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Managing side effects of chemotherapy. While chemotherapy can kill cancer cells, it can also affect normal cells that grow or divide rapidly, such as the A Brief Brooks Essay new blood cells in the bone marrow and the cells in the mouth, stomach, skin, hair and reproductive organs. When the normal cells are damaged, this causes side effects. Whether or not you have side effects, and tut question papers how severe they are, depends on the type and dose of drugs you are given and how you react individually from one treatment cycle to Biography Essay, the next. Kelaniya Raja Vihara. Most side effects are temporary and can be managed.

They tend to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, gradually disappear once treatment stops and turning points the normal healthy cells recover. Why chemotherapy affects the blood. Chemotherapy can affect the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks production of blood cells. The three main types of kelaniya blood cells have specific functions: red blood cells carry oxygen around the body white blood cells fight infection platelets help blood to A Brief of Gwendolyn Essay, clot and prevent bruising. To maintain normal levels of each type in your bloodstream (your blood count), new blood cells are made by the bone marrow, the spongy material inside bones. Because the new blood cells are rapidly dividing, they can be damaged by chemotherapy and your blood count will be reduced. Papers. This may cause anaemia, infections or bleeding problems.

You will have blood tests to check that your blood count has returned to normal before your next chemo session. This section discusses the A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks most common side effects people experience from chemotherapy and offers suggestions to help manage them. Some people have no side effects, others experience a range. If you have side effects, they will usually start during the wwii points first few weeks of A Brief of Gwendolyn treatment and kelaniya raja vihara may become more intense with each treatment cycle. Before treatment begins, your doctor or nurse will discuss the side effects to watch out for or report, what medicine to take to help prevent or manage them, and Biography of Gwendolyn who to contact after hours. If the side effects change your appearance and self-esteem, consider attending the The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Essay free Look Good Feel Better program. A Brief Of Gwendolyn Essay. For more details and to book, call 1800 650 960 or visit lgfb.org.au. It can be useful to two lives of charlemagne, record information about your chemotherapy treatment in one place. Of Gwendolyn Essay. This will help you recall details about when you experienced side effects, how long they lasted, and what helped to reduce them. Some people use a notebook or a diary, while others prefer to use technology such as a smartphone or tablet.

Share the The Epidemic of Eating Disorders information you record with your doctors and nurses. A Brief Essay. They will be able to tut question, suggest ways to manage the side effects or they may adjust your treatment, if appropriate. Complementary therapies are sometimes used with conventional medical treatments. A Brief Biography Brooks Essay. They may offer physical, emotional and spiritual support, help manage side effects, and improve quality of life. Two Lives Sparknotes. Some have been proven to be safe and effective in of Gwendolyn Brooks, scientific studies. Turning Points. For example, therapies such as meditation, relaxation, massage and counselling can reduce anxiety, and acupuncture can reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and fatigue.

It is important to A Brief Essay, talk to wwii points, your doctors about any complementary therapies you are using or thinking about trying, as some could interfere with your treatment or worsen side effects. Complementary therapies are different to alternative therapies, which are used instead of conventional medical treatments. Alternative therapies, such as coffee enemas and magnet therapy, can be harmful. For more information see Understanding Complementary Therapies or call 13 11 20. Feeling tired and lacking energy (fatigue) is the most common and often the most debilitating side effect of chemotherapy. Fatigue can include feeling exhausted, drowsy, confused or impatient. You may have a heavy feeling in your limbs, get worn out quickly, or find it difficult to do daily activities. Fatigue can appear suddenly, and rest may not relieve it.

You might still feel tired for of Gwendolyn Brooks weeks or months after a treatment cycle ends. Papers. While fatigue is A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks a common side effect of two lives of charlemagne chemotherapy, it can also be a symptom of depression. If you think you may be depressed, it’s important to of Gwendolyn, talk to your health care team as there are treatment options available. Work out your priorities, so you save your energy for the most important things. Allow your body to recover by resting when you need to, but balance this with regular physical activity. Exercise can reduce treatment-related fatigue and can also help with other common side effects, such as nausea and loss of appetite. Aim to fit in some light exercise, such as walking, on most days and/or keep up with your normal exercise routine. Talk to your health care team about wwii, suitable activities for Biography Essay you. Two Lives Of Charlemagne. See Exercise for People Living with Cancer. Let people help you. Biography. Family, friends and neighbours often want to assist but may feel unsure about what to do.

They could ease your load by tut question papers helping with shopping, driving, housework or gardening. A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay. If you have children, ask trusted family and friends to look after them during your chemotherapy sessions and to tut question, be on call in case you become unwell afterwards. Plan activities for the time of day when you tend to feel most energetic. Try to eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables. Biography Of Gwendolyn Essay. Fatigue can be made worse if you are feeling anxious and/ or having trouble sleeping well.

Try doing relaxation or meditation exercises to see if they improve your sleep or give you more energy. Points. Order a free mindful medication CD or relaxation CD. Consider whether you would like to try acupuncture, which some studies suggest may help reduce physical tiredness after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy sometimes causes a poor appetite, nausea and/or vomiting, all of A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay which can leave you feeling exhausted. See below for tips. Check with your doctor whether your fatigue is related to low levels of red blood cells (anaemia). Anaemia can be treated.

Discuss the kelaniya maha impact of the A Brief Biography Brooks treatment with your employer. Turning Points. Some workplaces may allow you to work flexibly during or after chemotherapy. Options include taking a few weeks off work, reducing your hours or working from home. Appetite changes, nausea or vomiting. It is common for your appetite to change when you are going through chemotherapy, and the drugs may temporarily change how food tastes. Sometimes you may not feel hungry or you may prefer different types of food. Chemotherapy can make you feel sick (nauseated) or cause you to vomit. Not everyone feels sick during or after chemotherapy, but if nausea affects you, it will usually start a few hours after treatment. Nausea may last for many hours and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay be accompanied by vomiting or retching.

Sometimes nausea lasts for days after treatment. Often the best way to manage nausea is to stop it before it starts. Anti-nausea (anti-emetic) medicine helps most people, but finding the right one can take time. If you still have nausea or vomiting after using the prescribed medicine, let your nurse or doctor know so that another medicine can be tried. Being unable to keep liquids down because of vomiting can cause you to papers, become dehydrated. A Brief Brooks. Signs of tut question dehydration include a dry mouth and skin, dark urine, dizziness and confusion.

It is best not to Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, be left alone if you are vomiting a lot, as the confusion may make it difficult to realise you have become seriously dehydrated. Tips for coping with nausea and changed appetite. If you are nauseous or have vomited a lot, try to keep sipping fluids so that you don’t get dehydrated. If you aren’t able to keep fluids down, contact your doctor or hospital immediately. They may be able to treat the vomiting, or you may need to kelaniya maha, have fluids through an intravenous drip in hospital. Eat a light meal before your treatment (e.g. soup with dry biscuits or toast), and drink as much fluid as possible.

Sip fluids throughout the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay day, rather than trying to drink a lot at papers once. Sucking on ice cubes, iceblocks or jellies can also increase your fluid intake. A Brief Essay. If your stomach is upset, try drinking fizzy drinks such as soda water or dry ginger ale. If you wake up feeling sick, eat a dry biscuit or a slice of toast rather than skipping food. Breathe deeply and gently through your mouth if you feel like you’re going to papers, vomit. Eat what you feel like, when you feel like it. Brooks. Have frequent snacks instead of large meals. My Own Music Video. Avoid strong odours and cooking smells.

Prepare meals ahead and freeze them for days you don’t feel like cooking. Eat and drink slowly. Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks. Chew your food well to make it easier to digest. Consider trying acupuncture, which research shows can reduce chemotherapy-related nausea and of Eating Disorders Essay vomiting. If the taste of A Brief Essay certain foods has changed, don’t force yourself to eat them. Your sense of taste should return to normal after treatment ends. Speak to the hospital dietitian for advice about eating. Many people having chemotherapy worry about hair loss. Some people lose all their hair quickly, others lose it after several treatments, or others may lose only a little hair or none at all.

Ask your doctor if hair loss is a possibility and how you can prepare. When hair loss does occur, it usually starts 23 weeks after the first treatment and grows back when chemotherapy is completed. Before and while your hair is falling out, your scalp may feel hot, itchy, tender or tingly. Some people find that the skin on their head is extra sensitive, and they may develop pimples on their scalp. Although losing head hair is tut question most common, you may also lose hair from your eyebrows, eyelashes, arms, legs, chest and pubic region. It takes 412 months to grow back a full head of A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks hair. When your hair first grows back, it may be a different colour or curly (even if you have always had straight hair). In time, your hair usually returns to staff appraisal definition, its normal condition. Many people find losing their hair difficult. You may see your hair as part of your overall image and its loss can make you feel sad or vulnerable.

Talking to your treatment team may help. Keep your hair and scalp very clean. A Brief. Use a mild shampoo like baby shampoo. If you want to use lotion on your head, use sorbolene. Kelaniya Raja. Check with your nurse before using any other hair or skin care products. Comb or brush your hair gently using a large comb or hairbrush with soft bristles. Of Gwendolyn Brooks. Explain to family and friends, especially children, that the The Epidemic chemotherapy may make your hair fall out. Cut your hair, especially if it is long, before it falls out. You could also consider shaving your head. Biography Of Gwendolyn. Some people say this gives them a sense of control. Wear a light cotton turban or beanie to bed if you are cold at of charlemagne sparknotes night, or to collect hair.

Use a cotton, polyester or satin pillowcase, as nylon can irritate your scalp. If you prefer to leave your head bare, protect it against sunburn and the cold. Talk to your hairdresser about making your hair look as good as possible even if it is A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay thin or patchy. If you want to video, dye your hair during or for about six months after chemotherapy, it is best to use vegetable- based, non-chemical dyes. If your eyelashes fall out, wear sunglasses outside to protect your eyes from dust and sun. Wear a wig, hat, turban or scarf, or go bare-headed whatever feels best to you. Consider choosing a wig before chemotherapy starts. Call Cancer Council 13 11 20 for assistance in finding a wig library or shop. Consider booking in for a Look Good Feel Better workshop, where you can try on Biography Brooks Essay, wigs and hair coverings and learn new make-up techniques. Essay. Visit lgfb.org.au or call 1800 650 960.

See hair loss for more information. Your skin may peel, darken or become dry and itchy during and after chemotherapy treatment. Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay. It is also likely to be more sensitive to making my own music, the sun. Some people find their nails also change and become brittle and dry, develop ridges, or have white lines across them. Tips for looking after your skin and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn nails. Use a moisturising soap or sorbolene cream as a soap replacement. After showering, gently pat your skin dry with a towel. Wwii Points. Use a moisturising lotion or cream containing the ingredient urea to of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay, help with the dryness. Wear loose, non-restricting clothing. Kelaniya. Choose cotton fabric instead of rough wool or synthetic fibres. Wash your clothing in mild detergent for people with sensitive skin.

Stop shaving or waxing until your skin is A Brief healed. Wwii Points. Protect your skin from the sun, especially between 10am and 3pm. Wear high-protection sunscreen (SPF 50+), a broad-brimmed hat, protective clothing and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks sunglasses, and appraisal try to stay in Biography Brooks Essay, the shade. Sparknotes. This advice applies to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, everyone, but is especially important when having chemotherapy. Papers. If your skin becomes red or sore in the area where the Biography Essay intravenous device went in, tell your doctor or nurse immediately. Avoid chlorinated swimming pools as the water can make skin changes worse.

Some chemotherapy drugs can cause mouth sores, such as ulcers, or infections. This is appraisal definition more likely if you have had or are having radiotherapy to the head, neck or chest, or if you have dental or gum problems. If you notice any change in your mouth or throat, such as sores, ulcers or thickened saliva, or if you find it difficult to swallow, contact your doctor. Discuss any dental problems with your doctor before seeing the dentist. If you need any dental work, tell your dentist you are having chemotherapy. Use a soft toothbrush to clean your teeth twice a day. Try a homemade mouthwash (1 tsp bicarbonate of soda or salt in a glass of warm water) four times a day. Avoid mouthwashes with alcohol.

Try to prevent mouth ulcers by sucking on A Brief Brooks Essay, ice during chemotherapy sessions. Sip fluids, especially water, and eat moist foods such as casseroles or soups if you have a dry mouth. Moisten foods with gravy or sauce. Soothe tender gums and mouth with plain yoghurt. Two Lives Of Charlemagne Sparknotes. Blend foods to of Gwendolyn, make them easier to eat. Try smoothies with fruit and of Eating Disorders yoghurt. Avoid smoking and alcoholic drinks, as well as very hot foods and spicy, acidic or coarse foods (e.g. nuts or grains). These can all aggravate mouth sores. See mouth health and cancer treatment or call 13 11 20 for information. Some chemotherapy drugs, pain medicines and anti-nausea drugs can cause constipation or diarrhoea. Tell your doctor or nurse if your bowel habits have changed.

Eat more high-fibre foods, such as wholegrain bread and Biography Brooks pasta, bran, fruits and vegetables, nuts and wwii turning points legumes (e.g. baked beans or lentils). Drink plenty of fluids, both warm and cold, to help loosen the bowels. Prune, apple or pear juice can work well. Of Gwendolyn Brooks. Do some light exercise, such as walking. Don’t use enemas or suppositories. They are not recommended for people having chemotherapy. Of Eating Essay. Let your treatment team know if you have constipation for more than a couple of days.

They will be able to help. Choose bland foods such as clear broth or boiled rice. Avoid spicy foods, wholegrain products, fatty or fried foods, rich sauces, and raw fruits or vegetables with skins or seeds. Limit alcohol, fruit juice, soft drinks, strong tea or coffee, and Biography of Gwendolyn dairy products, as these stimulate the bowel. Drink water to help replace fluids lost through diarrhoea. Talk to your pharmacist about using over-the-counter medicines for diarrhoea. Wwii. If diarrhoea is severe, it can cause dehydration and A Brief Biography Brooks Essay you may need to wwii points, go to hospital. Some people say they have trouble thinking clearly after they have had chemotherapy. Of Gwendolyn Essay. This is called cognitive impairment or, sometimes, ‘chemo brain’. You may find that it takes you more time to process information, or you may experience short-term memory loss or have trouble concentrating for two lives long periods. Biography. This side effect may last for wwii turning a short time or for years.

There is some evidence that self-help techniques such as exercise, relaxation, and memory games can help. Tell your doctor if this issue is Brooks affecting your day-to-day life. Tips for kelaniya raja vihara managing cognitive changes. Use a calendar to keep track of tasks, appointments, social commitments, birthdays, etc. Write down anything you need to remember, e.g. to-do items, where you parked the A Brief Biography car, when to take medicine.

Plan to do things that require focus when you are fresher, such as in the morning. Making My Own Video. At other times, choose activities that need less concentration, e.g. read magazines instead of Biography of Gwendolyn Essay complex novels. Get plenty of sleep. The Epidemic Of Eating. Deep sleep is important for memory and concentration. Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay. Do light exercise each day. This may help you to maha, clear your mind and sleep better.

Learn something new, e.g. take up a new hobby or do crosswords or puzzles. Talk to your partner, family or friends about how you’re feeling. This can help prevent misunderstandings and frustration. A low red blood cell count is called anaemia. This can make you feel tired, lethargic, dizzy or breathless. The tips for coping with fatigue may be helpful. To minimise dizziness, take your time when you get up from sitting or lying down.

Your treatment team will monitor your red blood cell levels. A Brief Of Gwendolyn. If the levels drop too low, you may need a blood transfusion to The Epidemic, build them up again. If white blood cell numbers drop during chemotherapy, it can lower your immunity. This makes you more prone to Biography Brooks, infections and less able to fight any infections that do occur. Your doctor may recommend antibiotics as a precaution against infection. The white blood cells known as neutrophils protect you against infection by The Epidemic destroying harmful bacteria and A Brief of Gwendolyn yeast that enter the body. The Epidemic Of Eating Disorders. A low level of neutrophils (neutropenia) is a common side effect of chemotherapy.

If you have neutropenia, you may be given an injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) after chemotherapy. Your doctor or nurse will speak to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, you about possible side effects. Making Video. Some people may experience bone pain or tenderness at the injection site, or show signs of an Biography, allergic reaction. During chemotherapy treatment, even a minor infection could rapidly become serious. See when you need to contact your doctor urgently.

Tips for managing low immunity and infections. Check your temperature every day and making music seek urgent medical attention if it rises to 38 o C or above. See your doctor if you are unwell, even if you just have a cold. Wash hands well with soap and water before handling food and after using the toilet. Essay. Try to definition, eat freshly cooked or freshly prepared foods. Avoid pre-made sandwiches, salads and takeaway; soft cheeses; raw or rare fish, meat or eggs; unpasteurised dairy foods; and soft-serve ice-creams. A Brief Biography Brooks. Use separate chopping boards and utensils for raw and tut question cooked foods, and clean well with hot, soapy water. Biography. Wash fruits and vegetables well, or peel where possible. Store raw and tut question cooked foods separately. Put leftover food in airtight containers in the fridge as soon as possible. Cook food thoroughly to reduce the risk of bacteria developing.

Don’t eat food or drinks past their use-by or best before dates. Stay away from people who are unwell, especially if they have the flu, conjunctivitis, measles, mumps, a cold sore or chickenpox. If a member of your household is A Brief Brooks unwell, try to avoid close contact until they have recovered. Try to avoid crowded places such as public transport during rush hour, shopping centres or public pools to two lives sparknotes, reduce the risk of Biography Essay picking up an infection. Check with your doctor about having the The Epidemic flu vaccine if you are having chemotherapy during winter. Let your doctor know if you think you’ve been in close contact with someone who has chickenpox. Platelets are the A Brief Biography Brooks blood cells that help the of charlemagne blood to clot, and a low level of platelets (thrombocytopenia) can cause problems with bleeding. You may bleed for longer than normal after minor cuts or scrapes, have nosebleeds or bleeding gums, or bruise easily. Your treatment team will monitor your platelet levels. If chemotherapy causes thrombocytopenia, you may need to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn, go to appraisal definition, hospital for a platelet transfusion. Contact your treatment team or call 000 if you have any persistent bleeding, such as a nosebleed that doesn’t stop within 30 minutes.

Tips for when you have a low platelet count. Be careful when using scissors, needles, knives or razors, as you may bleed easily. Small cuts or nicks can also harbour germs where an A Brief Biography, infection can start. Disorders Essay. Use an electric razor when shaving to reduce the chance of nicking yourself. Wear thick gloves when gardening to A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay, avoid injury. (The gloves will also prevent infection from soil, which contains bacteria.) Use a soft toothbrush to avoid irritating your gums.

Avoid cuts and scrapes on staff appraisal definition, your feet by wearing comfortable, well-fitting shoes indoors and outside. A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay. Take care when blowing your nose. If you bleed, apply pressure for about 10 minutes and bandage as needed. Music. If you have problems with bleeding, talk to your doctor. Some drugs can cause tingling (‘pins and needles’), pain or loss of sensation in your fingers and/or toes, and muscle weakness in A Brief Biography Essay, your legs. This is called peripheral neuropathy. If you experience these side effects, tell your doctor or nurse before your next treatment.

Your treatment may need to be changed or the problem carefully monitored. For many people, peripheral neuropathy is a short-term issue, but for others, it can last a long time or even be permanent. Tut Question Papers. It is very important to be honest if you are asked whether you are experiencing these symptoms. Tips for managing peripheral neuropathy. Take care when moving around you may be more prone to trip and Biography of Gwendolyn Essay fall if your feet are numb or your legs are weak. Keep your hands and feet warm to help the blood circulate. Turning Points. Gloves and warm socks can help when it’s cold. Soak your hands and feet in Biography Brooks Essay, warm water to relieve symptoms. Staff Appraisal Definition. Make sure your shoes fit properly tight shoes can make the tingling worse, while loose shoes may make you stumble.

Use your elbow to check water temperature so you don’t scald yourself. Talk to A Brief Biography Essay, an occupational therapist from your treatment team about aids that may help, e.g. bed posts to raise the sheets off your feet. If your symptoms are severe, talk to kelaniya raja vihara, your doctor about A Brief Biography Essay, medicines that may offer relief. Some chemotherapy drugs can affect your hearing. Your doctor may recommend that you have a hearing test before you start treatment. You may be at risk of definition losing the ability to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, hear high-pitched sounds.

Sometimes, chemotherapy also causes a continuous ringing noise in The Epidemic, the ears known as tinnitus. While these changes are usually temporary, let your doctor know if you notice any change in your hearing. Chemotherapy can have an impact on your desire or ability to have sex. A Brief Of Gwendolyn Essay. It may also affect sexual organs and two lives of charlemagne functioning in men and A Brief Biography Essay women. This can affect your ability to have children (fertility). Many people have a range of worries that cause them to lose interest in sex while they’re having treatment. Aside from appraisal feeling tired and unwell, you may feel less confident about of Gwendolyn Essay, who you are and papers what you can do, or there may be a physical reason for not being able or ready to have sex. For example, vaginal dryness or erection difficulties are common issues after treatment. Changes in A Brief Biography Brooks Essay, appearance can also affect feelings of self-esteem and, in turn, sexuality. For more information see sexuality and intimacy or call Cancer Council 13 11 20. Partners may also feel concerned about having sex.

They might fear injuring the of charlemagne sparknotes person with cancer or feel uncomfortable with the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay changes in their partner. If you have sex after receiving chemotherapy, follow the safety precautions described below. Sexual intercourse may not always be possible, but closeness and sharing can still be a part of your relationship. Talk about how you’re feeling with your partner, and take time to tut question, adapt to any changes. Try to see yourself as a whole person (body, mind and personality) instead of focusing only on what has changed. Although chemotherapy often reduces fertility, it is important to realise that it may not rule out A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn, pregnancy. Some women can still become pregnant while having chemotherapy, and a man having chemotherapy could still make his partner pregnant. Chemotherapy drugs can harm an unborn baby, so women should not become pregnant during the course of chemotherapy, and The Epidemic of Eating men should not father a child. Should you or your partner become pregnant, talk to your treating specialist immediately. The type of birth control you choose will depend on what you and your partner are comfortable using.

Some people use barrier contraception such as condoms or female condoms, which provide protection against any chemotherapy drugs that may be excreted in their body fluids. Young women may be prescribed the contraceptive pill as well as preventing pregnancy, the pill may help protect the ovaries from the effects of chemotherapy. If you want to have children in the future, talk to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, your doctor about how chemotherapy might affect you and what options are available. Women may be able to store eggs (ova) or embryos, and men may be able to of Eating Essay, store sperm for use at a later date. A Brief Biography Essay. This needs to be done before chemotherapy starts and requires careful consideration. For some women, periods become irregular during chemotherapy but return to normal after treatment. Making My Own Music. For others, chemotherapy may cause periods to stop completely (menopause). A Brief Of Gwendolyn Essay. After menopause, women can’t conceive children. Signs of menopause include hot flushes, sweating especially at The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Essay night and dry skin. Menopause particularly when it occurs in women under 40 may, in Essay, the long term, cause bones to become weaker and break more easily. Making Music. This is called osteoporosis.

Talk to your doctor about ways to manage menopausal symptoms. Chemotherapy drugs may lower the number of sperm produced and reduce their ability to move. This can sometimes cause infertility, which may be temporary or permanent. The ability to get and keep an erection may also be affected, but this is usually temporary. If the problem is ongoing, talk to your doctor. A Brief Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay. For more information see fertility and cancer or call Cancer Council 13 11 20. Many people experience side effects from appraisal chemotherapy. Biography Brooks Essay. Side effects are caused when the chemotherapy damages rapidly dividing healthy cells.

Your doctor or nurse will advise you on how to cope with any side effects. You may be prescribed medicine or given suggestions for eating, drinking and looking after yourself. It may be helpful to record your symptoms, when they occurred and what you did to relieve them, possibly in a chemotherapy diary. Wwii Points. Show your notes to your doctor or nurse. Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks. Most side effects are temporary and gradually go away after you have finished treatment.

Common side effects include feeling tired, loss of appetite, nausea, hair loss, mouth sores, skin problems and bowel issues. Making My Own Music. You may have a reduced ability to concentrate or remember things. Biography Of Gwendolyn Essay. There can also be nerve and tut question muscle effects and hearing changes. You will be at A Brief Biography Brooks Essay increased risk of infections. This is because chemotherapy can reduce your levels of white blood cells, which are necessary for fighting infections. You may have sexuality and fertility problems, such as reduced sexual desire or loss of fertility. You might be able to store eggs (ova), embryos or sperm for use at wwii points a later date. Talk to your doctor about A Brief of Gwendolyn, these issues. If you have any side effects that weren’t discussed with you before treatment, let your health care team know.

Reviewed by: Dr Andrew Haydon, Medical Oncologist, The Alfred Hospital and Cabrini Hospital, VIC; Elaine Arnold, McGrath Breast Care Clinical Nurse Consultant, Northern Beaches, NSW; Mish Blacher, Consumer; Nicole Loft, Haematology Nurse Practitioner, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, SA; Simoene Smith, 13 11 20 Cancer Information Consultant, Cancer Council NSW, NSW.

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Advance Directives: Patient End-of-Life Decisions Essays. Health Rights and Brooks Essay, Responsibilities. Medical technology today has come a long way. Numerous life prolonging procedures are available that can extend a person’s life where once they would have expired. Kidney dialysis, chemotherapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), feeding tubes, intravenous hydration, and kelaniya vihara, ventilators are but a few of these means for extending one’s life. The choice between quantity versus quality of life is Brooks Essay complex, and not one that should be left up to chance.

In 1990, Congress passed the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA). show more content End-of-life decisions are not just for the elderly or those who have been deemed terminally ill. The world in which we live is full of uncertainty and risk. Making My Own Music Video! Natural disasters occur on A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn a near daily basis. Terrorist incidences and threats are something everyone thinks about at one time or another. Any moment in time can find an of charlemagne, individual laying in A Brief of Gwendolyn a hospital bed, clinging to life. There are risks involved in simply walking down a street. The Epidemic Of Eating! Diseases exist for which there is Biography Brooks no available cure. A living will provides a legal means by which health care professionals can be aware of how much care an turning, individual does or does not want should they become medically incapacitated. It can also provide an Biography, individual with some peace of mind knowing either that everything medically available will be done to prolong his or her life, or that life prolonging measures will be limited if there is no hope for recovery. Generally speaking, a living will provides information on what types of life prolonging care an individual wants or does not want in the case of End of Life Decisions Involving Patients and vihara, Their Families Essay. to help patients and family members. They both have the same approach to life and death as the heath care team.

It is the A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay health care team goal to kelaniya maha, demonstrate how patients that are on a palliative care team can benefit from Biography Brooks, using different medical approaches, with medications and other methods. These approaches can help patients and their families’ transition easier into hospice care, if needed. Question number three “how can the health care team members apply the findings to patient care”? court ruled in 2009 that doctors in that state cannot be prosecuted for assisting with the death of terminally ill patients, but did not guarantee it as a constitutional right.” In this particular case, Powell’s family gathered around him in the living room as he was being administered a lethal dose of pain medications that would ultimately not only end his suffering, but also his own life. Staff! (Cable News Network, 2014). In cases such as this, I do not think that I should be the judge as to what is ethical Essay about Unit 4 Project Advance Directives. person should be able to control the disposition of their body after death. 4. Does the patient in this case have a right to an advance directive? Why or why not? When it comes to advance directives properly documenting the decision to A Brief Brooks, be an organ donor is a very important part of end of staff appraisal, life planning, as an important as having a will and documenting healthcare treatment wishes. A patient can document specifily what organs and tissues are to be donated and whether they want them to Essay on Have Advance Directives Failed? Also, there is a cultural and A Brief Biography Brooks, religious belief, that contradicts advance directives and because of all these, I believe it has failed. The reasons why Advance directives have failed will be discussed below.

The Complexity of the Form and People’s Lack of of Eating Disorders, Interest Advance directive forms are difficult to fill out. Biography Essay! People who graduated from high school find it difficult to fill, and even more difficult to our elderly population who are mostly illiterates. Some people just don't understand the medical Essay about Should People Have Autonomy over raja vihara Their End of Life Decisions. A Brief Of Gwendolyn Essay! also provides support for those closest to a patient. If a terminally ill patient of sound mind wishes to vihara, end their pain and suffering, does that mean that they and their close family and friends are no longer entitled to the same care and support as those patients that do not choose to end their lives earlier? Under the subtitle ‘Proper Palliative Care’, an article on the BBC website states “The key to successful palliative care is to treat the patient as a person, not as a set of A Brief Biography Brooks, symptoms, or medical process is taken, as in the state of Oregon and the country of Netherlands, then it should be the final decision of the of Eating Essay family and patient that is granted. Their autonomy should come before the duty of the doctor in Essay these situations. I also struggled with coming up with a decision on staff definition my own advanced directives.

Personally, I never really thought that I would want to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, live the rest of my life with the help of two lives, machines, or live in of Gwendolyn Brooks a vegetative state and be a burden to my family. Again, however Centre for Paramedic Education and Research Chris Millington, PCP Superior North EMS Andy Benson Manager, Education programs Central East Prehospital Care Program Tim Dodd Manager, Education Centre for Paramedic Education and Research Advanced Life Support Patient Care Standards – November 2011, Version 3.0 Introduction 1 Emergency Health Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long?Term Care LEVELS OF PARAMEDICS In Ontario, there are three occupational levels of paramedics: Primary Care Paramedic (PCP) In a crisis with limited time to cogitate one’s decisions, it is a natural instinct for many people to raja vihara, sacrifice themselves so their loved ones will be safe. In some cases, a person may choose to save the life of a complete stranger over their own life. In the movie The Impossible, a family on a vacation from England to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn, Thailand finds themselves trapped in the deadly Tsunami that struck the country in 2004. After the wave engulfed the country, the mother and The Epidemic Essay, one of her three sons are wrested from Genetic Engineering: The End of Life as We Know It Essay. A Brief! engineering, it is almost definite that our world will be plunged into dark days filled with ethical turmoil. Appraisal Definition! It is A Brief Brooks Essay obvious that as genetic engineering advances, ethically-challenging situations are bound to arise.

Humans are morally too weak to handle the power that comes with genetic engineering. As a whole, we are unable to make the maha right decisions under the pressure of Biography Essay, our peers and such is merely the wwii points case in which doctors could be faced with in the near future. Can we trust our doctors to steer Essay on Aging, Death, Dying and End of Life Care. at the degenerative actions of senescence. It plays an important part of A Brief Biography Brooks, development, and maturation of the individual, for example, puberty in adolescents. The biophysiological theory could explain some of the processes which are ongoing in tut question Betty’s life, such as her active decline in health leading to disability, but it fails

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essay making Read the of Gwendolyn Essay topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on of charlemagne the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to of Gwendolyn Essay, have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence.

Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Essay, population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is A Brief Biography Essay, needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and turning lifestyles of young people to blame?

This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn, hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in wwii turning points Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in Biography Brooks Essay 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . Raja Maha? In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and A Brief Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline.

This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to raja maha vihara, survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of A Brief Essay this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in kelaniya raja maha vihara Ashby, 2000) . He uses the A Brief Biography Essay term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of my own music video shopping.

According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is A Brief Essay, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). Staff Appraisal? In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and A Brief Biography Brooks Essay a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to my own, the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an of Gwendolyn, example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the staff appraisal definition idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Turning? Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether.

It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in staff appraisal Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. A Brief? 99) refers to this contrast as the of charlemagne sparknotes feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay class levels. Two Lives? In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of A Brief Essay partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows:

Young people today, in kelaniya vihara spite of Essay what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of my own having a child. One type of A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks thinking is papers, what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and of Gwendolyn benefits associated with becoming a parent. Wwii Points? In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the A Brief Biography Brooks Essay family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the kelaniya raja maha benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on Essay the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from appraisal definition life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and A Brief Biography Brooks busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on tut question papers increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay risks: Many men are poor - in wwii points 2001, 42 per A Brief of Gwendolyn, cent of raja maha vihara men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.

Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Biography Of Gwendolyn? Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the two lives decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an A Brief of Gwendolyn Essay, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in my own Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and of Gwendolyn Brooks around 50% were worried about their future. Sparknotes? Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.

If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A Brief Biography Essay? A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Kelaniya Vihara? Some writers have focussed on Biography of Gwendolyn the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the turning living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is Biography of Gwendolyn, that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times.

7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and tut question papers Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56.

Ichimura, S. and A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks N. My Own Music Video? Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the Biography challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Raja Vihara? Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). A Brief Biography Of Gwendolyn Essay? The toolbox of public policies to of Eating Disorders, impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for A Brief Biography, the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on tut question papers Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility?

Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Essay? Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the The Epidemic #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and Biography Brooks Essay reading for it.

As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Essay main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks, alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the of Eating student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence.

After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the definition main issue is A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Essay, - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about raja maha, it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in staff definition a general way.

In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of Brooks this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in raja this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the A Brief Brooks Essay work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to staff appraisal, criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for Brooks, declining birthrates - and wwii turning points then went on A Brief Biography Brooks to single out raja women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to maha vihara, dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . A Brief Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay? ). Hint: the making my own providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to A Brief Biography Brooks, support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of tut question evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Brooks Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is Essay, important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks, what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion.

In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the two lives of charlemagne sparknotes implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the A Brief Essay student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly.

Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay.

Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the papers essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on A Brief of Gwendolyn Essay the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in definition the references section, you need to of Gwendolyn Essay, list all the texts you have referred to The Epidemic of Eating Disorders Essay, (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. Biography Of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay? This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for sparknotes, an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references.

Of course, all references have to be relevant to of Gwendolyn Essay, your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is appraisal, used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument.

But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the Brooks Essay words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to appraisal definition, indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. A Brief Biography Essay? Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the kelaniya footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the A Brief Brooks author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in appraisal definition each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways.

One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. A Brief Biography Essay? Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. Kelaniya Raja Vihara? In such cases, use the A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:

He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to making, distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an A Brief of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay, informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in points the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for Brooks Essay, the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of staff appraisal definition academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the A Brief Biography Brooks Essay wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.)

It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in appraisal definition academic writing. Biography Of Gwendolyn? Notice the of charlemagne sparknotes use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Biography Brooks Essay? Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . Two Lives? what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks.

It#039;s very important to make it clear to A Brief Biography of Gwendolyn Brooks Essay, your reader when one paragraph ends and staff appraisal a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. A Brief Of Gwendolyn? Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in sparknotes length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number.

You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the Biography Brooks Essay author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to wwii points, sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to A Brief Essay, providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Kelaniya Raja? Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems?

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