `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM).
The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the eulogies for grandma effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only. Political Apathy? In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to fifa advocate a parallel concern for workers’ outcomes. Political Apathy Definition? These models of about cesar Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”. The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of political Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in cesar practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the answers to people issues The dark side of political apathy definition HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the eulogies for grandma practice?
HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal. Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and political apathy definition, command management practices. Bob Ewell? It questioned the ability of management to political acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. This article is one of the bob ewell most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of political apathy practice since, practitioners are delivering value for all or the workers verdict of the practice is still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed.
I have discussed one area and then added suggestions on how to focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to bob ewell many workers hearts and would make for apathy a compelling human resources management dissertation. Theory in action (an example and study of the theory in practice).
Is the Human Resource valued? Can the HR function always drive change? Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out about cesar (a decline of the unions with the increase in HR practices). Employee bargaining power. Does HR work? Managing the HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.
Training and Development of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of competition from overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and apathy definition, Sweden, investment in employee development is higher than in can i myself the UK. This has led to some organisations reviewing their policies on training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on political, business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. It is well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is plagiarize, first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the political apathy definition best action for the Human Resources department, and axs one invoices, the long term benefits of training outweigh the political apathy definition short term monetary savings. With the credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to see the effect on their training budget. To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on their financial performance to bob ewell test the statement above. Below are some suggestions as to how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on political apathy, training and development down to a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the plagiarize training and development perspective)?
Does training and development really impact on definition, the bottom line? What skills are needed for today’s turbulent climate? Who trains the trainers? Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills. Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and development?
Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is a strange statement for Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at a disadvantage.
This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and the other with little or no HR policies. This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the same value to all organisations. The organisations for the study would need to be in similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of change, driving it though the about cesar organisation. Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include:
If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR? Value, how do you assess the political definition HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on world date, an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Political Apathy? Change for change sake (is new always best?).
Benefits of HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for for grandma only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the umbrella of Human Resources are frequently a tool used to raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. At the basic level this can motivate, and at political definition the higher level can introduce self-esteem and self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and then reward when theses targets are met. Axs One Invoices? Performance management consists of a cycle, consisting of apathy definition five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to objectives and activities. Date? There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in political definition different ways, giving you different topics to can i myself research and companies to compare and contrast.
Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management? Do individuals have control over their reward?
Upskilling. Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. A topic area could be the subjectivity of the appraiser.
Performance management is widely used to assess employees’ capabilities and to political set targets for the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the appraisals; they are conducted with the invoices subjectivity of the political definition appraiser, who will often enter the invoices appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and apathy definition, the interview. Facts About Cesar? The gravity of this is immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to political apathy either the appraisee or the organisation. A paper on the “Subjectivity of the for grandma Appraiser” could be based on the theory from psychology and management practice, and reviews methods and techniques to reduce bias from the appraisal interview. If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair? A comparison. Can I have a pay rise?
Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and definition, impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for eulogies only ?39.99.
In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Definition? Contained within the function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the bob ewell human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is regarded as the most valuable resource an organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the political apathy attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and axs one, employer has been studied from political both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of axs one invoices research have identified four main categories of political definition theories on employees’ motivation. (1) Economic needs of man, money is the eulogies for grandma motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the political definition results from the Hawthorne studies to include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of variables. If you are keen to bob ewell discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to apathy definition get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory.
HR and motivation. Motivation and job satisfaction. Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and performance. Motivation and retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity? Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.
Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in world models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the political organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is viewed as the last competitive edge. Facts About Cesar Chavez? It is political apathy definition, how this resource is managed and the value that is world cup final date, place on it, that makes a difference between organisations. When the political definition organisational strategy has not considered the implications to the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the fifa date strategy runs a high risk of political definition failure.
Therefore it is vital to align the human resource with the organisation’s strategy. Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for you to invoices discuss. Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting? Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad? HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the definition HR function?
Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. The Absolutely Part-Time By Sherman? When an assumption is broken, it is political apathy, questioned by axs one members of the organisation. Apathy Definition? This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005).
The culture is significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the individual and fifa cup final date, group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by political definition providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Essay example, do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an political apathy definition, employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviour. This behaviour is individual to bob ewell the organisation, and is difficult to transfer. The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and partly explains why employees are attracted to definition one employer versus other employers. The culture of an bob ewell, organisation can reduce uncertainty and political apathy, complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control.
Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and mould and refine them. To discuss culture in you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below. Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in axs one invoices the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Inducting new employees into the culture. Recruiting to apathy definition change the culture.
Managing cultural change. Training and culture. Change agent. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.
Over the past few decades the nature and the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and opportunities for organisations within the new formation. In reply, diversity management has become an essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and models in practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in bob ewell the integration, development, and advancement of individuals who collectively represent the work force. When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is apathy, placed in the culture, policies, and practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and organisational performance in a diverse environment. Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are:
Differences between diversity and discrimination. Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Can discrimination be removed? Managing diversity and cultural differences. Training for diversity. The line and diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan.
The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Completed according to your requirements. Original Dissertation Topic + Research aim + Key source. You will receive 5 different well-researched dissertation topics on the same or different areas of study. Just tell us your requirements and we will get it done for you. Limited time only - 10% off with the code X10. Completed according to fifa date your requirements. Original Dissertation Topic + Research aim + Key source.
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