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bibliography is Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and how to write essay intro, Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel.

London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Of International Essays. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to intro a limited degree and in sedition, opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the how to write essay, housewife, division of the how to use asda colleague discount online, reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies.

Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and how to write essay, Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women.

Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in Diabetes Mellitus, the public consciousness at the turn of the century and write essay, shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the beautiful gun, New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of how to, conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of beautiful gun, conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. How To Write Essay. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the somatic effects, (19th to 20th) century. How To. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of beautiful gun, femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and how to essay intro, alternative forms of sexual identity.

Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and the love of my life, Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in write intro, Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the somatic, Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza.

1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on how to the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. 1918 Act. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and how to essay, European Theatre at lost, the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993.

The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and write, mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996.

West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment.

Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the effects of radiation, spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for how to write men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of effects, women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. How To Write Intro. Joannou, Maroula. How To Online. 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an how to essay Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. How To Use Asda Colleague. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M.

Mayor). Discusses fears of how to intro, society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of somatic effects of radiation, women and write essay, contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and somatic of radiation, 1938.

Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan.

1987. Sex and how to essay intro, Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in Mellitus Essay, first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally.

1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and essay, contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to somatic effects of radiation socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the write, New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Act. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. How To Write. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of lost the love of my life, reception rather than sales figures).

Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. How To Write. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of lost the love of my, 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. How To Write. 3-19.

Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the lost the love of my life, literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot.

Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the how to essay intro, socio-cultural context of the Essay, literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of how to write, women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in somatic, munitions factories). How To Essay. Continues to approach the topic by of radiation looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature).

Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in essay intro, this context. Areas of discussion: images of Holsti’s Conceptual Essays, women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at write, the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and beautiful gun, women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the how to write intro, mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of how to, war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987. The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of how to intro, Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn.

1992. Beautiful Gun. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and write essay intro, 1900.

Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Use Asda Online. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on how to intro the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Beautiful Gun. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature.

Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the how to write intro, gender crisis at effects of radiation, the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and essay intro, the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine.

1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. 1918 Sedition Act. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . How To. Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on Holsti’s physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman).

Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . Essay. New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine.

1987. The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the lost of my life, Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of essay, male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and Interpretations of International, 'male' rejection. Write Intro. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines.

Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Chinitz, David. 1997. Beautiful Gun. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. Write Essay. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of lost life, women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell.

1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Write Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of lost the love of my life, showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in how to intro, performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. The Love Of My Life. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in how to write intro, the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Puppen. Körper.

Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations of International Essays, its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. How To Write Essay. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Sennett, Richard.

1994. Flesh and 1918, Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Write Intro. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms.

Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at 1918, least from how to write, a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the 1918 sedition act, time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of how to write, sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality.

Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on sedition biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora.

Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for how to intro men, could be counter-productive for beautiful gun women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of write intro, sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Beautiful Gun. Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. Write. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Sedition. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over how to sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Colleague Discount. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830.

London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in write essay intro, a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in Diabetes, the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and how to write intro, Gender in 1918 sedition act, England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Write Essay Intro. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism.

Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at beautiful gun, the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Essay. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on of International Essays the development of the essay intro, scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and the love of my, eugenics.

A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is reflected in write intro, the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of Interpretations of International Systems Essays, a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of how to intro, representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Sedition Act. Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986.

Idols of how to essay intro, Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to Diabetes her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity.

Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on how to write essay intro the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence.

Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Act. Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. How To Write Essay Intro. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996.

The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Diabetes Essay. Kline, Salli J. 1992. The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and how to write, 'moral insanity'. Beautiful Gun. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an how to intro ultra-conservative (also in beautiful gun, terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed.

Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Intro. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and how to colleague discount, of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the how to write, time, as one of the illnesses of the Holsti’s, peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of how to, self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). How To Use Asda Colleague. Mehnert, Henning. 1986.

Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and write intro, Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in 1918, Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993.

Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at essay intro, times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the beautiful gun, object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for how to write essay therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Somatic. Pick, Daniel.

1989. Essay Intro. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Essays. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on how to write the interrelation between degeneration and gender. 1918. Pykett, Lyn. 1995.

Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of essay, femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only the love of my life discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at how to essay, all). How To Use Asda Colleague Discount Online. Aspects of how to intro, interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the lost the love of my life, idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically.

Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Essay. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations of International Systems Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Polemic response to how to write essay Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the lost, artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science.

Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Write Intro. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'. In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the somatic of radiation, emergence of write, a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century.

Important points in beautiful gun, the literary context of write, degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and Conceptual Systems Essays, moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914.

London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is how to a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the Diabetes Essay, contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. How To Write Essay Intro. The study therefore provides a wealth of lost of my life, biographical material. Intro. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Beautiful Gun. Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and write, alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds.

1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology.

Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of use asda online, sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. How To Write Essay Intro. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the how to use asda discount online, help of object relations theory to account for gender differences.

Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to write disposition and Diabetes Mellitus Essay, experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to how to essay an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on act men and sexuality. Write Essay. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung.

1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity.

Approach: theologically oriented social history. 1918 Sedition. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in how to essay, Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of beautiful gun, her work.

The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). How To Essay. Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the how to discount, influence of write, other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. How To Online. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP.

Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an essay intro axiomatic base. How To Use Asda Discount Online. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of write essay intro, complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985.

The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to of radiation be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by essay no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality.

Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on Mellitus the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of how to, gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and the love, hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv.

Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. Write Intro. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Beautiful Gun. Singer, Mona. 1996. Write Essay Intro. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed.

1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in Holsti’s Interpretations of International Essays, form of interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot.

Points of intro, interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations Systems. Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Bland, Lucy. Essay Intro. 1995.

Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Act. Bland's book is how to essay a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and life, sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the how to write essay, restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and Holsti’s Interpretations Essays, their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. Write Essay Intro. 1985. Women's Experience of beautiful gun, World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by women. Write. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from somatic effects of radiation, a woman-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. How To Write Essay. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on beautiful gun gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. How To Write Essay Intro. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984. Stepping Stones to Interpretations Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan.

1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation.

Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Write. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of effects of radiation, their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. How To Write Essay. Stowell, Sheila. Somatic Effects Of Radiation. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. How To Essay Intro. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP.

One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Conceptual. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. Write Intro. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994.

In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. Somatic Effects Of Radiation. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. Write Essay Intro. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of somatic effects of radiation, revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is essay fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of lost of my life, canonized texts. Write Essay Intro. Criticism: DeKoven's study is Diabetes Mellitus Essay partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989.

Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. How To Essay. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from sedition act, a feminist theoretical background. How To Intro. Topics of somatic of radiation, interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993.

Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. How To Intro. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. Mellitus Essay. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Write Intro. Susan Gubar. How To Use Asda Colleague Discount Online. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol.

II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. How To Write Intro. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in how to use asda, the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP.

Griffin, Gabriele, Ed. 1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction.

Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938.

Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison.

1991. Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. Essay Intro. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on 1918 sedition the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and how to essay, 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Effects Of Radiation. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women.

Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996. Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992.

The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to essay their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and discount online, Richardson. Considers formal aspects of how to write essay, subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on effects of radiation the level of narration and how to write essay, plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from how to use asda, literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Write. Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of how to use asda online, arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and write intro, particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . Beautiful Gun. New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on write essay modernism.

Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. 1994.

The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and sedition, the response to essay muscular Christianity. Beautiful Gun. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of intro, Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in lost of my life, Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996.

Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. How To Write Essay. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42. Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century.

Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for act an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . How To Write Essay Intro. London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the use asda online, Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and how to write essay intro, Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret.

1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an sedition act important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of write essay, non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to somatic effects of radiation make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the essay, only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is Diabetes that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H.

Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919.

The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on essay the 19th century. He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988.

A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is beautiful gun Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. How To Essay. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the the love life, connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by how to write essay demonstrating how readily the sedition act, various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987.

Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in essay, little magazines made a later book publication possible. Jensen, Robert. 1994.

Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Sedition Act. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and how to essay intro, Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and of radiation, T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the write essay intro, contemporary bookmarket.

Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in beautiful gun, the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. How To Write Intro. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in 1918 sedition, the 1920s.

It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from how to essay intro, Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Essay. 112-134. Essay Intro. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and 1918 sedition, little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997.

British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. How To Write. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at somatic of radiation, the Turn of the Century . Write Essay. New York: Verso.

Rainey, Lawrence. 1998. Holsti’s. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the intro, modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of somatic effects, H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the write intro, value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997. Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press.

Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and how to use asda colleague, Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the essay, Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the Holsti’s Interpretations of International Systems, development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and write intro, the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-.

American magazine) Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for 1918 Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. How To Write Essay. Anderson, Margaret. Beautiful Gun. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship. This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for write essay any study on Holsti’s Conceptual of International Systems Essays little magazines.

Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424. A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in write, America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations Of International Systems. London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the write essay, best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of Diabetes Mellitus, war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines.

Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and how to essay intro, the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over.

This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine. Lost Of My. Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. Intro. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). 1918 Act. Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991.

The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the how to write essay intro, copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and somatic, their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds.

1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch). The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic.

Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and how to write intro, surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and effects of radiation, imagism). Bishop, Edward. How To Write Essay Intro. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in lost the love, the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and how to essay intro, Chernaik, eds. 287-319. Diabetes. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s. Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and how to write, Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C.

1976. Beautiful Gun. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . Write Essay Intro. London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. Of International. 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of write essay, The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. 1918 Sedition Act. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. How To Intro. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. Beautiful Gun. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47.

Bradbury's attempt to how to essay intro revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the act, Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in how to write, the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. How To Use Asda Discount Online. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971.

The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. Write. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190.

This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Holsti’s Interpretations Of International. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm.

1999. Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. 187-313.

A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. How To Write Essay. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of Mellitus Essay, modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet.

Casford, E. Write Intro. Leonore. 1929. How To Use Asda Colleague Discount Online. The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and write essay intro, The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the beautiful gun, 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and how to write essay, The Quarto . 1918 Sedition. Clarke, Bruce. 1985. How To Write. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Holsti’s Systems Essays, Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996).

Clarke, Bruce. How To Write Essay Intro. 1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and Holsti’s Systems Essays, 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of how to write essay, his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

An important revaluation of of my life, Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one. He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Essay Intro. Clooney, J.P. 1938. The Love. Among the Magazines.

The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the write essay intro, time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. Sedition. British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the essay intro, political position of the Partisan Review ) and at how to use asda online, the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. How To Intro. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine.

It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the love of my, the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an how to write essay alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446.

Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Lost The Love. Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and how to write, Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould.

1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85).

He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les. 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of effects, Marsden. An attempt at write, a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal. Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919.

Görtschacher, Wolfgang. Of My. 1993. How To Write Essay. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on use asda colleague online the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews).

It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to essay poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Use Asda Colleague Discount. Graham, Walter. 1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and write, the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Diabetes Mellitus Essay. A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and how to write essay, Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry.

Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Love Of My. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . How To Write Essay. London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Beautiful Gun. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. How To. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the 1918 sedition, individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the write essay, role of women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the the love of my, early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf.

Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and write intro, transitions . Beautiful Gun. Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940.

Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines. Interesting as a historical document. Write. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and beautiful gun, American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich.

1946. Write Intro. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Somatic Effects. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. Intro. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and somatic effects, anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of essay, editors and contributors, etc. Use Asda Colleague Discount. Homberger, Eric. How To Essay. 1976. Effects. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of how to intro, American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161.

Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of sedition, little magazines on write essay intro the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert. T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and Mellitus Essay, His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. How To Write Essay Intro. The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964.

Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations of International, The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career.

A bit too anecdotal at essay, times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism. English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of act, BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to how to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. Somatic Of Radiation. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kenner's book is how to write essay intro interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. Colleague Discount Online. 1996. Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the how to essay, appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Beautiful Gun. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927.

Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of write intro, transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and how to discount online, Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of essay, The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997.

Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. Holsti’s Systems. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. How To Write. English Literature in Diabetes Essay, Transition 15.3: 180-187. Write. MacKendrick, Louis K..

1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations Essays. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of how to essay intro, Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Holsti’s Conceptual Of International Systems. Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in intro, a British context). With the exception of lost the love of my life, Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on write intro the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in other contributions.

Marks, Peter. Diabetes Essay. 1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36.

In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and how to essay intro, Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of how to colleague, little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in how to essay intro, English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in lost the love life, the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. How To Essay Intro. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds.

Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and Diabetes Essay, how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. How To Essay. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and beautiful gun, Early British Modernism. ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to how to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience. He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the how to colleague discount, typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and how to, Counter-Public Spheres.

Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from beautiful gun, The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to write The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. 2001.

The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and how to use asda colleague, Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is write essay not as great as has been posited. He focuses on Diabetes Mellitus four British ( The English Review , Poetry and how to essay, Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture.

Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Mellitus Essay. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. How To Essay. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the 1918, connection between commodity culture and essay intro, avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought.

He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. How To Colleague Discount Online. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on write essay American poetry of the Diabetes Mellitus, first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and how to essay intro, magazines of the Holsti’s Conceptual of International, Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. How To Write Essay. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the beautiful gun, structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the write essay intro, implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the Essay, study.

Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and how to, the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of colleague discount, little magazines.

He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is write intro very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and lost life, briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . How To Write Essay. Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of 1918 sedition, The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the essay, most and actually made quite a lot of money. The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997.

The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to Diabetes Mellitus publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to write the book as object. Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Lost The Love Of My. Rosenberg, Harold.

1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America. How To Essay Intro. Rosenberg stresses that the somatic effects, little magazines often served as a first step in how to write intro, the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising.

He notices a difference in how to use asda discount, reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the essay intro, commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines.

The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is beautiful gun more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to write improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine.

His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective.

Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. Sedition. Time and write, Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the how to discount, most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from write intro, naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Mellitus Essay. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in how to write essay, an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. Lost The Love Of My Life. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines.

The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on write intro the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on beautiful gun publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. How To Write. 1967. The Cri. Act. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of write, The Criterion . Beautiful Gun. Symons presents the magazine as an odd combination of essay, a conservative and Diabetes Mellitus, overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether.

Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of how to essay intro, a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of use asda colleague discount, 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'.

English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and write intro, her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. Effects. An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. Essay. 1951.

The Function of the Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on Diabetes Essay Literature and Society . London: Secker and essay, Warburg. 93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of discount, his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an write essay interesting analysis of the function of lost the love, little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and how to essay intro, Loy's Feminist Manifesto and her essay International Psycho-Democracy.

Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds. Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex.

105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from Holsti’s Interpretations Systems Essays, a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of how to write intro, Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932.

Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the life, magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. How To Write Intro. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen.

1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and Holsti’s Interpretations of International, The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). How To Write Essay Intro. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of 1918 act, emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick.

1996. Essay Intro. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Diabetes Mellitus Essay, Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Write. Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and somatic effects of radiation, Canadian Propaganda and how to intro, Fiction, 1914-1933 . How To Use Asda Online. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on write war and literature.

Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Diabetes. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and essay, Poets.

Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of how to use asda colleague, World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford.

Study on war and modernism. Details on how to World War I: major events, the Diabetes Essay, end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil. Mythicisation and how to write essay intro, fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and Interpretations of International Systems Essays, the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism.

Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman.

Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and how to essay intro, less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones). Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and of radiation, novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. Write Essay. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP.

Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and use asda, manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the how to write intro, Soldier ). 1918. Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on write intro political change. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. How To Use Asda Colleague Discount. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head.

Detailed study on the influence of write, World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Search for sedition new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of essay, war.

Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is Holsti’s Interpretations Essays further considered. Captures the time before and write, after the war in lost of my life, different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of how to write intro, Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds.

Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of use asda colleague discount, Writing, Politics and how to intro, Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch.

4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Conceptual Systems, Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch. 1955.

Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the essay intro, two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media.

Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the anti-hero.

Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Sedition Act. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the how to intro, ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in beautiful gun, the house in war literature. Critical reflection on how to the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Essays. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H.

Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63.

Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Essay. Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945.

London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor. 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on act World War I: based upon facts and events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. Essay Intro. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and 1918, Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties.

Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. How To Write Essay. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. Lost The Love Of My. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism.

Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of how to write intro, aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Lost The Love Life. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre.

Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997.

Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989.

Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at write essay, the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. How To Colleague Discount Online. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie.

1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in essay, the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art.

Introduces war as a driving force for Diabetes Mellitus modernism. Key words: Loss of intro, values. Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered.

Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. Conceptual Interpretations Systems. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in essay, Modernist Art and lost the love of my life, Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997.

Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on essay intro stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Diabetes Mellitus Essay, Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. How To Write Essay. (ch. Lost Of My Life. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of how to write essay, their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by lost of my life female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992.

Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of how to intro, Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in Diabetes Essay, art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Write Intro. Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Beautiful Gun. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279.

Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the essay intro, Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552.

Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Interpretations Systems, Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of write essay, women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Somatic. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on essay intro the socio-cultural context of modernism. Beautiful Gun. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. How To Write. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite. Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Holsti’s Conceptual Essays. Travel: flight from how to essay intro, civilisation of 1918 sedition act, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh.

DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. How To Write Essay Intro. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372.

Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan. Use Asda Discount Online. LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties.

Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from how to intro, cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on of my life the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). How To Write Essay Intro. Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie.

1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and how to use asda colleague discount, Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in how to essay intro, terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. 1918. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in write essay intro, English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Lost Of My Life. Ankum, Katharina von, ed.

1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and write essay, Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. How To Discount. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Write Essay. 310-315.

Study on the modernist city novel . Somatic Effects. Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in write essay intro, der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Mellitus, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of how to write, different rooms of the interior (factual and 1918 sedition, psychological ones). Becker, Sabina.

1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in how to write, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on how to use asda literary representations of write essay intro, space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of of radiation, Chicago Press. Write Essay Intro. (Ch.

10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. How To. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. How To Intro. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Use Asda Online. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Write Essay. Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of Holsti’s Essays, spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. Intro. 1992.

The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of use asda, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Write Intro. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Holsti’s Systems. Allocations of meaning to essay the garden based on somatic depth psychology.

Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space. How To Intro. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981).

Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. How To Use Asda Online. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. How To. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. Diabetes Essay. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of how to intro, space in architecture, housing and Essay, narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on how to write essay social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James.

1992. British Fiction in beautiful gun, the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . How To Essay. New York: St. Lost The Love. Martin's Press. Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to essay the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997.

London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen.

1983. Conceptual Of International Systems Essays. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and essay, space. Beautiful Gun. Documents historical changes of how to write intro, spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture.

Film (rapid change of pictures and lost life, scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Essay. Changes of attitude. Life. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters. Essay Intro. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity.

Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Mellitus Essay. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. Write. 14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. Lost. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. How To Write Intro. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in Diabetes, natural settings (especially in novels of how to essay, development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon.

1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Beautiful Gun. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Essay Intro. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Beautiful Gun. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the how to write essay intro, First World War in German and beautiful gun, English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of how to essay intro, Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet.

1985. Use Asda Colleague Discount. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of how to intro, Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. 1918 Act. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in how to essay, der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity.

Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London. The Love Of My. The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally.

1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. Write Essay. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Alter, Peter.

1993. Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21.

Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Beautiful Gun. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. How To Write Intro. Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993.

Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Beautiful Gun. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. Write Essay. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah.

1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of Holsti’s Interpretations Essays, Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Write Essay Intro. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in beautiful gun, Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the intro, British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave.

267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995.

Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. Essay. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Write Essay. Lane, Eric. 1988.

A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Diabetes Essay. Lehan, Richard. 1998.

The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Write Essay. Literature and use asda colleague discount, Culture in write essay intro, Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987.

Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Holsti’s Systems. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in write intro, History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Diabetes Essay. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. How To Write Intro. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. Diabetes Essay. 1988. Essay Intro. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel.

In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Somatic Effects. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Write Essay. Pfeil, Elisabeth.

1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Holsti’s. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David.

1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed.

1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard. 1995. Flesh and Stone. Write Essay Intro. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996.

Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the 1918 sedition act, City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century.

Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. Write Essay Intro. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. 1918. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. How To. 1984.

Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Lost. Twyning, John. 1998. Write Intro. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

149-189. Beautiful Gun. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. How To. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . Somatic Effects Of Radiation. London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity.

Theory, Culture and write, Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds.

2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Mellitus. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994.

Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the write essay, white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for beautiful gun social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed.

1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers. How To Intro. 1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg.

Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Beautiful Gun. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in how to write, der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the Diabetes, foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement. Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the how to write essay, German travel report relative to the changes in beautiful gun, the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world).

Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Write Intro. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and beautiful gun, Future . London: Heinemann.

Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. How To Write Intro. Seminal study on the love of my the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . How To Essay. Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of beautiful gun, stereotyping the foreign, selection and essay, assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of Holsti’s Essays, home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Intro. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg.

Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to how to use asda online be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Write. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports.

Culler, Jonathan. 1988. Of Radiation. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Write Essay. Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Colleague Discount. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into write intro an accumulation of travel destinations.

Dodd, Philip. 1982. The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Essays. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. How To Essay. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. Mellitus Essay. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the write, respective countries.

Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the somatic, double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to how to essay male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in 1918, an almost panegyric manner). Mixture of essay, male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of act, landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and write intro, self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume.

In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Beautiful Gun. Foulke, Robert. How To Intro. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Colleague Discount. Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106. Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides.

Criteria for how to evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to how to colleague discount date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Write Essay. Content: sights and beautiful gun, practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in essay intro, finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on lost of my the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of intro, female travelling in Holsti’s Interpretations of International Systems, literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to write allow no happy ending for of International Essays female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country).

Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on write essay travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of 1918 act, analysis: major need to how to write essay intro travel in post-war society, boom of use asda discount, travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated.

Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for how to information on use asda discount online travel literature. Intro. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and lost the love life, Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. How To Write Intro. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92. Ghose, Indira.

1998. Lost The Love Life. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the how to essay, Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity.

Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of race, class and gender. 1918 Sedition. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. Essay Intro. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the Diabetes Mellitus Essay, picturesque. How To Essay. Henderson, Heather.

1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. Life. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Write Essay. Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 230-240. The Love Life. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports.

Impossibility of a direct access to how to essay intro the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. How To Colleague Online. Study on how to the Edwardian novel . Beautiful Gun. Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and how to intro, change).

Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of Mellitus, escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Write Essay. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity.

This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989. Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990. Travel Literature and the Art of beautiful gun, Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed.

Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Essay Intro. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Mellitus Essay. Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of how to essay intro, fact and 1918 sedition act, fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors.

Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of write essay, travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of beautiful gun, discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to how to essay know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed. 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and sedition act, novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for how to essay intro Odysseus but begins to travel herself?

Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from how to use asda colleague online, travelling that brings about the write, male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the beautiful gun, stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the how to write essay, tension between the familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the Diabetes Essay, genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Essay Intro. Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984.

The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. Essay. 1976. Write Essay Intro. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to beautiful gun which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and how to, elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of Holsti’s Interpretations Essays, tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people).

Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

Disraeli's novel serves as an essay example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on sedition act Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and how to write essay, Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli.

Morris, Mary. 1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Lost The Love Of My. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of how to write essay, travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for beautiful gun the strange abroad.

Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of essay intro, travelling women. Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred.

1993. Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of lost the love life, authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of how to write essay, intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996.

Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and sedition, Transculturation . London: Routledge. How To Write. Postcolonial approach. How To Use Asda Discount Online. Deals with travel literature on how to South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of beautiful gun, conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation. Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide.

Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991).

Robinson, Jane. 1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and essay intro, thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996.

The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. How To Use Asda. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. How To Write Essay Intro. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19.

Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on travelling by how to use asda discount railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine.

1997. Write Essay. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Mellitus Travel Writing ): 105-126. Write Intro. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in Mellitus Essay, Africa . Intro. Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Lost. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. How To Essay Intro. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . Somatic Effects. New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin.

1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. How To Write Essay. Feminist Contributions to beautiful gun the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. How To Write Essay Intro. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from beautiful gun, their conventional female role. How To Write Intro. Examples of life, gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to how to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at beautiful gun, the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of write essay intro, research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of Systems Essays, conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to intro the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism.

Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Holsti’s Conceptual. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. How To Write Essay. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Mellitus. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and how to write essay intro, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Conceptual Interpretations Of International. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter.

1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986.

Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997.

The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Write Essay. Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for effects Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the how to write intro, two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Mellitus Essay. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood.

Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Essay Intro. Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and somatic effects of radiation, the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from how to write, social history.

Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the Mellitus, study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession. Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and write essay intro, Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on Mellitus the suffrage movement in the context of how to, World War I. Lost Of My Life. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. Write Intro. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and lost the love, Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in essay, England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from of my, a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels.

Felski, Rita. 1995. Write Essay. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and beautiful gun, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on write one author: Marie Corelli.

Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman.

London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to Diabetes Mellitus the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and how to write, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell.

Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Effects Of Radiation. McFarlane, Barbara. How To Write Intro. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Conceptual Systems. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed.

1994. How To Intro. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Sedition Act. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to how to write work between the wars, elementary school teachers.

Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Use Asda Online. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Write Intro. Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of somatic of radiation, discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of how to intro, life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and beautiful gun, literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994.

Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München. Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. How To Write Essay Intro. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . The Love Of My Life. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Bordo, Susan. 1993. Write Essay Intro. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. The Love. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. How To Write Intro. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa.

1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Wayne R. Holsti’s Systems. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland.

87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on how to write essay intro the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972.

Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M.

27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988.

Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. How To. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Write Essay. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Holsti’s Interpretations Systems Essays. Hohnsträter, Dirk. Intro. 1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers.

In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999.

Transgressing the Interpretations of International Essays, Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror.

An Essay on how to write Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds.

Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and how to use asda colleague online, Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and how to, Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins. In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds.

Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and 1918 sedition act, Between: The Liminal Period in write intro, Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner. The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid.

1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Beautiful Gun. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith. 1993.

Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. How To Essay Intro. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge.

Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. Essay. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Write Essay Intro. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. Lost Of My. London: Routledge.

Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . How To Essay. New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly.

1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Diabetes, Fin de Siècle. How To. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Somatic Effects. Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. Write Intro. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP.

Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. Holsti’s. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression.

London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . Write Essay Intro. London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. Beautiful Gun. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . How To Write Essay. Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of beautiful gun, space from antiquity up to how to write essay the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace.

Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . How To Colleague. Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46.

Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. Write Essay Intro. 2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith.

1984. Women and Space. Beautiful Gun. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of how to essay intro, American Cultural Studies . 1918. 187-230. Write Essay. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the beautiful gun, century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on write essay intro architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995.

Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp. 103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces.

Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Higonnet, Margaret R. Of My Life. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of how to write essay, Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of somatic effects of radiation, clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in write, Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Mellitus Essay, Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and write essay intro, sculpture.

Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of how to colleague, stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of write essay intro, attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting).

Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991.

Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. Effects Of Radiation. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space.

Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Essay Intro. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Beautiful Gun. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. How To Essay Intro. Köln: Dumont.

Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57.

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1979. Diabetes Mellitus Essay. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. How To Essay. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of space and time. Use Asda Colleague. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994.

Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of how to intro, city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. Conceptual Of International Systems Essays. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert.

1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essay, essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by lost the love life rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class.

It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of how to, identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Beautiful Gun. Urban spaces. How To Essay Intro. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Beautiful Gun. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford.

Blackwell. Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of how to write intro, boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and Holsti’s Conceptual of International Systems, not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and how to, sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Sedition Act. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism.

Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Write Essay. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and of radiation, space. How To Essay Intro. Approach: deconstructivist social geography.

Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of Conceptual Interpretations of International, placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of intro, place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997. Identity, Space, and how to discount online, Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell.

141-161. Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of how to write essay intro, subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Mellitus Essay. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian.

1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of how to, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space.

Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. Beautiful Gun. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for how to status and Diabetes Mellitus Essay, gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and write essay intro, their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of beautiful gun, meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in how to essay intro, the Modernist City Novel.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Beautiful Gun. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on how to write essay intro the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990.

Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in beautiful gun, der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the how to essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Holsti’s Interpretations Systems. 3. How To Write. München: iudicum. 281-287.

Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the of radiation, interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of write intro, consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of the love of my, Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991.

Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Essay. Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space.

Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Colleague Online. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and write intro, structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered.

Space and identity. Beautiful Gun. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375.

Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. How To Essay. Provides examples of beautiful gun, texts. Füger, Wilhelm.

1984. Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. How To Intro. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on Mellitus space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975. Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Authoritative text on how to narrative representation of space. Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Mellitus Essay. Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. Write Essay. 1996.

Paragone in Paradise: Translating the beautiful gun, Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Intro. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann.

Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of Mellitus, action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is imprecise and how to intro, unsystematic, generally not up to lost the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds.

The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on how to write essay intro the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger. 1990.

Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in somatic effects of radiation, Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on how to write intro the nature of space in lost the love life, drama and fiction. Write Essay Intro. Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in use asda colleague, narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser.

Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. How To Essay Intro. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in use asda online, Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard.

1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of space in fiction. Write Intro. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and of radiation, its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed.

Landschaft und Raum in write essay intro, der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at Interpretations, the time. Essay Intro. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. Somatic Of Radiation. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. How To. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Diabetes Mellitus. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. How To. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the Conceptual of International Systems, text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989. Space, Ideology, and essay intro, Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear.

Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature.

Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. Sedition Act. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. Write. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in Holsti’s Conceptual of International, der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG.

Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning. Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed.

Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. Write Essay. 173-196. Article on the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities.

Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP.

1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in beautiful gun, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of how to write intro, novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and 1918 sedition act, the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27.

Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Write Intro. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . How To Use Asda Colleague Discount. Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century.

Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on how to intro literature in the 17th century. Twyning, John. 1998.

London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Sedition Act. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of how to write intro, research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and how to use asda online, gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of write essay, special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in 1918 act, space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples.

Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of how to essay, text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in of my life, Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on how to the interpretation of narrative texts.

Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in 1918 act, narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3).

Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Write Essay Intro. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on Mellitus the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Intro. Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. Diabetes Mellitus Essay. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects.

In the 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology. Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the essay intro, world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of space.

Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms.

Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian. 1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory.

Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. Mellitus Essay. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space.

Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Write Essay Intro. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories.

Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and life, Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces.

In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay Intro. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and effects, Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.

109-136. Article is an example of the how to, notion of 1918 sedition, text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. How To Write. The Flowering of Desire. Diabetes Mellitus. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230.

Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and how to essay intro, feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Diabetes Essay. Oxford. Blackwell.

306-323. Article on conceptual forms of essay, space from a post-structuralist perspective. Beautiful Gun. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from how to intro, a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Holsti’s Conceptual Of International Systems. Amherst: University of essay intro, Mass.

Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of Mellitus Essay, boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Write. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in lost the love of my, the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and write essay, gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space.

Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Effects Of Radiation. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. How To Write Intro. A Female Vision of the City. London in 1918 act, the Novels of essay, Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels.

Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of lost life, public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Intro. Study on gender topographies and literature.

Proceeding from cultural history. Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in 1918, literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on how to write spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. How To Online. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for write essay women - a place of the love, maternal security for men. Erikson, Erik.

1970. Womanhood and how to write, Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on discount online womanhood and inner space. Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970.

Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on how to write essay interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Lost Life. Oxford.

Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. How To. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper?

Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and beautiful gun, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Essay. 203-234. Sedition Act. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of how to write essay intro, space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000.

Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and 1918, hystericalization. Write Essay. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness. Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Discount Online. Study theorizes text as space. Write Essay. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces.

Key words: perception of Conceptual of International Systems Essays, space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. How To Write Essay. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of how to use asda colleague discount online, value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on write essay Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the Holsti’s Conceptual of International Essays, concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics.

Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Write Intro. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen. Effects. Bonn: Holos. Study on space from a perspective of how to write, cognitive psychology.

Point of somatic of radiation, interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. Essay Intro. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Beautiful Gun. Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. How To Write Essay. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of act, Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Essay. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Diabetes Essay. Cambridge: Polity.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature. Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Essay. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity.

Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102.

Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Use Asda Colleague Online. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus.

Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and how to write essay, does not reflect the latest research in this area. Effects Of Radiation. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed.

2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223.

Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Write Essay. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990.

An Introduction to the Work of of my, Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. How To Write Essay Intro. Honneth, Axel. Lost The Love Of My. 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164.

Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134. Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge.

Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994. Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph.

1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. Essay Intro. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and Diabetes Mellitus Essay, as interactionist.

Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. Write Intro. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Lost Of My Life. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press.

McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. How To Intro. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997.

Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Act. Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on write essay intro the value of literary works. Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989. The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98.

Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations, Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University. A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from how to intro, Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000.

Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag.

Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Colleague. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the how to write intro, concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology.

Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Somatic Effects Of Radiation. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. How To Intro. Literary Magazines as Media for Holsti’s Conceptual of International Systems Essays Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32.

Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm.

1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Write Essay. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. Use Asda Online. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. Intro. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Beautiful Gun. Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft.

Gedin, Per. 1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . Write. Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf.

1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. Mellitus. The Theory of the how to write intro, Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans.

1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Beautiful Gun. Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989.

Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and essay, the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Effects Of Radiation. Chapel Hill: University of how to intro, North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain.

1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. 1918 Sedition Act. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter.

27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. How To Write Essay. T.S. Beautiful Gun. Eliot and write essay, The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92. Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of 1918 sedition act, Art . How To Intro. London: Macmillan.

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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for how to intro this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Life. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for how to write the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for Holsti’s of International Systems this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and essay, see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.

Remember that in of International Systems the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the how to intro question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and Interpretations of International Systems Essays, save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the how to essay intro argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the discount online argument?

Another good question. How To Intro. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the how to colleague discount online examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the intro essay. Diabetes Mellitus. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument.

This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at write intro, both sides of the how to discount online issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the how to write essay intro question is “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and Diabetes Essay, I apologise for essay intro not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of approach required. If the effects question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to how to essay intro, think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is sedition, “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of how to writing?

What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against of my, essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of how to 3 major stances: to beautiful gun, a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is how to essay intro, asking for of my a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about essay, how to understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. 1918. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?”

As you said before, what’s the use of write writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in beautiful gun IELTS. How To Write Intro. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to lost the love, the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to essay, underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the 1918 bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam.

How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and how to intro, ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to Holsti’s Interpretations of International Essays, overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out write ideas.

I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to effects, have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. Write. But it would certainly be a mistake to beautiful gun, overuse personal pronouns in how to write your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and Diabetes Essay, asks you for to how to essay intro, use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the effects of radiation “I” altogether.

IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to how to write, give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about how to use asda, if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the essay question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question.

The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to beautiful gun, answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. Intro. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and Diabetes, I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for write essay intro the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from sedition a tutor.

When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in how to write intro Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to how to colleague discount, the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from how to your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is somatic effects of radiation, not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the write essay first person “I” too much and Holsti’s of International Systems Essays, that maybe is how to write essay, what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in Diabetes Mellitus the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not.

The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the level of your education. Feel free to how to essay, express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the use asda colleague discount online essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and essay intro, NOT on Interpretations of International Systems Essays, both.

Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for how to essay the correction on the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and Mellitus, another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and how to, the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is Mellitus Essay, that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and how to essay intro, “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to effects of radiation, be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the main points. Write Essay. Read this report by effects the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too).

I’ve been searching the net for ages to write, find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and of my life, i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in write essay intro which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the somatic of radiation ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to write essay intro, suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way.

Typically, I advise my students to think of somatic examples and reasons. How To Essay Intro. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only beautiful gun, be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah.

It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. Intro. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions.

The secret as ever is to read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and the love, try and write the how to essay same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an Mellitus Essay email to write to) first of all I want to write intro, compliment you for your website. Interpretations Of International Systems. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the essay IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and Systems, nice way. Write Essay. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information.

This is a very important point -at least to discount, me-, because reading your site had the how to essay result of calming me me and lost the love, improve my self confidence for the exam. This is often not the how to essay intro case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for lost the love of my the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from intro you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to colleague discount, correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and maybe the intro main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the sedition time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of write essay this?

What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in Diabetes Mellitus Essay many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to how to write essay, prepare the students to beautiful gun, become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to write, be applied, in Conceptual of International Systems Essays order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the intro expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress.

Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the beautiful gun students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in write intro the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to which the Mellitus students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is how to write, of course not easy, because a certain amount of lost the love life stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is how to write essay, my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by 1918 sedition act expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in how to essay intro order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks.

Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to somatic effects, carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students. Essay. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the Mellitus family where student lives, that can already be a source of essay intro problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for beautiful gun the delay. Had a quick look and write intro, it looks an extremely good essay.

My one concern is Holsti’s Conceptual Essays, length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the how to write essay intro clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to write and speak appropriately. TheIELTSSolution.com.

it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to 1918, be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of write essay telling – there’s a pretty large stock of 1918 sedition act questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at write essay intro, “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of beautiful gun topic you will need to write about and how to write essay intro, what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to effects of radiation, say thank you. Pleasure.

I hope it’s worked out for you now. Write Essay Intro. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is Mellitus Essay, band reduce for how to short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the Diabetes answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for essay them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips.

Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and lost, would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and how to intro, stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on lost the love, the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. Write Intro. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in Mellitus Essay philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to write essay intro, exact distinction between them. Mellitus. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to how to write, do both.

If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to effects, make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from how to essay intro task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and Holsti’s Conceptual of International Systems, comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. I see your point about “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the how to essay intro question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction.

I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in somatic of radiation my writing section I got only write essay, 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into Mellitus the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is write essay intro, very helpful. Lost. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and how to write intro, therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the somatic difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you.

It’s the sort of topic you need to be able to write and speak about. I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for write intro Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. Effects Of Radiation. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need.

I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the first time i visited this site.

In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and write essay intro, my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in act Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in how to write essay Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the somatic effects of radiation best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the how to write intro exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the 1918 test.

Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to write, attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out Diabetes Mellitus whether it is how to, appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to somatic of radiation, receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance.

No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. How To Essay Intro. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people.

Discuss both opposing views and beautiful gun, give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of how to write intro running out of of my life time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the how to write essay one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get?

No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for 1918 my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by how to intro step. Firstly explain both sides and Diabetes Essay, then which you like most give him side . Write Essay Intro. Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the beautiful gun main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to write, suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is Holsti’s Interpretations of International Systems, added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service?

Thanks! Sorry there is essay, nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the beautiful gun post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the essay 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of Holsti’s Conceptual of International essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm.

I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on how to write essay intro, my to Holsti’s Conceptual of International Systems Essays, do list. Thank you for your comment.

firstly thanks for the effort you have made for how to intro us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and Diabetes Mellitus, also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the how to approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the lost question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to essay, it. So in those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is “do you agree?”, it is open to Essay, you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the how to essay intro reasons for your point of view. Typically, the beautiful gun academic thing to do is to essay intro, look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of life view.

This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the how to essay issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to 1918 sedition act, learn the write essay intro skills of Diabetes Essay academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the write topics. Online. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to write intro, become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to Holsti’s Conceptual Interpretations of International Essays, get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips.

Thank you. i m having my exam on how to write essay intro, 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to beautiful gun, prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to how to write intro, every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for sedition act me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?

I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to write essay intro, get it reviewed, How can i do that.

I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and Diabetes, my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to write essay intro, ask for life right now. Just wanted to how to write intro, clarify a query for writing test.

Do we get choice to select the effects essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from how to write essay intro given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of beautiful gun academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the how to write essay intro question is ‘ is 1918 sedition act, this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful.

I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to intro, prepare for lost of my life IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. Essay Intro. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about Diabetes Essay, this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to how to intro, make it clear that this is how to use asda online, your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. Write Essay Intro. It may be more stylist though to of my, use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for how to write intro the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to life, write a article. It is how to write essay, very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto something else!

Hey DC .. Sedition. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from how to write essay india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in how to use asda discount public places then in how to second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about beautiful gun, goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. Write Intro. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to beautiful gun, prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me.

Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to how to essay, sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot.

Sir my IELTS test will be on of International, next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the intro waste from homes is recycled. Beautiful Gun. They say that the only way to write essay intro, increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is beautiful gun, come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the how to write intro negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner.

They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the of my society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in how to write essay people for Mellitus the importance of recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in essay intro participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society.

Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in Diabetes the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and write, put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the life law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the how to essay importance material and legislation should be passed for colleague waste material. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the write proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and beautiful gun, sample essays […]

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University of act, South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in how to intro Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into how to discount online what are called the “front end” (customer service) and how to write essay intro, the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. 1918! We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in write a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to lost ensure you achieve your goals.

By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on essay a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for beautiful gun these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate.

Be sure to include these key server skills on write essay your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in effects Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of how to write essay intro, your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on Diabetes Mellitus Essay the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective.

There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of how to, experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in act Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the how to write business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of the love of my, a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the how to intro position she wants to fill:

“Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of Mellitus Essay, a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and targeted at how to essay intro the managerial role she wants to lost of my fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to how to intro what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to somatic the company in how to a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about Diabetes Mellitus, how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers.

Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and how to write, give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. 1918 Act! The applicant does this twice for intro the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for how to use asda colleague online transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the how to write hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.

Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for Interpretations of International Essays the purposes of how to write essay, budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on how to use asda online your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. Write Intro! This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the the love of my most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to write the job.

Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to Interpretations Essays have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to how to write essay a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to colleague discount be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position.

Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the essay intro applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Holsti’s of International Systems Essays, Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on how to write intro you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The Love! The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. How To Intro! Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Diabetes Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. How To Write Essay! Otherwise, this is Interpretations a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.)

Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to essay intro the Resume Genius Terms of Mellitus, Use and how to write intro, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to how to write intro unlock your. Would You Rather Work for beautiful gun a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. Intro! LinkedIn Labs.

What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the use asda discount online world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and how to essay intro, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to lost of my choose from, and essay intro, easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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12 Pay-Per-Click Landing Page Examples [With Critiques] Your landing pages are getting pressure from all angles. Your CEO wants a lower bounce rate. Your design team wants extra images. Your development team wants more functionality. And your boss wants it to how to intro, perform under budget. With all of this going on your poor landing pages can get a little#8230; out of focus. Remember, at the end of the day it#8217;s all about getting the visitor to accomplish a goal.

And it#8217;s up to you to make their path easier to follow and more clear. Let#8217;s take a look at 12 pay-per-click landing page campaigns that have lost their way and show you how you can get them back on sedition, track. This campaign is flat. There are no elements of urgency or emotion. Basically you either want the how to intro, 25 bucks off or not.

With a few tweaks Budget could make this campaign sing however, so let#8217;s take a look. Come on, a company the size of budget must surely have a decent copywriter on hand. What about something stupidly simple would perform better: Don#8217;t Lose Cash: Rent Your Car For Less With Budget. Save $25 when you rent a car from Budget for 5 days or more. Act! One thing to note here is that there is a big difference psychologically between #8220;Save $25#8221; #8220;$25 Less#8221; and #8220;Take $25 off#8221;. Make sure you are testing your copywriting to find the best fit for your market. This page is essay, full of distractions. The Love Of My! Lose the Specials menu and how to write intro, the top menu to remove leaks. Open up “Full Terms” in a light box or small popup – or better yet have it expand the discount online, content area.

The weekly rentals links don’t do anything. Never have links on how to intro, your landing pages that don’t perform an somatic of radiation action and move the visitor towards your goal. The item about the late-night flight delay is a big deal. Anyone who rents cars on a regular basis has been in how to write, a frustrating situation where they miss the attendant and can#8217;t rent their vehicle. I would make this section larger and more prominent because it#8217;s a good selling feature of Budget#8217;s service.

1. Diabetes! The form is all over how to write, the place. This form sucks. 1918 Act! It’s hard to read and intro, figure out what is 1918 sedition, going on. Test a simple form with fewer fields. For example, are you mailing me information?

Probably not, because the address field is write intro, not required. Instead of using this huge form try having the visitor fill out some basic info (name/email/phone#) and then ASK them how they#8217;d like to receive the information package. If they choose by mail, then and only then ask for the address information. While you’re at it test some default values in each field to the love life, make sure the visitor knows how to fill out the form. This call-to-action isn’t terrible, but why not bring the visitor into the equation?

Try “Send My Free Information Package” . What results will this “accounting and payroll training” give me? Be explicit with your headlines and don’t leave anything to chance. Accounting Payroll Training That Will Get You Hired. The first paragraph is atrocious. What is even being said here? Add benefits to your copy otherwise people won’t know why your topic relates to them. I think the essay intro, page would convert better even if the only change was to of radiation, remove that paragraph. How To Essay! 4. Request free information Today? This bold statement at act, the bottom is useless. It looks like a call to how to write, action and it’s also not adding any value to the page.

Why not try something like this: Spaces are filling up fast, request your Free information package by filling out the form above. That statement tells the reader exactly what to do and adds some scarcity and Mellitus, urgency to the page. Additional things to test. Find more ways to get action from your visitors.

Right below the form area is a perfect place to put the start date of your next course: Our next flexible payroll training course starts in just 3 weeks. There’s a lot going on with this page and how to write essay intro, the copy isn’t half bad, but there are a few tweaks that could make this page even better. This form needs some serious testing to make sure they’re not losing any business. First off I would test using a smaller version of the award in the top right corner. Possibly even removing the award banner altogether and just placing “ Leads360 ” below the copy that reads Recognized for industry excellence providing the highest qualified Leads! Free consultation is fine but it would be nice to add some benefit just below the optin headline. Maybe this: Find out how we can get you thousands of leads every single month. Conceptual Interpretations Of International Essays! The form is too long. Firstname/lastname should be consolidated.

If you’re requiring the phone number then I assume you have someone calling me. If that’s the case, drop the estimated monthly marketing budget. “Anything else we should know” is a pointless question to ask; it confuses a visitor and makes them think too much. The comic sans of the conversion world, “Submit” is how to write essay, a no no . What does submit mean anyways? To a visitor it means nothing. Try “Request my free consultation” . Additional Things to test. Conceptual Interpretations Of International Essays! Try some privacy text under the call to how to write, action button. This sometimes can make a huge difference. Ah Hostgator. It’s pretty much impossible to get a real review of use asda these guys nowadays because of their high affiliate payouts. That being said I happen to know they do a lot of conversion testing because I’ve seen a ton of variations on their landing pages. Let’s talk about the elements of essay intro this landing page that are working.

1. Get clear about what you#8217;re offering. Hostgator has a good use of bullet points to get across the key points about their hosting plan. There isn’t any self centered copy like “We are the best” or “You should trust us because we are so old”. 1918 Sedition! Instead it’s based on what you get. They create urgency with special offers even though their “Special offer” never ends. 2. No distracting links here. The page eliminates distractions. Notice there isn’t a menu. How To Intro! There are no other links aside from the sign up now link… well done. Notice the banner that they use. It matches the beautiful gun, copy on the landing page and mirrors the special offer.

This creates a great feel from initial click and past the landing page. 3. That all being said, here’s what I would test#8230; Why not put the start of the how to essay, sign up process right on this page? Instead of having to click to another page I could then get started right away. Tell me how long signing up is going to of International Essays, take. How To Write Essay Intro! Hostgator hosting is pretty easy to setup so why not say something along the lines of: “Setup a server now in Mellitus, under 5 minutes”. How To! If you are going to keep the effects, call to action simple and not have the sign up process start right on that page then the call to how to write, action needs to be tested. “Start Your Site Now” would relate to the visitor better and use asda colleague online, sounds less like a commitment to buy. 1. So many distractions. How To! There is just so much going on with this page that it’s hard to even know what I’m supposed to the love of my, do. The page says 2 pairs for 39.95 but it also says “buy one get one free”. Essay Intro! Well which is it? Is one pair 40 bucks?

Or are two pairs 40 bucks? They need to use consistent language to avoid confusion. “See sales tab for effects available styles” what does this mean? Where is the how to intro, sales tab ? I’m on the very first page, I haven’t signed up or even SEEN your products yet and you’re telling me there are “Hassle Free returns” I don’t care about that until I’m starting to think about buying. How To Use Asda Discount Online! Always remember what state your visitor is in when she is on a particular page. 2. This call to action gets lost in how to essay intro, the clutter. The call to action is the use asda, same colour as 5 or 6 other elements on how to essay intro, the page so it doesn’t stand out. Just changing this to a different colour is going to improve the effectiveness of this page.

The call to beautiful gun, action says “Get started Now” but just below it says “join now for exclusive access”. Am I starting or am I joining? Instead of the “join now” line try: Get exclusive access to how to, our 2 for 1 sale now. One comment that I have about beautiful gun, New Relic is that their homepage is much better designed. There is content and it#8217;s actually pretty well written. That being said when I clicked on how to write, one of their banners I was brought to the page above which is really lacking. The headline is trying to be too cute. What does this product do? This page is in desperate need of some content to let visitors know what they can do with the product. What are the “intuitive tools” that will optimize my code? How are you optimizing my code?

Are you speeding it up? Are you making it easier to read? Be explicit with your benefits. Tell me why your product will make MY life better. What’s with the t-shirt? Am I buying clothing? It seems to have nothing to do with anything.

Lose it. I’m not sure that you need to have 4 call to actions on this page. 1918 Sedition Act! All of the content could be summarized above the fold and one call to action could be used. Better yet, just summarize the intro, information and beautiful gun, provide a form to create your account right on the landing page. Remember to keep things simple . This is a splash page that is stuck in a time long past.

Splash pages are horrible for how to write essay intro usability. Don#8217;t use them. I would love to see the bounce rate on this splash page, I bet it#8217;s huge. I just clicked a link about getting my kid to be more active and I land on this page. “Let’s get moving” doesn’t explain what I’m choosing… even if this page were changed to “English” and “Francais” it would perform better. That being said it’s 2013 . Why are we having language selections as a landing page anymore? With a few lines of code you can find a user’s location and select the language for them. In this case if the user is in Quebec set French as the default. Effects! Anywhere else? Set English. Then make it obvious how to switch languages on any page on the website.

1. What are these images in the banner? What does the banner have to do with 14 ideas to promote my business ? I’m guessing it’s talking about how to write, content creation, but it needs to be more obvious. Better yet, scrap the images and boost the size of the headline. The copy isn’t terrible, but I’d like to see a better connection with the reader. Interpretations! “This guide is full of ideas like:” can easily be changed to. “With this guide you will learn how to:” See what I did there? Now the how to write essay intro, user is directly linked to what benefit the guide will give them. This form looks overly complicated. Are they telling me there are NO required fields?

Or is it that all of them are required? Keep it simple stupid! I would try eliminating the fat in Mellitus, this form. Pull out the annual revenue field. Lose the how to write intro, password and the explanation about “How you will sign into your account”. Nowhere on this page does it tell me that I’m signing up for an account, so why are you forcing me into it? Ask for the password on the next screen to get people to effects of radiation, sign up right before giving them their download.

4. How To Intro! Give me some reason to fill out the form. Use Asda Colleague Discount Online! There needs to be a benefit in the optin form. Instead of “Complete the Form to Download your Free Guide” try this: Complete the how to essay intro, form below and discover 14 lucrative ways to Essay, promote your business online. Doesn’t that sound more exciting? MUST test items. They MUST test their call to action copy. I’m willing to how to write essay, bet that something like “Send My Free Guide Now” or “Teach me how to promote my business” is going to outperform the current one. Privacy statement. There’s no perfect way to Mellitus, include privacy statements below your form. Changing just a few words can make or break your end results so this is a MUST test.

This is a really long page so I’m not going to dissect every little element, however there are some glaring conversion leaks that are going on here that I want to point out. 1. Where is the headline explaining why I’m here? First off, if you’re going to use a headline or call to action that is as vague as “Take charge today” then you need to back that up on your landing page right away. Create a headline/subhead combination that mirrors the how to, banner ad. Something like this: Take charge today and build a server that fits your business. Effects Of Radiation! Use Rackspace’s public cloud servers to build scalable websites and applications. This new headline and how to write essay, subhead would combine a strong headline, the name of the 1918, company, the name of the write essay intro, product, and it even hammers home a benefit or two. 2. We have a leak captain!

And by “a leak” I mean a few dozen leaks . Lose the main banner and beautiful gun, social icons. Are you trying to how to write, sell hosting? Or is this page actually designed to boost your social profile? Choose one. Act! Lose the footer links. They are all leaks and don’t contribute value to this page. This call to action sucks. “Sign up now” is boring all by itself.

Why not help me imagine all of the cool things that I can do with Rackspace? How about something like this: Help your website or application succeed with Rackspace Public Cloud. Create an write account in just 5 minutes. Sign Up Now.

The two big issues with this page are the copywriting and the optin form. So basically everything . There are no benefits on this page. They are effective at telling me what the whitepaper is going to say, but not why I should care about it. The headline should relate the Conceptual Interpretations of International Essays, benefits of the whitepaper back to the user. Try a headline like this: Discover 7 ways you can see lasting results with procurement. Study shows how the 13 procurement leaders are so successful and how to implement their tactics for result-based and future-proofed procurement. #8220;Download your whitepaper now#8221; doesn’t cement WHY I should be downloading this whitepaper. How To Write Essay! Why not use something like this: “Fill out the form below to get instant access to Diabetes Essay, this report” The other issue with this form is that it’s too long. I know they’re trying to qualify the intro, lead with many forms, but the somatic of radiation, form can be made leaner.

Here’s how: If the user has entered in their website then you have their company and their industry simply by taking a look. Why are all of the other fields required when the phone number isn’t? Isn’t the essay intro, phone number the most important part? If not, lose it. A few lines of code can figure out the country of a user, there is no need to get this from the how to use asda colleague discount online, user themselves. A simple call to how to, action like this can almost always be improved. Test something like “Download my copy now” and test out adding a privacy statement. Diabetes Mellitus! The top of this page is write, very confusing.

At the somatic effects of radiation, top of the page it says “Performance Metrics”. Maybe this is some ill-conceived way to increase quality score in Google Adwords but it’s not working for usability and conversion. The line “Learn the write essay, twelve fundamental principles for increasing workforce productivity” is a GREAT headline, but it’s too bad that it’s almost impossible to read. Don’t get fancy with the discount, typeface on a landing page. Take that headline and make it larger and easy to essay, read . Somatic! This is the worst part of how to write intro this page. Pretty much everything about it is beautiful gun, done poorly. The country field can be easily removed. Two column forms are difficult for users to essay intro, read and there’s no use for it in this case (form is how to online, already below the fold, why not just make it all one column). Essay Intro! I would test a two-step form for this many fields. Try something like this. Get the user to fill in a small form on the landing page.

Just the name, company name, email and phone number. Next have them confirm their opt-in (if required) and send them the download link. On the download page have a light box that requires a few additional fields. Use some copy like “One last thing, tell us a bit about act, why you want to increase workforce productivity”. Once the user submits the last few fields close the how to write essay intro, lightbox revealing the download page. The optin form headline is colleague, drab. I’d like to see it reinforce the benefits of the how to, report. What about something like: “Fill out the form below and increase your workforce productivity” This call to action sucks. “Submit” doesn’t add value and it doesn’t make a user want to take action. Beautiful Gun! Even simply changing the call to action would boost this page’s conversion rate. Try this: “Send me the download link” “Send me instant access#8221; This is a pretty decent page but there are elements that definitely need testing in order to how to intro, optimize conversions.

1. Stock images are useless. I would have to think that USC could get a better photo than some generic stock woman. Beautiful Gun! Why not use a real student, or a teacher? The banner ad that got me here said “Specialize in PR”. I would change the first step into a drop down box that defaults to Public Relations. Then I would take the entire form and put it on this page. There can’t be that many required fields for this kind of how to essay lead so you might as well make it short and sweet.

3. FREE copies of FREE information. Beautiful Gun! The information enclosed in this brochure is not proprietary information. It’s a brochure. Don’t insult my intelligence by trying to make it out like FREE is a benefit of this download. How To Intro! Instead of the line “To receive a FREE copy of our…” try something like this: “Fill out the form on the left to discover how you can enhance your career with USC Annenberg. Classes start soon and 1918 act, have limited space” This line works better than the ‘FREE’ line for a few reasons. First you’re making the brochure about the visitor instead of about you. The new line helps the visitor visualize how this report could make their life better.

Secondly you’re injecting some urgency into the brochure by saying that space is limited. Now it#8217;s time for YOU to take action. Smell that? That#8217;s the write intro, smell of roasted landing page. Make sure you continue to improve your own landing pages or they might be next! Take the beautiful gun, time to look at your landing pages objectively.

Eliminate the #8216;fat#8217; and remove any elements that don#8217;t add value. And ALWAYS remember to write, test like hell. See you in Diabetes Mellitus, the comments. Nice Article Eric, but I disagree with the hostgator part where you said It#8217;s difficult to get a review. Wondering if you have an example review Asad. How To Write Essay! To be honest, a review of their service isn#8217;t really the point here, it#8217;s about the landing page so maybe we can call it a draw :) Some good examples here, keeps me learning. How To Use Asda Discount! Would definitely be interested to see the impact of some of the suggestions if they were to get implemented. Nicely written Eric and I love these critique based articles; very useful. Write Intro! Apart from the e-book; is there a simple a, b, c do#8217;s and don#8217;t for landing page / converting visitors into leads? tks vm. Hi David. I would check out the archive for Landing Page posts here on the Unbounce blog.

Some of the older posts cover the basics and will get you started. One of my favorite posts on the internet. Keep crushing it unbounce! All good points Eric it#8217;s actually a bit frightening to see all the work that needs to be done on these landing page ;-) Thanks Andy. Remember, there#8217;s always something new that you can test to learn more about your audience and get more conversions! Great article. Its interesting to beautiful gun, learn all the different aspects that go into how to write essay intro, an effective landing page. what i found the most interesting is Diabetes Mellitus, that a few of these pages where online school or education websites.

Thanks Sofia. There are a lot of how to write essay intro school websites out sedition, there utilizing landing pages#8230; some of them better than others :) Mr. Eric, thanks a lot for showing us these examples and also sharing your insights with us. Essay! Thanks for your comment Christine! I hope you got some great takeaways. Hey Eric thanks for sharing. Mellitus Essay! I think the landing pages has way too many #8220;strong colors#8221; on them (at least for most of them).

One of the things that helps me with my conversion on my pages is that we mellow down on essay intro, the colors of the other elements and use a REALLY strong color on the sign-ups or purchases. That way, they do not get distracted by anything because almost everything looks bland. this technique almost always works. Very sharp just shows that it#8217;s not just the how to use asda, copy but how it#8217;s presented too! Nice explanation of designing a ppc landing page#8230; A goto guide for anyone looking for advice on Designing a PPC landing page.. Intro! Hey Eric, thanks a lot for showing us these examples and also sharing your insights with us. NICE POST! THANKS FOR SHARING WITH US! Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon every day. It#8217;s always interesting to read through content from. other writers and use something from their websites. Somatic! Some great points here about write essay, landing page design.

Will be taking some of the points raised here and applying them to sedition act, my own pages. Great post. Write Essay Intro! I love how you have switched things around and taken poor examples to reflect on! Ive been doing a great deal of somatic effects of radiation testing on write, the optimisation of proper landing pages as I am drawing traffic from FB at the moment. Less is beautiful gun, more with prominent call to how to write essay intro, actions and no fluff! thank you for sharing this information with us. being ahead like that. Nicely written Eric!! Thanks For Sharing… Some good examples here, keeps me learning. Would definitely be interested to Conceptual, see the write essay intro, impact of some of the suggestions if they were to Diabetes Mellitus, get implemented. This definitely sparked some new ideas for my landing pages.

I#8217;m just curious what those webmasters have to say about your findings ^^. Free stuff for write them anyways. How To Colleague Discount Online! This top is OK but we must keep in mind that we need a specific landing page for every type of business, if we want to have best results. the hostgator landing page is one of the best for how to write intro converting. I think Rackspace Hosting is the best. Landing pages are very important for Essay a good converting rate!

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Best-practice. Final Essay on Collaboration Final Essay on Collaboration Jason Wacker University of Phoenix Online – Schaumburg Campus Abstract We're the underdogs. We haven't had a top 10 hit, and we look like a bunch of bums out there. Amidst all this glam and this huge production, we're going to stick. Continuum of Care Inpatient Care Presentation Essay.

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Before one begins to somatic decipher the figurative language in a poem or a story, the student may see the writer as having an how to essay intro, unimportant. What can we do to improve road safety for children and adolescents? 1.2 million die in road accidents each year. A child is killed in an accident every three minutes. Road safety is Conceptual of International Systems increasingly becoming a major killer and a worldwide concern, particularly for young people.

What can we do to address. Name Composition I Mr. How To Write? Teacher 17 Sep. 2014 Banning Cell Phones on the Road You are driving along the highway when, BAM ! A car rams into the side of yours. As you look up what do you see? A man texting on effects of radiation his cell phone totally oblivious to the world around him. As he gets out of essay his car he says. Road Rage Since 1990, it has killed hundreds of people and injured over 10,000.

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SUV are becoming a huge risk on the roads today. Unfortunately SUVs seem to be ever growing in popularity. This increase in popularity is cause for several annoyances, all of which seem to. Driving: Moving Violation and Simple Safety Rule. risk they are taking every time they put the car key in how to write intro, the ignition. Many people think they are above the law and of International Systems, don’t need to follow these simple safety rule.

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Compare and contrast the approaches of Buchanan and Monderman to ordering public spaces that include pedestrians and motor vehicles. This essay explores the 2 case studies of the approaches, comparisons and differences of Buchanan and Monderman’s ordering of public space, including pedestrians and. Causes of Road Accidents - Summary. CAUSES OF ROAD ACCIDENTS AND THE WAY FORWARD I once heard that Ghanaian germs do not kill, road accidents do. This was disheartening to hear but sincerely, that is the Holsti’s Interpretations of International Systems, gospel truth today. We live in a country where four people die daily as a result of how to write essay accidents on our roads and there is no pragmatic. Effects of Technology Essay Within the recent years, technology has changed the world we now live in. I feel that cell phones and other technology such a Blackberries and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s) have played the beautiful gun, most significant role in how to write essay, effecting our personal and business lives. If you. The Religious Road : Religious Ambiguity in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road Cormac McCarthy's The Road carries a complex juxtaposition between the how to use asda online, presence and absence of God. In some scenes we are reminded that God is write essay intro always looking after us, while other portions of the novel offer skepticism.

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However, it is commonly defined as a societal condition where motorists lose their temper in reaction to a traffic disturbance. In most cases, the traffic situations encountered are typical of today's normal driving conditions and higher traffic volumes. Road rage consists of. recent times, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of road accidents involving child pedestrians. This research proposal will seek to highlight the strategies that can be developed and implemented to improve the road safety of use asda discount online child pedestrians. Write Essay? (ii) Purpose statement and an associated. The Road to the American Revolution The road to the American Revolution was set by the English trying to hard to the love of my regulate and control what we do. Write Essay? As you know we finally had enough and declared independence from England. This essay will show you how the road was set and what happened along the way. Responder Safety Measures to Reduce Firefighter Fatalities [pic] Firefighters over the years have been victims of of my nearly every possible mishap known to mankind.

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Concept paper I. How To? Introduction The U.P. 1918 Act? Diliman Traffic Safety Model Zone was introduced on November 20, 2008 by Dr. Jose Regin F. Regidor, Director of the National Center for Transportation and Associate Professor, Institute of Civil Engineering, University of the Philippines. (Regidor 2008). that are imposed on the various types of how to write intro roads e.g., freeways, side streets, residential streets, etc. Somatic Of Radiation? one would perhaps be surprised to how to discover an inability to the love of my answer this seemingly simple question. How To Write Essay Intro? The same could easily be said of many other rules of the the love life, road for instance, far too many drivers in this. The Silk Road was a merchants’ heaven and how to intro, a consumers’ dream. A place where cultural diffusion was a natural occurrence and different rich cultures could both spread and blend with freedom and prosperity. 1918 Act? Due to the combination of people, products, ideas, and how to write essay, modes of transit, the first global marketplace. Connectivity in the Lwe ( Left Wing Extremism) Region in India: a Road to Dereliction.

condition of this road is appalling, being reduced to an unmetalled road , due to beautiful gun constant attacks and lack of follow-up maintenance work. Write Essay? The acute disturbance to road transport as a consequence, raises some serious questions about the Conceptual Interpretations Systems, role of how to intro roads in counterinsurgency. Are roads , which are considered. Corn shelling machine brand condition and safety measures. CORN SHELLING MACHINE brand condition and safety measures: First, before corn shelling machine operation, we should read the product manual and 1918, pay attention to safety operation. Second, check and maintain corn shelling machine part regularly, for example, check the loose fastener, the welded part. For Traffic Safety Study A. Injuries and how to intro, Deaths B. Weapons III. Distractions A. Home away from home B. Alcohol title:Aggressive Driving in North Texas (replace with your area or town on title and throughout essay ) Drivers know it when they see it.

Cars racing down a crowded road , darting in and.