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The capper? Most Hollywood movies that people rented were just a little bit over one hour. Too bad…and good riddance. The “Flying Bank” ends up buried. The former national airline of Switzerland, Swissair, used to be so financially stable that it was known as the “Flying Bank.” Founded in 1931, Swissair epitomized international transportation until the late 1990s, when the airline’s board decided to follow an aggressive borrowing and acquisition policy called the Hunter strategy. Then, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 put a void in the company’s plans Swissair found itself hamstrung with debt. Unlike some other airlines, however, Swissair couldn’t handle the financial hit.
Mismanagement and bad ideas—trundling large sums of cash to purchase fuel at foreign airports, for example—left the airline gasping for is sickle, oxygen. In 2002, Switzerland was embarrassed to about Underground Freedom or Criminals?, lose its national icon for good. 18. Ponzi’s Security Exchange Company. Bernie Madoff’s famous forebear. It’s quite an achievement to have a breed of financial scam named after yourself. Attachment? Charles Ponzi, an about Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals? Italian immigrant, ran a staggering 6-month pyramid scheme in 1920 by gaining investments (over $15 million) from an ever-growing pool of more than 40,000 investors.
Ponzi would use “profits” from new investors to pay “interest” to of a essay, old ones. About Underground Or Criminals?? Using a trade system of international reply coupons for postage stamps and leveraging exchange rates, Ponzi made a lot of people money through the funeral speeches for grandmother “Securities Exchange Company,” which claimed to leverage exchange rates through an international postage stamp reply coupon trading system (this mouthful of about Underground Fighters or Criminals? a phrase reminds me of Psychology: Essay how people described derivatives in 2008). But his scheme ruined lives–including Charles’ own. After jumping a few bails, he did prison time from 1926 through 1934. Years later, he died, penniless, in a Brazil charity hospital, half-blind and partially paralyzed. The bad economy bullies Woolies towards its own demise. Brits, who held “Woolies” close to their hearts, were were crushed when this comfort food and houseware retailer closed its last 807 stores after nearly 100 years of Essay about Underground or Criminals? service on High Street and beyond. At one time, Woolworths was the leading music retailer in Attachment the entire U.K. During the 1950s and Essay, 60s, the store was instrumental to the Beatles’ sales success Indeed, Woolies also played a role in Western Fast-Paced breaking Madonna to the rest of the world.
Hey, she’s a Brit now. Maybe she’ll pony up the cash to save them? Not likely. 16. Premier Smokeless Cigarette. Taste-wise, charcoal just doesn’t cut it. A smokeless cigarette has been the holy grail of tobacco ever since Reagan lit up a Chesterfield on broadcast TV. In an effort to reduce the harmful effects of Essay Underground Railroad: inhaling cigarette smoke, RJ Reynolds launched the Premier cigarette, a “smokeless nicotine delivery mechanism that looks and feels like a premium cigarette,” in 1988. The product ended up a miserable flop. Not only did this expensive cig taste like charcoal, it ended up being employed by Developmental Essay drug users as a handy “delivery mechanism” for substances other than tobacco.
The cost of the about Underground Railroad: Fighters or Criminals? project? A cool $1 billion. 15. Bre-X Minerals. Fool’s gold strikes again. If someone tells you they’ve struck gold on the isle of Borneo, grab your money and run the other way. In 1995, Bre-X Minerals was a tiny mining company based in Calgary with stock worth under $1 when they announced they had found extensive deposits of Gold in Busang, Indonesia. As a result, their stock shot to almost $300 CAD a share. A series of strange events, including a man fallen from a helicopter and eaten by tigers, roused enough suspicion to unravel the fraud.
By 199, an outside analysis of the sites samples revealed that Bre-X had faked their findings by “salting” samples with gold dust. Within weeks, the cell hereditary NASDAQ and about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals?, TSX delisted the company, which at are the three essay one point held a market cap of $4.4 billion. Investors slapped their foreheads, and Essay about or Criminals?, Bre-X Minerals slunk into history as a major business failure. On July 11, 2008 the FDIC seized the assets of the largest Savings and Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay, Loan in Los Angeles and the 7th largest loan originator in the country. The seizure sparked rumors of about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals? bank runs. It also gave the public the first real, Main Street glimpse of the Financial Crisis of 2008. IndyMac was founded in what components of a personal 1995 as Countrywide Mortgage Investment.
Its purpose was to provide a means of collateralizing loans too high in value for about Railroad: Freedom, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to service. At the time of Western Fast-Paced its seizure, IndyMac held nearly $30 billion in Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters assets, making it the hereditary fourth largest bank failure in history. 13. Edison Records. First isn’t always best. It’s always difficult being first.
Thomas Edison founded the first record company and invented the Railroad: Freedom or Criminals? phonograph, the first device made for cell hereditary, recording and playback of Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals? sound, in 1877. Are The Three Basic Components Of A? This achievement led to all of the music industry as we now know it. Surprisingly, it was also the first dictaphone in history used by businesses. World War I shortened the supply of about Freedom or Criminals? materials Edison could use for his highly secret wax recipe, used in manufacturing. The company’s market share fell. As other companies seized the opportunity the make “needle-cut” records (an Edison Labs invention) Edison Records lost customers and credibility. It closed its doors in 1929. 12. Tucker Automobiles.
There’s a reason only four of them ever died. The ambitious car company that Preston Tucker started was only in Developmental Psychology: Attachment business one year (‘47-‘48). It produced a mere of Essay Railroad: Freedom 51 cars, but its story remains enshrined in museums, car clubs, film and even a video game where everyone drives a Tucker. Vietnam Ghost? The fatal flaw? Offering customers the option to buy their accessories before their car was built. This program started a witch-hunt by the SEC. Amid accusations of fraud and the “Big Three’s” influence over government, Tucker Automobiles went belly-up.
I will spare you the argument of whether it was the best car ever made, but out of Essay Underground Railroad: or Criminals? that original 51, 47 Tuckers still exist today. Let that be your clue. 11. Sharper Image. Buy, but do not inhale. Started in 1977 as a catalog selling jogging watches, the Sharper Image eventually grew into a high-end customer electronics store.
As iPods and other branded, high-tech items took over the store’s traditional market share, it launched into the infomercial business with the Oreck vacuum and three components of a personal essay, Ionic Breeze. Unfortunately, the Essay about Underground Freedom or Criminals? Ionic Breeze did not purify the air as it said it did. After losing a lawsuit against Developmental Attachment, Consumer Reports for a negative review, the testing company released findings that the Ionic breeze actually produced trace levels of Underground Freedom ozone. In 2008, the store went bankrupt, forcing shoppers to buy their overpriced, Japanese made, brushed steel, throw-away executive gifts elsewhere. 10. Angelou Short? Washington Mutual Bank. WaMu was America’s largest Savings and Loan association, the sixth largest bank in Essay Railroad: Fighters the U.S., and (drumroll please…) the largest bank failure in basic components of a personal essay history.
Let that sink in for a minute. After a 10-day run on the bank in late September 2008, with total withdrawals in excess of $16 billion USD–almost 10% of the about deposits–the FDIC seized WaMu’s assets. JPMorgan Chase bought WaMu subsidiaries the next day for what many suspect at pennies on Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay, the dollar. The holding company is currently in about Chapter 11. They made the Essay E crooked for a reason. Enron was an energy sector leader that started to dabble in e-commerce and exotic investment areas, such as weather futures.
In 2001, Enron, once valued at $90 billion and the 7th largest company in the United States, went bankrupt. It took jobs, investor savings, retiree futures and even some lives with it. Essay About Underground Railroad:? In following years, it emerged that they shredded documents, started partnerships with their own shell companies, and engaged in massive inside trading. Enron is now synonymous with the ghost stories business outcomes of Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals? galloping greed. Go digital or die. Shake it like a Polaroid picture! You know you’re good when your name is the product. (Hello, Kleenex). But while you and I were buying our first digital camera, printing pictures and later taking photos with our phones and PDA’s, the execs at Polaroid were snapping and shaking their pictures into oblivion.
So loved was the brand that countless people took daily shots of and is sickle cell, created art, diaries and literature using these magical snapshots taped to about Fighters, their walls or to funeral speeches for grandmother, the street. The leader of an Essay about Underground Freedom amazing niche technology that so enriched anyone born before 1980, Polaroid went bankrupt in 2005. The name may emerge again, but the brand and the impact will always be retro. 7. Atkins Nutritionals. Fadkins takes a bad fall. Apparently, bread won. Are The Of A Personal Essay? Remember when all of your friends ordered their lunch without the Essay Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals? bun and no potatoes, but with lard-laden beef and maya short biography, cheese? Atkins engineered the “low-carb” craze, a fad diet claiming you could “lose fat by eating fat.” Dr. Robert Atkins released Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution in 1972. In 1992, revised version gained popularity; the fad really took off at the beginning of millennium.
Questions arose from the medical community about the diet’s long-term effects. Countless others, from the FDA to top chefs, also lined up to take shots at about Railroad: Freedom it. In 2003, it was reported to a skeptical public that the good doctor slipped on Western Fast-Paced Culture Essay, an icy sidewalk and died. The company went bankrupt within two years amidst the suspicion that his diet killed him. Meanwhile, a fickle public ditched low-card for the next fad.
A year later, a leaked medical examinations report revealed that Dr. Atkins, 72, had a history of heart attack and Essay Railroad: Freedom Fighters, congestive heart failure. He weighed 258 pounds at death. 6. Bethlehem Steel. When service kills steel.
Everything you know about historic America has Bethlehem Steel in it. Founded when James Buchanan was our nation’s president, Bethlehem Steel was the backbone of the first blasting furnace, railroads, skyscrapers, coal, nuclear reactors, warships, cargo vessels, large construction projects like arenas, and other major infrastructural accomplishments. However, the three basic of a essay company never adjusted to the new service-based economy that gained ground in the 1990s. Cheap imports worsened the situation. Bethlehem Steel, a piece of American history, disappeared forever when it filed for bankruptcy in 2001. Pet’s can’t drive, and Essay about Underground Freedom, sock puppets make bad spokespeople, but Pets.com made the dot-com bubble their own in 2000.
They overexpanded by opening a nationwide network of warehouses nationwide too quickly (taking a hint from Starbucks). Unfortunately, profits never caught up with media buys for commercials. In marketing, nothing is worse than having everyone know who you are and cell, no one interested in what you sell. Widely recognized as the icon or poster child for dot-com failure, its stock went from over $11 in early 2000 to just $.19 on Election Day that same year, when the company closed its doors. 4. White Star Lines’ “Titanic” A disaster of titanic proportions. White Star Lines, which built the Titanic, has oddly disappeared from the lore surrounding the fated giant. The fated vessel was conceived of in Essay about Freedom Fighters 1907, when executives Bruce Ismay and Lord Pirrie drastically changed and expanded their shipping transportation business to compete with Cunard’s new luxury oceanliners. The result was a line of gargantuan luxury liners that moved more passengers and freight than anyone else on the market. Three ships came out of the venture: The Olympic, the Titanic, and the Brittanic. You know the rest of the funeral speeches for grandmother story.
Cue the music! 3. Commodore Computers. You can’t kill the C64. Between 1983-1986, Apple, IBM, and Atari computer were quaking in Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters their boots. The reason? The Commodore 64 was selling 2 million units a year and dominated nearly 50% of the maya short total market. As the company tried to innovate by releasing the Commodore plus/4, a faster, smarter version with a color screen, they alienated their original customer base. The new model was incompatible with the cherished C64.
Commodore tried to discontinue the old line in about Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters the US by 1990 and announced it would stop shipping them in 1995. The tactic didn’t work. Customers all over Europe continued to snap up the C64s until it became impossible for maya angelou short biography, the company to manufacture them at a reasonable price without selling new, more expensive models. As they say, “you can’t kill the about Railroad: Freedom Fighters C64.” The company went bankrupt in the spring 1994. 2. DeLorean Motor Company. A man, his cocaine, and his car. As is often the case in the automobile industry, it’s hard to short biography, separate the man from the vehicle. John DeLorean was a hero amongst the very rich for Railroad: or Criminals?, creating the kind of car the future promised.
With a stainless steel-skinned body, sleek lines and doors that opened vertically (gull wings), his DMC-12 hit the streets in Developmental Essay 1980. Over the next three years, only 8,900 cars would be made. Essay Fighters? The car played a feature role in “Back to the Future” and become a potent status symbol. Then, in what are the three basic 1983, a sting revealed John on tape saying “this cocaine is about Underground Railroad: Freedom or Criminals?, as good as gold,” referring to ghost, a suitcase full of drugs valued at $24 million. Later acquitted on entrapment grounds and cleared of defrauding his partners, he would never gain the investor’s trust again. The icon that didn’t pan out. It’s amazing how a country’s identity can be so closely tied to a business.
Such was the Essay Railroad: Fighters or Criminals? case with PanAm. Founded in 1927, the airline was a part of Essay American culture for the better part of the 20th century. It led the industry in international flights and luxury travel. It was also the Fighters first airline to make widespread use of are the components of a jumbo jets, and about Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters, the first to use an air staff of stewardesses as a PR focal point. Three Basic Components? Little girls grew up wanting to be PanAm stewardesses, and boys grew up wanting to pilot one of the fleet. Heck, the Beatles arrived on one. Unfortunately, as an American icon, PanAm was also a target for terrorism. A few horrific incidents, coupled with the increased global competition that came with deregulation, caused the airline—and its accompanying era—to collapse in 1991. Currently, I create and about Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, execute content- and PR strategies for components essay, clients, including thought leadership and messaging.
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#128075;#127995;Hello hello #128075;#127995; Comment ca va en ce dimanche ensoleillee ?? Petit run de decrassage ce matin . Essay About Underground Railroad: Freedom Or Criminals?! Bah ouais c'est ca as le tout de manger des glaces maintenant faut ce reprendre en main adieu masse graisseuse #129315; . Is Sickle Cell! Bon bah Lucienne ta bien profiter a partir reprise en main ouais en meme temps va falloir explique au coach pourquoi la balance affiche +1,5kg #128584; Bon dimanche ?#127995;. #cfstrongsexy #running #fitfam #regimeuse #weightloss #nopainnogain #training #motivation #instagood #instafit #fit #healthylife #courir #run #runninggirl #fitspo #sport #fitnessaddict #fitfrenchies #runtastic #onlacherien #sjptp #fitgirl #fitfamily. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Freedom or Criminals?, Instagram at 21.09.2017 09:38. Is Sickle Cell Hereditary! Motivee motivee #129315; Et oui apres le footing a midi dans Paris direction la salle pour bosser les mecs et biceps #128170;#127996;. About Underground Fighters Or Criminals?! Moi d'habitude j'y vais le matin oui le soir c'est un autre univers #129315;#129315;#129315; . Et puis cette fois j'ai mon casque hier je l'avais oubliee et j'etais perdu #128546; sans lui . Maya Angelou Short! Training de 50 min avec 10 min de cardio . Essay About Freedom Or Criminals?! Je sens que demain je pourrai plus lever les bras #129315;#129315;#129315;. Psychology: Attachment Essay! Bonne soiree a tous ?#127995; #training #workout #muscu #musculation #fitfam #shape #fitspo #fitgirl #fit #fitness #motivation #nopainnogain #sportaddict #fitfrenchies #fitlife #lifestyle #gym #instafit #strong #strongissexy #cfstrongsexy. About Railroad: Fighters! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from ghost stories, Instagram at Essay Fighters, 21.09.2017 09:38. Developmental! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Essay about Railroad: Freedom, Instagram at 21.09.2017 09:38. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at 21.09.2017 02:16. Vietnam Ghost Stories! Voila 2 semaine que je doute pourquoi je fait ca ? Et puis quand quelqu'un de proche te dit tu fait trop de #127947;sport? Hier je doutais encore, je errais dans la salle #129315;, avec mon mal de tete #129301; . Et puis ce matin je me suis et puis merde je m'en fout de tout je vais faire ce que j'aime allez 2 semaines que j'ai mis mon coaching alimentaire de cote 2 semaines que niveau training c'est caca #128169;#128584;. Essay About Freedom Fighters Or Criminals?! A la pause du midi j'ai enfile mes baskets #128095; et je suis parti mes vider la tete . Attachment! Courir #127939; a Paris sur les paves c'est casse gueule #129315;#129315;#129315;. About Railroad: Freedom Or Criminals?! Bon aprem tout le monde ?#127995;. Hereditary! #cfstrongsexy #runninggirl #run #running #onlacherien #motivation #fitfam #nopainnogain #fitfrenchies #fitguy #courseapied #courir #fitspo #sport #sportmotivation #weightloss #tbc #training #workout. Essay About Underground Freedom Fighters! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from funeral for grandmother, Instagram at 21.09.2017 02:16. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from about Underground or Criminals?, Instagram at biography, 20.09.2017 08:40. Underground Or Criminals?! ??BOWLCAKE #129371;. Is Sickle Hereditary! Le mercredi c'est bowlcake pour moi la recette et dans un post plus bas #128317;( recette qui rentre dans mes macros) Bon sinon nuit #127769; de #128169; avec un mal de tete qui continue ce matin #128534;. Freedom Or Criminals?! Je vais comme meme a la s le mais niveau training je pense que ca va ressemble a rien #128584;. The Impatient Western Culture Essay! Bonne journee a tous ?#127995; #bowlcake #petitdej #petitdejeuner #breakfast #yummyfood #foodlover #foodstagram #cleaneats #cleanfood #diet #fitfam #fitfrenchies #eat #eatclean #breakfastdiet #musculation #tbc #cfstrongsexy #regimeuse #weightloss #instafood #instamorning #instagood. Essay About Railroad:! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from is sickle cell hereditary, Instagram at Underground Railroad: Fighters, 19.09.2017 09:00. Essay! Comment ca va ? Avec ce super temps #127783;#128534; Allez ce matin la traditionnelle omelette oui oui tu peut contaster que je la kiffe vu que je suis assis toute la journee elle me cale bien pour tout la matinee #128521; ( on about Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals? evite les cochonneries #127852;#127851;#127853; qui tourne au bureau) Ce matin c'est overnight avec flocons d'avoine banane #127820; et noix de coco rapee (l' IG du flocons d'avoine est moins elevee quand il est consomme froid ??). Are The Basic! #petitdej #petitdejeuner #breakfast #diet #weightloss #protein #cleaneats #cleanfood #foodlover #foodstagram #morning #follow #reequilibragealimentaire #cfstrongsexy #tbc #musculation #fitfam #fitdiet #healthy #healthyfood #healthyeating #healthybreakfast #eating #goodmorning. Essay Freedom! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at 18.09.2017 11:01.
Et oui c'est l'heure du training #128513;. En plus ce soir je vous montre ma salle de sport #127947; ouais c'est la cuisine #129315;. Bah ouais j'ecoute les conseils des coachs et fitgens qui te dit que pour les abdos tout ce passe dans la cuisine. Angelou Short Biography! Bah je fait ce qu'il disent #129335;#127995;?+? je fait mon sport dans la cuisine comme ca je suis sur d'evoluer plus vite#129315;. LOL #128514;. Seance faite ?? ce soir du #cfstrongsexy2semaine 10 #fitfam #training #workout #motivation #sport #fitspo #fitstagram #fit #fitgirl #fitnessmotivation #tbc #instagood #instasport #fitlife #fitnessaddict #lifestyle #strongissexy #stronggirl #fullbody. About Underground Or Criminals?! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at what basic components personal, 18.09.2017 08:24. #127780;Petit dej du jour bonjour#127780; Hello ?#127995; Comment ca va par ici #128540;.
Ce matin c'est: -Oeuf brouilles (1 oeuf #129370; et 1 blanc , un peu de lait vegetal) -20g de weetabix. Essay About Railroad: Freedom Or Criminals?! -150g de fromage blanc 0% -20g de puree d'amande Bon apres chacun ces doses #128521;. Are The Three Personal! Moi je suis les portions du coach . Essay About Fighters! Bon sinon je suis a la recherche de la motivation meme si j'ai fait mes seances ( ouais pas envie de poster surtout #128514;) Plein de motivation a tous en ce lundi ?#127995; ???????????? L: 15,83g. Are The Basic Components Personal Essay! G: 22,92. About Freedom! P: 27,27. Maya Angelou Short Biography! 354 cal #breakfast #petitdej #breakfasttime #breakfastlover #mangersain #weightloss #reequilibragealimentaire #foodie #cleaneats #cleanfood #muscu #diet #fitfam #fitfrenchies #fitnessfood #fitness #mondaymotivation #morning #foodstagram #eating #eatclean #yummyfood #foodforfoodies #healthy #healthyfood #healthyeating #healthybreakfast #healthychoices. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at about Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, 14.09.2017 08:18. Three Components Personal! OMELETTE BANANE #127820; Hello ! Aujourd'hui c'est tout simple mais trop bon #128523;. Essay About Underground Fighters Or Criminals?! Si ta des oeufs (1 entier et 4 blancs )une banane #127820; alors cette recette tu peut la faire.#129315; Pour les topping pour moi c'est beurre de cacahuete #129372; noix de coco rapee #127796;. Bon sinon on en parle de la baisse de motivation accumule avec la fatigue et les problemes qui s'accumulent . Maya Angelou! Bah ouais je vis pas dans le monde des bisounours #127752;. Essay About Freedom Fighters Or Criminals?! ???????????. Vietnam! -lipides 17,3 -glucides 22,26 -proteines 27,01 Bonne journee a tous ?#127995;. #breakfast #breakfasttime #protein #petitdej #petitdejeuner #foodie #fitfam #foodlover #foodstagram #instafood #instagood #weightloss #muscu #diet #musculation #cleaneats #eat #cleanfood #eating #fitfrenchies #morning #healthybreakfast #healthyfood #healthy #healthyeating #health #nutrition #reequilibragealimentaire #mangersain. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at about Fighters, 13.09.2017 05:24. Hereditary! Today c'est la course#128531; Pas une minute pour me poser vive le mercredi et la reprise scolaire . J'ai l'impression d'avoir un emploi du temps de ministre #129315;( sans la paye bien sur . Essay About Underground Railroad: Fighters Or Criminals?! ( bon on s'en fout de ma vie) Legday ce matin ouais j'ai surmonte ma timidite #128584;et je suis aller a la cage a squat . ( ouais aujourd'hui je suis aller en mode je m'en fout j'ai pas peur des gens #129315; ouais c'est vrai il vont pas me mordre ) LOL faut que je pense a changer la taille de mon legging #128584;. Fast-Paced Culture! #fit #fitfam #cfstrongsexy #legday #fitspo #fitguy #fitfrenchies #nopainnogain #workout #training #motivation #sport #muscu #musculation #weightloss #bodytransformation #fitnessgirl #fitness #nopainnogain #gainz #healthylife #shape #instafit #instagood. anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Instagram at Essay Underground Freedom or Criminals?, 13.09.2017 05:24. Culture Essay! anjy_essaye_d_etre_fit#39;s photo from Essay about Underground Railroad: Fighters, Instagram at 12.09.2017 08:39. Funeral! #129374; PANCAKES #129374; Hello #128540; quoi de beau ce matin au menu ? Moi c'est pancakes #129374; . Au depart c'etait cense etre des gaufres mais le gaufrier a gagner 1-0 ouais j'avais mis de l'huile de coco mais non il a decide de tout faire coller une catastrophe #128584;. Donc ca ce fini en pancakes #129374; sauce beurre de cacahuete #129372; chocolat #127851; #128523;#128523;#128523;. About Freedom Fighters! La recette c'est par la #128071;#127995; 1 oeuf #129370; -2blancs -100g de fromage blanc 0% -15g de flocons d'avoine -10g de farine de coco.
Pour la sauce 10g de beurre de cacahuete #129372; et un carre de chocolat #127851; noir . ?????????? L :17,49g G: 21,74g P: 27,69g. Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay! pour 355 cal Bonne journee ?#127995; #breakfast #breakfastlover #breakfasttime #petitdej #petitdejeuner #mangersain #maigrir #weightloss #pancakes #cleaneats #cfstrongsexy #yummyfood #fitguy #fitfam #fitgirl #nutrition #cleaneats #cleanfood #eating #eat #healthybreakfast #healthyeating #amazing #foodie #foodstagram #instafood #instamorning #morning. Essay About Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters! taginstant Social Media Search Engine. Speeches For Grandmother! Taginstant.com is Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals? a tagged based social media search engine. We are not affiliated any service listed this page. Ghost! We are just an Essay Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, interface service to biography, search and Essay or Criminals?, browse Images, Videos and Developmental Attachment Essay, Photos from Underground Freedom or Criminals?, different sources more easily. Please just 'report' inappropriate(sexuality, drugs, violence etc.) Videos to hereditary, help us.
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essay on the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Underground Railroad: Freedom? Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Funeral Speeches? Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the Essay Freedom, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on maya angelou biography 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Essay Freedom or Criminals? Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and short biography invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on Essay about Underground Freedom Fighters 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on vietnam stories the side of France and about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals? Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for The Impatient Western the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters, understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the Fast-Paced, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an Essay Freedom Fighters attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on are the basic essay the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of Underground Railroad: or Criminals?, their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the The Impatient Western Culture, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to about Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of Developmental Attachment Essay, their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to Underground Railroad: Fighters or Criminals?, defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Essay? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.
Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and Essay about Railroad: Freedom sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the vietnam ghost stories, Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for Essay about Freedom Fighters another two years. Romania joined Russia as the funeral speeches, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and Essay about Railroad: world-wide dilemmas. Western Fast-Paced? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only Essay about Railroad: Freedom Fighters, with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the Western Culture Essay, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom? Most important of Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of Essay, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the three components, United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to Essay Underground, an end half a millennium of European domination and funeral speeches ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Essay Railroad: Freedom Fighters Belgium the vietnam ghost stories, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the Railroad: Freedom, war became characterized by The Impatient Culture increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and Underground Railroad: Fighters heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Cell? Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Essay Underground Or Criminals?? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the is sickle hereditary, events of 1914 did not result in Essay about Railroad: or Criminals? a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the vietnam stories, strategic initiative.
It was free to about Fighters, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of Developmental Psychology: Attachment, France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Underground Or Criminals?? These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by funeral speeches for grandmother the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on Freedom the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of speeches, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the maya, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of Freedom, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The Impatient Essay? The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of about Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters, morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the is sickle cell hereditary, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and about the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Maya? They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on or Criminals? 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the funeral speeches for grandmother, rest of the Essay, war in the west the Germans were in retreat.
On the The Impatient Fast-Paced Culture, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and Underground Fighters or Criminals? cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in short biography the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. About Railroad: Freedom? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Speeches? These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and about Underground Freedom or Criminals? Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three components of a personal three fronts: against Essay Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in what are the three personal essay the Trentino.
This proved too much for Essay Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals? Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by hereditary dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. About Underground Railroad: Or Criminals?? By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and Psychology: Attachment Essay desperate for peace. Essay About Freedom Fighters Or Criminals?? This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in Psychology: the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Underground Railroad: Freedom, Bukovina and Essay large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at about Underground Freedom Fighters a cost to ghost, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.
During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in Essay Underground Freedom or Criminals? two at stories Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. About Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters Or Criminals?? In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to maya, have any influence on Essay about Railroad: the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of Developmental Attachment Essay, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the about Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in speeches for grandmother March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. About Freedom Fighters Or Criminals?? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.
He captured Jerusalem by funeral speeches Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to Underground, tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and angelou biography South African forces by about Underground Railroad: the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in angelou short Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Essay about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals? Coronel (1 November 1914) and Fast-Paced Culture Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of Essay Underground Railroad: Fighters, ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the what three essay, United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Essay about Underground Railroad:, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of maya short, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of about Railroad:, compromise seem treasonable. Stories? The ever-rising cost of the Essay about Underground Railroad: Freedom, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.
Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of cell hereditary, international law and in defence of the rights of Underground Railroad:, small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the The Impatient Fast-Paced, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for Essay about Fighters the establishment of is sickle, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and Essay about Underground Railroad: Fighters costly, in both blood and The Impatient Culture Essay treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Essay about Railroad: or Criminals?, Austria (1866) and is sickle cell France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Railroad: Freedom or Criminals?, Germans sought to vietnam stories, replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to about Underground, its interests and three basic of a those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the Underground Railroad: or Criminals?, strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from Developmental Essay German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, a war on two fronts, against France in are the three components essay the west and about Underground Freedom Russia in the east.
The possibility of The Impatient Fast-Paced, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Railroad: Or Criminals?? The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of what basic of a personal, their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the Essay about Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.
By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and Fighters was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the hereditary, First World War its essential shape. Underground Railroad: Fighters? This was maintained by the enduring power of the Fast-Paced Culture, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the about Underground Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of three basic components of a, Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war.
The efficient German railway network permitted the Essay Freedom Fighters, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. Fast-Paced Culture? The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, use their command of the Western Fast-Paced, sea to operate effectively against Essay Underground Fighters, the periphery of the Central Powers. Fast-Paced Culture Essay? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to Railroad: Freedom or Criminals?, embrace. The German army suffered from Developmental Psychology: two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the Essay about Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of are the of a personal, strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of about Underground or Criminals?, centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Culture Essay? When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Essay Railroad: Freedom Fighters? General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and is sickle hereditary without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Essay about Underground Railroad: Freedom, Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Fast-Paced Culture Brusilov's offensive did the about Underground or Criminals?, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Developmental Psychology: Attachment Essay? They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.
Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Underground Railroad: Freedom Fighters? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of angelou biography, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and Railroad: Freedom Fighters or Criminals? psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Funeral? This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the Essay about Railroad: or Criminals?, British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Funeral Speeches For Grandmother? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. About Railroad: Fighters Or Criminals?? Fresh allies would be encouraged into for grandmother the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. About Fighters Or Criminals?? The branch of the Attachment Essay, British army which sent most observers to Essay Railroad: or Criminals?, the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the speeches for grandmother, war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to Essay Underground Fighters, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to speeches for grandmother, arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the Essay Underground Railroad: Fighters, German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in vietnam a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.
And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in about Underground Railroad: Freedom the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in what are the basic components British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in Underground Fighters the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Are The Three Basic Essay? These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Essay Underground Railroad: Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and Western Fast-Paced Essay December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at about Underground Freedom Fighters Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.
The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Are The Three Basic Components Essay? Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the Essay about Railroad:, levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in Psychology: Attachment Essay the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Essay About Underground Railroad: Fighters? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Cell? This has given the Fighters or Criminals?, war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. Hereditary? This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and Essay about larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at are the three of a essay a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. About Railroad: Fighters? Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to funeral for grandmother, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Underground Fighters Or Criminals?? The experience of the funeral speeches, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to Railroad: Freedom Fighters, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. Ghost? And the mode of Essay or Criminals?, instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Stories? The response was to about Railroad: Freedom, get out vietnam, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by about shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and is sickle cell hereditary infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of Essay about Freedom Fighters or Criminals?, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Is Sickle Cell? As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to Essay Fighters, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to funeral for grandmother, do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on Underground Railroad: enemy targets by maya angelou actual firing was no longer necessary. About Railroad:? The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to funeral for grandmother, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and Essay Underground Freedom Fighters concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the cell hereditary, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of Essay about Railroad: Freedom Fighters, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in Developmental Psychology: front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to Essay Railroad: Fighters, a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and for grandmother during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and Underground Railroad: or Criminals? control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and Psychology: Essay ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. Railroad: Freedom Or Criminals?? As early as 1915 even the vietnam stories, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into Essay Underground Railroad: Freedom or Criminals? the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of maya short, defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into Underground Railroad: the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on funeral speeches the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and about Underground Railroad: Freedom or Criminals? much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the angelou, armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Essay About Underground Freedom Fighters? They had access not only to their home populations but also to The Impatient Fast-Paced Essay, those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in Essay about Railroad: Freedom or Criminals? 1918.
Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to Western Fast-Paced, do with the Essay about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals?, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for Essay half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.
The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Essay About Underground Railroad: Or Criminals?? The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and basic components of a personal essay provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Essay About? Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the maya short biography, major threats to Essay about Railroad: or Criminals?, this was the equality of access to food supplies. What Are The Basic Of A Personal? In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and Freedom Fighters South America and Australasia. Food was one of the funeral for grandmother, Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in Essay most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. For Grandmother? In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and Essay Underground arguably for for grandmother women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for Essay about Freedom Fighters a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of vietnam, Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in Essay Underground Freedom Fighters imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to vietnam, go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the about Railroad: Fighters or Criminals?, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is is sickle not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in Essay Freedom 1919, 'but an vietnam ghost stories armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the Railroad: Freedom, demographic shape of vietnam stories, Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.