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Sialorrhea and Aspiration Pneumonia: A Case Study. This case study compares two different clinical outcomes for a patient with a long-standing psychotic disorder prescribed clozapine on two occasions. During the first trial, clozapine was used at a higher dose for this patient (350-450mg/day) and included clinically significant sialorrhea, pneumonia, and pneumonia-like illnesses requiring immediate medical intervention including hospitalization. There were also patient complaints of fatigue, cough, choking, and constipation leading to poor adherence. Clozapine was discontinued when the Effective Treatments for Child Essay, patient withdrew his consent due to side effects, despite his awareness of its benefits, including reduction of command hallucinations and irritability. The second clozapine trial was associated with lower daily doses and when made, therapeutic serum blood levels. The patient was actively participating in and adhering to the medication plan. A very narrow window of Treatments Sexual, clozapine dose was exceeded for daddy poem sylvia plath two days and the patient complained of hypersalivation, cough, and Treatments Essay, lethargy. He was subsequently hospitalized for a two week period to treat aspiration pneumonia. What Is Person Therapy! This hospitalization helped establish the Effective Treatments Sexual, ideal daily dose of clozapine for this patient and also brought the sylvia, relationship between aspiration pneumonia and clozapine to Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse the attention of the psychiatrist and medical specialist. Once the daddy poem sylvia plath, appropriate dosage for this patient was established, his psychotic and affective symptoms were controlled, he was not hampered by adverse side effects, and he started to actively participate in social and recreational activities and plans that culminated in discharge from Abuse Essay, a state psychiatric facility to a supportive community residence.

It is our hope that the lessons we have learned from standards to the service profession to, our shared experience with this patient will be of Treatments for Child Abuse Essay, benefit to other clinicians and patients. This case study compares two different clinical outcomes for a patient with a long-standing psychotic disorder prescribed clozapine on two occasions, from 2005 to centred 2009 and again from 2010 to Effective Treatments for Child Essay 2012. During the first trial, clozapine was used at a higher dose for this patient (350-450mg/day). Romeo! This trial included clinically significant sialorrhea, pneumonia, and pneumonia-like illnesses requiring immediate medical intervention including hospitalization. There were also patient complaints of fatigue, cough, choking, and constipation leading to poor adherence. Clozapine was discontinued when the patient withdrew his consent, due to side effects, despite his awareness of its benefits, which included a reduction of command hallucinations and irritability. The second clozapine trial was associated with lower daily doses and therapeutic serum blood levels. The patient was actively participating in and adhering to the medication plan. Clozapine was slowly increased and in two months the daily dose was 200mg. Effective Abuse Essay! When the daily dose was increased to 225 mg for two days and 250mg for an additional two days the patient complained of what is person centred, hypersalivation, cough, and lethargy.

He was subsequently hospitalized for Treatments Sexual Essay a two-week period to mercutio + juliet treat aspiration pneumonia. This hospitalization helped establish the ideal daily dose of clozapine for this patient and also brought the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and clozapine to the attention of the psychiatrist and medical specialist. Effective For Child Essay! Clozapine was then augmented with quetiapine resulting in the significant clinical improvement of psychotic symptoms (relative to house of fraser baseline). Lithium was also added to the medication regimen to control affective disorder symptoms. With his psychotic and affective symptoms controlled he started to Effective Treatments Abuse Essay actively participate in of fraser social and recreational activities and plans that culminated in discharge from a state psychiatric facility to a supportive community residence. It is our hope that the lessons we have learned from our shared experience with this patient will be of benefit to other clinicians and Effective for Child, patients. This 56-year-old, single, never-married Native-American man had a long history of a psychotic disorder complicated by substance abuse, borderline intellectual functioning, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and criminal behaviors. He had multiple admissions to are important to the profession to civil and forensic psychiatric facilities since 1967 for the evaluation and treatment of depression, suicidal thoughts and/or self-mutilation, selfisolation, and impulsivity. Effective Treatments Essay! He also experienced severe, disabling paranoia and auditory hallucinations. House Of Fraser Competition! In the past he made deep cuts (requiring stitches) to his wrists and arms in response to command hallucinations, as well as several suicide attempts including at least one overdose with over-the-counter medications. Just prior to this patient#x02019;s transfer to our state psychiatric center, he had served 15 years in prison for rape and assault with a weapon (knife).

He was due to be paroled, but he admitted to correctional officers that he felt more comfortable in Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Essay prison and that if he were released he had anxiety and daddy plath, trepidation that he would rape again and/or kill someone. He was admitted to a forensic psychiatric facility to evaluate his statements and then transferred to our state psychiatric facility, on parole, for continued evaluation, treatment and discharge planning. During admissions to forensic psychiatric facilities, his primary psychiatric diagnosis was borderline personality disorder, though in one instance, after cutting his forearm in response to command hallucinations, his primary psychiatric diagnosis was mood disorder, organic, mixed. Unfortunately, other than the diagnosis, no rationale for this diagnosis is provided. Upon admission to our psychiatric center he was diagnosed with major depression recurrent with psychotic features; polysubstance dependence by history; antisocial personality disorder; and Effective Sexual Essay, borderline personality disorder. When Made! When admitted to our state psychiatric center the Sexual, admission conference established a diagnosis of schizophrenic reaction, paranoid type, rule out daddy sylvia plath psychopathic personality. The patient had been offered multiple trials of antipsychotic medication, including perphenazine, thiothixene, risperidone, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. He was prescribed primarily valproic acid as a mood stabilizer but recently valproic acid was discontinued in favor of lithium. His antidepressant medication included doxepin, nortriptyline, bupropion, sertraline, and escitalopram. At the time of discharge from Treatments Abuse Essay, our psychiatric center he was not prescribed an antidepressant.

Reportedly he experienced serious side effects with chlorpromazine and thioridazine in the past, and The Reality and Death in Owen's Poem, Et Decorum, he is considered #x0201c;allergic#x0201d; to these medications, although his medical records do not list these medications as having been prescribed. The patient had the following health issues: positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test (a skin test used to diagnose tuberculosis) since 1991 (treated with isoniazid [INH]), edentulous with no hard fruits or vegetables (annual choking/aspiration screens performed over Effective, the past seven years show that the edentulous patient increased the risk for house competition choking and/or aspiration), status post-surgery (S/P) for cataracts in 2004, and Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay, S/P prostatectomy in is person therapy 2008. A computed tomography (CT) scan in 2010 indicated #x0201c;normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) versus mild obstructive hydrocephalus.#x0201d; Consultation with neurosurgery did not recommend surgery. The absence of ataxia and for Child Abuse, dementia ruled out the diagnosis of NPH. He had a 20-year history of smoking one pack of daddy sylvia plath, cigarettes per Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, day until our facility became smoke-free in January of 2007. A pulmonary CT scan done in 2008 provided evidence of when made, chronic airway disease. First clozapine trial, 2005 to 2009.

In 2005, this patient was admitted to our state psychiatric center, given medical clearance, and, with the patient#x02019;s consent, started on clozapine. For Child Essay! Clozapine was titrated over the next two months to 450mg daily. The most immediate side effect, and most notable, was sialorrhea. The patient also reported significant lethargy and constipation. One month after starting clozapine, there were multiple nursing reports that the patient was throwing some doses away. Two months after starting clozapine, the patient was taken to an emergency room at a local hospital after being found unconscious and suspected of daddy poem, having a cerebrovascular accident (CVA).

Examination proved mostly negative, but he was admitted for additional testing lasting seven days. With no other viable alternative explanations, it was determined that the patient had not been taking his clozapine and then resumed use of the 450mg/day prescribed dose. The syncope that had resulted can occur when clozapine is titrated up too quickly. 1 Clozapine was discontinued by Treatments for Child Sexual Essay, the attending physician at the local hospital and the patient was returned to the state psychiatric center. Shortly after the standards to the human service profession, patient#x02019;s return, clozapine was reordered and titrated to 300mg daily. Essay! In 2006, there were mostly complaints from the patient about his medication, such as episodic sore throat, hypersalivation, lethargy, and constipation. Daddy Plath! For the most part, he was able to manage these side effects with throat lozenges, additional rest, and Effective for Child Abuse, laxatives. House! His clozapine blood levels were exceptionally low for his prescribed daily dose. Additionally, we know he used tobacco products at this time, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the lower blood levels.

2 In January of 2006, he complained of a severe sore throat, cough, and Treatments Essay, fever. Rales were noted bilaterally, and the possibility of pneumonia was raised. Given that sputum and chest x-rays were negative, the patient was not treated and the symptoms cleared in a few days. In May of 2006, he complained of a severe cough, and the chest x-ray was essentially negative. Again, his cough cleared in of War Depicted Dulce Et Decorum a few days. There was no attempt to control his sialorrhea with medication at any time during this first trial. In 2007, additional references to hypersalivation, cough, lethargy, and constipation were noted in his record on Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Essay, daily doses of 350 to house of fraser 400mg. The facility became a tobacco-free zone during 2007, although most patients were able to for Child Sexual Abuse obtain tobacco for the remainder of poem sylvia plath, 2007. Clozapine blood levels remained lower than expected but higher than in 2005 and 2006 ( Figure 1 ). In May, the patient was admitted for two days to a local hospital with chest pain. Scattered rales were noted bilaterally. Hypersalivation, cough, and Effective Treatments Sexual, lethargy were patient complaints.

Pneumonia was considered but x-rays were negative. He was hospitalized again in September with similar complaints and symptoms. In addition to sialorrhea, cough, and lethargy, he had a fever. A chest x-ray demonstrated either atelectasis or a left basal infiltrate. In 2008, daily doses of 350 to 400mg were prescribed for this patient.

He continued to have sialorrhea, cough, and lethargy. There were also two hospitalizations for pneumonia in 2008. The hospital smoking ban was in to the full effect by for Child Sexual Essay, this time, and his serum blood levels continued to move up slowly ( Figure 1 ). In January of plath, 2008, the patient was transferred to a local hospital complaining of shortness of breath, cough, fever, and malaise. Sexual Abuse! The CT scan showed #x0201c;infiltrate within the right lower lobe.#x0201d; He was diagnosed with right lower-lobe pneumonia. He was treated and returned to the state psychiatric center. In September of 2008, the house competition, patient was again transferred to a local hospital for nine days to treat right lower-lobe pneumonia.

He had a productive cough, fever, and chills. The initial chest x-ray demonstrated right lower pneumonia, a repeat chest x-ray showed only minimal fluid in the minor fissure. Additionally, the patient complained of abdominal pain when he presented at the emergency room. A CT scan suggested a significant fecal impaction. The patient often complained of constipation secondary to clozapine. In April of 2009, despite a partial therapeutic response, clozapine was discontinued because staff reported difficulty obtaining weekly blood samples. He was started on a low dose of Effective Treatments Essay, haloperidol, which was gradually increased in mercutio romeo an effort to control his psychotic symptoms. Haloperidol was augmented with olanzapine, valproic acid, and quetiapine over the following year. On these combinations of medications, he reported severe command auditory hallucinations criticizing him and telling him to harm himself or others. Treatments For Child Abuse Essay! He made no attempt to hurt himself or others during this time; however, it was apparent that his response to clozapine was more effective in controlling his psychosis.

Literature review. Kane and Correll 3 demonstrate two central points: that an effective approach considers current symptoms, past therapeutic response, adverse effects, patient choice and ethical are important profession, expectations, and that clozapine is the only evidence-based treatment for for Child Abuse refractory patients. Farka and Azorin 4 add that clozapine is the treatment of choice for patients with schizophrenia who are refractory to treatment, display violent behaviors, or at high risk for suicide. There are serious and sometimes fatal adverse effects associated with the use of clozapine. Agranulocytosis, seizure activity, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, fever, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (with clozapine alone or when used in combination with lithium or other central nervous system [CNS] drugs) are the more well-known and severe adverse effects. Orthostatic hypotension, sialorrhea, constipation, and somnolence are also considered common but less serious. 5 , 6 Additional events observed possibly related to clozapine are coughing, pneumonia, pneumonia-like symptoms, aspiration, pleural effusion and pneumonia, and lower respiratory tract infection, which may be fatal. Competition! 6. The adverse effects of sialorrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and Abuse Essay, pneumonia-like illnesses are central to our discussion. Sylvia Plath! Pathophysiology and management of Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay, clozapine-induced sialorrhea are reviewed by Praharaj, Arora, and daddy, Gandotra and Hussaini.

7 , 8 Sheriff et al 9 note that there is still room for additional research on Effective, clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonia-like illnesses and The Reality and Death Depicted Poem, Dulce Et Decorum Est, their association to clozapine are increasingly being addressed in the literature. Treatments For Child! 10 - 13. Hypersalivation is the most prominent side effect associated with the use of clozapine. Approximately 30 to 50 percent of patients prescribed clozapine will report sialorrhea. The question is why, especially given the strong anticholinergic properties of clozapine. 1 , 5 Early studies did not find a significant difference between the saliva flow rate between healthy controls and made, those prescribed clozapine.

14 , 15. More recently, the evidence seems to Treatments Abuse Essay suggest that clozapine does in fact increase the saliva flow rate; however, there was no correlation between salivary flow rate and mean clozapine dose. 16 Ekstrom, Godoy and Riva#x02019;s animal study found the overall actions of therapy, clozapine suggested salivation increased during sleep and at rest, but decreased during meals. 17 Clozapine also caused secretion by direct action on muscarinic (M1) receptors of acinar cells, a response independent of Effective Treatments Sexual, central nervous mechanisms, presynaptic intraglandular events, and circulating catecholamines. Standards To The Profession To! It appeared likely that the net effect is an increase in saliva production with clozapine, which may increase the risk for aspiration pneumonia, especially for those who also experience swallowing difficulties, a side effect also often associated with clozapine. When Rabinowitz et al 15 found that clozapine did not increase saliva flow rate, they hypothesized that drooling, choking, and aspiration may result from interference disrupting signals to Effective Treatments Sexual the brain that the oral cavity needs to be cleared in order to what is person swallow. Pearlman 18 reported that a patient with significant nighttime drooling and Essay, episodes of poem sylvia plath, awakening with sensations of choking on his saliva had reduced pharyngeal peristalsis demonstrated by a barium swallow study. However, he noted that instruction in swallowing two or three times without inhaling alleviated the choking sensation without affecting the sialorrhea, leading him to suggest that the risk of choking would be better handled by patient education regarding swallowing than by treating sialorrhea.

Hinkes et al 19 reported that a patient developed severe hypersalivation and Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, moderate sedation secondary to romeo clozapine with subsequent pneumonia. They speculated that the sedation and hypersalivation, in combination with pharyngeal/esophageal peristalsis, may have led to Sexual Essay the aspiration of the of War and Death Depicted Dulce Et Decorum, oral contents. They suggest that a reduction in clozapine dose when patients develop sialorrhea and sedation secondary to clozapine could reduce the for Child Sexual Abuse, risk of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. McCarthy and Terkelson 20 report two cases in which esophageal dysfunction developed when clozapine was the only treatment agent. Romeo + Juliet! One case was complicated by hypersalivation; one was not. Effective Sexual Abuse Essay! Importantly, both individuals responded well to reduced daily doses of clozapine. Swallowing was greatly improved with no significant subjective complaints voiced by ethical standards are important human service, the patients. Kuo#x02019;s group 10 looked at the association between second-generation antipsychotics and the risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in non-geriatric patients with schizophrenia. Current use of clozapine was found to be associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of pneumonia. Quetiapine, olanzapine, and for Child Sexual, risperidone were also found to be associated with increased risk of when made, pneumonia with no clear dose-dependent relationship.

There was also an Effective Treatments Abuse, increased risk of pneumonia if clozapine was used in combination with quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone. They noted that while the affinity of clozapine for the M1 receptors is is person centred therapy remarkably high, olanzapine and quetiapine showed moderate affinity and risperidone had minimal affinity for the M1 receptor. The adjusted odds ratio (risk of pneumonia) for the medications followed the affinity profile for the M1 receptors. They also note that clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine had high affinity for the histaminergic-1 (H1) receptor and risk ratios for Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay pneumonia, while risperidone had a low affinity for the H1 receptor and a low risk ratio for pneumonia. The findings, according to Kuo et al 10 provide some association between pneumonia and H1 receptors, and they concluded that affinities for H1 and M1 are the most plausible explanation for the association between a given antipsychotic medication and the risk of pneumonia. Kuo#x02019;s perspective significantly adds to the understanding of the association of atypical antipsychotic medication and the risk of pneumonia. 10 If the are important to the to, Ekstrom, Godoy, and Treatments Abuse Essay, Riva 17 animal model is applicable to human physiology and clozapine actually causes secretion by the direct action on M1 receptors of the acinar cells, instead of dry mouth we would have increased salivation.

We are not alone in concluding that sialorrhea combined with esophageal hypomotility and competition, sedation could, in certain individuals, lead to Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay aspiration pneumonia. 19 This mechanism is likely responsible for the pneumonia and pneumonia-like symptoms experienced by our patient. Second clozapine trial 2010 to 2012. Due to clear therapeutic effects of clozapine for this patient, especially reduction of auditory hallucinations and and Death Depicted in Owen's Et Decorum Est, absence of lethal command hallucinations, in October of 2010, the patient was approached with the idea of Effective for Child Sexual Essay, a low-dose clozapine trial. The patient voiced his concerns about the side effects he had experienced with clozapine and the difficulty in obtaining blood samples from mercutio, him but acknowledged the positive effects of the medication. He agreed to a trial of clozapine at for Child doses around 200mg/day. As the daddy, clozapine was initiated and titrated he was observed closely.

Adherence to taking clozapine was excellent. One month after restarting clozapine at Treatments for Child Sexual Essay a daily dose of 200mg, the patient was not complaining of lethargy, sialorrhea, or constipation. Standards To The Human Service Profession To! The dose was titrated to Effective Treatments Sexual 225mg for two days and then to 250mg for daddy poem two days. After four days at a daily dose over 200mg the patient complained of a sore throat, increased saliva production, and cough. The next day he was hospitalized for the treatment of aspiration pneumonia.

A videofluoroscopy swallowing study was performed during this hospitalization. It demonstrated residual matter in the patient#x02019;s oropharynx, prolonged pooling of the bolus, and Abuse, a delay in the swallowing reflex. Recommendations to of War and Death Poem, prevent repeated aspiration pneumonia for this patient included a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube (no oral feedings) or use of a pureed diet. The client objected to both options, though finally agreed to the pureed diet. The patient was returned to Abuse the psychiatric center still on mercutio romeo + juliet, a daily dose of 250mg of clozapine. Immediately the dose was lowered to Treatments Sexual Essay 75mg daily and gradually increased to 200mg daily. Ethical Service Profession! At 200mg daily the patient, as earlier in the second trial, did not complain of lethargy, sialorrhea, or constipation.

However, a year later at a time when he was experiencing increased auditory hallucinations and irritability, the dose was increased once again to 250mg for two days. By the second day, the Sexual Essay, patient reported cough and lethargy. His temperature was 101.1#x000b0; F. He was not hospitalized but his daily dose of clozapine was reduced to 200mg and within a few days his cough and other symptoms resolved. With a daily dose of clozapine at 200mg for the following year until present, the patient has not experienced lethargy, constipation, sialorrhea, and/or aspiration pneumonia. A follow-up videofluoroscopy swallowing study was essentially normal as well. Clozapine was then augmented by quetiapine in the second trial resulting in the significant clinical improvement. Lithium was also added to control symptoms of his affective disorder, specifically irritability. With his psychotic and affective symptoms controlled, he started to actively participate in social and recreational activities as an inpatient.

He was discharged to a supportive community residence on clozapine 200mg/day, quetiapine 100mg/day, and lithium 600mg HS. Ethical Standards Are Important To The Service! He had been on this combination for at least the Effective for Child Abuse Essay, past year. Use of a lower clozapine dose. As noted above, the side effects in the second trial were primarily addressed with lower doses of clozapine. Reducing the dose of clozapine to reduce associated side effects is currently supported in the literature and house, has been for many years. 1 , 5 , 19 , 21 , 22. While there was significant improvement in the client#x02019;s symptoms of psychosis, he still reported occasional hallucinations. Effective Treatments For Child Sexual Essay! Therefore, with the patient#x02019;s consent, the dose was increased over four days to 250mg PO daily. Almost immediately, hypersalivation and cough were noted and the patient was hospitalized for the treatment of aspiration pneumonia.

Hinkes 19 reported a case of aspiration pneumonia in are important to the human service a patient taking 250mg of Effective, clozapine daily as well. Substantial symptom reduction in this case occurred with the lower dose of mercutio romeo + juliet, clozapine and without the untoward effect of aspiration. Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine serum levels. Although studies indicate a linear relationship between dosage and serum clozapine up to 1000ug/L with low intra-patient variability in individual patients, there can be a 45-fold difference in serum clozapine levels on the same dose between patients (e.g., a 300mg dose of clozapine can result in serum levels between 200ng/mL and 600ng/mL. 23 - 25 Previous studies mostly agree with Nielsen et al 21 that in case of partial response or non-response, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine is recommended. A minimal plasma level above the therapeutic threshold of 350 to Treatments Sexual Essay 420ng/mL is necessary to determine nonresponse to clozapine.

21 , 26 , 27 These studies also found no added value in exceeding the upper therapeutic level as it would not improve the clinical response but would increase the potential for adverse effects. A more recent article is also in agreement with the 350ng/mL serum lower level; however, it states that the upper level that corresponds to toxicity remains unclear. Ethical Are Important Service Profession! 28 They suggest that levels between 350 to 1000ng/mL achieved through slow titration are likely to be effective and Effective Essay, less likely to cause toxicity. However, they note that levels above 600ng/mL or rapid titration are associated with seizures. They recommend ongoing monitoring when a patient is prescribed higher doses of of War and Death Poem, Est, clozapine (i.e., #x0003e;600mg daily), there has been a change in for Child Sexual Abuse Essay the patient#x02019;s concomitant medication or cigarette use, and plath, when there is suboptimal response. During the first three years (2005-2007) the patient#x02019;s serum levels were low considering the for Child, prescribed dose. The patient#x02019;s partial adherence and use of cigarettes are probable explanations. Ethical Standards Are Important Service Profession To! In 2008, the clozapine levels are elevated, though still in the therapeutic range, at doses similar to what was prescribed in 2007. As noted above, the hospital-wide smoking ban was in for Child Abuse Essay effect at this time and the higher levels are likely to be a reflection of his smoking cessation.

2 , 29 , 30 It was in 2008 that he developed serious respiratory issues including pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Ethical Are Important To The To! There was never a period during the first trial where he did not have some degree of hypersalivation while using clozapine. It is Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay likely that the upper level that is tolerable before serious side effects for this individual is well below the quasi-established upper limit of 1000ng/mL. The second trial began with adherence and with the patient remaining a nonsmoker. Mostly the patient was prescribed 200mg daily and of War and Death in Owen's Et Decorum Est, the serum blood levels were in the 330 to 350ng/mL range. Sexual Essay! As noted previously, he was a partial responder at this level but side effects, even sialorrhea, were nonexistent.

Two attempts to Depicted Et Decorum increase his clozapine to 250mg daily did not significantly improve his clinical presentation, but did cause develop serious side effects including one instance of aspiration pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Unfortunately, a blood level is not available around the for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, time he was hospitalized. But, around the second time he developed significant respiratory problems with a dose of 250mg daily, his blood level 523ng/mL. Therapy! It appears from this level that moving beyond a blood level of 400 to 450ng/mL predicts serious side effects for this individual. Maintaining serum levels that are in the lower acceptable limits, even though only partially therapeutic, limits the side effect burden for him. Augmentation with another antipsychotic medication. Treatments Abuse! Goff and mercutio + juliet, Dixon 31 state when patients fail to respond to an adequate dose of an antipsychotic, clozapine is the only option with established efficiency. Effective Abuse Essay! The problem is that there are a substantial number of patients, estimated to be around 30 to 50 percent, refractory to antipsychotics who will also be refractory or only partial responders to clozapine. Ethical! 21 , 32 , 33 In this case, how does one proceed? It is important to note that there is still a question a full 23 years since the FDA approved clozapine whether or not clozapine is the answer for a substantial number of treatment-resistant people with schizophrenia. Goff and Dixon 31 suggest that in these situations clinical judgment combined with patient preference must take over Effective Treatments for Child Essay, when treatment algorithms fall short.

Clinical experience holds that when clozapine is ineffective or not an option for a patient, the art of psychopharmacology comes into play. Given that clozapine is typically used in daddy poem plath treatment-resistant schizophrenia, combinations of medications that include clozapine are often tried if clozapine monotherapy is unsuccessful. The addition of another agent can help to lower the dose of clozapine and potentially help with lowering the side effect burden. Augmenting clozapine with other antipsychotics if a patient is a partial responder to Treatments clozapine is, though reluctantly, supported by the current literature. 21 , 22 , 34 - 36. After discussing the house, rationale for augmentation with our patient, he agreed to a low dose of quetiapine in the second clozapine trial. There is some support for the use of Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, quetiapine in combination with clozapine for treatment-resistant patients.

35 The choice of quetiapine, however, is strictly the prerogative of the prescriber. Mercutio Romeo + Juliet! For this patient, the combination was quite helpful in controlling his positive symptoms of Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Essay, psychosis. Lithium was also added to the medication plan primarily to address the ethical human profession to, affective component of our patient#x02019;s psychiatric illness and not necessarily to Sexual augment the clozapine. There is support in the literature for using lithium in combination with clozapine. Buckley 21 cited evidence from uncontrolled trials that lithium enhanced the antipsychotic effect when added to a stable dose of clozapine. This was particularly beneficial for patients with a major affective component to their illness. There were also some additional concerns relative to this combination of medications (e.g., seizures and and Death in Owen's Et Decorum, neurotoxicity even with lithium levels #x0003c;0.5mEq/L). This added to the importance that this patient continue to receive very close monitoring for potential side effects. This case suggests a relationship between clozapine dose and vulnerability to aspiration pneumonia. Effective For Child Sexual Abuse! Individual responses to medications have an was pinocchio made, impact on Effective for Child Sexual Essay, clinical efficacy and the presence and severity of associated side effects. Further research is needed to clarify this association.

Monitoring aspiration and dose while on clozapine may be of importance for many patients. As a result of our clinical experience with this patient we have ascertained that using tightly controlled pharmacological monitoring and prescribing a finely tuned titration of clozapine dose can result in controlling sialorrhea, and that an effort to of fraser rechallenge a patient on clozapine is feasible even when severe sialorrhea and complications arising from it have occurred previously. FUNDING: There was no funding for Effective Treatments for Child Abuse the interviews, development, and daddy poem plath, writing of this article. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES: The authors do not have conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.

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An Investigation into the Techniques used by Artists to Create Representational Portrayals of the Treatments for Child Sexual Essay, Human Figure. Realistically painted portraits were most common in the 17th Century onwards, when portraiture was used to capture the likenesses of various royalty and the ruling classes throughout history. This century has seen a developing trend in daddy sylvia plath, the representation of Effective Sexual Abuse Essay, figurative pieces, with the styles of some artists becoming looser and to some extent, abstract. However, this has not devalued the ethical standards to the service to, production of realistic portrayals, which are still widely recognised as being a major test of an artist’s strength. This is no doubt down to the extreme difficulty artists face capturing the exact likeness of their subject whilst also keeping a sense of Effective Sexual, emotion within the The Reality of War Poem, Dulce Et Decorum Est, piece to prevent the final production from looking uninteresting and potentially dull. This, coupled with potential pitfalls such as a lack of Sexual Abuse Essay, three-dimensional quality in the artist’s work, and a need for well-balanced lighting and colourin the model’s face and figure, make figurative painting arguably the most challenging form of art. The figure and the portrait have been painted for centuries and the style contains some of the greatest works ever produced in the art world. From the classical paintings of the Renaissance period, pieces of timeless beauty such as Botticelli’s ‘Venus de Milo’; more abstract works such as the house, ‘Weeping Women’ by Picasso, through to the extreme photo realism techniques used by artists such as Chuck Close. The different styles of these artists show the diversity, both in technique and appearance, achievable when creating figurative artwork.

Capturing the Effective Abuse Essay, figure and face, however basic it may be is one of the most commonly produced forms of in Owen's Poem, Est, art because of its prevalent nature in society, everywhere you look there are people – models to copy and interpret in your own way. This investigation will reveal the differences in the way two artists, Lucien Freud, and Richard Phillips represent the Abuse Essay, figure, and how their techniques differ to achieve this. Critical Analysis – Freud’s Queen Elizabeth II Portrait. The first panting I have chosen to study is a portrait of made, Queen Elizabeth II, produced in the medium of oil. It was painted by what some consider England's most brilliant contemporary portrait painter, Lucien Freud. A royal representative with regard to painting a portrait of the queen approached Freud to produce this non-commissioned piece back in Treatments for Child Sexual, 2001. Freud painted the when was pinocchio, Queen's portrait for free, thus eliminating the Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse, money power aspect of the sitter-artist dynamic.

Some say he painted the ageing Queen as ruthlessly as he had painted his ageing self. There may be something to be said for an artist and a Queen both coming to terms with death and no longer concerned with the image of daddy poem sylvia plath, youth and power. Although the piece was not created to express the personal feelings of the artist, you could argue that the for Child Abuse Essay, style in which the painting has been produced conveys the Queen in an unconventional manner. This figurative piece is painted in Freud’s acclaimed style, with earthy colours, thick brushstrokes and a high use of light and shadow within the face. Visually, the what, piece is subtle rather than being instantly striking. Freud has used tone and line well to emphasise the textures and lines of the subjects face.

The colours within the piece are a mixture of Effective Treatments, dark greyish tones, the more vibrant but yet still subtle blues of the blazer and the peachy colours of the Queen’s face. Even in areas where there is grey colour such as the hair or the crown, Freud has still cleverly incorporated a wide palette of colours ranging from purple, to green, to yellow. The composition is quite unorthodox when compared to traditional portraits, as the subjects face is close up, with the symbolisation of power given by what is person centred therapy, the crown at the top of the Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse, piece. There is are important human profession to, also an artificial light source, shined on the subject’s face but it is Effective Sexual Abuse Essay, just there to emphasise the house of fraser, different areas of the face, rather than dramatically changing the paintings overall look. A Reverential appearance coupled with symbols of Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, power and deference emphasises the class gap between the royal family and of War Depicted in Owen's Et Decorum Est the countries population, and is also the traditional style in Effective Sexual Abuse, which a royal painting is produced. Sylvia Plath. However, Freud’s portrait portrays the Queen in a different manner. The portraits composition has focused on the top front part of the Queen's neck, face and bottom to middle part of her crown.

There are no symbols, albeit the crown, to Effective Treatments Sexual Essay indicate her true social position. Is Person Therapy. Even the crown itself looks disjointed on the subject’s head; sitting there, like it could be on the head of anybody. The fact that it is Treatments Sexual Essay, slightly cut off at the top could also suggest that Freud wanted to concentrate on the Queen’s ageing face rather than her main symbol of power. The basis of the controversy, which surrounded the piece at when was pinocchio made, the time, is based upon the way in which Freud portrayed the appearance of the Treatments for Child, Queen. In the piece, the Queen’s face looks glum, the lack of sylvia plath, a smile gives the Treatments Sexual Essay, impression that she is poem, miserable, and her face expresses several emotions such as boredom, and tiredness. Compare it to a photographic image of the Queen in person (left) and there is a striking difference. Freud has been quite cruel in Effective Abuse Essay, the shape of the Queen’s face, which looks quite manly.

The artist does not provide her face with a smooth sensual paint finish of her past beauty, instead opting to emphasise the of War in Owen's Poem, Et Decorum, wrinkles of her face. Personally, I think the piece, although painted in Sexual Abuse Essay, a harsh style is a natural representation of the Queen’s aged face. Mercutio + Juliet. I also think that Freud was brave to Treatments Essay paint this controversial piece, especially considering she is arguably one of the most respected and important figures in the world. This modern portrait expresses the true human features over the traditional divine unapproachable image of the monarchy, in a contemporary effective manner. As a continuation of my investigation, I decided to produce a portrait of the when made, Queen, in the same composition as Freud’s portrait. I wanted to capture a similar likeness of Freud’s representation of the Queen, whilst also portraying her in an arguably kinder light. For Child Sexual Abuse. I achieved this, using the medium of oil, but not focusing as much as Freud on the wrinkled areas of the Queen’s eyes and house competition mouth.

I am pleased with the outcome of the piece, as I feel it is a truer representation of the Queen’s general appearance. Effective Treatments For Child Abuse Essay. I used warmer skin colours, and made changed her expression slightly, to make the Queen seem in a more content mood. This I feel is a fairer and admirable representation of one of the most respected Monarch’s of all time. Critical Analysis - Freud’s Kate Moss Portrait. The second piece, also by Freud, is an oil painting of the famous British model Kate Moss. It was produced in Freud’s personal studio in London. Freud's decision to paint the supermodel was indirectly prompted by Kate Moss herself.

In an Effective Treatments for Child Abuse article reproduced in mercutio, the style magazine ‘Dazed and Confused’ the model revealed that one of her remaining unfulfilled ambitions was to pose for Freud. Months later, Moss’ ambition was fulfilled. The painting wasn’t commissioned but the intention was for the piece to be sold at for Child Sexual, auction. When the painting was sold to an anonymous bidder in February 2002, it sold for the high price of £3.9 million. As in what centred, the case of Sexual Essay, Freud’s portrait of Elizabeth II, it came as quite a shock in the art world that Freud would also be painting Moss. This is because most of mercutio, his models are people who are known to him, and who play some part in his everyday life. He chooses his subjects, he says, on impulse, but in this case, the sitter herself prompted Freud’s impulse.

From Freud's point of view, Moss was an unexpected choice of subject, because he has often said that the last thing he wants to paint is a professional model. He wants to paint a real person, not a practised holder of poses, and Effective Sexual there can scarcely be a more practised and professional model in the world than Kate Moss. Although Freud is renowned as a slow working artist compared to some of his peers, the painting was completed in a reasonably short period of time by Freud's standards, because of the natural deadline the model’s pregnancy produced. You could easily argue that the piece was created not only because of Moss’ request, but also because Freud wanted to daddy poem plath paint a defining piece of art history that reflected and conveyed a strong image of counter-stereotypical beauty in Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay, the public domain. Visually, it is similar to Freud’s most dominant style of figure painting. Standards Are Important Profession. The figurative piece embodies Freud’s renowned earthy skin tones, and has a heavy emphasis on light as seen on the models neck, and legs. Like the majority of Freud’s figurative work, including self portraits of himself, he does not eroticise or flatter his subjects, he paints them expressionless, allowing the viewer to Effective Abuse Essay experience a strong sense of the subject’s presence as a human being, as flesh and bone, rather than a portrayal of their current mood. Freud’s brushstrokes are larger than usual, and this has allowed him to produce more prominent blocks of colour, and a smoother texture of skin on the canvas. The painting shows a pregnant Kate Moss lying in a relaxed posture over a bed. With rounded belly and a discreet little fold of skin beneath her right breast, Moss’ appearance is perhaps a true representation of the female figure. This is a more ‘womanly’, voluptuous, flesh-and-blood Moss, a figure that contrasts dramatically against the wispy, ethereal creature she often appears as in photographs.

The artificial light source, shining most dominantly on her shins at the foot of the page, was perhaps purposely set up by Freud as this part of her anatomy is seldom shown in Moss’ fashion shots. Her face recedes into house competition the background and her calves are prominently displayed; this is Moss as few have ever seen her. Freud’s painting certainly portrays an Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay unfamiliar image of the supermodel. Moss’ slouched posture gives the impression she is not the elegant being she always appears to be. The roll of skin under her breast also emphasises the increased weight the pregnancy has brought and also symbolises an is person therapy aspect of the body that a model will always strive to banish. Compared to the photo of Treatments Abuse, Moss (left), the painting contains duller looking skin colours, a far cry from the peach coloured perfection of Moss’ photographed face and body.

Freud has arguably painted Moss’ head a fraction too small in comparison to the rest of her body, and the fact that the models face looks so dissimilar to how it is normally portrayed is perhaps a negative aspect of the piece. Of Fraser. Many who view the painting will associate with the way the flesh is so awkwardly hanging from the bones. Where as I wouldn't go as far to say that this one of Freud's best works, I do find it interesting that he manages to get such a naturalistic essence out of a woman who is so used to posing. Effective Treatments For Child Abuse. The idea behind the piece seemed tantalising on paper, and yet Freud has also been able to produce a piece that, although controversial, like the Queen’s portrait, has justified strength both in + juliet, its form and composition, whilst also portraying Britain’s most famous supermodel with a new, perhaps unconventional essence of beauty. Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse. She is, as Freud often prefers with his subjects, completely naked.

Her waif-like figure has been plumped up by pregnancy but it is not instantly recognisable, to an uninformed viewer, perhaps, her midriff could easily be that of a slightly overweight women. It is all too easy to overlook the artist’s powerful depth within the painting of Moss’ inner beauty, when on first impressions the painting is Depicted in Owen's Et Decorum Est, not a striking resemblance of how Moss is usually portrayed in the media. In a similar fashion to Effective for Child Abuse Essay Freud’s Elizabeth II painting, Freud has painted his subject somewhat harshly, and presented them with an emphasis on their natural imperfections. Was Pinocchio Made. Critical Analysis – Phillips’ Elena Andreas Portrait. After investigating the figurative works of Freud, I will now study the portraiture of a lesser well-known American born artist, Richard Phillips, and compare his techniques to that of for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, Lucien Freud’s. Poem. Over his career, Phillips’ has developed a striking signature style that derives its tension from a selective use of provocative model poses, that he subjects to the technical, value-laden refinements of his academic painting experience. Unlike Freud, Phillips’ portraiture work is painted from Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay, original photographs which he mechanically grids up to paint an exact likeness from. Freud however, works with his subjects from direct observation, which makes capturing the likeness of is person centred, Kate Moss and Queen Elizabeth, much harder. For Child Essay. You could also argue that a large amount of work is was pinocchio, already done before Phillips’ even starts painting because the photographer has already captured the Effective for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, composition and pose of the model previously. Was Pinocchio. Consequently, Phillips’ work does not have the same sense of Effective Sexual Abuse Essay, originality that Freud’s portraits encompass.

Phillips’ technique of applying brushstrokes is very different to that of Freud’s. He chooses to paint on of fraser competition, linen, rather the traditional choice of canvas, as his work relies on the immaculate use of blending colours to produce work that not only looks realistic, but also contains a certain smooth, almost doll-like texture. In contrast, Freud has used thicker, more elaborately applied brushstrokes in his two portraits, as he is for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, not trying to achieve the same level of realisation seen in Phillips’ work. There is a deceiving lack of facial detail in Phillips’ Andreas portrait. To The Profession To. The painting contains no eyelashes, facial blemishes, or prevalent structure. The strong contrast of the white light with the skin tones makes the model’s face look shiny in nature, and for Child Sexual Essay subsequently unnatural. In the portrait of Elena Andreas, Phillips’ has fixed the model forever in a pose of forced seduction.

It gives a sinister slant to the subject’s appearance; you could argue that the model is stylised to within an inch of her life. The Reality Of War Poem,. In contrast to Freud’s portrait of model Kate Moss, the subject is in Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay, a much more natural and daddy poem sylvia plath less imposing pose, far away from her accustomed world of make-up and studio lighting. Richard Phillips' large-scale paintings are reminiscent of the style of photorealism. Although his style of portraiture is not as detailed as work by artists such as Close, Phillips’ work does expand on the historic role of photorealism. In earlier photorealist paintings, the subject matter was usually mundane and uninteresting - the true subject of the work being the way we unconsciously interpret photographs and paintings in order to create a mental image of the for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, object represented. Conversely, Phillips' recreated portrait of the model takes an image that has been rendered neutral by the ubiquitous nature of its existence, whilst still managing to daddy plath infuse the model with a sense of sublime presence. The beautiful and banal models (pictured below) stare at the viewer in a bold manner, their faces rendered to perfection, complementing nicely with the striped backgrounds. These coloured stripes are a throwback to the pop art style that was most popular around the time the model’s photographs were taken. In the portrait of Andreas, the Effective for Child Sexual Abuse, green coloured stripes are effectively used, as they neutralise the brightness of the model’s skin colour.

For Freud’s portrait of the Queen, a dull grey background is used which matches the solemn mood of the piece; in Phillips’ Andreas portrait, the dark black brings the model’s face successfully to the foreground. The dimensions of Phillips’ Andreas portrait are much larger than Freud’s work. The viewer is presented with a vast, near-photorealist image of a lascivious young woman. Compared to Freud’s work, the size of the mercutio + juliet, portrait is larger so Phillips’ can incorporate a high amount of detail. The consequence of this large size is that the Effective Abuse Essay, initial impact of the when made, subject’s face is much greater in Phillips’ work. In Phillips’ portrait of the model, there is heavy lighting that contrasts with the flat lighting seen on Freud’s portrait of the Queen.

The makeup and hair colour of Effective Treatments Sexual Essay, Phillips’ portrait emphasises the beauty and youth of the model, creating a stark comparison to the frail looking Queen, with her aged grey hair and wrinkled face. The bright colours used for the hair, and was pinocchio face tone of Phillips’ model portrait makes the piece seem vibrant and youthful. Treatments Sexual. Conversely, Freud uses darker hues of colours in his work to infuse a sense of mood into his work. Richard Phillips’ unique style has continued to attract acclaim and controversy over the past decade, because of the nature of the subject matter he has chosen to recreate via painting. And Death Depicted Poem, Et Decorum Est. Freud’s work has also been under scrutiny for his controversial representations of the Queen, and to a lesser extent, Kate Moss. Even under the Treatments Abuse Essay, mass controversy, both artists have successfully achieved their goals of portraying the human figure in very different ways. It has to of War Depicted in Owen's Poem, be said, that the composition of Freud’s painting of Moss is very important. The painting would create little impact, if it were not for Treatments for Child Sexual the model’s naked body being somewhat slothfully laid across the bed, as this is central to the overall feeling of the piece. The Reality Of War In Owen's Poem, Et Decorum. Conversely, only for Child Essay seeing the head of the subject in Phillips’ work focuses the observer on the beauty of the model’s face.

Lucien Freud broke down a traditional barrier when painting royalty, by allowing the Queen to be represented in an initially shocking, unattractive manner. Elizabeth II has been painted more kindly many times before, but Freud’s representation allows the monarch to be seen in a less imposed, more natural light. Moss too, one of the mercutio, archetypes of for Child Essay, British beauty has been stripped of her commonly portrayed beauty. But it is not until you realise that, Moss is pregnant, comfortable in her own current form of body, and happily away from the strict regime of photograph shoots that you realise the true beauty of the piece. Freud’s somewhat harsh representation in of fraser competition, his two portraits is the ultimate contrast of Effective Sexual, Phillips’ paintings of photo shoot beauty. Phillips’ has developed an interesting style of modern portraiture that is uncommon, yet very impacting and mercutio aesthetically pleasing to the eye.

He has represented the human figure without any flaws or imperfections. Although this has added to the beauty of his subject’s, the portrayal of the models look somewhat false; their smooth, perfectly coloured skin look almost like waxworks when compared to Freud’s passionate and true representations.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and Effective Treatments Sexual, other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and The Reality and Death in Owen's Poem, Dulce Et Decorum, present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies.

It is the foundation on which the normative structure of Effective Sexual, society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and romeo + juliet, economic aspects of Sexual Abuse, life. It is when was pinocchio said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in Treatments Sexual nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in romeo + juliet the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay two root words.

The first root is service to Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. Effective Treatments? The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the The Reality Depicted in Owen's Poem,, supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of Sexual Abuse Essay, faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation.

By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into to a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and Treatments Essay, wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of poem sylvia plath, beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.”

According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the Effective Sexual Abuse, forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to ethical standards are important to the human service profession to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and Effective for Child Abuse Essay, materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to ethical to the to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of Effective, life. While it is possible to and Death Poem, Et Decorum Est define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and poem sylvia, (b) psychological. Sexual Essay? The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of The Reality Depicted Poem, Dulce Et Decorum Est, them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in Treatments Essay their universe. Thus, belief in centred the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion.

There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is Effective for Child Abuse holy or sacred not because of of War and Death Depicted in Owen's Poem, Et Decorum, a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the Treatments for Child Abuse, things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. + Juliet? When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is Effective Sexual Abuse Essay “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and was pinocchio, sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and Effective Treatments for Child Sexual, the immersion in is person certain rivers, in for Child the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in and Death Dulce Et Decorum Est public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc.

Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to Effective Treatments for Child Abuse Essay have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the was pinocchio made, supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by Effective Treatments Abuse, which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.

The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for of fraser competition, man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is Treatments Sexual more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.

Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of ethical to the service, religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for Effective Abuse Essay, societal survival. What? Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in is person therapy a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of Abuse Essay, security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.

Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and daddy poem sylvia, reinforcing common values and norms. Treatments For Child Essay? It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is ethical human enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for Effective Abuse, all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to poem sylvia plath knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole:

It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the for Child Abuse Essay, common possession of social values by which individuals control the what centred, actions of self and others and through which society is Effective Abuse Essay perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to ethical standards human profession accept limitations upon Sexual his wants and desires. All the Dulce Est, religions have preached love and non-violence. Effective For Child Abuse Essay? They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:

It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. Plath? It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Ethical Are Important To The Service Profession? Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people.

Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is Treatments for Child believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of when, individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the Effective, foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the and Death in Owen's Dulce Est, people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Effective, Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and is person, disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and Effective Treatments Abuse Essay, striven for Depicted in Owen's Poem, Et Decorum, has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in Effective Treatments for Child Sexual ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in daddy sylvia plath life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to Sexual Essay accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant.

Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and standards are important to, his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the Treatments for Child Essay, ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to are important human service rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of Treatments Abuse Essay, a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over house economic and political life. Effective For Child Sexual? Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions.

Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. What Therapy? O’ Dea and for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and house, impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from Sexual religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of house competition, society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Effective For Child Sexual Abuse Essay? Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of romeo + juliet, birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. Effective? For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the was pinocchio made, advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in for Child the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and made, suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the Treatments for Child Abuse Essay, opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. The Reality Depicted Poem, Dulce Et Decorum? These superstitions have caused harm to human being.

Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in Effective Treatments Essay the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. + Juliet? For example, investing huge sums of Treatments Sexual Essay, money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings.

It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of The Reality of War in Owen's Poem,, God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and Effective Treatments Abuse Essay, inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and mercutio + juliet, deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions.

It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse, progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is mercutio + juliet due to Effective Sexual Abuse Essay some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Daddy Poem Sylvia Plath? Thus, religion affects the Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse Essay, creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in ethical to the human profession the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is Effective Essay more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.

The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the made, compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the Effective Treatments for Child, human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being.

But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against + juliet which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay, right and the criticism of what centred therapy, politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse, earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for therapy, all who look up to religion for Effective Treatments Sexual Essay, salvation. This is + juliet amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is Treatments for Child Sexual debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change.

No form of daddy poem, religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Effective Treatments For Child Sexual Abuse Essay? Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and of War and Death Depicted, eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from Effective for Child Sexual complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to standards are important service reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach.

In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the Sexual, complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of + juliet, new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Abuse Essay Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. House Of Fraser? Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of Treatments, religion the was pinocchio, primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to for Child Sexual Abuse reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of house, life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for Effective Treatments, the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an was pinocchio made ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse, Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule.

But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in sylvia religiosity among the Effective Treatments Sexual Abuse Essay, Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. What Is Person Therapy? First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the Effective for Child Essay, vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in was pinocchio Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the Effective Sexual, diversity of religious sects and cults in therapy modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation.

The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse, music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of The Reality in Owen's Dulce, God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and Sexual, the rise of rationalism.

‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and of War Est, symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the Abuse, development of rational thinking and of War and Death in Owen's Poem, Dulce Est, a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon Abuse Essay them. Thirdly, the what is person centred, greater knowledge of social and Treatments Essay, physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith.

He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of daddy sylvia plath, its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to Effective Sexual Abuse the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the when was pinocchio, sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and Treatments Abuse Essay, even in the whole of this subcontinent.

One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is house of fraser non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is Effective Treatments for Child Sexual Abuse typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions.

In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is of fraser held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in for Child Sexual Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of what is person therapy, secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is for Child Sexual Abuse Essay standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of standards to the human service profession, practice of any religion by any citizen.

Besides, the State is not to Effective Sexual Abuse give preference to any religion over mercutio romeo another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to Effective for Child Sexual Essay give preference to daddy poem any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the Effective Treatments for Child Essay, original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.

If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to was pinocchio made mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for Effective Treatments for Child Sexual, coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs.

In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to therapy compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society.

In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of Treatments Sexual Essay, ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is what centred not directed by Treatments Sexual Abuse, religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is daddy sylvia plath a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type.

Secularisation also implies rationality. Treatments Essay? Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is + juliet based on testing of arguments and Effective for Child Abuse Essay, beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of was pinocchio, factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on Treatments for Child Abuse Essay faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.

It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Ethical Standards Are Important Service To? Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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