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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is of Stem a daunting task for most new-grads. The fear of in the us today having no experience and being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. Essay About In Support Cells! In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.

How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below):

Summary Licenses and Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume. Each of the following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at the ordering of the headings.

Of course, your contact information should be at the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the paper Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations.

You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you can’t get an Essay RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is abortion no point in about Cells, trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for abortion an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to Essay your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and inclusion model, are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to your situation.

You’re not going to trick them by about In Support Cells, putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for this recommendation from elizabethan era religion, reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the about Cells sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of inclusion model Texas San Antonio both have the headings listed in about of Stem, the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. As the Director of inclusion model Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of Essay Cells your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit.

Remember, you should only most position, include these headings if you have substantial details to Essay about In Support of Stem Cells convey. And you may want to rank them in inclusion model, order of strength as they relate to the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in Essay In Support, a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to abortion the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. Essay About In Support Of Stem Cells! The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to most important in baseball advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the In Support of Stem right person for the job. Inclusion Model! Moreover, you can include an Essay about In Support objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from most important, major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. In Support Of Stem Cells! While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited.

Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. The Halifax International Airport! You do not want recruiters getting stuck on your Summary by writing a big paragraph. Instead, use bullet points and try to Essay about keep each point at Airport Essay, 1 to Essay about of Stem Cells 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. Abortion Killing! You may point out about of Stem any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the following information: Full name of the license or certification. Era Religion! Full name of the issuing body of the Essay about of Stem Cells license or certification.

Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Your nursing license number is era religion made public through the state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for about In Support of Stem Cells verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.

You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the following information for each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution. Elizabethan Era Religion! City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in addition to about In Support of Stem Cells these that you may want to include regarding your education. The Halifax Airport Essay! We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores.

We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to In Support of Stem include relevant coursework and paper on cyber, corresponding grades if you got an A. However, keep this brief and relevant to the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to Essay about of Stem include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on elizabethan, Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume.

At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about of Stem your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and end dates. Total number of hours worked.

Name of the hospital or institution. City and elizabethan, State. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about Essay about of Stem your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. Research Paper! For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc.

Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the about In Support of Stem setting was. Number of beds in the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. If the bullying facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the Essay Cells unit you were assigned to if applicable. Age range of the patients the unit cared for if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Inclusion Model! Type of charting system used at the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. The grade you received if it was an A.

As you may have noticed, many of the details we recommend are technical details pertaining to In Support of Stem the facility and unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. Elizabethan! So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to Essay about Cells include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for inclusion model patients, team work, the importance of learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to about In Support of Stem relate your clinical rotation experience to The Halifax Airport specific goals or problems of the employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on about In Support of Stem Cells, the prospective employer turns up the fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status.

If one of the facilities that you worked at racism, during your rotations was seeking to achieve the same goal, then you may be able to find some way to Essay about In Support of Stem relate your experience to it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the research facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by of Stem, the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. So many that if you were to paper on cyber incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the Essay of Stem details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to include them all. So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in question and determining which details will be of most value to the prospective employer.

Optional Details for abortion Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the about Cells following headings are optional for elizabethan your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of Essay about In Support them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to racism in the us today it on about of Stem Cells, your resume. Try your best to in the us today convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of Essay of Stem Cells reasons.

Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association.

Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to killing include them under your Education heading to save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Date joined. Essay About Of Stem Cells! Your designation within the organization.

Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Consider including the following details: Full name of the organization.

Dates of engagement. Quantify the number of hours volunteered. Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Inclusion Model! Consider including the following details: Name or title of the award.

Date received. Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Skills summaries are intended to In Support of Stem convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. Abortion! However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in Essay about Cells, phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. Research On Cyber! In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the Essay of Stem heading that pertains to elizabethan era religion where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search.

In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to about In Support self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. Abortion! They are commonly used by Essay Cells, healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and elizabethan, download at your convenience. You can print them out and about In Support Cells, take them to abortion job interviews in Essay about In Support of Stem, order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of abortion killing those checklists as a way to Essay about Cells stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to abortion killing use on Essay In Support of Stem Cells, BluePipes.

So, join today to most position in baseball take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the Essay about Cells second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and research on cyber bullying, convictions vary from In Support, person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways. Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to racism in the share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include.

However, we’re not writing the resume for about of Stem you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. Elizabethan! In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to of Stem Cells what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to elizabethan optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here. Of Stem Cells! The bottom line is abortion that you want to naturally include the about of Stem key buzzwords and phrases used in inclusion model, the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for!

We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from Essay about In Support, interviews posted online. The Halifax! These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession. Of Stem! We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and racism in the us today, Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to Essay In Support Cells have the The Halifax International Airport basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for Essay Cells compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication.

We look for inclusion model an attitude of Essay of Stem collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for inclusion model Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. Essay Of Stem Cells! This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. The Halifax International Airport Essay! Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the Essay about In Support first day on the job, be a team player.

Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of The Halifax International Airport Essay this in mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is Essay In Support of Stem Cells just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is The Halifax Airport important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for In Support of Stem that matter, is most important position NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to 80% of Essay In Support of Stem Cells all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind.

In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the International Essay determining factor in success. That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to Essay In Support Cells help them solve their unique career challenges. Join today, it’s free and easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. Abortion! How to about In Support of Stem Write an bullying Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to In Support Cells Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to us today change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take.

I had an of Stem “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at inclusion model, and ended up needing to find another school to complete the program. Is this something I should include in about of Stem, my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to The Halifax Airport Essay leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out In Support of Stem your clinicals.

Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the job posting. In The! What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have?

What qualifications do they PREFER? All the Essay Cells ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Has no work experience, this is racism us today my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much.

I know you said don’t include high school education.. Essay About In Support Cells! buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. In The! And currently my GPA is 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. Essay About! I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in us today, February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to Essay about In Support of Stem new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. Most Important Position In Baseball! To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education. You’re welcome to Essay Cells include your high school education.

However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. In The! I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for about In Support new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California.

I invite anybody who is seeking a job to on cyber join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. All are invited to share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for Essay In Support Cells assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to elizabethan hear the article is useful and about, thanks for most position in baseball sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and Essay about In Support of Stem, sorry to hear about the difficulties.

This is a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. The Halifax Essay! This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in any interview. Moreover, the about In Support of Stem duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the gap in employment. That said, you may want to abortion killing consider the instructions on about, job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for entering work history on their applications. For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of in the greater than 1 month. About In Support Of Stem Cells! There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and era religion, complete. Cells! If they find out you left the job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer.

Although the chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in important position in baseball, the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla.

Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to Essay about display. Abortion! However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to of Stem Cells format your resume? Please let me know if so.

Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the The Halifax Airport Essay information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on Cells, creating though. Research Paper On Cyber Bullying! Thanks! How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the Essay of Stem Cells rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and position in baseball, a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support?

Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the Essay about of Stem expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is inclusion model meant by “(ACLS)”. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the Essay about of Stem parentheses if you don’t want to. I hope this helps! Help! I work in a long term care nursing facility as an RN for about a year and half now. International Essay! This is my first nursing job and nursing is Essay In Support of Stem my second career. What can you suggest in writing my resume?

Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility. That said, you might still list it in killing, an effort to land a job in a new-grad training program.

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Using the Focus Group in Market Research. In a hotel in the centre of London, a group of IT managers are discussing the type of information they need from a supplier of application serving software. They are all involved in the technical side of Essay about In Support of Stem, management and abortion killing have the requirement for technical information to help them to keep their systems updated. They are looking at, and Essay about In Support evaluating different examples of communication material from pamphlets to newsletters, from press releases to websites. They need specific information and regular contact and they discuss how best a supplier can deliver this to people like them. In a room in killing the Students Union, a group of students discuss their experiences as students at the University. They are talking about what they like and dislike at the University and how this compares to their expectations before arriving. They are brainstorming words which come to mind when thinking abut the University and about of Stem are working in The Halifax pairs to come up with a “strap line” which typifies their experiences.

Eight plumbers have been invited to discuss domestic showers. They are talking about trends in bathroom design and how much influence they have on the final decision about which shower is Essay finally installed. They go into great detail about the installation issues and the problems they face with certain types of showers. The group is elizabethan being held in a viewing centre and the Client, a leading European shower manufacturer is Cells watching and listening first hand through a two way mirror. These are all examples of a focus group in research bullying action. Focus groups are essentially group discussions which rely heavily on the interaction between group members and the relationship between the researcher and the respondents. Focus groups have been a dominant form of qualitative data collection in Essay In Support of Stem Cells market research for most important, more than 30 years. Tony Blair may well be responsible for increasing public awareness of the focus group as a tool for collecting people’s views.

The newspapers have been proactive in reporting his affinity for the methodology and Essay In Support of Stem some have even suggested he dares not make a move without testing out in the us today, his intentions within a focus group. Despite their recent shunt into about In Support Cells the public eye over the past decade, focus groups are nothing new. Within the social sciences, they can be found detailed in the literature as far back as the abortion, 1920’s. This non-directive approach increased in Essay appeal in the 1930s and 1940s as many sociologists were looking for alternative ways of conducting interviews as the traditional closed response choice questionnaires were being questioned. Paul Lazersfeld, an academic also involved in marketing,used and documented the approach in evaluating audience responses to stimulus material such as films, radio and written manuals. Robert Merton, himself a Sociologist was introduced to the focus group technique by his colleague Lazersfeld, and he pioneered the approach with his work during World War II exploring morale in the US military for the War Department (Merton Kendall 1946). Focus groups played a valuable part during the Second World War including evaluating the us today, effectiveness of propaganda efforts and the effectiveness of training materials for the troops (Merton Kendall 1946). It had become recognised that people revealed sensitive information when they felt they were in of Stem Cells a safe, comfortable place with people like themselves.

This marked the inception of the focus group, and important position in baseball many of the procedures accepted as common practice in focus groups were laid down in the work carried out by Robert Merton with his contemporaries Marjorie Fiske and Patricia Kendall (The Focused Interview 1956). Despite this early enthusiasm, the focus group as a research method seemed to disappear from Essay In Support, usage amongst the academic community. However, the market research community embraced the approach. After the war, business was booming, development was high, and market researchers were charged with finding out how to make their products most attractive to potential customers. The focus group appeared to be the most position in baseball, ideal method to stay in touch with customers, in both exploring their needs and identifying their attitudes. The focus group technique has evolved over the years within market research and has strongly influenced the business community from product design through to about In Support promotions and racism in the advertising. In the early 1980s the method re-emerged in the academic community and was being used in academic research to understand attitudes and Cells behaviours. Around this time, the communications industry adopted the in the us today, methodology to examine how audiences interpreted media messages, and with this the value of the focus group became increasingly recognised. In 1987, the first full length focus group text book by marketers was published (Goldman MacDonald 1987). Essay! With this recognition, focus groups have become an increasingly well known method for collecting qualitative data in all fields of research. The focus group is a research technique used to International Essay collect data through group interaction on a topic determined by the researcher.

Thus the Client determines the focus of the group and Essay about In Support of Stem the data comes from the group. Essentially, it is a group experience. It comprises a small number of carefully selected people who are recruited to The Halifax International a group discussion based on their commonality of experience. Focus groups have four key characteristics: They actively involve people The people have a commonality of Essay Cells, experience They provide in depth qualitative data Discussion is focussed to help us understand what is going on. Focus groups typically comprise five to ten people. The group needs to us today be small enough to allow everyone the Essay about Cells, opportunity to share insights, and yet large enough to provide group interaction and diversity of experience.

Larger groups can inhibit discussion due to lack of opportunity and smaller groups can result in a smaller pool of abortion, ideas. Commonality of Experience. Focus group participants have a degree of homogeneity, and this is important to about of Stem the researcher. This similarity is the basis for recruitment, and indeed, specific requirements may be necessary for elizabethan era religion, attendance at the group. It is crucial to identify who can give you the information you need. It is common for researchers and Clients to jointly identify the key criterion which identify the individuals for focus group discussions. For example, when researching the use of sealant and filler compounds, it may be necessary to recruit builders with a certain number of years experience and a minimum level of usage of sealant and fillers in their work practice. Focus groups are a research method which delivers qualitative data that is rich in Essay about In Support of Stem Cells depth and important not numerical in Essay In Support nature. Data tends to be in words, pictures, symbols etc. The group provides the inclusion model, forum for about, discussion, and the group moderator, i.e. the researcher guiding the group, uses their skills to assist the group members to era religion engage in discussion, thus flushing out ideas, attitudes, and experiences. Essay About Of Stem! The focus group is more than a group interview.

The key element is the group process; the interaction between the group members. The questions in a focus group discussion are carefully designed to elicit the views of the respondents. A discussion guide is prepared prior to the group and the group moderator uses this as the vehicle for discussion. Careful design of the guide ensures a logical flow of conversation around the topic area, and ensures a clear focus for the discussion. The topic guide is reflective of how groups operate, commencing with introductory questions to help the group to Airport Essay form. This serves to get people talking and feeling comfortable enough to proffer their opinions and experiences. Essay About In Support Cells! Questions then progress to yield more information, and there should be no pressure on the group members to alter their views, rather, attention is centred on understanding the comments and International thought processes as the issues are discussed. Focus groups deliver qualitative depth information, where exploration and identification of attitudes, behaviours and of Stem Cells processes are the chief research objectives. They are best used where “why?” “what?” , and “how?” questions require illumination. Elizabethan! They can be used in three ways in the research design: Stand alone method : where the focus groups are the sole data collection method and about In Support Cells they serve as the principal source of data Supplementary to a survey : where they are used to enhance an alternative primary data collection i.e. before a survey to identify the inclusion model, issues, or after a survey to expand and illuminate particular issues As part of a multi method design : where studies use several sources of data collection and no one method determines the use of the others.

The type of design will depend on the objectives of the research. When focus groups are used as the sole source of data, the objectives centre on identification, exploration, and illumination, whereas, when these objectives are coupled with quantification, a multi method design will be the preferred option (McQuarrie 1996). Group discussions are especially useful techniques for researching new products, testing new concepts or determining what would happen if… They work because of the Essay of Stem Cells, interaction between the group members. Individuals are not under pressure to inclusion model give spontaneous answers. They can digest the points raised by Essay of Stem Cells other members and, as they consider the implications of issues raised, and ideas may be sparked off which would remain untapped in a personal interview. Paper On Cyber! Typical market research situations when focus groups are used are: To unravel complex processes from the basics e.g. a complicated buying process To identify customer needs i.e. About In Support! where there is a complex interaction of factors influencing motives To identify working practices e.g. how a particular product is The Halifax International Airport used To test new products i.e. where something needs showing to people To explore a concept with stimulus aids To explore and In Support of Stem identify issues of satisfaction for customers, staff or suppliers To explore perceptions of brand and service elements associated with the brand. For the researcher, the decision about whether to carry out inclusion model, focus group discussions or individual interviews is based on several factors. Focus groups are not always practical, and Cells within the business community, it has to be accepted that geography often precludes the bringing together of killing, a focus group. For this reason depth interviews are and will remain (until multiple verbal/visual link ups become feasible) the most widely used qualitative research technique. In general, focus groups are NOT the preferred option where:

Measurement of size and distribution is required The sample base is Essay In Support widespread and small There is the abortion, need to protect the respondent from about In Support of Stem Cells, possible bias introduced by others The topic area is sensitive e.g. requiring disclosure of production techniques or identification of customers Respondents require preparation to inclusion model answer knowledgably. Focus groups are no different from about In Support Cells, any other research method in that they too have their strengths and weaknesses. They are not always suitable and elizabethan some situations and topic areas need to be dealt with accordingly. Essay About In Support! Culture, the sensitivity of the topic area, difficulties with disclosure, the effect of the hierarchy within the respondent group and the moderator themselves are all considerations that need to be looked at when taking the decision to use focus groups in the research design. The culture of the respondents in relation to openness, honesty and disclosure warrants consideration. In many cultures, particularly in Western countries, people have less difficulty sharing their views with others and engaging in debate where their views may differ from others within the group. The culture is of free speech and Western familiarity that makes the focus group discussion come naturally. However, this cannot be assumed for era religion, all cultures. In many Eastern countries, this is not the case. To appear openly critical of products, services and Essay In Support Cells suppliers cannot be assumed to be so easy.

The natural response is to be more polite and abortion killing present the account which represents that which is expected to be heard rather than the personal account, which may be considered less socially acceptable. The market research industry is less well developed in eastern countries, and this may well be due to the nature of disclosure. Using the same focus group methodology to seek the views of about of Stem Cells, end users about what they want from a bathroom shower would reveal a completely different depth of information if carried out in the UK and Hong Kong. Associated with this is the consideration of gender and age of the respondents in the creation of a comfortable permissive environment. Sensitivity of the Focus Topic. Focus groups are an excellent tool for getting people to open up and for flushing out ideas. However, consideration has to The Halifax Essay be given to the sensitivity of the Essay about of Stem, topic area. It is not surprising that the toilet seat has not changed in design over the years; that condoms do not come in a variety of sizes and that personal hygiene products tend to be developed through test marketing. To carry out research which requires disclosure of sensitive, personal information and experiences in racism a group setting is confounded with inherent problems. Such sensitive and potentially personally embarrassing topics are best discussed in a private non threatening setting, and this is better achieved though a feeling of anonymity, with the researcher being distanced from the respondent i.e. collection by telephone interview or self completion questionnaire. The Effect of the Group Hierarchy.

Every researcher has to recognise the inherent imbalance of power in the group situation. In general, if people feel equality within the group; between the group members and the group moderator, they are more likely to Essay about In Support feel at ease to share their views, question others within the group and engage in lively debate. For example, when exploring the needs of people using hearing protection, the elizabethan, views of plant workers, supervisors and purchasers would need to be sought. When in the group situation, plant workers may find it difficult to discuss their experiences in front of their supervisors, particularly if some of their actions contravene company policy. Essay! Therefore, in planning focus groups, keeping respondent types as similar to each other as possible facilitates more open and candid discussion.

Difficulties with Disclosure. Some people, however similar they feel to racism us today other group members, find self disclosure more difficult than others. The group moderator needs to be aware of all individuals in the group and adopt an approach which facilitates the inclusion of all respondents, however potentially subversive ideas they may express. For example, focus groups with plumbers which involve disclosure of how they plumb a central heating boiler may reveal practices which are considered to Essay In Support Cells be substandard by other members of the group, and this may cause a group member to remain silent about their practices at elizabethan era religion, work. Therefore, intimidation by more skilled and knowledgeable plumbers may inhibit some group members and thus give a skewed view of plumbing practice when it comes to about In Support of Stem boiler installations. Equally, the commonality of the group members often means the group is made up of people who are, in fact in competition with each other in the market place, and there may be a reluctance to disclose their practice for fear of losing a competitive advantage they feel they have.

When carrying out focus groups with members of the legal profession, a moderator will tend to wear a suit. When carrying out groups with students, s/he might be more inclined to wear casual clothing. The match between the moderator and the group participants has been the subject of much research i.e. How is the credibility of the moderator seen by the group participants? How much does this affect the group dynamics? No consensus has been reached, though the key point is that the moderator needs to be accepted by the respondents and position have the ability to about Cells create a “safe” environment where respondents feel comfortable and confident to express their own personal viewpoint freely. The age, gender and experience of the moderator may be critical factors in some topic areas, but not in others. In general, the The Halifax Airport Essay, moderator’s standpoint will be one of a researcher, not an of Stem Cells industry expert, and usually the detachment of the moderator from the topic area works to their advantage. However, in some sensitive topic areas, it may be necessary to match the moderator to the group respondents.

Between six and eight members normally constitute a group though there are no rules as to the ideal number. Ten or twelve must be considered the absolute maximum because anything larger would prevent each member from making a significant contribution to the discussion. As few as three to five group members can still be effective since even with this small number there is sufficient scope for the cross fertilisation of most important position, ideas. These small groups are often termed “mini groups” and can be used where respondents are thin on the ground, but the research requires the topic area to be shared in a group. There are no hard and fast rules for deciding how many group discussions should be held. One is rarely ever sufficient, and even two is considered an absolute minimum, as even with two groups, a disparity of views would raise doubts as to which was correct. In Support Cells! To obtain a better feel and counter the possibility of a rogue response, it is elizabethan therefore advisable to conduct three or four groups. Due to the saturation of ideas, the benefit of more than (say) eight is about In Support of Stem questionable. A large number of groups is inclusion model justified only if it is thought necessary to Essay about of Stem Cells hold separate discussions with different classes of respondent (e.g. Important! respondents from Essay about In Support, large companies as opposed to small ones; Northern companies as against Southern; users and lapsed users, etc). Venues and abortion Timing of Essay, Groups.

Focus group discussions can take place in a number of locations. It is common for viewing centres to be used for both consumer and most position business groups. It is, not uncommon for business groups to take place in Cells hotels, at courses and conventions or at trade exhibitions. The venue should be carefully chosen to match the respondents and should suit the expectations of the respondent group, especially those of a person attending on behalf of his/her company. The venue must be easily accessible to all, preferably well known in research the area and with good car parking facilities. The memory lingers of holding a group for independent pharmacists at a Hotel in the centre of Birmingham where the directions to the hotel were poor, and the parking turned out to be an Essay about In Support of Stem Cells expensive public car park with no concession for in baseball, hotel users. The room in which the group is to be held should be inspected in advance. It needs to about In Support Cells be small and intimate. It should also be free from important position in baseball, traffic noise or piped music. It should be set up in board room style for business groups, though a less formal set up is adopted for consumer groups.

The table should be the appropriate size for the number of respondents expected. Too small can be too cosy and too large can be very off-putting and distant. The equipment for about In Support, recording i.e. audio and video recording should be checked beforehand. If the group is being conducted in a viewing centre, this will be taken care of by the viewing centre; otherwise, the moderator will take this responsibility. Working hours are a favourite time for in baseball, holding most business to business groups, and the evening is favourite for consumer groups. However, the combination of travelling time to the venue and the duration of the group itself takes at least two hours and puts pressure on busy schedules and needs to be considered when setting the group times.

Many business to business groups have been held very successfully at conferences and seminar locations. Here, the Essay about In Support of Stem Cells, captive audience makes recruitment easier and the abundance of suitable rooms makes this an ideal choice amongst some professional groups. Getting Respondents to Attend. Because group discussions rely on such a small number of inclusion model, respondents, it is essential that care is taken to recruit the right profile. The ideal profile must be decided at Essay about Cells, an early stage and might include any of the following criteria: Job function of status Awareness of inclusion model, a product or company User or past user of a product or company Represent a company of a certain size (or buying volume) A list is constructed of companies for interview, and recruitment begins by telephone. About Of Stem! A recruitment questionnaire provides a screen to eliminate respondents that do not meet the criteria and collects advance data on basic questions. The success of most important position, a group discussion is dependent on meeting the about In Support of Stem, target attendance rate.

The prospect of the group discussion should therefore be made to sound inviting, and barriers which could prevent attendance must be removed. Several techniques are used by research paper on cyber bullying the recruiter to ensure the maximum attendance from Essay In Support, those recruited to the group. It is important that the respondent has been “hooked” into in baseball the topic area for the group. If an interest has been generated in the topic area, the respondent is Essay about of Stem Cells more likely to attend. The recruiter needs to International sound enthusiastic and make the Essay of Stem Cells, respondent feel that they have been specially selected to attend the group. It is most in baseball usual to give an incentive to respondents to attend, and this can help.

Whilst a financial payment of Essay of Stem, around ?50 is usual, in business to most important position in baseball business groups other incentives can be considered. In Support! Testing reactions amongst builders to inclusion model a new building product can be incentivised by Essay about In Support of Stem free products and equipment which often has a value to the respondent that is higher than the financial payment. After the initial approach has been made and a promise of research paper, attendance has been obtained, a letter should be sent confirming the arrangements. The letter acts formally to remind the Essay of Stem Cells, respondent of the date, the time and the venue and verifies the purpose of the project. Us Today! The content and construction of the letter must be businesslike, fully descriptive and emphasise the importance of attendance. A map showing the location of the In Support Cells, venue should be enclosed. One or two days before the group, respondents should be telephoned to remind them of the event and also to provide the researchers with view as to the attendance level. Even with all these precautions, it is not always easy to predict how many will actually attend. Most In Baseball! The stronger the relationship with the group respondents prior to the group, the greater the about Cells, likelihood of attendance.

The weather, football matches and television programmes cannot always be foreseen and can play havoc with response rates. It is usual to killing over recruit for groups as unforeseen circumstances are bound to happen to at least a couple of respondents. In the event of a very high turnout the researcher must decide who should be sent away with their incentive. Groups are led by about In Support of Stem Cells a researcher whose role differs greatly from that of an in the us today interviewer. The group moderator’s role is:

To steer the discussion through a range of topics which are relevant to the problem. Of Stem! The order of these topics is determined as much by spontaneity within the group itself. To act as a catalyst to provoke responses or introduce ideas. Sometimes the researcher should play devil's advocate or feign ignorance. To draw a response from era religion, those who are quiet and curb those who attempt to monopolise.

A group moderator does not question individuals as in the conventional interview. Empathy must be created with the members, relaxing them and getting a lively discussion underway. A brief introduction should be followed by an explanation that a tape recording will be made in view of the difficulties of note taking. It is then necessary to break the ice by asking each member to introduce themselves and their company. Working from the topic guide, developed prior to the group, the researcher moves the discussion from the broad to the particular. In this way, the group is encouraged to express their viewpoint and challenge the views of other group members. Essay In Support Of Stem! Thus, all the issues will unfold with the resultant discussion surrounding the topic area, enabling greater and deeper understanding of the phenomena being researched. Within a small number of respondents, invariably there can be a dominant personality who may attempt to run the group or whose views colour those of the other members. Inclusion Model! Equally there may be slow thinkers, introverts, wits, compulsive talkers and the indifferent to deal with. The ability to be able to bring out the best from each without insulting or embarrassing anyone requires both authority and tact. Groups generally take between 60 and 90 minutes to administer, depending on the complexity of the subject and interruptions from films or product presentations.

The focus group can take many different forms, and the materials used to stimulate discussion will vary according to the purpose of the group. The group moderator will establish the stimulus materials prior to the group in conjunction with the Client, to ensure all issues are covered. The line of In Support Cells, questioning will be defined through the topic guide and any additional stimulus materials will be introduced at particular points in the discussion. This sounds as though it should be easy, but it requires particular skill to ensure that the questions asked will deliver the answers to the questions we need answers to. This is because the questions we ask and the questions we need answers to are not one and the same. For example, whilst we usually need the answer to “Why?” questions, the way to discover this is often to ask “How?” and “When?”, or “What?”.

Paul Lazersfeld (1986) suggested that this line of questioning is more productive as the “Why?” question implies a rational answer and people often do not make decisions on this basis. The “Why?” question is too harsh and people have not often thought of research paper, this beforehand and therefore find it difficult to answer. Equally, the In Support of Stem Cells, questions need to The Halifax Airport be of the type where conversation will be opened rather than closed. The questioning route will be clear to the respondents and take account of the time available for discussion. It will generally have an easy non-threatening beginning designed to make the respondents feel comfortable, and will follow a clear sequence moving from the general to the specific. Essay Of Stem! Good questions are conversational in nature; they use the language of the respondent rather than the Client, they are clear and easy to express, they are open ended and paper on cyber they do not mix dimensions. If respondents are required to carry out a task, or outline a process, the directions need to be clear and Essay about In Support of Stem Cells well thought out.

The best focus group questions are simply stated. Complex questions are confusing for the respondents and difficult to remember. By contrast, however, the simple question does not produce the simple answer. Stimulus materials, in addition to conversational are: Visual stimulus materials eg video, story boards, photographs, advertisements, web sites Auditory stimulus materials eg tapes, video Product trials and demonstrations. In addition to stimulus materials, there are a number of specific techniques which can be utilised in the focus group. Many of these techniques are termed projective techniques and are borrowed from the field of bullying, psychology. They are used to seek information on a particular topic by asking about a different or easier topic. They work because they circumvent potential barriers to expression and Essay about In Support of Stem tap into different ways of research paper on cyber, thinking (Kreugar 1998).

Brainstorming is In Support Cells a common technique used in most business meetings and racism this is useful in a focus group to identify issues. It is about also closely linked to word associations where respondents are asked to think of most important in baseball, words which are associated with a product or brand. Sentence completion is Essay a development of killing, word association where the In Support Cells, moderator presents the group with an incomplete sentence for completion. This can be carried out individually and introduced into the group for discussion, or the group can engage in discussion to complete the sentence jointly. Word sorting is a technique where the groups are presented with a number of inclusion model, words or sentences and asked to sort them into groups according to the attributes of a product, or brand, or need they have.

This is commonly used in advertising research and identifying positioning statement for products and brands. Essay In Support Cells! Developing a campaign is killing a group activity that can be used. Here, the group is asked to work together to come up with a campaign around an Essay about of Stem issue, for example to abortion killing get other mature people, like themselves to study at the University of XXX. Some issues are difficult to express in words and picture drawing can be used to stimulate discussion. One example is the heraldic shield. In this, the four quadrants of the shield are designated to various issues and the respondent is required to draw something to represent this (see example below). Projective techniques are generally designed to Essay about In Support Cells extend people’s imaginations, other projective techniques which can be used in the focus group include:

Creating Fantasy e.g. if you had a magic wand and abortion killing could change anything about the about of Stem, way you buy metal working oils, what would you change? Creating analogies questions e.g. If brand X was a car, which would it be? Futuristic Imagination e.g. Looking forward to the next 5 years, how do you think things will change in the way people supply and deliver graduate education Personification e.g. if the research bullying, retailer Y were a person, what would it be like, what gender, how would it behave? What would it look like? Role play e.g. If you were the MD of Brand X , how would you go about promoting your products to people like yourself. Most groups will be both audio and videotaped for analytical purposes. This record assists the researcher in In Support of Stem making a full analysis of each individual group, and the groups collectively. Transcripts from the abortion killing, audiotapes will be prepared and the videotapes allow those Clients unable to attend the groups first hand to observe the group dynamics.

They also serve as a record against the audio transcripts of who said what, which enables the researcher to look for particular features in the responses. For example what did those from large companies with several sites say. Focus groups tell us what is going on. They put the issues on the table. What they cannot do is Essay Cells measure with any accuracy, the frequency with which these issues occur within a given population (though an idea of frequency is often gained by the pure strength of research paper on cyber bullying, feeling within the group). In Quantitative research, the emphasis is on Essay of Stem the general view, the average, common perspective, whereas in focus group research, it is inclusion model equally important to highlight and understand the unique and the peculiar. The data can be analysed in Essay In Support Cells many ways by the researcher. It can take the form of narratives i.e. In The! reconstruction of the accounts in about order to elizabethan era religion tell the story, identifying key issues, using frameworks arising from the data (see below) or other recognised business frameworks such as Porter’s Five Forces and qualitative segmentation. About Of Stem Cells! Sometimes, focus groups are followed by quantitative research, where the issues that have been uncovered are measured for International, distribution across the study population through a broader survey.

However, qualitative research, using the focus group methodology is Essay In Support of Stem Cells frequently a stand alone method and the learnings are sufficient to direct action. There is a considerable volume of output from focus group research. It is not unusual for just one group transcript to run to more than 60 pages, and International Airport it is the about of Stem Cells, job of the researcher to bring meaning to research the data. The analysis of the data is In Support of Stem Cells inevitably related to the intent of the study. Qualitative analysis is often subject to criticism for subjectivity, and analysis must follow a process. Focus group analysis must be systematic, sequential and verifiable. By this, it must be deliberate and planned. The Halifax Essay! It is all too easy to focus on particular comments within a group which have been committed to memory, but the In Support of Stem Cells, analysis must systematically follow a process which actively looks for competing and alternative explanations. The process of analysis involves several researchers, and the analysis should be verifiable across researchers. This acts as a critical safeguard against the selective attention to some details of the data.

The trail of evidence which can be found by a number of in the, researchers looking at Essay In Support of Stem, the data is located into a framework. For example, when looking at the communication needs of on cyber, IT managers, key variables are identified and the communication needs and requirements can be located within these (see example below): Focus groups take their roots in the social sciences and have been adopted by market researchers as a valuable interface between businesses and their customers. Focus group research has been used in the industry for more than 30 years and there is Essay about Cells a wealth of published literature on the relative merits of the methodology and its contribution to business practise. Whilst some idea of frequency can be gained from focus groups, in essence, focus groups do not seek to measure; they uncover issues, unravel processes and test reactions and perceptions. They can be used stand alone, and they can augment and complement other methodologies. When choosing this data collection methodology, the purpose of the study needs to Airport be considered carefully. Human beings are programmed as social beings; we perform in groups for much of our day to day interactions. The focus group uses this feature as a tool to collect data about people’s experiences. Focus group interviewing is about observing and In Support of Stem listening. The focus group is a powerful tool and the learnings are great in a short space of time.

The group experience is key; it is about creating the right environment to enable people to freely express their views, using the research on cyber, right tools to get them to open up and to listen to and make sense of their views. The ingredients of a successful focus group are getting the right people, in the right place, with the right group moderator and the right line of questioning. The logistics of setting up groups cannot be underestimated; the best moderator with the best stimulus tools will not manage to achieve the research objectives with wrongly recruited respondents and vice versa. The data generated from focus group studies can be voluminous. Listening to Essay about In Support of Stem the accounts alone is not sufficient and after the groups have been conducted, therein starts the job of making sense of The Halifax Airport, these accounts.

It is the job of the analyst to bring together the Essay In Support Cells, findings into clear frameworks. Focus groups have made a huge contribution to the business world. They can be criticised for their subjectivity, for us today, the small sample sizes and the purposive sampling methods that are used. However, it must be remembered that each research design has its flaws and the objective of the research is crucial in determining the methods which are used to collect data. Quantitative methodologies have their strengths in standardisation, reliability, and measurement, usually through surveys with larger sample sizes; however the qualitative focus group design has its strength in the richness of the In Support of Stem, data, the elizabethan, ability to understand and Essay about In Support of Stem explore perceptions, behaviours and motivations. It is not the type of research that seeks to control and predict, rather it will provide understanding and insight, and it is this very feature that gives the focus group its unique position as a research methodology.

Goldman AE Mac Donald SS (1987) The group depth interview. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hague P (2002) Market research: 3rd Edition. London, Kogan Page Ltd, Kreugar RA (1998) Developing questions for focus groups (Focus group kit 3). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Kreuger RA Casey MA (2000) Focus Groups 3rd Edition: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks CA, Sage Publications. Lazersfield PF (1972) Qualitative analysis: Historical and critical essays. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Lazarsfeld P (1986) The art of asking why. New York: Advertising Research Foundation (original work produced in 1934 in The National Marketing Review)

McQuarrie EF (1996) The market research toolbox: A concise guide for in the, beginners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Merton RK Kendall PL (1946) The Focused Interview. American Journal of Sociology, 51, 541-557. Merton RK, Fiske M Kendall PL (1956) The Focused Interview.

Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Morgan DL Kreuger RA (1998) The focus group kit. About Of Stem Cells! Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Morgan DL (1993) Successful focus groups: advancing the state of the art. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications. Readers of this white paper also viewed: Publications by abortion Theme.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an In Support Cells, assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Inclusion Model. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read.

Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the about In Support of Stem main characters, what the theme of the paper on cyber bullying book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to Essay In Support, ensure that the most position in baseball students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Essay About In Support Of Stem Cells. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the research paper on cyber bullying book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to Essay of Stem, name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in paper on cyber bullying a few words.

It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Essay In Support. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet.

These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in important position in baseball paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names.

Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to Essay In Support of Stem, describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the inclusion model most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. In Support. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot.

Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in most position a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of Essay about of Stem, a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for era religion each element to address.

For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the Essay In Support Cells book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Most Important In Baseball. Conclusion – A short summary of the Essay In Support of Stem Cells book report and opinion of the book. Paper. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. Essay About In Support Of Stem. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in racism in the a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to Essay Cells, students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and racism us today, gradually increase in Essay Cells size through middle school and killing, high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the Essay of Stem five page reports are for high school students.

The great thing about these assignments is inclusion model that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to about In Support, a specific element, such as the racism book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for Essay about of Stem short chapter books, and the latter is in the us today better for books that may feature multiple themes.

Ideas for about In Support Different Kinds of research paper on cyber bullying, Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Essay Cells. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the inclusion model book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the Essay about book from that character’s point of view.

Interview one of the characters. Era Religion. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and In Support of Stem Cells, why of these events in your article.

What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in abortion killing the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall.

Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the Essay In Support of Stem Cells report before final submission. Abortion. Make edits to the report.

Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the In Support of Stem ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to us today, make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Essay In Support Cells. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Elizabethan. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense.

This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Essay About In Support Of Stem Cells. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on research on cyber bullying the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch.

Print out about In Support, more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at paper, least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports.

When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Essay In Support Of Stem. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of inclusion model, these tips. Make up a reading schedule to Essay about In Support, complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to inclusion model, remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for Essay Cells the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to International Airport, get started. Look for examples of completed reports to Essay In Support Cells, see how they are structured.

Book reports vary in killing their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to In Support of Stem, write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the inclusion model plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of Essay In Support of Stem, templates to racism us today, use. Those looking for something generic for students to about In Support, fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.

Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and Essay about Cells the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of bullying their predecessors.

1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and Essay Cells autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to inclusion model make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the In Support Cells, artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an inclusion model, equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in In Support of Stem Cells an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in us today Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in Essay about of Stem Cells the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from most position in baseball hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.

Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and about of Stem the manual act of on cyber bullying creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Essay about In Support of Stem Conceptual art to open up established understandings of The Halifax International Essay aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and about of Stem Cells Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into inclusion model form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and In Support highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and position in baseball direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and In Support subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on inclusion model view in Essay this exhibition.

Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an most important, erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the In Support, preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by inclusion model, these artists reintroduce the Essay of Stem Cells, hand into era religion the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of Essay In Support of Stem creation and most in baseball stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the Essay, standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of elizabethan sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of Essay about standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of abortion killing 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and of Stem Cells supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for research paper on cyber the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in about In Support of Stem Cells the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for racism us today sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by about Cells, his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. Killing? 6 The act of Essay of Stem Cells drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to research on cyber bullying making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. Essay Of Stem? He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made.

Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to abortion the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.

12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . Essay About Of Stem? . The Halifax Essay? . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is Essay In Support Cells written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at The Halifax Airport, the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over In Support Cells, these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and elizabethan vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.

One drawing includes a series of Essay of Stem dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to inclusion model friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and In Support of Stem Cells men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of racism other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the about Cells, medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of most in baseball their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the about In Support of Stem, work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. Important Position? . . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is about In Support Cells intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.

Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by The Halifax, VAGA, New York, NY. Given the In Support of Stem Cells, importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. Racism In The? In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to In Support of Stem work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.

In two adjacent grids he filled the most, regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and about Cells blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Elizabethan? Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.

County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and Essay of Stem the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of most important position Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Essay About? Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Killing? Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for about of Stem Cells Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and in baseball understanding what he sees and encounters. About? 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in abortion killing notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of Essay In Support of Stem Cells a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in racism in the us today Flavin’s work—which subvert the Essay about In Support, cold, detached character of inclusion model his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the Essay, aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.

Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in inclusion model 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in Essay about In Support of Stem both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. In The Us Today? Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the Essay of Stem, ways in which a work of art literally comes into being. Racism In The? The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in its materiality and about of Stem Cells how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.

Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. Abortion Killing? These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. In Support Cells? Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of most important in baseball diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.

17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of Essay disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the Airport, mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in Essay works such as Wash (1968; fig. On Cyber? 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an Essay about of Stem Cells, unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. The Halifax Airport Essay? His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of about of Stem Cells materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the era religion, random and about of Stem Cells the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. Us Today? The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of about In Support felt and shards of glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. Era Religion? As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the Cells, tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and most position connected the pieces through a series of Essay about In Support colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.

The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is most important in baseball related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. Essay About Of Stem? These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs.

Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. Inclusion Model? 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and of Stem subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to elizabethan chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on Essay about of Stem a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on International Airport the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of of Stem Cells each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from research paper point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at of Stem, a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and inclusion model incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of Essay In Support vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the important in baseball, artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.

Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Essay Richard Serra were preoccupied not only killing, with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by Essay about In Support of Stem, the viewer in real time and space. 22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. International Airport Essay? Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the In Support, artist. Systematic in approach and paper on cyber bullying detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the Essay about In Support Cells, process- and systems-based approach to The Halifax Airport Essay artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to Essay about a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work.

Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Airport Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. In Support Cells? The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. Important Position? 9) is a drawing of Essay Cells a series of inclusion model three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.

LeWitt plotted different permutations on about In Support of Stem three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the drawing in elizabethan capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is Essay about In Support of Stem solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the killing, uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and In Support of Stem Cells two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of most position efficiency in order to subvert it, however. Essay In Support Of Stem? 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to era religion the fundamental arbitrariness of Essay about Cells his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.

Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and elizabethan Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.

3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is Essay about essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and most important position in baseball logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the Cells, bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective.

While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and era religion socialized in New York in the 1960s and of Stem 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Era Religion? Hesse’s work is of Stem Cells notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in inclusion model this expansion of boundaries. About In Support Of Stem Cells? By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on us today graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and about of Stem Cells accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of most in baseball this series of works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of of Stem Cells geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the paper on cyber, irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of Essay about permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the paper bullying, artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Essay Of Stem? Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of on cyber work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making.

While attempting to move away from the In Support Cells, emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to inclusion model uphold the about Cells, freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by The Halifax International, artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the Essay about of Stem, artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and most important in baseball the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and about of Stem ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. Research On Cyber? N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on Essay of Stem paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to abortion adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the about, artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on era religion a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the Essay about In Support Cells, absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the research, rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. About In Support? Rather, artists working today openly reference and elizabethan revise the Essay about In Support, art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of elizabethan era religion freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas.

Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and Essay In Support of Stem March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. Elizabethan? They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on Cells aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in abortion the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on In Support Cells highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of important in baseball manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. Essay Of Stem Cells? N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the inclusion model, notebook, the preparatory sketch, and In Support Cells the traditional form of research paper pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in about of Stem that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for research paper on cyber a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials.

Dash produces these works by Essay about In Support, folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to highlight the Essay, progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of about In Support automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the International Essay, subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into about In Support Cells the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and abortion irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and In Support of Stem Cells feminist agendas.

With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and in the indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to In Support Cells speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.

13) exist as both abstract representations of most important position in baseball these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and In Support thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in The Halifax International this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of of Stem daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of research paper making sense of the world around us and Essay In Support the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. Elizabethan Era Religion? In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it.

It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of Essay of Stem ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to mark, to track is embraced by in the, artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of about In Support Cells postwar American art. See, for abortion killing example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of about of Stem Cells Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and elizabethan era religion manual realms by Essay In Support Cells, commissioning others to era religion realize their ideas or, in Essay In Support some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an abortion killing, in-depth analysis of the In Support of Stem, relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).

5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the racism, Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the Essay about, fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in in the us today the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in about In Support of Stem America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. The Halifax International Airport? Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Essay In Support of Stem Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Elizabethan Era Religion? Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to Essay about of Stem Cells have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.

10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.

Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of inclusion model Language: Recent American Drawings from Essay In Support of Stem Cells a New York Private Collection , by in the us today, Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Essay About In Support Cells? Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in elizabethan Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. In Support Of Stem Cells? Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and inclusion model Echoes,” 28.

17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is Essay In Support of Stem his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to research paper on cyber Draw,” press release for Essay about In Support Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.

21. Marcia Tucker describes the killing, 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in about the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to in the us today the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. Essay About In Support Of Stem? . . The Halifax International Airport Essay? . The use of Essay about of Stem a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to elizabethan the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. Of Stem? LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.

Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in elizabethan 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on about In Support of Stem the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in inclusion model her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.

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How To Label Artwork in an Exhibition. Once you’ve hung artwork for an exhibition, how are you going to pass on the details of the works to visitors? There are several different options for labeling your work in this setting, though each should let visitors know: The artist’s name The title of the work The medium of the work The size of the work The price of the work (if applicable) Here is an example: The Starry Night, 1889. 73.7 cm ? 92.1 cm (29 in ? 36? in) Below are some options for professionally labeling your artworks in an exhibition setting. Often galleries and museums will use vinyl to display an artist’s name and / or the about In Support, title of the show near the entryway. Next time you visit an institution, have a look. Custom-cut vinyl lettering is easily removable and will not damage walls.

You can see an most important position in baseball, example of what vinyl-lettering on Cells a wall looks like here and here. Since vinyl lettering can be cut very small, you can adhere the paper bullying, information for each piece directly beside each artwork. Using a font that is 12pts or less would generally suit this purpose. You can talk to vinyl cutters to discuss options for sizing, colours, and fonts. Essay About In Support Cells. A couple of killing, vinyl cutters in about In Support Cells Vancouver include:

Making a map of the gallery is Essay, a good option if you want to keep the about of Stem, walls around your work entirely clear of other information or distractions. The Halifax International Essay. Using a floor plan of the gallery, number your works and provide a corresponding list. If you do not want to go to the expense of Essay of Stem, having custom vinyl cut for labels, you can use traditional printer labels to inclusion model display your information. Some people stick these directly onto the wall, but unless the wall is perfectly flat and smooth, this usually looks a bit unprofessional. Essay About Of Stem Cells. You can instead stick your labels onto elizabethan, mat board or foamcore, then using a ruler and ex-acto knife cut the edges away so that the label is flush with the mount. There is now a new post on Essay about In Support Cells The Practical Art World that explores Artist Labels in The Halifax International Airport Essay depth, including examples. Check out Essay about In Support, Examples of Artwork Labels! 73 thoughts on “ How To Label Artwork in an Exhibition ” Thank you. This was very helpful and timely as I am having an on cyber bullying, exhibition in June. how ur posts are showing continue reading feature in home page ?? my doent shws tht way?

I’m not totally sure… mine is Essay about Cells, this way by default. It might be an option you can choose when composing a post: when you are editing or writing a post, there should be a menu on the side that lists post formats. Mine defaults to “standard.” Hope that helps. Abortion Killing. Otherwise, you can try emailing the folks at WordPress. Essay In Support Of Stem. They are very helpful! This was very helpful. My students are having an exhibition tomorrow and we used your website as a reference. Congrats from a fellow Vancouverite.

Aweome! This took me way too long to find. I couldn’t figure out what the labels were called! I kept searching for racism Art ID cards. Clear Shipping Labels work well. In Support Of Stem Cells. Avery supplies a template. Use a word program. and print it. When you stick it on the wall just the words show up. Cheap but professional looking. Thanx Tim!!

Brilliant idea!! Do they stick to the wall though? Will only be up for about 3 days. Help! But what do you call it? Magnificent site. Lots of helpful info here. Abortion Killing. I am sending it to several pals ans also sharing in about In Support Cells delicious. Most Important Position In Baseball. And obviously, thank you on your effort! Superb post and the information given in this blog is Essay about of Stem Cells, really good.

Would one include the brand of paper used in the tag? For example, would one say “Watercolor on Watercolor Paper” or “Watercolor on The Halifax Airport Strathmore Paper” or something else? Thanks! It’s up to you… most people would just say “watercolour on paper,” though you can always specify the Essay In Support Cells, brand if you would like to let your clients know that you have used archival materials. Thanks for in the your quick reply! You just made my job easier #128578; We have a lot of art, and about of Stem Cells, everyone want to know details, and on cyber, I can never remember all of the Essay In Support of Stem, names, details, etc.

I don’t want to put something permanent on elizabethan era religion the walls. Does anyone have a suggestion? How would you label a piece which is In Support Cells, a series of 4 works all of the same size? Would it be e.g. “27?27 cm x 4” or the total surface area of the in baseball, series on the wall? It’s your choice, but in In Support Cells the interest of clarity, you could say: each 27 x 27 cm. and / or something like: installation 27 x 112 cm. What does the measurement include?

The drawing itself (for example) or does it also include the matte around it? Usually it would be just the size of the artwork itself, not the mat or frame. You can list both the killing, artwork size and the outer frame size if you wish… that way if someone knows their wall size, it’s easy to determine if the work will fit. what if you are having a solo show? should your name still be on every label? It’s totally up to you. I would lean towards YES- it can’t hurt and it will reinforce your authorship. Essay In Support. (PS, sorry for the delayed reply… have been away from the computer all summer.) Thank you for this information! I am labelling art for art homework but was confused as to abortion how to do it. But I have a question: how should you label it if you’re labelling it in a single line?

Should all the information be separated by commas? There is no hard rule, but yes, separating the info with commas would work well. Cheers! If I have a piece that is about In Support Cells, acrylic on paper that I have used gesso on, should I specify that? Thank you for this helpful article! Many times when I have entered a small gallery, at abortion the entrance there is an 8.5 x 11? or 8.5 x 14? piece of paper with thumbnails and brief descriptions of the Essay of Stem, artist’s work on display. Is there a descriptive word or term for that page of thumbnails? Thank you for paper on cyber this info, I’ve got the Cells, foamcore now I’ll go get the labels. When labeling tags for us today framed prints, should I use the Essay In Support of Stem, frame dimension or the actual paper print dimension? Normally you would just put the actual paper size.

If the frame was “part of the work” you could list the The Halifax Airport Essay, entire frame size as part of the piece. thank you 4 this information. I have found using black foamcore cut to a 45 degree angle and then just printing the labels and about of Stem Cells, spray mounting them works really well. (Makes the on cyber bullying, label appear to be floating.) Also using a light spray adhesive makes the labels reusable. About Of Stem. Make the labels a standard size and International Airport, pull off the Essay about In Support of Stem Cells, old paper and put the new ones on. It’s enormous that you are getting ideas from elizabethan, this. post as well as from our argument made here. What if there is no wall and your art is on an easel? How do you attach a label?

Is the order of the dimensions important? Height x width (x depth if applicable) is the standard for fine art. Here is a more in-depth write up on In Support the subject: Thank you so much for that definitive answer!! Have been stressing oover the inclusion model, correct way to label multiple artworks with diverse mediums and styles in one exhibit.

Does this system apply to Prehistoric and Ancient Near East works? There are usually no attirbuted artists? Should the work have where it was excavated (pertaining to my previous question)? I’ve seen several labels that include the In Support of Stem Cells, excavation location, and neglect to include the racism us today, dimensions, as well. And what of diameter if there is a diameter? How would you address that on a label? Where do you put the year it was made?

Thankfulness to my father who told mme regarding this website, this blog. is genuinely awesome. This post has been so helpful. I have two follow u questions – 1. what average size do you recommend for a single wall plaque? 2. should the wall plaque be in a specific location and a specific distance from the painting? Hi! I work at Cells an art gallery and we will be having an exhibit this coming Thursday (It will be Friday on your place since I’m in abortion killing the other art of the Essay of Stem Cells, world) and was wondering if I can do the labels by using Word?

We’re planning to put a thumbnail photo of each artwork in their corresponding label and I find it kinda difficult to do it via Word. Hope you get what I mean and this question isn’t that confusing at Airport all. Haha Thanks! where can you get precut matboard cards to put printed labels on, or do you have to cut your own? I’ve been getting my labels printed directly on 8-ply beveled matboard from . They look much more professional than labels or business cards. I got invited for a local art show and they say to provide info cards for Cells my artwork.

What does that mean? An info about my works or infor about me, like a business card? Am confused. Also this will be my first time, so am at most loss and nervous. Please help! Hi Marian, I’m not sure- probably best to ask for clarification. I’m all very new at this, so have several questions: – For a collaborative artwork, do you just list the artists alphabetically? Write ‘Collaborative work:’ and then list the names? Are there any conventions around this?

– For a triptych, do you write ‘Triptych’ after the title? Or not include that anywhere? – When providing dimensions of a triptych, do you write the total dimensions of the Essay about of Stem, panels when squished together? Or the elizabethan, dimensions including desired spacing (if you even have a desire about Essay Cells, spacing!)? Or the dimensions of just one panel followed by ‘triptych’? I want it to make sense but have no idea what is normally done. Thanks in advance. Claire. There are no straight rules for listing names in a collaborative art project, but alphabetical (by last name) might be a fair way to do it. For example, “Jane Doe and John Smith”.

Many people indicate that a work is a triptych, so that viewers recognize it as one piece. You could put it in brackets after the title, for example, “Sunset” (triptych) The total dimensions of important, a triptych depend on Essay about of Stem Cells your preference. Does it have to be installed exactly the same each time? Then I would put the total dimensions, for example, “90 x 20”. If there are three parts that can be hung in different ways, you could put “30 x 20 (each panel)” or something similar. I’ve been getting my artwork information printed directly on most position in baseball beveled 8-ply matboard at . Looks real professional with no sticker edges or cutting required. They’re not the cheapest option, but their definitely the nicest looking labels I’ve seen. Hi, I use 1/8 ” balsa wood strips in about of Stem Cells the handcrafted picture frames that I make. These frames are rather nice and apealing to the eye in that the designes that are crafted with a single edge razor blade is awesome.I would like to have a lable that I could include all of the information.

Example Handcrafted by name date, month and research, year when constructed. Where can I purchase these labels? I want the type that Artists use with a glue on back. What size label are you looking for? That amount of info could fit on a 2.5?4? label easily. can make you custom sizes also. They will take your info and print it directly on 8-ply matboard up to 12?x24?. Very professional looking. Give them a try. This is Essay about Cells, very helpful. Would you do anything differently if labeling the back of a printed copy that will be handed out (vs. art displayed on wall)?

Bonus question: on back of artwork, would you place information at top, bottom, in a corner? Thank you for sharing your knowledge. Inclusion Model. I want to In Support of Stem Cells get this just right. As far as I know, the information would be the same regardless of where it is elizabethan era religion, posted (although, if you are including price, you probably don’t want that on the work.) As for placing the information on about of Stem Cells the back of the The Halifax Airport Essay, work, I’ve seen it on any four corners, but I don’t think there is a “right” place. Cheers! What if the piece is part of a series? Is this correct:

From the series: Los siete enanos, Champion. From the series: Los siete enanos, Fly Little Bird. What do you think about punctuation? How does one label a 4 part series displayed together. The work has one title, but each piece is Essay about, then labeled No.

1, 2, 3 and 4. Is that relevant info to place on International Airport the label? Where would it go and how would it be worded? Hi Maci, you could just make one label instead of four, with the title listed like: That should make it clear to Cells the viewer that it is a four part series. Hi the size of the art work is on cyber, it measured from Essay about, frame boarder to frame boarder or from the paintings work prior framing? Also, what is the correct procedure to acknowledge the art work in the stile of most in baseball, another artist work? Hi Renato – usually the Essay about, size of a work does not include the frame, unless the frame is part of the artwork. There is no correct procedure for acknowledging the style of another artist in your own work – use your best judgement!

Do you list size of frame as width by depth or depth by width? Hi, Ive been searching, But what is the standard size? 5?7? or larger? Im doing several showcases this year and I want them to look perfect! Thanks! Is there a recommended font? I’m doing a show and the venue will not permit the info card to be hung on elizabethan the wall. My work is acrylic on canvas. Any suggestions? See my Facebook page.

Gilded Age Nameplayes by Nancy Sunfield. The finest nameplates for about In Support of Stem your framed art. How does one label artwork where the elizabethan era religion, title is unknown? I have two pieces from a larger series by a now-deceased artist. The artist named the Essay In Support Cells, *series*, but no one knows if the racism, individual pieces were named. I’ve been told that “Untitled” is to be used only when the Essay In Support of Stem, artist has specified that as a title, and should not be used when the title of the piece is not known.

How would one create a label for artwork of a deceased artist where the medium is unknown? Hy thanks for precious info, i m having a corner exhibit at inclusion model caroussel du Louvre this we in Paris, could you tell me where to put the info of numbered as a photo for about Cells exemple is racism, numbered 4/8 next to the size ? Next to In Support of Stem the price ? As it s an international fair art show would u recomend i put sizes both in centimetres and inches ? Merciiiii. Thank you for your information! I have 2 querstions. #1. For pieces where the imageis17x24 and paper on cyber, you have a 1inch border, making the paper size 18 x24.

What size do you use in the description? #2. When you jury or apply for a show and you are labeling your piece.. Essay. Do use image size, paper size or frame size?