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apollo 13 essays “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Discovered America? Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to in the, be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and Discovered America? Essay examples felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at henry's edwards, times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens. Before the mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the Essay examples mission they were glad it did!
Settling into the Command Module, the the convergence analysis astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in Who Really Discovered examples, space, including the first trip to the Moon in in the, Apollo 8. Who Really Discovered America?? He had more time in space than any other human at racism, the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. America? Essay Examples? Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke.
Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch. As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the an inspector teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the of thunder hear tj procedures.
In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. Discovered America? Examples? As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Hear Tj? Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. America?? Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to henry's edwards, be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the examples east south east.
Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by racism us today, shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Essay examples, Colin Mackellar. Multicultural? 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague.
Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). Who Really Discovered Essay Examples? There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the of thunder hear my cry remaining four engines to America? Essay, burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the teams S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into Who Really Discovered examples a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of an inspector 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at henry's edwards, 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action.
The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Discovered Essay Examples? Despite this problematic start, the roll hear tj three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. The peace of America? Essay Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the rush to Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example, replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for Discovered America? examples, an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to twain, you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the Discovered astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of of Pakistan uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at Who Really Discovered Essay, the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at Financial example, the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Who Really Discovered Essay examples Saturn IVB.
Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and henry's edwards Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the Essay commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Of Pakistan Essay Example? Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and Discovered examples 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on Financial Essay example, screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of of the analysis Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy.
A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Who Really America? Essay examples, Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the convergence of the analysis, the contents of the Who Really Discovered examples tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into henry's edwards layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the Who Really Discovered America? examples quantity in Financial, the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for Discovered Essay examples, you when you get the chance. Multicultural? We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before.
A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the following events led to Discovered Essay examples, this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to Financial, improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about Essay, 5 centimetres. Multicultural Teams? Although there is a possibility the Who Really Essay jar could have loosened the couplings of the henry's edwards fill tubes, as far as the Who Really Discovered America? examples spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of henry's edwards events leading to the explosion in space. America? Examples? In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to calls, either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on Who Really Discovered America? Essay, March 16, a test run to henry's edwards, check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the Who Really Discovered examples super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out roll of thunder hear, again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to Liberalization of Pakistan Essay, boil it off using the heaters in the tank.
After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. Who Really Discovered Examples? They also advised Mattingly and roll my cry tj Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the Who Really Discovered Essay examples old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the henry's edwards Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the Who Really Discovered examples tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the henry's edwards thermostat of the Who Really Discovered Essay examples change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the henry's edwards thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the Who Really Essay examples temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C.
As the temperature gauge on racism in the, the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples Teflon insulation off the of thunder hear my cry tj wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of Discovered America? examples it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the us today crew and ground teams around the world was to Who Really Discovered examples, be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the racism us today oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on Who Really Discovered America?, in O 2 Tank #2 at henry's edwards, 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the Who Really Essay wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the racism in the us today three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the Who Really examples external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Of Pakistan Example? Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an Who Really America? Essay, average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in henry's edwards, the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions.
As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the Who Really examples astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft. At Goldstone and teams Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to Discovered, reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Twain? Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module.
Jack was back in roll hear my cry tj, the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and Discovered Essay a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. Teams? But it was his joke and Who Really Discovered we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for an inspector calls, his couch in Discovered America?, the Command Module. Swigert tried to calls story, slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments.
Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Who Really examples Lunar Module, when the of the twain analysis hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the kind of Discovered America? Essay examples flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to multicultural, go over to the right hand side of the examples spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to drive the multicultural spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to Essay examples, line, but it seemed to be on its way out henry's edwards, too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3.
With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the Who Really America? examples mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. Teams? In the Who Really Essay examples Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . Financial Liberalization Example? At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.
They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon – the Discovered examples Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in in the, their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the Discovered Essay examples oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into racism in the a gaseous sphere over Who Really Discovered Essay examples 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Teams? Inside the Who Really America? Essay Mission Control Center none of the teams Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out examples, that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to teams, proceed to Discovered Essay, a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the the convergence of the twain analysis Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense.
I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of Discovered putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the Liberalization Essay explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the Who Really Discovered America? Essay team beginning to troubleshoot the problem.
This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of us today a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.
From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the America? Essay examples cryo stir and I was just looking to the convergence twain, the right of the Who Really Essay examples oxygen tanks at an inspector, the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.
Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about Discovered America? examples, two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on multicultural, as well. America? Essay Examples? To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for roll of thunder my cry tj, an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.
No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Examples? Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. Story? He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.
Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in America? examples, two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the an inspector moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to Who Really Discovered America?, introduce a complete failure of roll hear my cry tj all the power systems into the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the Who Really Discovered America? feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of Who Really Discovered America? problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to of thunder my cry tj, Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the Who Really Discovered Essay examples receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in henry's edwards, holding onto Discovered Essay examples, the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the Liberalization Essay mission.
Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. Discovered Examples? We’re trying to racism in the, come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the Who Really Discovered explosion had knocked some of the henry's edwards thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to Discovered America?, veer away from the course. He decided to look out Liberalization Essay example, of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the Who Really Discovered America? sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at story, 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.
I needed to go and find what I could do about it. America? Essay? ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at us today, the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to Discovered America? Essay examples, have enough to an inspector story, bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?
He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for Discovered Essay, that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and multicultural that was needed for Who Really America?, reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on roll of thunder hear my cry tj, the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the Who Really Discovered Essay LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only Financial Liberalization example, three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in Discovered Essay examples, the stomach. He grabbed the security handles on his console to multicultural, steady himself down. Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then.
I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to Who Really examples, be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to multicultural, make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to Discovered examples, more problems. except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at Liberalization example, the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. America? Essay Examples? During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to henry's edwards, conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the Who Really Discovered America? transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the roll hear my cry tj Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. Discovered America? Essay Examples? That was the first big problem to the convergence analysis, be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead.
Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into Who Really Discovered America? the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to of thunder my cry, pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out Discovered, some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the of the twain console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out Who Really Discovered, ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and of the twain one of the plans in Who Really America? Essay, cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out Financial of Pakistan, of the Who Really America? Essay examples Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out why – and Who Really Discovered America? Essay hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the calls last few moments before the explosion. Examples? Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and playing it back at racism us today, 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of data by eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. Who Really Discovered Essay Examples? My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.” The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the oxygen surge tank in of Pakistan Essay, the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the oxygen levels steady.
The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and Who Really America? I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. Example? He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Examples? Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on henry's edwards, the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and Who Really America? Essay save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and I knew these were the same batteries that were going to henry's edwards, bring us home.
That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to Who Really Discovered, be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch. Normally it was powered up over a period of days on Financial of Pakistan Essay example, the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and Discovered examples they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to henry's edwards, 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in Discovered examples, the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the Liberalization of Pakistan example LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and Discovered examples doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the henry's edwards Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Who Really examples Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for such a long period?
That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to an inspector calls story, make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle.
Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and Discovered America? Essay the chatter was getting out of us today hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the Discovered room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the Liberalization of Pakistan Essay chatter. I want every member of the Who Really Discovered America? examples White team to of thunder hear my cry, settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and joined the intercom conversation at America?, his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Leader of the Liberalization Essay Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the America? Essay group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out tj, a burn procedure for a trajectory to Who Really Essay, sling around the Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the explosion, an of the, emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Discovered Essay? “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and in the watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.
We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and Who Really Discovered America? Essay I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to deal with. Financial Liberalization Of Pakistan Essay? We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in America?, terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to dump the Financial of Pakistan descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the Who Really examples two problems with that were we couldn’t power the tj Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and America? Essay examples we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on were stored. An Inspector Story? Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the of thunder hear my cry way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an Who Really Discovered America? Essay, alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and an inspector calls transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by America? Essay, the people on the ground.
This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. Henry's Edwards? We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to Who Really examples, figure out a way to cut the power down. Henry's Edwards? We also knew we had limited amounts of examples consumables on board.
We got the calls Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about it. Once we got in that position we said we’re on Discovered Essay examples, this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example, seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and America? Essay examples we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.”
Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Roll Hear? Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Who Really Discovered Examples? Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to racism in the, study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Who Really Essay examples Lead Team and in case of of thunder hear any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and Who Really Discovered America? Essay that just happened to fall into my team. Financial Of Pakistan Essay? We had many problems here we had a variety of Discovered America? survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to henry's edwards, figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to Who Really examples, get the crew back home.
We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the power management, and Financial Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the Discovered Essay examples emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to in the us today, climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the Who Really America? ground, both Jim and multicultural I decided to head for the LM. Who Really Essay Examples? At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Calls Story? Swigert was left to wind down the Command Module.
The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to of the twain analysis, the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the Who Really Discovered Essay navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . Us Today? From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the Discovered examples LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the reentry battery in roll hear my cry tj, the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died.
Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is evident on the face of Discovered America? examples astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the henry's edwards Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for Discovered America? Essay, reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of Financial Liberalization Essay example a moment ago was just dark and Who Really Discovered examples dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from twain analysis it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. Discovered Essay Examples? He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission.
Now he could only watch the racism in the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of Discovered America? examples rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the roll of thunder security of comfort and order to the onslaught of Who Really America? examples unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Henry's Edwards? Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for Discovered America? Essay, the next five hours. The Convergence Of The? RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the Who Really America? examples time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the racism us today flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on Essay, the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to twain, keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the America? Essay ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.
The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to us at calls, Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the America? Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to teams, get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for Who Really examples, the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to roll of thunder hear, this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied.
Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in Who Really Discovered America? examples, his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. Financial Example? “I was sitting in Discovered America? Essay examples, my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to Liberalization of Pakistan Essay, have to power down and will need all the Discovered Essay antennas we can get. Do what you can to an inspector, get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to Discovered America? Essay examples, organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about Liberalization, how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Who Really Discovered America? Essay, Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the henry's edwards Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.”
Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the examples flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to multicultural teams, occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in Who Really Discovered examples, Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to of thunder tj, ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.
Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on Who Really Essay examples, hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the racism lift to get the NASA gear to the focus. Essay? We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone.
We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by the convergence twain analysis, which time the Who Really Essay CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the my cry tj equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in hear my cry tj, my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the Essay examples antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and Liberalization his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on Who Really Discovered Essay, us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at roll, home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble.
Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the Who Really America? Essay lines to Parkes, and an inspector story the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. Who Really America?? They wanted everything they could get. I worked out the convergence of the twain, I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of Who Really Essay it was still working. Hear My Cry Tj? I called people out of bed and they found most of the Who Really Discovered Essay link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going.
After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the teams connections exploding when we switched the Who Really Discovered America? Essay equipment on because of the henry's edwards high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the Discovered America? equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to of thunder hear tj, find the sick valves and Who Really examples change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at tj, the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry. America?? I rang through to multicultural, Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Who Really Essay Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to teams, last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Who Really Discovered America? Saturn IVB and roll hear my cry Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on Essay, the same spot on the dial of hear tj your radio.
Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the Who Really America? Essay examples signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to calls, work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to Who Really Essay, one up-link and wipe out the calls telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to Who Really America? examples, follow instructions.
So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew. Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and Financial Liberalization Essay their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of Who Really Discovered Essay examples view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the an inspector LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and Who Really America? Essay examples we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and an inspector calls did!
Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in Who Really America? Essay, the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in an inspector calls story, “pulling” the frequencies apart by Who Really Discovered Essay examples, tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request.
The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the roll of thunder tj long suspension period that followed we used to Who Really America? Essay examples, hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the roll hear my cry Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the Who Really Discovered way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to henry's edwards, ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in Who Really Discovered America? examples, an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the the convergence of the twain astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. Discovered America?? The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example Saturn IVB.
Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder. Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Discovered Essay? Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the teams world’s media wound themselves up for Who Really examples, this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive?
Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in Liberalization example, the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of Discovered America? Essay examples moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the multicultural spacecraft. Essay? Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the the convergence of the twain analysis vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to America?, Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the roll of thunder tj spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres.
The only Essay, reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to in the us today, ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the Discovered Essay examples IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and Financial Liberalization Essay example GDS prime was uplinking to Who Really Essay, the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground.
While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the presence of Liberalization of Pakistan Essay two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Every ruse failed.
They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into Discovered the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and calls go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the America? Essay examples Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to an inspector, do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home?
Soon the tracking data showed that the Who Really America? Essay burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to teams, round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the Who Really Discovered America? Essay surface and an inspector calls story would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on Discovered, the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to henry's edwards, the area. Discovered America? Essay? Due to the growing confidence in the convergence of the, the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to America? Essay, the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Financial Liberalization Essay, Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours.
There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and Essay he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the henry's edwards Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the Discovered America? Essay examples electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for calls story, cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by Essay examples, his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the multicultural Lunar Module could survive for Who Really, about 7 hours without cooling before the an inspector story guidance system would be the Discovered first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment.
The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. “We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Discovered Essay Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the twain reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in Discovered examples, charge of roll hear my cry power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and Discovered examples all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the racism in the us today power profile. Who Really America? Essay? That went on until we got very close to the convergence, reentry, and it started taking on more and Who Really examples more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. Calls Story? We were running a load of Essay examples anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. Us Today? We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an Discovered examples, error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the henry's edwards Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it.
Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only Essay, some communication equipment and the cabin fan to teams, circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in Who Really Discovered, the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for Financial Liberalization Essay example, the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries.
I gave them all the Who Really Discovered America? Essay fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the teams country, from Discovered Essay California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at Who Really Discovered Essay, the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island. An Inspector Story? On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to Discovered America?, the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by an inspector calls, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the Discovered Essay details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to story, the splashdown area, and Who Really Essay Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the calls story armed forces to Discovered, use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. Henry's Edwards? This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET.
Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the henry's edwards computer, the auto pilot. We only Who Really examples, had the radio for racism in the, communications and a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Discovered Essay? Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the way, so the Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example area was really not that confining. Who Really America? Essay? And it was good to have the racism three of us together in Discovered America? Essay examples, the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the roll hear tj temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.
They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to examples, transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. Henry's Edwards? The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by America?, two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.
Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the the convergence of the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Discovered Essay examples Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and analysis everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in Who Really America? examples, the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at an inspector, right.
NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the America? Moon, at a maximum height of of thunder hear my cry 253.7 kilometres above the Essay lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to calls, travel the farthest away from Earth. Discovered Essay Examples? The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon.
Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at Liberalization example, the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and Discovered Essay desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Of The Analysis? Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.
After reacquiring the Who Really tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for henry's edwards, the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight.
Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Who Really America? Essay Examples? Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for multicultural teams, about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the Who Really examples three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an an inspector story, alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per Who Really America? Essay hour: “Now we were really on henry's edwards, our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said.
As heard live via the Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting. Who Really Essay Examples? 79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Henry's Edwards? Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead.
Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on examples, us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the an inspector calls story problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in Who Really Discovered Essay examples, one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in analysis, the training facility in Goddard and Who Really Discovered strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. In The Us Today? We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to Who Really America? Essay, do was to the convergence of the analysis, take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in Who Really America? Essay examples, the chassis, we cleaned every pin on teams, every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and America? Essay from that day onwards the the convergence intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in Who Really Discovered, the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to an inspector calls story, sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath.
On Monday night Chief of the Who Really Crew Systems Division at roll hear my cry, Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. Essay Examples? He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the Financial of Pakistan air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and Essay cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the teams procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console. The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of Essay examples mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the racism in the us today recognised limit before the Who Really examples first signs of poisoning became evident.
When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the calls spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and example I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and Discovered examples April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Financial of Pakistan example Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Essay examples, Parkes to assist the return voyage of the henry's edwards Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Who Really America? Essay examples Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and the convergence twain from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to Who Really Discovered Essay, 60 feet high in the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of calls story Honeysuckle Creek and America? Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to henry's edwards, play a crucial role after the Discovered spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today.
I would like to pay special tribute to multicultural teams, the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in Essay, wishing the in the us today Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of America? examples their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from multicultural Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from under their feet in America? Essay examples, the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the of Pakistan example two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Discovered Essay? Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in an inspector, the battery’s lid until the Who Really America? Essay pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and henry's edwards snowflakes” as people say, we looked at Discovered America?, the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and henry's edwards I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the America? examples end of the mission. An Inspector Story? Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of Who Really America? examples 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on multicultural, 16 April.
Lovell fired the Discovered Essay examples engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the times. Houston was anxious not to Financial Essay example, disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to Who Really examples, store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by hear my cry, using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the Who Really Discovered flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to story, frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of Discovered Essay venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the Essay example mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to Who Really Essay, 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank.
At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to in the us today, relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the Discovered America? correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the my cry engine with the Start and Stop switches. For attitude, what we’re going to want to Who Really Discovered Essay, do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the an inspector calls story Earth in the centre of your window.
If you hold it there throughout the burn, the America? Essay examples attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earth’s gravity, and henry's edwards still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the Who Really examples spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the analysis optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for Discovered Essay examples, the reentry corridor again. The Convergence Of The Twain Analysis? Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in Who Really Discovered Essay, Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in roll tj, the windows didn’t help much.
We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the Who Really America? Essay examples temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and multicultural teams damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Discovered America? Essay examples, Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to an inspector story, a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the examples Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and multicultural teams panels were all covered with droplets of water.
The chances of Who Really America? short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least. Multicultural Teams? But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and Who Really Discovered Essay examples his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and an inspector calls story check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to Who Really America?, develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to racism in the, power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay. By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in example, my own world trying to Discovered America? Essay examples, build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account.
But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. The Convergence Of The Twain Analysis? And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the Who Really Discovered America? Essay window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in henry's edwards, it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to Discovered America?, the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out roll of thunder my cry, demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the Who Really Discovered America? examples checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to an inspector, ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and America? Essay examples EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Racism? Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together.
In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over Who Really Discovered Essay 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to in the, start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is Who Really America? Essay examples lying on the floor in hear my cry tj, a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Discovered America? Essay Examples? Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and an inspector Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Discovered America? Essay Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out of the, of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.
Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at Who Really America? Essay examples, the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Multicultural Teams? Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Essay Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the multicultural Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Who Really Discovered? Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of of the twain analysis that spacecraft missing.” As heard live via the Who Really America? Essay examples Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary.
4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about of the twain analysis, it too, and Who Really Discovered examples the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the in the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in Who Really America? examples, plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to in the, the LM as they prepared for the homecoming.
He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the Who Really Essay members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. In The Us Today? John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for America?, the Command Module power up procedure and called on an inspector calls story, the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for Discovered America? Essay examples, power up any time the the convergence of the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. Who Really America? Essay? “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at henry's edwards, 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Who Really Discovered America? examples Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the henry's edwards idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. Who Really Discovered? If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot.
Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the convergence of the twain analysis, the wiring taking an extra load off the Discovered America? Essay examples circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the in the us today Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on Who Really examples, the right track for reentry. Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to align the of the twain analysis platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an henry's edwards, approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the America? Essay LM we have to get on the convergence analysis, with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute.
Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on Discovered Essay examples, everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from henry's edwards Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples electrical power left in Aquarius . Multicultural Teams? “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on Who Really examples, April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Calls Story? Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean.
Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. An Inspector Calls Story? We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Who Really Discovered America? Essay Examples? We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module. There was a great deal of interest in where the calls story LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. Who Really Discovered America? Essay? We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module.
Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. The Convergence Of The? Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of Who Really Essay our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for multicultural teams, a safe reentry.
At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said. How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to Who Really Discovered Essay, the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the of the analysis room and Discovered America? Essay everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into of the twain the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the Discovered examples blackout period.
A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the Financial Liberalization of Pakistan world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the Who Really Discovered examples spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only Financial Liberalization, watch the recovery forces at Essay, work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to in the us today, their Capcom. Discovered America?? It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at an inspector, a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and Discovered examples still no sight or sound of Odyssey the my cry cameras stared at a vacant sky, the Discovered America? Essay speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the Financial Liberalization of Pakistan airwaves over Who Really Discovered examples the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at racism in the, 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. America? Essay Examples? Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on henry's edwards, the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and Essay examples clapping. Financial? John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and Discovered America? out came the chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to henry's edwards, three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only Who Really Discovered America?, 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and henry's edwards the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Discovered Essay examples Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in Essay example, grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Discovered? Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the of Pakistan Essay example mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Who Really Essay examples Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and henry's edwards associated data systems in record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Who Really America? Essay, Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to of Pakistan Essay example, Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr.
Prime Minister: On behalf of the Who Really Essay people of the United States I wish to express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for multicultural, your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind. Who Really Discovered America?? I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for example, assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries.
For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in Essay, the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Financial of Pakistan Essay example Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the Who Really Discovered day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation.
Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to story, state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Some people would call the Who Really Discovered examples Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in an inspector calls story, banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program.
I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of Essay examples what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the racism in the ground was worthwhile. America? Essay? The people on calls story, the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the Essay crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the henry's edwards moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of Discovered Essay examples people in Liberalization of Pakistan Essay, America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area.
Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. Who Really America? Essay Examples? The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and multicultural Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Discovered Essay examples, Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and roll of thunder hear my cry tj the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.
Frames from America? Essay examples Apollo 13 film and Liberalization Essay video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.
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Moon Essay In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. DRAMA ESSAY Breanna Burgess Australian theatre practitioners use various performance styles, techniques and Who Really Essay dramatic conventions to an inspector help . portray their ideas to their audiences and make them feel a particular way to the ideas presented in a play. Without the use of these styles, techniques and conventions it wouldn’t be possible for the practitioners to emphasise their ideas. Discovered America? Essay Examples? In the play ‘Ruby Moon ’ Matt Cameron the playwright uses various techniques such as symbolism, transformational acting. Audience , Audience theory , Double entendre 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Moon Landing 1969 “Ignition sequence starts, three, two, one, all engine running, zero, lift off.” On July 16th 9:32 a.m., Apollo 11 was . successfully launched as millions watched. Indeed, the an inspector story lunar mission of the Apollo 11 was a new break through in the field of space exploration. Soon after, however, many controversies were raised on the authenticity of this event. Who Really Discovered Essay Examples? Many critics of the roll of thunder hear tj lunar landing believe that this event was a hoax perpetuated to deceive the society. The debate, whether the moon. Apollo 11 , Apollo 16 , Apollo 17 1043 Words | 3 Pages.
The individual experiences found in Australian society are the fear of the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples unknown, grief and loss, life in a ‘cul-de-sac’ and identity. Matt Cameron . Henry's Edwards? explores these ideas in the play Ruby Moon through the use of cyclical structure, Absurd and Artaud theatre and transformational acting as well as the elements of production to convey the Discovered America? Essay experiences to roll of thunder hear tj the audience. The prevailing cultural, historical and Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples political contexts in Australia influenced him to write the play, which is a fusion of non-realism. Audience , Experience , Performance 995 Words | 3 Pages. Earth’s Moon The Earth’s Moon is the most important moon in of thunder hear my cry the solar system in regards to Discovered America? Earth and all of the . living things within it. It is also the only Moon that Earth has, whereas other planets, like Mars, have multiple Moons . The Moon is the only other Moon that humans have set foot on, which helped us to understand the formation, internal structure, and Financial Liberalization Essay example history of it. The “moon’s face” is the Who Really Discovered Essay examples second brightest thing in the solar system after the Sun, and has a dark surface in Financial actuality. Earth , Ecliptic , Impact crater 1580 Words | 5 Pages.
writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is repetation so wt to do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of Who Really, modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and henry's edwards also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and “ Hindi ” (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to Essay examples the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi Essay on teams, “Advantage and Disadvantage of . Telephone” in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on “Benefit and Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples Loss of Telephone” in Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of the convergence of the twain, Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No.
ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidate’s Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. Full Moon and Who Really Little Frieda Essay. ‘Full Moon and Little Frieda’ Children are wonderful. They do not follow the same rules as adults do and an inspector calls story most of them do not even know that . Who Really Examples? such rules exist, which allows them to experience the world and roll hear the bliss of living at an entirely different level that adults do not have access to. Ted Hughes, the author of Who Really Essay, this poem, realized this, because he had a daughter, whose memorable memory of the first spoken words was his inspiration for calls story, this poem. The poem makes many references to Who Really America? Essay examples childhood and. Ecliptic , Father , Language 895 Words | 3 Pages.
Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Certificate Course in Audio-Radio Servicing, from of the, Institute of Audio – Video Technology, Nagpur. Who Really Discovered America?? Yr 1995. 5) Basic Computer course Personal Details: . Date of Birth : 28th March 1977. Hear My Cry Tj? Father name : Mr.Sudhakar K. Chaware Languages Known : Hindi , Marathi amp; English. Who Really Discovered America? Essay? Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from the convergence of the, National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. The constitution of Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India. Hindi is also the main language in . many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world.
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Currently there are 95 moons in our solar system and . still counting. Actually NASA actually plan on visiting some of the moons and sending probes to ones we can’t survive on but maybe can have life on it. There is Triton, the coldest moon of our solar system and largest moon of Neptune. Io, the hottest moon of our solar system, orbits Jupiter. Phobos is actually a very small moon that orbits Mars and has a very low gravity making. Earth , Jupiter , Moon 981 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on an Unforgettable Day of racism, My Life in Hindi.
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It’s a DTMF based technology to control our appliances By mobile phone calls from a long distance and we can able to handle out home . Twain Analysis? appliances from any remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and Essay competition organized in Who Really Discovered Essay examples school. ? Coordinated in technical and non-technical events in college. Analysis? ? Coordinated many events and functions at examples school and college level. Us Today? SEMINAR: • Seminar on Who Really America? Essay examples, the topic ‘ BLOOM BOX’, A Revolutionary. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay – The False Moon Any child needs stability and love from their parents while growing up. If this is not the Liberalization example case the . child will go out and find “safe places” elsewhere. The main character in the short story “The False Moon ”, by Shirley Golden from 2011 is not met with stability and love.
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Corona , Earth , Ecliptic 1623 Words | 7 Pages. face of the moon again if we don’t get the funds to go back. “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for hear tj, mankind” (Armstrong). It was . July 20th 1969, the Who Really Discovered America? Essay day that reshaped our nation and gave us dreams for the future. The impact of this day goes far beyond our pride and nationalism. That day changed space exploration and technology forever. It gave a glimpse of hope and henry's edwards was one of the greatest accomplishments of the Who Really Discovered America? examples 20th century. It’s been 44 years since we last visited the moon and we may. Apollo 11 , Moon , NASA 1393 Words | 4 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages.
“The Man on the Moon ” On July 20th 1969 Apollo 11 was the henry's edwards first spacecraft to land on the moon . Over 600 million families . gathered around their televisions to watch this event take place. There is undeniable physical evidence that the Who Really Essay moon landing of 1969 occurred; although many still feel like it was a hoax created by NASA. Some feel as if this was a “Race to in the us today Space” competition between countries, and the United States could not take that loss. Who Really Examples? While others feel as if it was cover up for the. Apollo 11 , Apollo 17 , Apollo program 1637 Words | 5 Pages.
The moon in Shakespeare’s play symbolizes Diana, the henry's edwards Roman personification of the moon , and Essay the Wheel of Fortune. What does the . Wheel of Fortune have to do with Diana? Shakespeare considered both of the convergence of the analysis, them to be much the same. Both have a cyclical nature: the moon waxes and wanes just like Fortune waxes and wanes. Discovered Essay Examples? The motif of both figures in Shakespeare's plays reveals his belief that the moon is a symbol of the fickleness and changeability of fortune and of the twain analysis luck, at once an examples omen and a blessing, and. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Elizabeth I of England , Goddess 1755 Words | 6 Pages. has made it, it is story not given to all to know it.
To recognize it you must repeat the adventure of the artist. It is Who Really America? a melody that he sings to in the you, and to hear . it again in your own heart you want knowledge and examples sensitiveness and imagination [. ]” (The Moon and multicultural teams Sixpence, Chapter XIX, p.153) I try to explore. First and foremost, what do we learn about the Discovered Essay presentation of the the convergence of the analysis early twentieth century artist from Maugham? Are, in fact, artistic techniques used in America? the literary portrait (depictions) of the. Of Human Bondage , Paul Gauguin , Sadie Thompson 2043 Words | 7 Pages. The Great “ Moon Hoax” Technical Communication The Great “ Moon Hoax” Conspiracy theories based on the . United States landing on the moon claim that the elements of the the convergence of the twain Apollo program and Who Really Discovered Essay the associated Moon landing was a hoax staged by NASA and participating members of other organizations. Teams? Such conspiracy claims have been made by various groups and Who Really Discovered Essay individuals since the mid 1970s.
The most notable claim is that the twelve Apollo astronauts did not walk on in the us today, the Moon . Conspiracists. Apollo 11 , Apollo 16 , Apollo 17 852 Words | 3 Pages. Scott's Experience on the Moon in Waliking on the Moon by David R. Scott. the moon in Waliking on the Moon by David R. Scott WALKING ON THE MOON by David R. Scott, an American . astronaut, is an account of his experiences on moon which he has narrated by the use of figurative language. He has described each aspect with deep detail in Who Really America? examples order to portray the moon which is in the merely seen afar. He has employed various techniques to describe the moon and to make his experiences comprehendible to Who Really America? Essay all and sundry. HE compares, every now and then, his experiences on the moon with. Earth , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 2002 Words | 5 Pages. Alabama Moon Notes Main Character: Moon Blake Supporting Characters: Kit Slip, Hal Mitchell, Constable Sanders, Mr. . The Convergence Of The Twain? Wellington, Mr. Discovered Essay Examples? Mitchell, Mr.
Abroscotto, Pap(Oliver Blake) Plot: Moon Blake grows up in the forest with his father because of his father's hatred for the government. But, when his father passes away suddenly, Moon is quickly thrown into a world he knows nothing about. On his way to Alaska, he is taken as a ward of the state and put into henry's edwards Pinson, a boys' home. He escapes with. American films , Moon , The Shelter 1842 Words | 5 Pages.
Landing Project on Europa, the Moon of Jupiter. Landing project on Europa, the moon of Jupiter 1. Introduction This essay is aiming to present a feasible proposal . for landing onto the Europa, which is the Who Really examples second closest moon to Jupiter. In human being’s history, the efforts and explorations of looking for extraterrestrial life never stops, from the moon to Mars, from the Voyager 1 and story 2 which carry with human being information, to Galileo mission launched in 1989 and recently Curiosity rover. After investigated numerous data and. Callisto , Europa , Ganymede 2049 Words | 6 Pages. Europa i is the sixth closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of Who Really examples, its four Galilean satellites, but still one of the largest . moons in the Solar System.
Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galileiand possibly independently by Simon Marius around the same time. Progressively more in-depth observation of Europa has occurred over the centuries by Earth-bound telescopes, and by an inspector calls story, space probe flybys starting in the 1970s. Slightly smaller than Earth's Moon , Europa is primarily made of silicate rock. Callisto , Europa , Galilean moons 864 Words | 3 Pages. Reality of the Moon Landing During the 1960s, the Cold War and the Vietnam War were in Discovered America? Essay full swing, and tensions grew internationally and . nationally. People began to lose trust in the moral and ethical behavior of the government. One example of multicultural teams, this distrust occurred following a major historical event around the same time period. Who Really Discovered? With millions of people watching, a United States astronaut was televised setting foot on the moon for the first time. Some skeptics thought that the moon landing was fabricated. Apollo 11 , Apollo 16 , Apollo 17 2708 Words | 7 Pages.
Sunlight is shown coming in from the multicultural teams right. America? Essay Examples? The earth, of of thunder hear tj, course, is at the center of the Who Really Essay diagram. The moon is shown at 8 key stages during its . revolution around the an inspector story earth. The moon phase name is shown alongside the image. The dotted line from the earth to the moon represents your line of sight when looking at the moon . The large moon image shows what you would see at that point in the cycle. For the waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent phases you have to mentally turn yourself upside.
Crescent , Earth , Full moon 1092 Words | 4 Pages. March 31, 2011 CHARACTER ANALYSIS Diana Moon Glampers Diana Moon Glampers, the Handicapper General, . symbolically portrays the idea of fairness in Who Really Discovered examples a society. Multicultural? She is the one in charge of Who Really, lowering the capacity of a bright and intelligent person to the level of a normal and unaware being. In the multicultural teams beginning of the story, the reader is America? given a picture of the Financial Essay example world that Diana Moon Glampers watches upon: Diana Moon Glampers is the Who Really America? Essay examples one who maintains the idea of checks and. Armie Hammer , Diana Moon-Glampers , Dystopia 838 Words | 3 Pages. Chinese New Year events in multicultural teams the United States and Canada, the Chinese New Year coloring pictures, the many New Year’s links, the Chinese New Year calendars . and past events, the New Year’s zodiac, calendars, animals and horoscope. Information on Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, the new moon festivals can be found in the calendar of multicultural, events, in the history and Who Really Discovered America? customs of the Chinese and us today other recommended books. Information, concerning other Chinese festivals, can be found in the background, history and other cultural celebrations. America? Essay? Special. China , Chinese calendar , Chinese culture 1483 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of of thunder hear, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . Who Really America? Essay? those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.
Essays can consist of henry's edwards, a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Who Really America? Essay Examples? Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Executive Summary Blue Moons , Pty Ltd was a business specialising in the creation and roll of thunder hear my cry tj production of sailing boats. Their traditional . Who Really Discovered Examples? strategy was to teams offer clients with low cost products with reasonable short production time. However, due to incurring problems in America? examples relation to clients preferring products from the convergence of the twain analysis, competitors and the decline in profits and market share, Rob Inglis the owner of the business decided to implement a new strategy.
The purpose of this report was to identify whether it is Discovered examples beneficial. Cost , Cost accounting , Cost-plus contract 2123 Words | 6 Pages. The first chapter of the Moon Hoax appeared in the August 25, 1835 edition of the New York Sun on racism, page two, under the heading Celestial . Discoveries. The paper had published a series of articles describing the astonishing lunar discoveries that had recently been made by the famous astronomer John Herschel from his observatory at the Cape of America? examples, “Good Hope”. Racism? The article described that by using cutting-edge “hydro-oxygen magnifiers,” Herschel had developed a new telescope that could reach an amazing. Broadsheet , Edgar Allan Poe , John Herschel 1283 Words | 4 Pages. The function of the Who Really America? Essay examples moon in an inspector TAKETORI MONOGATARI. The world on the moon and the world of human beings.
?The function of the moon in TAKETORI MONOGATARI. The world on the moon and Who Really Essay examples the world of multicultural, human beings. . Discovered Essay Examples? Introduction The moon can be found in roll hear tj many literary works, and America? Essay examples it is an element full of literary and narrative quality. The moon in the Taketori Monogatari, which is considered the ancestor of multicultural, Japanese Narratives by the Japanese renowned writer Murasaki Shikibu, is without exception an indispensable part. According to NI, Jin-Dan, in literature, the concept of foreign land. Africa , Earth , Human 2375 Words | 6 Pages.
probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in America? Essay examples any class. Of Thunder? An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . Who Really America? Examples? certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to Liberalization Essay example include an introductory paragraph (make the Who Really Discovered America? claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in Discovered America? Essay examples many other types of classes. Multicultural Teams? Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Who Really Discovered Essay? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of in the us today, a postage stamp yet to Who Really Essay examples be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Financial Liberalization Of Pakistan Essay? attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. surface of the moon . It was the Who Really Discovered America? Essay first time in the history of mankind that we would step on the surface of another celestial body. John F. . Kennedy dared us to henry's edwards dream, he inspired the Who Really Discovered America? nation to reach for the moon , to set ourselves apart from the rest of the world. Twain Analysis? The Space Race was symbolic of many things.
Our future as the technically dominate nation was secured in place; just as secure as Old Glory would be, when she was driven down into the soil of the moon . We not only reached the moon , we conquered. Apollo 11 , Apollo program , Moon 1282 Words | 3 Pages. Ruby Moon Essay In class we are performing ‘Ruby Moon ’, the scene that we have chosen is scene 6 which is between . Sonny Jim and Sylvie, this scene establishes the Who Really America? examples broken and psychotic world they inhabit and analysis contextualises the grief felt by the protagonists. Who Really Discovered? It demonstrates the an inspector calls story dark and twisted atmosphere of the characters world and shows the audience the irrational state in which they live. All throughout the play we sense the important values present in Australian ideas that are represented in. American films , Audience , Emotion 797 Words | 2 Pages. This is Naoko Takeuchi's original vision for Sailor Moon . When asked about the Who Really Discovered America? differences between the anime and manga, she replied that the roll hear my cry tj . anime's staff was men, while her story was told from a women's perspective- by girls, for girls and about girls. (Especially obvious since the manga lacks a lot of the male gaze and has none of the America? Essay examples nude transformation sequences or skirts flying up the anime boasts, as well as other things) (and don't get me wrong, the of thunder hear tj anime is fantastic and feminist as. Codename: Sailor V , Manga , Naoko Takeuchi 1445 Words | 4 Pages.
thanks to Allah, for the moon and the stars PRAISE HIM ALL DAY FOR, what is and Who Really Discovered Essay what was take hold of your iman dont givin to shaitaan oh you . who believe please give thanks to Allah. Allahu Ghafoor Allahu Raheem Allahu yuhibbul Mohsineen, va Khalikuna va Razikuna wahuwa Ala kulli shaien Kadir Allah is Ghafoor Allah is calls Raheem Allah is the one who loves the Who Really Discovered America? examples Mohsineen, He is a creator, He is a sustainer and He is the one who has power over all. Give thanks to Allah, for the moon and an inspector calls the stars PRAISE HIM. Allah , God , Islam 1679 Words | 7 Pages. Page 1 of 6 Writing Devanagari words using Baraha transliteration scheme is as easy as writing our names in examples English. ???? ???? ???? can be written as . merA bhArat mahAn. Teams? Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, Hindi , and Marathi languages are supported in Baraha. Other languages such as Konkani, Sindhi and Nepali that use devanagari script, can also be used. The transliteration rules are shown below with examples.
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Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. ?EAL241 Paper on Essays in Idleness Ziman Gao The Essays in henry's edwards Idleness is considered one of the three representative works of . the zuihitsu genre in medieval Japanese literature. It comprises two hundred and fourty-three passages written by a Buddhist monk Yoshida Kenko, who writes about Buddhist truths, death, impermanence, nature of beauty as well as some anecdotes. Although his works contain different subjects and vary in length, I find his aesthetic principles of Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, admiration of uncertainty. Aesthetics , Beauty , Buddhism 1563 Words | 4 Pages. Bankers Adda How to multicultural teams write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). Discovered Examples? So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for an inspector, upcoming SBI PO exam.
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pdf thesis petra Oksana Coban (Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus, Germany 2015) Fate of Microbial Carbon Derived From Biogas Residues Applied to Arable Soil. Halil Coban (Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Who Really Discovered America? examples Hohenheim, Germany 2015) Behavior of selected organic micropollutants in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating at an inspector calls high organic load. Otoniel Carranza Diaz (Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, Germany 2015) Comparison of the Who Really examples, biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and biocides in water and soil systems. Cristobal Girardi Lavin (RWTH Aachen University, Germany 2015) Asssessment of soil microbial activity by non- or low invasive methods.
Christian Schurig (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany 2013) Dynamic (redox) interfaces in soil - Carbon turnover of microbial residues and their impact on soil properties. Jan Achtenhagen (Tehnische Universitat Munchen, Germany 2012) “Bound” residues from biomass and CO 2 in soils – formation, fate and stability during biotic incubation. Karolina Malgorzata Nowak (Rheinisch-Westfalischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, Germany 2012) Treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE and ammonium by multicultural, constructed wetlands.
Eva-Mareike Seeger (Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Germany 2012) Hydrolysis of cellobiose by Who Really America? examples, ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger in the presence of soil solid phases: minerals, biochar and tj, activated carbon. Carlo Lammirato (Technische Universitat Munchen, Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Germany 2012) Constructed wetland treatment of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Mareike Ursula Braeckevelt (PhD thesis at the University Leipzig, Faculty of Discovered Essay examples Chemistry and racism in the us today, Mineralogy, 2011)
Investigations of the influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the treatment effect of a chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater in a constructed wetland. Anja Hahn (Diploma thesis at the International University (IHI) Zittau, Germany; 2010) In situ Mikrokosmen zur Charakterisierung des mikrobiellen Schadstoffabbaus in einem BTEX kontaminierten Aquifer. Petra Bombach; (Fakultat Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften der Technischen Universitat Dresden 2009) Treatment of Discovered Essay waters contaminated with volatile organic compounds in constructed wetlands. Shyam Janakiraman - from Chennai, India (Master thesis at the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg; Germany; 2009) Slow sand filtration of secondary effluent for wastewater reuse: Evaluation of performance and modeling of bacteria removal. Kilian Langenbach (PhD thesis at the Technical University Munchen, Germany; Lehrstuhl fur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; 2009)
Investigations on of the twain analysis, nitrogen transformation processes and Who Really America?, stimulation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation activity in an experimental laboratory-scale wetland system. Diego Paredes, 2009 (from Pereira, Colombia) PhD thesis at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Centre for Engineering Sciences, Germany. Factors of influence on the efficiency of constructed wetlands treating a contaminated groundwater loaded with volatile organic compounds and ammonium. Paul Wei?bach (Bachelor thesis at the Beuth University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany; 2009) Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands. Khaja Zillur Rahman (PhD at the Universitat Stuttgart; 2009) On possibilities of the post-treatment of anaerobic digester effluents with high H 2 S loads in constructed wetlands.
Alvaro Enrique Gonzalias Mosquera (PhD at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg; 2008) Entwicklung eines Testsystems zur Erfassung der in situ Biodegradation im Grundwasser. Nicole Stelzer (Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel; 2008) Der Beitrag mikrobieller Niomasse zur Bildung der refraktaren organischen Substanz im Boden. Reimo Kindler (Universitat Leipzig; 2007) Constructed wetlands for the treatment of waters contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons - Monochlorobenzene and perchloroethene as examples (in German) Eva Seeger; diploma thesis, University Leipzig, Germany, 2007. Treatment of of thunder hear my cry tj Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Contaminated Groundwater in Constructed Wetlands – Process Characterisation in Small Scale Experimental Systems. Abstract of the diploma thesis of America? Essay examples Zixuan Zhang from China Brandenburgische Technische Universitat Cottbus, 2007.
Investigations on henry's edwards, the biological transformation of chlorinated benzenes in a pilot scale constructed wetland - Characterisation by means of physicochemical parameters and methods using the examples, stable isotope 13 C. Constructed wetland for treatment of chlorobenzene contaminated groundwater in Bitterfeld/Germany. Mareike Braeckevelt (diploma work - University Leipzig, 2007) Tolerance and reaction of henry's edwards helophytes to stress-influence of Discovered salt and chromate to Juncus effusus. Bildung, Stabilitat und Struktur gebundener Ruckstande aus dem mikrobiellen Abbau von TNT im Boden.
Martin Wei? (PhD Thesis; 2004) Aerenchyme tissue of Juncus effusus. Henriette Gruber (diploma work - University Jena, 2005) Plants in constructed wetlands often have to of thunder, grow under suboptimal conditions. Herbal metabolism is hampered by pollutants within the Discovered Essay, waste water. For example oxygen transport, which is essential for operation of constructed wetlands, could be interrupted. Experiments under defined conditions should show which concentrations of salt and heavy metals do have negative effects on growth processes in plants. Changes in racism in the, photosynthesis and CO 2 - fixation had been measured and Who Really Essay examples, whether there is an accumulation of toxic substances. Aim of these experiments was to set optimum ranges for of the twain, the model plant Juncus effusus . Within these ranges should be guaranteed an efficient processing of constructed wetlands. The results showed that J. effusus is completely salt intolerant. Even salt concentrations around 0.5 % are enough to affect all tested parameters negatively.
For comparison: maximum capacity of salt in fresh water is Discovered examples, 0.2 %. In experiments with different chromate concentrations, permanent damages occur at concentrations higher than 34 µM K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . This concentration is conform to 10 mg chromium per twain analysis, litre. The WHO’s threshold for drinking water is 0.05 mg Cr/ l. However, 200 times higher concentration had no influence on J. effusus ' life processes. This is a good basis to establish J. effusus in constructed wetlands that clean chromium containing waste water. The role of root-associated bacteria of helophytes in the degradation of Who Really Discovered Essay xenobiotics in aquatic systems. Ullrich Soltmann (left) and Helmut Wand (right) Inoculation of the rhizosphere ofCarex gracilis with Pseudomonas putida G7.
Ullrich Soltmann, PhD at the University of Bremen, 2005. We are trying to establish the role played by root-associated bacteria in the degradation of xenobiotics (aromatics, phenolic compounds and PAHs) in aquatic systems using helophytes. Investigations address in particular the dependence of the composition, abundance and diversity of root-associated bacteria on the plant species, as well as the influence exerted by xenobiotics. The goal is to characterize the bacterial degraders. The methods used to characterize bacteria range from classical to molecular techniques, including DNA-fingerprinting techniques and hybridization methods with rRNA-directed gene probes. Work also involves in situ investigations of the colonization of the roll hear my cry, rhizoplane and the endorhizosphere by bacteria using laser confocal microscopy. Last but not least, the part played by plants in the degradation and elimination of xenobiotics is Discovered examples, being studied as well. Moreover, we plan to introduce high-performance bacterial degraders into the rhizosphere to see how they compete with autochthonous bacteria and whether they are able to Financial Liberalization of Pakistan, establish themselves in the rhizosphere. Strain PpG7 was introduced into the naphthalene degrading sand bed planted with Carex gracilis After 2 and 10 weeks, respectively, samples were taken from roots, rhizospheric sand and root-far sand.
After cultivation, fluorescent colonies, 5 each of the samples, were characterized by RAPD-PCR. Discovered! Whereas after 2 weeks (A) the introduced strain – lane 17 – was detectable, indicated by stars, it was not possible to detect the strain after 10 weeks (B). The role of root-associated micro-organisms at the nitrogen transformations in constructed wetlands. Experimental column system for henry's edwards, characterization of nitrogen transformations. Christina Munch; PhD at the University of Discovered America? Dresden, 2003. Constructed wetlands and analysis, their performance for Discovered Essay examples, treatment of water contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. Sasidhorn Buddhawong using IC-ICP-MS coupling to separate and identify polar arsenic species. Sasidhorn Buddhawong; PhD at the University of Leipzig, 2004.
The work was supported by a scholarship of the of the, DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) In batch models of wetland systems, the Who Really Discovered America? Essay, performances of As and heavy metal removal from artificial wastewater varied with the type of the constructed wetland. The subsurface wetland (SSW) and free surface wetland (FSW) removed heavy metals better than hydroponic system (HP) and algae pond (AP). The combination of gravel bed and plants (e.g. Juncus effusus) resulted in a high removal rate. The heavy metals mostly accumulated in the plant roots. Liberalization Of Pakistan! The remaining amounts were bound to the gravel, precipitated, attached to or incorporated into the cells of microorganisms and adsorbed on sediment to the bottom. Also a two step constructed wetland system with continuous flow, consisting of Who Really Discovered America? Essay HP and FSW was tested for the removal of As, Zn and Cr from an artificial wastewater. A high removal rate was observed in the first phase of the experiment, when a high load of racism in the us today carbon source was supplied, which enhanced anaerobic conditions. Zn, As and Discovered America? Essay examples, Cr probably precipitated with iron and of Pakistan, S 2- , which were present in the systems.
As(V) could precipitate as FeAsO4 or be immobilized on hydrated iron oxides. Under anaerobic conditions, As(V) was reduced to As(III), which could precipitate with S 2- . The average removal efficiencies of the Who Really Discovered Essay, HP decreased in the sequence Cr ? Zn As (118, 114 and 18 mg/m 2 d, respectively). The results showed that J. effusus is completely salt intolerant. Even salt concentrations around 0.5 % are enough to affect all tested parameters negatively. For comparison: maximum capacity of salt in fresh water is 0.2 %. As the toxicity and the environmental behaviour of As strongly depends on the species in which it is present; also the As speciation was investigated in the experiments described above. The Convergence Of The Twain Analysis! The data show that methylated arsenic species occurred under reducing conditions. America? Examples! In particular, As(III) was found in compartments with low concentration of henry's edwards oxygen, i.e. near the bottom of the SSW and Who Really Discovered Essay examples, FSW wetlands, and in the HP of the two-step constructed wetland. Methylated arsenic was also found in the AP due to henry's edwards, the appearance of algae which could transform toxic As(V) to other non-toxic As species.
The planted FSW in a field test was highly effective for Who Really examples, treatment of acidity and metals from acid mine drainage, with a removal capacity for acidity of about 34-51 mmol NaOH/m 2 d, for Zn of about 4-10 mg/m 2 d and for Fe of about 73-122 mg/m 2 d. SSW and HP also remove acidity and metals, although to a lower extent. The hydroponic systems had significantly less capacity for the removal of all parameters than the systems containing soil material. The plants in the system promoted the neutralization and took up metals from multicultural, wastewater. In both FSW and SSW, Zn and Fe were accumulated in the roots and at the root surface rather than in the shoots. Who Really Examples! Soil materials were found to accumulate Fe rather than Zn, especially in multicultural, the planted FSW. In conclusion, constructed wetland systems with a combination of gravel/soil matrix and Who Really Discovered America? examples, plants have a high removal rate of the convergence of the twain heavy metals in both lab models and a field test system. Conditioning and long-term remediation of sludge residues and contaminated soils (coal chemistry and Who Really Discovered America? examples, petrochemistry) by Liberalization Essay, macrophytes. Thorsten Hubner at the HPLC-system. Thorsten Hubner, PhD at the Universitat Halle, 2002. Investigations study the effect of Discovered America? Essay plants growing on contaminated sites (especially those polluted by PAHs, phenols and hydrocarbons) on in the us today, decontamination, toxicity and soil texture.
Of special interest are also the stimulation of microbial activity in the soil by Who Really America? Essay, plants, rooting behaviour in relation to an inspector calls story, zonal contaminant distribution, and transpiration rates. Initial investigations will take the Who Really, form of lab-scale experiments in the greenhouse. Impact of rhizodeposition on of thunder, microbial degradation of xenobiotics. Visible slime layer on the roots of Phalaris arundinaceae exposed to Who Really Discovered America? Essay, phenol. Horst Moormann, PhD at the University of Financial Essay Bremen, 2001. he role of Who Really Essay roots as a habitat for micro-organisms exposed to pollution and multicultural teams, their possible impact on Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, pollutant degradation is currently being investigated. Research is also being carried out into the effect of rhizodeposition and plant debris on the degradation of xenobiotics in teams, an effort to explain whether these substances act as growth substrates for microorganisms and how microorganisms can be encouraged or enabled to America?, degrade persistent organic pollutants. Investigations are being performed on hydroponic cultures with various xenobiotics such as phenol, chlorophenols etc.
Thesis Einfluss der Rhizodeposition von Helophyten auf den mikrobiellen Schadstoffabbau aloe_magdeb_seminar_Hirt.ppt (2.9 MB) Phytovolatilization - the emission of volatile organic xenobiotics by helophytes exposed to industrial effluents. Lab research system for estimating phytovolatilization. Oliver Baeder-Bederski PhD at the University of Leipzig, 2000. Remediation with systems based on green plants and their associated microorganisms (phytoremediation) can be used as an inexpensive method of treatment for Financial Liberalization Essay, contaminated sludges and industrial wastewaters. One function of the plants is to eliminate volatile pollutants by increasing the Who Really America? examples, volatilization rate.
However, the teams, potential transfer of Who Really Discovered Essay volatiles in this biological (open) system must be understood if the uncontrolled transfer of toxic products into in the us today, the air is to be prevented. In order to examine the Who Really Essay, effect of plants on volatilization, the plants are placed in a gas exchange chamber combined with a hydroculture vessel. To reduce abiotic emissions, the multicultural teams, waterlogged gravel is sealed with wax. Who Really Essay! For qualitative investigations, a laminar stream of catalytic purified air or doted air flows downstream through the Financial Essay example, gas-tight chamber. For the test system we are using Iris pseudacorus. Our investigations focus on volatilization from the plant and absorption into the leaves. Discovered America? Essay! In experiments with 2,6-dimethylphenol contaminated water (30 ppm), we have detected 2,6-dimethylphenol near the leaf surface after 10–15 h of root exposure. Thesis Summary: Phytovolatilization – the emission of volatile organic xenobiotics by helophytes exposed to industrial effluents Abstract Phytovolatil. The Convergence Twain Analysis! (20 KB)
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and America?, other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator.
See more across the roll of thunder my cry, site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to Who Really examples, help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism.
The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and in the, using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for Who Really Essay examples, plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in roll of thunder hear my cry tj your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Citations are included in Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from story, another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to America? Essay, make citations in APA style. Racism Us Today? There are two types of APA citations. The first type of Who Really citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from of thunder hear, another individual’s work into your own project. Discovered Essay Examples? If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of henry's edwards your research project, usually on the last page. Included on Discovered examples this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the henry's edwards, project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research.
These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the Who Really Discovered examples, other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the racism in the, year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is Discovered America? Essay examples a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field.
With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and racism in the, social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.
Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for America?, citing sources allows readers to roll of thunder hear my cry tj, glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to America? examples, understand a source. My Cry? Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and Who Really, only the name of the city was included for calls, publication information. Who Really Discovered Essay? Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the Financial Essay example, city AND state, or the America? Essay, city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for the convergence twain analysis, electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of Who Really Discovered examples technology advances and resources. There are two types of racism in the citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project.
These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. Who Really Discovered Essay? So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and an inspector calls, so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. Essay? If you would like to calls story, cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is Discovered America? Essay examples a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in henry's edwards three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to Who Really, a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for analysis, word, from another source and include it in their own research projects.
This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Examples? Other times, the multicultural, author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to Who Really, using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and racism us today, rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an Who Really America? Essay in-text citation directly following it. Of Thunder Hear My Cry? In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. Discovered Essay Examples? They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is henry's edwards included in order to help the Discovered, reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.
Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation.
According to the convergence of the, a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on examples our homepage. Click here to henry's edwards, learn more about crediting work. Who Really America?? APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of an inspector story text is indented in half an Who Really America? Essay examples inch. See examples below to of Pakistan Essay, see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about Who Really Discovered examples, each component of the of the, reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.
The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Discovered Examples? V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for Liberalization Essay, newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources.
If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for America? examples, you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the roll of thunder hear tj, first word of the title and Who Really America? Essay examples, the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation.
Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and henry's edwards, chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.
Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Who Really America? Essay Examples? For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. Of The Analysis? In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in Discovered America? Essay examples quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and the convergence of the twain analysis, is not part of a larger whole, place the Who Really Discovered Essay, title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in the convergence of the twain italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of Discovered America? Essay larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to calls, include additional information about the Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is of the twain analysis automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.
For books and reports, include the Who Really America? Essay examples, city and multicultural teams, state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the Essay examples, entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the Financial Liberalization of Pakistan, United States Postal Service. Type out the Who Really Discovered, entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the Financial example, location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. Who Really Discovered America? Essay Examples? It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in in the italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on Who Really Discovered Essay examples the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and an inspector calls, the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in Who Really Essay examples your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to teams, the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of America? its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in racism this format: For URLs, only Who Really Discovered America? examples include the information about the teams, homepage and write it in this format:
Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about examples, electronic sources: - If the URL is story longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by Discovered America? the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. Multicultural? I. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date).
Title . Of Thunder Hear Tj? Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Who Really Discovered America? Essay Examples? Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in multicultural Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. Who Really Discovered Essay? (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in henry's edwards Print: De Abreu, B.S. Who Really America?? (2001).
The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Teams? (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. America?? Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.
In S. Auerbach, K. Multicultural? Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about Who Really Essay, how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Of The Analysis? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. Who Really Examples? (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. Teams? This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Who Really Essay Examples? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Multicultural? Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. America? Essay Examples? I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. An Inspector Story? Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war.
International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the Who Really Essay examples, URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to henry's edwards, its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources.
A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to Who Really America? Essay, change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). The Convergence Of The Analysis? Title of article. Who Really America? Essay? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. An Inspector Story? Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of Who Really Discovered examples lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Hear My Cry? Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx.
If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. America? Examples? D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.
Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on roll my cry tj a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action.
USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of Who Really Discovered Essay article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.
National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last?
Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of of thunder hear blog post). Title of Who Really Essay blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. Financial Liberalization Essay? McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into America? Essay examples research with the third graders [Blog post].
Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of teams episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. Who Really Discovered? D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. Teams? (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the Discovered America?, same form.
Producer Last Name, F. Racism Us Today? I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Who Really America? Examples? I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. Analysis? United States: Miramax. There is the option to Who Really America? Essay, automatically cite films found online, in film, and on racism a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Discovered? Instead, this type of story source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in Who Really examples APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D.
Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. Racism? (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the Discovered America? examples, songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from racism, URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012).
Greyhound [Recorded by Who Really Discovered Essay Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an henry's edwards APA format generator that is free and easy to use.
Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. Examples? xxxxxxx). English, L. Story? S. (2014). The influences of Who Really Discovered community college library characteristics on of the analysis institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation).
Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. America? Essay Examples? (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. Analysis? (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file].
Retrieved from URL. Who Really America? Examples? Damien, M. An Inspector Calls? [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in Discovered Essay examples addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. Henry's Edwards? When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on Who Really Discovered Essay examples a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. Roll Of Thunder My Cry Tj? A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. America?? Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.
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Customer Relationship Management and Nike Inc. Essay Sample. Web2.0 is a hottest topic among the different companies; many companies using web2.0 application to interact and stay connect with their online customers and users. Moreover its Sales2.0, Marketing2.0, Enetrprise2.0, and Supply Chain 2.0. This research paper is about the impact of Discovered examples, web2.0 technology and teams, how web2.0 helps different departments of Who Really Essay examples, organization to provide them benefit in term of business. For this we apply different web2.0 application with different model such as TAM, TPB and Nike inc. Case studies.Web2.0 can helps different companies to achieving their future goals. Keywords: Nike Inc, TAM, TPB, CRM2.0, Web2.0, SCM2.0 Case Studies. INTRODUCTION: Internet before the concept of the web2.0 is very difficult, in Financial, fact it is very tricky to Who Really Essay interact with others, internet is only use for different chatting software’s like msn or yahoo messengers, but web2.0 not only changes life for consumer, but also useful as a prospectus of organizations. An Inspector Story? it helps to attach with each other anywhere in the world, web2.0 includes wiki’s, blogs, now a day’s web2.0 providing a lot of benefits in different fields in marketing2.0, sales 2.0, hrm2.0, scm2.0 and according to the (Almeida, 2012)Mostly social networks site like face book, twitter is more than 100 million visitors in America?, a month. (Almeida, 2012).
For sure at the end of 2015 web3.0 will be introduced which open the new era for roll of thunder my cry the organizations and consumers where the concept of virtual 3d world will appears. Who Really Discovered America? Essay Examples? Nike is the one of the most famous brand in the world, founded in 1968. It is Essay example famous not only for their athletic footwear’s but also making sports bags and others different sports equipments. Who Really America? Essay Examples? Nike’s online business is growing day by day, in the convergence twain, 1999 company use website to sale their products online via internet. Who Really Discovered America? Examples? Today, Nike finds out the new innovative way to multicultural teams become a perfect athletic product and new innovative communication ways to interact with their consumers, including becoming an official partner of the National Football League (NFL) starts in 2012. Social CRM/ CRM2.0 is basically software which allows organizations to Who Really America? Essay manage a customer relationship in a organized way, Nike Inc. focusing on CRM2.0 system, to make good and strong relations which their customers, TAM is on other hand according to the sources TAM is all about the adoption and Liberalization, acceptance of different IT technologies(Davis, 1989)as summarized by Who Really Discovered America? Essay, (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011), TAM introduced two concepts, Perceived Usefulness(more related to the job recital) and Perceived ease of use( more related to the utilize of system, which is easy to manage). (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011) According to the resources Davis; Venkatesh(2000), Introduced TAM2 based on a bases of TAM. There are two types of model (Social Influence Process, Cognitive Instrumental Process), those were very important to understand the study of an inspector calls story, acceptance. (Wu et al., 2011), more over Venkatesh (2003), basic aim of the UTAUT is to Essay examples define the user how to use IS.
There are four predicators of behavioral objective or usage (Performance Expletory Effort; Social Influence and racism us today, Condition) (Payng and Curtis, 2008) TPB (Mathies, (1991); todds;Taylor (1995), has been used in Essay, different fields of IT and it consists of three variables; Attitudes, Subjective norms, Perceived behavior control. Of Thunder My Cry Tj? Attitude: It is defined as the positive or negative feeling towards the behavior. America? Essay? Subjective Norms: Subjective norms are strain from others to engage or not engaged with behavior. Perceived Behavior Control: This reflected people’s behavior perceptions of Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example, their aptitude to Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples use achieve a given behavior.
Web2.0 introduced in 2004 by Tim O’Reilly, referred second generation of the world wide web, where many new version of software’s are introduced, it includes wiki, blogs, social networking, According to the research Web 2.0 as a social phenomenon, where marketers thinks how to use a web2.0 in a positive way and build a personal relation with the consumer’s (Parise and Guinan, 2008). However Nike Inc. use web2.0 not only for henry's edwards their online customer, but also for the Soccer community. LITRATURE REVIEW: Literature review of this report is based on TAM, TPB, CRM2.0 and acceptance of Web2.0. Technology Acceptance Model: According to the Legris; Ingham; Colleretts (2003), TAM was introduced by Davis in 1986, it helps to America? examples find out the behavior of user towards the of thunder hear my cry tj IT (Park, 2009), there are two variables of TAM; Perceived Usefulness or Perceived ease to use.
Shown in figure1. Figure1.Framework of technology acceptance model. Davis et.al.(1989), previous researches on TAM, talks about the user satisfaction or behavior towards the technologies. (Venkatesh, Davis and Morris, 2007) TAM is very useful to comprehend the acceptance of technology and information system, Taylor;Todds (1995), as summarized by (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011), anticipated the included model of TAM and Who Really Essay examples, TPB by multicultural, the combine name of TAM-TPB (Chih Chen, HanLi and Discovered examples, YILI, 2011). THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR: According to the Azjen (1985); Fishbein (1975), as summarized by (Taylor and Todd, 1995), in TPB behavior is more linked with behavior intention and perceived behavioral control is henry's edwards twisted with the help of attitudes (Taylor and Todd, 1995) TPB is Who Really America? examples introduced by Ajzen (1985;1991), many previous studies regarding the TPB is more discussed on Replication and henry's edwards, Generalization to different types of behavior (Venkatesh, Davis and Morris, 2007), Mathies (1991); Todds, Tyalor (1995),as summarized by (Taylor and Todd, 1995) TPB has been used in different fields of IT and it has three variables; Attitudes, Subjective norms, Perceived behavior control (Taylor and Todd, 1995). Figure2. Theory of planned behavior. Source: http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/pop8910/Outline/Models/Theory%20of%20Planned%20Behavior.htm This report is based on the acceptance of web2.0 in different fields. As you all that there is no specific definition of web2.0 but according to Discovered Essay the O’Reily (2000), as summarized by (Leuy, 2009) the revolution in multicultural teams, computer industry is caused by to utilize internet as a raised area (Leuy, 2009). Those companies which using web2.0 is more beneficial as compared to the other companies.
Public trader companies that directly sold to Discovered Essay their retailers such as Wall Mart and story, Target (Parise and Guinan, 2008) According to the Mckinsey (2011), use of world wide web in organization is increasing day by day and organizations by using these technologies improving their systems and find out the new market era Bughin; Manyika;Miller (2008), as summarized by (Miller, 2008), as compared to the last year many companies in now more involved in web2.0 technologies, and those companies who are contented with these technologies now seen the changes all the Who Really America? Essay examples way throughout the enterprise.(Miller,2008) Mckinsey Quarterly.com shows the survey about the web2.0 in multicultural, 2007 or 2008 , following figure shown web2.0 is more common now days. Now a day’s new type of Web2.0 technologies is using to Who Really promising employees requirement and to interact with customer, suppliers of organizations(Bughin and Chui, 2011) According to another research by (Jacques Bughin ; Michae Chui, 2011), mostly companies now improving their reports by using this effective Web2.0 technology. According to the MckenseyCompany(2009) survey , which shows 69% of the companies getting benefit from web2.0, in a term of low cost with high revenue, efficient marketing, innovative products and services, this shows that web2.0 technology is accepted by other companies because it increasing their revenue, this figure shows using of web2.0 technologies. Figure3. Using of web2.0 technology.
SOCIAL CRM/ CRM2.0: Before the explaining of social CRM system you must know about the concept of basic CRM system, CRM main focus is to same relation with every customers that amalgamate data base knowledge with long term customer relations (Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2002), CRM system is us today mostly used by Essay, every companies in various departments such as ; marketing, sales. When we use CRM as Sales it also known as SFA (Sales Force Automation) In 2007 CRM began a revolution and now it known as the the convergence analysis social CRM or CRM2.0, according to Discovered America? examples the Corn score, Face book is an inspector story a social network and in Discovered Essay examples, 2007 had a 200,000,000 different customers, which shows a new era of communication between the customers and companies, but also a new knowledge as cause from customer approaching. Basically CRM provide a new era to henry's edwards customers that allow them to Who Really Essay personalize and share their experience with those who already got benefit from experiences. (Greenberg, 2010). Social Media is more focused on mission, guidelines, but Social CRM related one step further than Social Media, such as marketing, customer responsibilities by implementing cross functional network like sales and customers cares (Baird and Parasnis, 2011). The below diagram shows the progress from social media to Social CRM. Figure4. From social media to social CRM Strategy. This research paper is more towards the qualitative work base on journal articles and case studies, for this referred 35 empirical studies out of which 18 is more relevant to Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example the research, remaining 16 discussed about the different technologies.
2 case studies were taken for this research paper. Who Really Discovered America? Essay Examples? Mostly journal articles which used in review is electronic and searched from emerald and different academic sites, which talks more about the an inspector calls story different technologies e.g. TAM, TBP, CRM2.0 SCM2.0, WEB2.0. FINDINGS AND RESEARCH: The first part of the case study (Co-creating value through customers’ experiences) is Who Really examples more related to the Web2.0 and Social CRM2.0, in twain analysis, 2006 Nike launched social networking site www.joga.com , in partnership with Google. Nike online customers can show their talent, upload videos, commenting, rate on the user spawn content and internet community do voting, more voting announced to be a winner of the America? month and Nike using this feedback for multicultural the betterment of their strategies. And sales people can connect with their customers. Nike launched this system because one of their competitors Adidas they using Web2.0 for interact with their customers and Nike was losing their market share that’s why they launched www.joga.com a Web2.0 system through which they can easily interact with their customers.
After implement this web2.0 systems Nike Inc. Who Really Examples? got 32 millions downloads and attracted one million customers. This is web2.0 application linked with TAM two variables; Perceived usefulness or Perceived ease to use; in relation to usefulness joga.com helped Nike to attract more customers and helped them to increase their productivity. This could be outline in an inspector story, the case study as there was 32 million downloads and it attracted one million customers. Moreover this fact could be taken as ease of use of the technology that this much of customers was attracted. The second part of the case study also related with web2.0 and CRM2.0 technologies, Nike Inc introduced Nike ID from where online customers can easily customize their own sport soccer shoes by putting flags and coloring and Nike Internet community can vote on that design and arrange a competition, more voting design will be select as the next season design. Figure5.
Nike ID. From Nike ID website www.nikeid.nike.com I made this sport shoes design and Who Really Essay examples, post it on my Facebook page and my friends and other people can do comments and like this my design and if my design gets more commenting and tj, liking than other, it will be selected as the next Nike season design. From this strategy Nike better understand about their customers choices what actually they wants This Web2.0 technology is more linked with TAM; perceived usefulness and perceived ease to use, in relation to usefulness Nike ID helped them to understand customer needs and wants through which Nike Inc. make better relation with their customers. This could be mentioned in case study that they connected with thousand of soccer’s fan around the world. Moreover this detail could be taken as ease of use of the technology. The second case study (implementing of supply chain management and its impact on the value of firms), which is more related to Who Really Essay examples the failure of web2.0 technology, In 2000 Nike shows that their second quarter revenues increased by 7 % and net income is $0.44 as compared to $108 millions, but shocking news is that Nike faces a problem regarding software which shows more inventory in slower selling shoes because when implementing I2 technology system production was delayed. Stakeholders of Nike did a sue case on the manufacturing company of that technology, after that they apologize from racism, Nike Inc. This is more related to the Theory of Who Really Discovered, planned behavior (TPB) and TAM; TPB has three variables attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, attitudes toward this failure is not acceptable as discussed in in the, case study while implementing this system mostly persons not agree with it, while implementing this failure web2.0 with TAM; perceived usefulness, Nike wants to maintain their inventory stocks and might be because of Who Really, lack of training which shows not ease to use of this technology that’s why web2.0 failed. CONCLUSION/ RECUMANDATION:
Web2.0 is proving a lot of oppournities to the convergence of the analysis different organizations in throughout every fields, technology never do this alone. Who Really Essay? Therefore, companies required to Financial Liberalization of Pakistan example understand how they can fill these gaps, Nike inc. comprehend these gaps and launched different technologies like CRM2.0 which is more related to the web2.0 application, by using these technologies Nike getting benefit in a term of profits. Nike Inc. using Nike ID and Discovered America? Essay examples, www.joga.com make better direct relation with their customers. CRM2.0 is very effective for Nike Inc. because CRM2.0 humanize the company which increase the racism trust of customers on Nike Inc., it allows customers in the hub of company strategies and introduced new type of drivers in company strategies. CRM2.0 is a collaboration of web2.0 and CRM, which helps customers to interact and sharing experience, allow business to understand the customers need and Who Really America? Essay, wants in a innovative ways, with the racism in the us today help of CRM2.0 company can build a strong relation with their customers via different applications and Who Really Discovered America? Essay examples, continuously communications to improve product eminence and henry's edwards, increase customer experience. When Nike inc. launched I2 technology for supply chain, which was totally failed might be because of lack of training and information within the staff, Supply chain includes two different segments from input to suppliers and output to consumers, SCM2.0 should concern for Essay examples these two segments and SCM2.0 is the effective combination of physical and financial, main responsibilities is to give advantages to end users like; customers suppliers. Newly technologies which using in SCM2.0 is RFID and GPS track device, allow computerized data to supply 24/7 time visibility.SCM2.0 is also more related to functional of web2.0 so that trust between the members can be improved to make a practical team. Almeida, F. (2012) ‘Web 2.0 Technologies and Social Networking Security Fears in Enterprises’, (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications,[Online] vol. 3, no. 2.Available from: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1204/1204.1824.pdf[Accessed: 24-Sep-2012] ANDRIOLE, S. J. 2010.
Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Communication of the ACM [Online]. The Convergence Twain? Available: http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2010/12/102142-business-impact-of-web-20-technologies/fulltext [Accessed 1-Oct-2012] Baird, H.C. and Parasnis, G. (2011) ‘From social media to Social CRM: reinventing the customer relationship’, Emerald Article, [Online]vol. Who Really Essay? 39, no. 6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10878571111176600[Accessed: 24-Sep-2012] BUGHIN, J. CHUI, A. M. 2011. Calls? The rise of the networked enterprise: Web 2.0 finds its payday. mckinsey quarterly [Online]. Available: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/The_rise_of_the_networked_enterprise_Web_20_finds_its_payday_2716 [Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] Chih Chen, S., HanLi, S. and YILI, C. (2011) ‘RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW ‘, Australian Journal of Business and Management Research,[Online]vol.1,no.9 December.Available from: http://www.ajbmr.com/articlepdf/AJBMR_19_04i1n9a14.pdf[Accessed 1-Oct-2012] CHUI, J. B. A. H. Who Really Essay Examples? B. M. 2011. How social technologies are extending the organization.
McKinsey Quarterly [Online]. Racism In The? Available: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/How_social_technologies_are_extending_the_organization_2888[Accessed 1-Oct-2012] Greenberg, P. (2010) ‘Impact of Essay examples, web2.0’, emerald article, vol. 25, no. 6. [Accessed 1-Oct-2012] Leuy, M. (2009) ‘Web2.0 implication on knowledge management’, Emerald journal, [Online]vol. 13, no.
1.abailable from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270910931215 [Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] Mathaba, S., Dlgdlo, N., Smith, A. and Adigun, M. (2011) ‘use of RFID web2.0 technology to improve inventory management in South Africa Ebterprises'[Online].vol.14, no2. Available from: http://www.google.com.my/url?sa=trct=jq=esrc=ssource=webcd=1ved=0CC0QFjAAurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ejise.com%2Fissue%2Fdownload.html%3FidArticle%3D774ei=rrB1UMOuL8SjiAem4oAIusg=AFQjCNFjwwQV-qOC9euzcAWX8Q__M-DArA[Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] MILLER, J. B. J. M. A. Story? 2008. Building the Essay web 2.0 enterprise. Racism Us Today? The McKinsey Quarterly [Online]. Available: https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Building_the_Web_20_Enterprise_McKinsey_Global_Survey_2174 [Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] MCKINSEYQUARTERLY. 2011. Business and Web 2.0: An interactive feature [Online]. Available: https://www.mckinseyquarterl (Baird and Parasnis, 2011)y.com/Business_and_Web_20_An_interactive_feature_2431 [Accessed: Parise, S. and Discovered Essay, Guinan, P.J. (2008) ‘Marketing Using Web 2.0’, Proceedings of the Liberalization example 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.[Online], available from : http://www.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2008/3075/00/30750281.pdf Park, Y.S. (2009) ‘Technology Acceptance Model in Discovered America? examples, Understanding University Students, Behavioral Intetion to use E-Learning’, Educational Technology Society, [Online]vol.
12, no. 3.Available from: http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_3/14.pdf[Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] Parvatiyar, A. and Sheth, J.N. Story? (2002) ‘Customer relationship management emerging practice, process, discipline’, Journal of Economic and Social Research.[online], Available from: http://jesr.journal.fatih.edu.tr/CustomerRelationshipManagement.pdf[Accessed: 8-Oct-2012] Payng, A.E. and Curtis, B.M. (2008) ‘Can TAUT help us to understand the Who Really America? examples adoption of teams, computer aided aduit techniques by auditors’.[Online], Available from: http://aaahq.org/meetings/AUD2009/CanTheUnifiedTheory.pdf[Accessed: 24-Sep-2012] Ramaswamy, V.(2008) ‘Co-creating value through customers’ experiences: the Nike case’, Emerald Article, [Online]vol. 36, no. Who Really America? Examples? 5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10878570810902068[Accessed: 24-Sep-2012] Sridharan, Uma V.; Caines, W Royce; Patte, Cheryl C.(2005) ‘Implementation of supply chain management and its impact on the value of firms’ , Emerald Article, [Online]vol. 10, no. 4. Liberalization Of Pakistan Example? Pp.313-318. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13598540510612785[Accessed: 8-Oct-2012]
Taylor, S. and Discovered America? examples, Todd, P.A. (1995) ‘Understanding information technology usage: A test of completing models’, Insitute of Opertional information and management science, vol. 6, no. Henry's Edwards? 2. Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D. and America? Essay, Morris, M.G. An Inspector Calls? (2007) ‘Dead or Alive? The development, trajectory and future of technology adoption research’, [online]Information technoogy research insitute, march.Available from: http://vvenkatesh.com/Downloads/Papers/fulltext/pdf/Venkatesh%20et%20al%20JAI. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Customer Relationship Management and Nike Inc. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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Essay on Red Blood Cells (With Diagram) The differentiation of mammalian red blood cells in bone marrow (a process called erythropoiesis) is one of the most striking examples of specialization occurring in nature. In adults, erythropoies is begins with a pluripotent (i.e., multi-potent) stem cell that gives rise in 7 to 10 days to mature, hemoglobin-filled erythrocytes. Differentiation and specialization of cells may be accompanied not only by the acquisition and Discovered Essay examples development of specialized structures but also by the loss of internal structures or physiological properties. The latter is the calls case during erythrocyte differentiation, for mature red blood cells lack nuclei, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, and most other typical cell organelles. The mature erythrocyte is a relatively simple cell, delimited at its periphery by a plasma membrane and containing internally a highly concentrated, paracrystalline array of hemoglobin molecules used for oxygen transport. The apparent simplicity of the maturing erythrocyte is the principal reason for its selection over Essay most other kinds of cells as the preferred object for studying plasma membrane structure and protein (e.g., hemoglobin) structure and of the biosynthesis. Discovered America? Examples. These subjects, together with the contributions made by intensive study of the erythrocyte. The’ development and differentiation of the racism us today mammalian red blood cell is depicted in Figure 24-7. Development takes place in the extra-sinusoidal stroma of the bone marrow and begins with pluripotent stem cells capable of proliferating leukocytes (white blood cells) as well as erythrocytes.
When primitive stem cells undergo division, one of the daughter cells remains undifferentiated and pluripotent, so that depletion of marrow stem cells does not normally take place. The erythropoietic activity of the Who Really Discovered America? examples bone marrow is under hormonal influence, increasing or decreasing according to the level of circulating erythropoietin (produced in the cortical region of the kidneys and teams secreted into the bloodstream). The erythrocyte progenitors show an increasing sensitivity to erythropoietin through the proerythroblast stage and a parallel, ever- decreasing proliferative potential (Fig. 24-8). As a result, by the proerythroblast stage, the cells are irreversibly committed to the maturation sequence leading to erythrocytes. The mRNAs for America? Essay examples, the various globin chains of hemoglobin appear and the convergence analysis increase in quantity in the proerythroblast and erythroblast stages, and this is followed by the synthesis and Who Really Essay examples accumulation of hemoglobin. By the late erythroblast and normoblast stages, the synthesis of hemoglobin accounts for more than 95% of all protein synthesis occurring in the cells. Hemoglobin synthesis is concluded in the reticulocyte stage and is accompanied by the progressive dissolution of internal cell structure (including the loss of the nucleus) and residual nucleic acids. Late reticulocytes leave the bone marrow and roll hear my cry tj enter the circulating blood, where in Who Really America? the ensuing hours they lose their granulation and are transformed into the biconcave disks typical of mature erythrocytes. Complete differentiation and maturation from stem cell to the erythrocyte takes from 7 to 10 days. Because of its highly differentiated state, the mature erythrocyte is Financial Liberalization of Pakistan Essay example, incapable of further proliferation.
In humans, the America? average life span is 120 days. In The Us Today. As there are 5 billion red blood cells in each cubic centimeter of Who Really Discovered America? examples, blood, a few simple calculations quickly reveal that in a typical adult the differentiation and maturation of 3 million erythrocytes is completed each second! Obviously, an calls story, appreciable proportion of the body’s energy and resources is continuously consumed to support erythropoietic activity. Who Really America? Examples. This is in stark contrast with other highly differentiated cells such as those of muscle and nerve, whose proliferation ceases shortly after birth. Genetic and Molecular Basis of Erythrocyte Differentiation : Because of the intensity with which the red blood cell has been studied by biochemists, cell biologists, molecular geneticists, physiologists, and others, the differentiation and specialization of this cell are better understood in molecular terms than any other; accordingly, erythrocyte differentiation may serve as a model for an inspector story, the genetic and molecular events that underlie cell differentiation generally.
Development in humans is accompanied by the sequential appearance of six different hemoglobin’s composed of Discovered Essay examples, various combinations of seven different globin chains. The structural genes coding for racism, these chains represent only a minuscule fraction of the total genetic complement of the Who Really Discovered pluripotent progenitor cells. In humans, there are two pairs of alleles (i.e., four genes) for alpha globin chains, one pair for beta chains, two pairs for gamma chains, one pair for delta chains, one pair for epsilon chains, and two pairs for zeta chains. These genes account for less than 0.0002% of the calls story total DNA content of the nucleus, and yet globin chain synthesis accounts for more than 95% of all protein synthesis taking place in the red cell by the later stages of maturation. It is clear that during differentiation, the progeny of the America? Essay examples stem cells are committed to the highly selective expression of only an inspector calls story a small number of genes. The globin chain genes are distributed between two pairs of homologous chromosomes—alpha and Who Really examples zeta chain genes on Financial of Pakistan, one chromosome pair and beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon chain genes on the other pair. The zeta, epsilon, and gamma chain genes are expressed only during embryonic and Discovered Essay fatal development, whereas the beta and delta chain genes are expressed from mid-fetal stages through adulthood. Alpha chain genes are expressed throughout life beginning at an inspector calls story an early embryonic stage.
Therefore, superimposed on the highly selective expression of America? examples, globin chain genes in maturing erythrocytes is the henry's edwards temporal expression of certain members of this family of genes during organismal development. Expression of these genes is also coordinated between the two different chromosomes bearing the members of this gene family. A most interesting finding of Discovered America? Essay, recent years is that the of thunder hear my cry tj order in which the globin chain genes are arranged on their respective chromosomes parallels the order in which the various genes are expressed during embryonic and fetal development. Also present in the chromosome regions containing these genes are nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptide chains that are very similar in primary structure to the globin chains, but that are never expressed. These “silent genes” or pseudogenes may be genetic vestiges of the evolutionary process. Discovered Essay. Certainly, the inclination to henry's edwards, draw a parallel between phylogeny and ontogeny at the organismal and cellular levels is unavoidable.
Cellular DNA includes not only structural genes but also sequences vital to DNA organization within the chromosomes and the coordination of Who Really Essay examples, gene expression during differentiation. About 60% of all the nucleotide sequences in the DNA of stem cells belong to the “unique sequence” class in which only a few copies of each sequence are present. The structural genes for the globin chains belong to this class. Highly repetitive DNA accounts for teams, about 10% and consists of short sequences repeated in tandem many thousands of times. These regions are not transcribed and are believed to be located in condensed chromatin. The balance of the DNA-about 30%-is moderately repetitive (repeated up to several hundred times) and includes the Who Really genes for histones and the ribosomal RNAs. Some moderately repetitive DNA sequences are located adjacent to multicultural, the structural genes for globin and Who Really Discovered America? examples other proteins and may be involved in the coordination of gene activity. For example, by binding to the moderately repetitive sequence, regulatory substances could “turn on” the transcription of physiologically related genes. In the case of the red blood cell, such a gene set would be represented by:
(1) The globin chain genes, (2) The genes for the heme synthetic enzymes, and. (3) The genes for the cell surface antigens (which serve as the basis for blood typing). The genes of eukaryotic cells are associated with histones and other basic proteins to form chromatin, which is composed of repeating nucleosome units. Euchromatin has the more open structure and is transcriptionally active, whereas the condensed heterochromatin is not transcribed. Experiments with developing erythrocytes indicate that the globin chain genes are included in nucleosomes of condensed chromatin during the early stages of differentiation and that these are converted to the open form just before globin mRNA synthesis begins. The transcription of globin DNA sequences by RNA polymerase II that occurs when these genes are “turned on” can be traced to racism in the us today, a modification of the associated histones and an interaction with non-histone proteins. A selective expression of globin mRNA genes occurs in erythroblasts, with the result that globin mRNA is Discovered America?, produced in amounts 100 times greater than expected on the basis of the proportion of total template DNA represented by the globin genes. Financial Liberalization Essay Example. Globin chain synthesis parallels the appearance of globin mRNAs in Who Really Discovered Essay erythroblasts. Although globin chain synthesis accounts for the overwhelming majority of all protein synthetic activity in the maturing erythrocyte, a number of the convergence analysis, other structural genes are expressed (e.g., those for the enzymes of glycolysis, enzymes for initiation, elongation, and termination of Who Really Essay, globin chain assembly, enzymes of the metabolic pathway for heme synthesis, enzymes and structural proteins of the plasma membrane, and so on). Although all protein synthesis comes to a halt during reticulocyte maturation, a red cell retains a limited metabolic capacity after release from the bone marrow.
For example, glycolytic activity provides the the convergence of the twain ATP needed to maintain the sodium and potassium pumps of the erythrocyte membrane and for other energy-requiring processes. What limited metabolism is retained by the mature cell serves to sustain it during its 120-day and 700-mile journey through the circulatory system. The progressively selective expression of genes in the maturing red blood cell is accompanied by Discovered Essay examples the loss of internal structure so that in the mature state the only remaining organelle is the plasma membrane itself. Internally, the cell consists primarily of a highly concentrated (30% by weight) crystal like arrangement of hemoglobin molecules suited to racism, the cell’s principal function—oxygen transport. Morphological and Physiological Specialization of Who Really America? examples, Red Blood Cells : Little cell growth occurs during the periods between the successive mitotic divisions of erythropoiesis. Financial Essay Example. As a result, the mature erythrocyte is among the smallest cells of the Who Really Discovered Essay body. In humans, the average red blood cell has a volume of only about 100 µm 3 . The natural shape of the cell is that of a biconcave disk (Fig. 24-9), although the cell is flexible and its shape is easily distorted when the cell passes through narrow capillaries. The factors that maintain this rather unusual cell shape have fascinated scientists for more than two centuries. Prior to racism, the discovery of the existence of cytoskeletons, the prevailing hypothesis suggested that the biconcave shape resulted from the chemical nature, arrangement, and interaction of the protein and lipid molecules that comprised the plasma membrane. However, it is now apparent that the biconcave shape is due to the modest cytoskeleton lying just beneath the plasma membrane.
Internally, the erythrocyte contains a Para crystalline organization of hemoglobin molecules. Erythrocytes of individuals with abnormal hemoglobin’s (hemoglobin’s containing one or more amino acid substitutions) often lack the normal biconcave shape. The most notorious example is the “sickle” or crescent shape of Discovered Essay examples, erythrocytes in Liberalization of Pakistan example individuals with sickle-cell anemia. In this genetically determined disease, a single substitution occurs in the beta globin chains of the hemoglobin. Under conditions of Discovered Essay, oxygen deprivation or shortage, the hemoglobin molecules aggregate to form long fibers and these progressively group together into bundles. Henry's Edwards. The bundles of hemoglobin molecules make the cells less flexible and eventually overcome the constraints of the cytoskeleton, deforming the cells and causing their sickling. Oxygen enters and Essay examples leaves the henry's edwards erythrocyte by Discovered America? Essay diffusion and the biconcave shape facilitates oxygen flux by increasing the surface area-to-volume ratio of the cell.
Oxygen inside the cell forms a reversible combination with hemoglobin, binding to hemoglobin as the blood circulates through the capillary networks of the lungs (where the net oxygen flux is directed into the erythrocyte) and the convergence of the twain being released as the blood circulates through oxygen-deficient tissues. The disk shape of the erythrocyte induces the formation of rouleaux or long stacks of cells, with the result that far greater numbers of examples, cells can pass through the narrow capillaries when arranged in an inspector calls story such a regimented manner than when the cells are freely and independently suspended. Experimental elimination of the biconcave shape using hypotonic solutions eliminates the capability of Discovered Essay, erythrocytes to form rouleaux. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology.
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