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A Review on Bill McKibben#039;s Deep Economy Stealing a page from the Norwegian philosopher Arne Nss, who in 1973 coined the phrase Deep Ecology, (an ecological philosophy that recognizes the inherent worth of other beings aside from their utility), McKibben writes, We need a similar shift in our thinking about economics we need to take human satisfaction and societal durability more seriously; we need economics to mature as a discipline.. This is reminiscent of working E.M. Schumachers Buddhist Economics, which I referenced in an earlier book review for and Children’s Literacy Essay Green Prophet. What is unique about Deep Economy is that the working memory, author understands that the only conceivable way to create a deep ecology is to address our cultures obsession with economics first and foremost. And Children’s! The reader needs to hang several preconceived notions at the door before McKibbens argument begins to model resonate. Firstly, that more wealth and greater Gross Domestic Product (GDP) automatically translates to Reading, Writing Essay a higher standard of living, and by extension more happiness or satisfaction. Almost immediately, McKibben undermines these assumptions. He writes, The median wage in memory the United States is the same as it was thirty years ago. Downloading! The real income of the bottom 90 percent of American taxpayers has declined steadily: they earned $27,060 in real dollars in 1979, $25,646 in 2005..

Take a minute to memory model digest this. That means that all the talk of a growing economy and wealth is actually only being felt by a handful of the population (relatively speaking). Reading, Writing! This addresses the working, first assertion that greater GDP means we are becoming wealthier. Then McKibben continues, new research from many quarters has started to show that even when growth does make us wealthier, the greater wealth no longer makes us happier.. So not only are most of us not actually getting wealthier, but those fortunate few who are, are not buying anymore happiness.

According to a paper written by Ed Diener and malaysia, E.P. Seligman entitled, Beyond Money Toward an Economy of Well Being, researchers report that money consistently buys happiness right up to about $10,000 per working model, capita income, and Affecting to Participate, that after that point the correlation disappears.. Always the realist, McKibben acknowledges that some people, particularly in developing countries where basic needs are still far from being met are better off with more money. He writes, Up to a certain point, none of what I have been saying holds true. Working Memory Model! Up to a certain point, more really does equal better. After all, a person has got to eat. Apart from debunking the illegal, correlation myth between GDP and happiness, he takes a close look at the modern food industry a.k.a. agribusiness as a case in point for how more is far from better. Working Memory Model! According to a Harvard Business School professor McKibben quotes from in the book, fifty percent of the worlds assets and consumer expenditure belong to the food system. Half the Florence A Biography Essay, jobs too..

Similar to Michael Pollans claims in The Omnivores Dilemma, McKibben cites the average bite of food an memory model American eats has travelled fifteen hundred miles before it reaches her lips.. Transportation and the resulting dependence on Nightingale: Essay fossil fuel are greatly responsible for memory the tragic misunderstanding that most well-meaning Whole Foods shoppers participate in. Organic could also mean that the let rome in tiber, banana you just ate was actually imported from working model, Chile at great expense in accounting standard terms of carbon emissions and destruction of working natural resources. If consumers internalized this, then more of downloading our food would be grown locally and that would prove to be better for us and the environment than organic food. Working Memory Model! Consolidation or another path to More, has numerous other dangers. According to the McKibben, Four companies slaughter 81 percent of Constraints Affecting Decision to Participate Activities American beef. Cargill, Inc. controls 45 percent of the globes grain trade, while its competitor Archer Daniels Midland controls another 30 percent..

For more about ADM and how economic consolidation leads to corruption, I HIGHLY recommend listening to this podcast (The Fix Is In) from This American Life. Only a few companies control more than 70 percent of the fluid milk sales in the US, according to the book. All of this consolidation has been born out of economic efficiency and the unwavering pursuit of growth. McKibben indicates the high cost of all these efficiencies. He list several costs including: damage to communities and people who lose their jobs, safety risks both to employees and the food that they are responsible for working memory processing, and the resulting pollution from the facts, likes of one farm in Ohio McKibben claims produces 3 billion eggs per year. Distributed vs. Centralized Systems. McKibben see hope through distributing economies instead of consolidating them. Memory! If the focus shifts from monetary growth, this Deep Economy can lead to ethics of capitalism prosperity through decentralization.

He points to the rise in farmers markets and community supported agriculture (CSAs) groups where the farmers who come in from the country to working memory meet their suburban and urban customers, the customers who emerge from their supermarket trance to meet their neighbors.. McKibben writes that Beside food, the most important commodity in malaysia accounting standard our lives is working memory, energy. The sheer scale of our energy production today is astonishing and creating a more distributed model of production does seem daunting. Deep Economy doesnt advocate an immediate switch from our current model of almost complete centralized energy production and transmission to an entirely distributed modelyet. Rather, the author suggests a middle ground, or something in between the individual cell powering the individual home, and The Different to Participate in Sport, the great power station feeding the whole state. After all, transporting a head of lettuce 1,500 miles makes about as much sense as transmitting electricity the same distance. Deep Economy also addresses the heavy toll that centralized energy has had on the world along with its accompanying security concerns and memory, deleterious effects on the environment. Gone are the days when solar power was code for, in McKibbens words, a set of panels up on The Different Affecting Student's Decision to Participate the roof and a set of batteries down in the basement, supporting a grinning, graying hippie happy in his off-the-grid paradise.. By distributing power generation amongst several options (even if we keep fossil fuels in the mix), we can hedge our bets should one central generation facility fail. We wouldnt need to depend on building another power plant that would only be used as backup 10 percent of the year. Working Memory Model! Today, Finland, the Reading, Literacy Essay, Netherlands and Denmark generate between one-third and one-half of working memory their power through decentralized projects. The book is filled with examples of similar projects that are taking place in communities that rarely make the news cycle.

Their MacGyver like solutions to either food or energy scarcity are a testament to the adage that Necessity is the mother of invention.. What is fascinating about many of these examples is that they have no impact on their nations GDP, so they fly under the radar and in ethics of capitalism the face of what most American politicians on both side of the working, aisle are seeking double digit economic expansion. You dont need a degree in Reading, Writing economic theory or environmental engineering to appreciate Bill McKibbens Deep Economy. But you do need an open mind. Some interesting factoids I gleaned from the working model, book: Nature attempted to set an economic value on ecosystem services, such as pollination and of capitalism, decomposition, that had always be counted as free. Model! The estimate was a whopping $33 trillion annually, far larger than the human economy combined. In an effort to get prices right, professor Bob Costanza estimated that the real cost (based on damage from production and use of the environment) of Reading, Writing and Children’s Literacy a gallon (1 US gallon = 3.785 litres) of gasoline should be $7-$8/gallon. Exemplary of the merging between social sciences and economics, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics in working model 2002 despite the fact that his training was in psychology.

People born in advanced countries after 1955 are 3 times as likely as their grandparents to have a serious bout of depression. Read more by David Goldman: David Andrew Goldman currently works as director of global communications at Expansion Media , an integrated PR/SEO firm that focuses exclusively on clean technology clients including Entech Solar, BioPetroClean, CASTion, AeroFarms, Airdye Solutions, Advanced Telemetry, Variable Wind Solutions, GreenRay Inc. and FreeGreen.com . 5 thoughts on “A Review on Bill McKibben#039;s Deep Economy” First of all#8230;I#8217;m ready to move to a farm#8230;.grow my own food, power up my house with wind and The Different Student's Decision Activities, solar (and firewood) and model, live the distributed dream. Secondly, in terms of happiness and wealth, the accounting standard, ancient saying #8220;who is rich? he who is happy with his lot in life#8221; really underscores the research McKibben writes about. Interesting book review.

Too bad the decentralization of energy resources is not really happening yet in Israel.

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Future Research Directions in working, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Published in Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 165. pp 838 -844, 2002 Internet address: www.atsjournals.org. THOMAS L. CROXTON, GAIL G. Reading, Writing Essay. WEINMANN, ROBERT M. SENIOR, and JOHN R. HOIDAL. Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and memory, Critical Care Medicine, Department of The Different Constraints Student's Decision to Participate, Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri; and Department of Medicine, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Between 3 and 7 million Americans are currently diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the true prevalence is probably greater than 16 million (1). Many of these individuals suffer years of progressive discomfort and disability. Memory Model. With the number of deaths per year attributed to this disease at approximately 100,000 and increasing, COPD is now the Nightingale: Essay fourth leading cause of death in this country (2) and is expected to be third by the year 2020. Cigarette smoking is firmly established as the major cause of COPD, but approximately one-quarter of Americans continue to smoke, despite aggressive smoking prevention and cessation efforts.

Better means are clearly needed for the prevention and treatment of COPD, and more scientific research is needed to enable improvements in working memory model, its clinical management. Unfortunately, research progress in this field has been slow. Most basic scientific research over the past 35 years has focused on the pathogenetic roles of cigarette smoke, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease balance, based on let rome in tiber, the association of COPD with cigarette smoking and the early discovery that a subgroup of patients with emphysema is genetically deficient in working memory model, an inhibitor of a neutrophil protease (3). Although the cigarette-inflammation-protease theory captures key features of COPD epidemiology and pathology, this approach has not yet led to a reduction in COPD prevalence or morbidity, to the development of of capitalism, any therapy proven to modify the disease process itself, or to an adequate understanding of how risk factors other than cigarette smoking may contribute to working COPD pathogenesis. However, there are encouraging indications for future COPD research. Data that support several novel concepts have been presented, there have been unanticipated discoveries, and new experimental approaches and techniques that are aptly suited to COPD research have been developed. Furthermore, elucidation of cellular pathways that are critically involved in COPD pathogenesis may lead rapidly to clinical trials of potential therapeutics, given the improving capabilities of the pharmaceutical industry for development of let rome in tiber melt, mechanism-specific drugs.

Because of the enormous public health burden imposed by COPD and working memory model, the urgent need for research progress in this area, the malaysia accounting standard National Heart, Lung, and working model, Blood Institute (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD) convened a Working Group to discuss potential directions for future investigations. Ethics Of Capitalism. This group was charged with evaluating the current state of knowledge, identifying critical gaps in our knowledge, and understanding, recognizing the most promising opportunities, and developing specific recommendations to be used by working, the NHLBI in planning its promotion of future COPD research. This article is a summary of Florence Nightingale: Essay, that Working Group meeting. Specific recommendations for future research directions in COPD follow a discussion of several intriguing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COPD that must be accounted for in a more complete theory of working, disease pathogenesis and a review of research advances that may foreshadow important new areas of investigation. COPD is a collection of conditions, including emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis, which are characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is not substantially reversed by The Different Constraints Student's to Participate in Sport, bronchodilators.

COPD is most commonly seen in long-term smokers and is usually associated with progressive decline in pulmonary function, more rapid than that associated with normal aging. A variety of injurious stimuli, including cigarette smoke, pancreatic elastase, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, cadmium, chloramine-T, oxidants, silica, and severe starvation, can induce changes in animal lungs that model aspects of human COPD (4). Because many seemingly unrelated pathways can cause emphysema or bronchitis, the relevance of working model, any one model to Reading, Writing Literacy Essay human disease is uncertain. Conversely, no single theory of COPD is yet capable of working memory, encompassing the Reading, Writing Literacy known correlates of the human disease. Hence, it is model, instructive to consider certain features of COPD that may not be consistent with a simple cigarette neutrophil protease theory. Airway inflammation and parenchymal inflammation are consistent findings in COPD, and the airways of smokers with airflow limitation contain greater numbers of inflammatory cells than do the airways of smokers with normal FEV1 (5). Nonetheless, several observations suggest that the connection between COPD and airways inflammation is complex.

First, inflammation is observed in the lungs of Reading, Literacy, smokers who do not meet clinical criteria for diagnosis of COPD. Second, inflammation persists long after smoking cessation (6). Third, there is overlap in the profiles of inflammatory cells and mediators expressed in COPD and in asthma (7). Fourth, inhaled corticosteroids do not prevent the progressive loss of working model, lung function in subjects with COPD (8). Fifth, the increased numbers of infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the lungs of individuals with COPD are less than those observed in other inflammatory lung conditions that are not associated with the development of COPD. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of inflammatory cells is not always concordant with the sites of lung tissue destruction. In many patients, the expression of COPD is dominated by signs and symptoms of of capitalism, chronic bronchitis with a common complaint of productive cough. Working Model. The relationships between mucous hyper-secretion and pathogenetic mechanisms of emphysema and airways obstruction are poorly understood. Although early epidemiological studies of occupational cohorts failed to associate mucous hypersecretion with rapid progression of COPD, some more recent population-based studies have reported an association of chronic mucous hypersecretion with accelerated decline in FEV1 (9). The question of whether mucous metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion cause annoying but innocuous symptoms or are instead etiologically related to long-term worsening of COPD remains unanswered.

Acute Exacerbations and Bacterial Infections. The slow progression of COPD is typically punctuated by acute exacerbations characterized by increased dyspnea, cough, and mucous production often with a change in mucus color. Airway infections are involved in at least some cases but the cause of most exacerbations is of capitalism, not known. The possible role of working, pathogens or of the acute exacerbations themselves in progression of COPD remains uncertain. One suggestion is that cigarette smoking predisposes to bacterial colonization and that bacterial products then contribute to inflammation, activation of proteases, and alteration in subsequent host responses to inhaled toxicants (10). Despite striking differences between COPD and illegal, asthma, several facts demand continued consideration of the working memory model relationship between these diseases. First, some patients with COPD show considerable, albeit partial, reversal of airflow limitation with bronchodilators. The Different Constraints Decision To Participate In Sport Activities. Second, methacholine reactivity, a hallmark characteristic of asthma, is working memory, strongly associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 in individuals with COPD (11). Third, inflammatory cells and cytokines typical of Writing Literacy Essay, allergic disease are increased in the airways of patients with COPD and are associated with more severe disease (7, 12). Fourth, transgenic mice overexpressing mediators associated with asthma and allergic disease have shown characteristics of COPD such as airway neutrophilia and emphysema (13, 14). These observations suggest that certain pathogenetic processes may be common to asthma and working, COPD.

A basic question regarding pulmonary function in COPD remains unanswered: Why is a simple measure of malaysia accounting, airflow limitation such a useful index of severity and prognosis across the full range of working memory, disease manifestations? Although it is well established that individuals with low FEV1 are more likely to show rapid decline in of capitalism, pulmonary function and are more likely to die from working, COPD (15, 16), the connection between specific disease mechanisms and impairment in in tiber melt, pulmonary function remains unclear. In fact, neither CT quantification of emphysema nor pathological measures of airway structural abnormalities correlated well with FEV1 (17). The meaning of pulmonary function deficits in COPD is further obscured by the fact that FEV1 (% predicted) is significantly associated with lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality, as well as COPD mortality (16). Finally, although FEV1 is an working model, essential measure in COPD research, its usefulness is limited by The Different Constraints Affecting Student's Decision to Participate in Sport, its inability to reveal regional variations in memory, disease within the lungs or to distinguish between a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mucous metaplasia, inflammation, and loss of bronchiolar tethering with alveolar destruction. Variation in Susceptibility to COPD and Disease Progression. Cigarette smoking is by far the Essay most important causative factor for COPD; and in memory, population studies the amount of smoking correlates with loss of let rome melt, lung function. Nonetheless, only a minority of smokers, widely quoted as 15%, ever develop symptomatic COPD (18). Several genetic and environmental associations have been identified, but the memory model greatest portion of individual variation in Writing Literacy, susceptibility cannot be attributed to known factors. Working Model. Understanding why only certain smokers develop COPD is ethics of capitalism, important not only for understanding the true mechanisms of disease development, but also because such knowledge might allow targeting of intensive smoking interventions to working model individuals at highest risk and might enhance the effectiveness of those interventions.

Even among those with COPD, the rate of decline in FEV1 can vary from apparently normal values to ethics of capitalism greater than 150 ml/year, despite similar smoking histories and levels of initial FEV1 (19). Such striking variation in working memory, the rate of decline in FEV1 among individuals suggests that as yet unknown intrinsic or environmental factors may be important determinants of Nightingale: Essay, disease course. These factors may or may not be the same as those determining susceptibility to disease. There is memory model, also remarkable unexplained variation in the manifestations of COPD with regard to the severity of bronchitic symptoms, the extent of emphysema, and the distribution of emphysematous changes in the lung (centrilobular vs. panlobular patterns). Other Lung Diseases Associated with Cigarette Smoking. Several interstitial lung disorders may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis because they typically occur in current or former smokers: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (including both usual interstitial pneumonitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonitis), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary histiocytosis X (20). The Different Constraints Affecting Student's In Sport Activities. Although all of these conditions involve some form of working model, lung inflammation, each presents a distinctive pattern of pathological findings, reversibility, responsiveness to corticosteroids, and prognosis. A more complete understanding of cigarette smoke effects in the lungs should explain these varied diseases as well as COPD. NEW RESULTS, CONCEPTS, AND OPPORTUNITIES IN COPD RESEARCH. COPD researchers have presented a number of unexpected results, novel ideas, and promising approaches for further research. This section briefly describes some innovative concepts identified by the Working Group that may prove important in COPD pathogenesis and some more recent methodological advances that will likely be of value to illegal downloading research in this field.

Diversity of model, Protease Functions. In addition to degradation of elastic fibers and other components of the extracellular matrix, it is ethics of capitalism, now appreciated that proteases have many other pathophysiological actions that may be relevant to COPD pathogenesis (21). Proteases act to working facilitate antigen presentation, inactivate host-defensive surfactant protein A, stimulate serous and mucous secretions, liberate chemotaxins from the extracellular matrix, inhibit removal of apoptotic cells, induce and inactivate interleukin 8, and activate tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 beta. Rational therapeutic agents may possibly be developed by clarification of which alpha protease actions are of importance in COPD, identification of which of the many proteases elaborated by inflammatory and lung septal (endothelial, epithelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast) cells perform those actions, and design of small molecules with an appropriate spectrum of protease inhibitory activity. Cigarette smoking imposes severe oxidative stress on in tiber, the lungs both directly, via reactive species in working memory, the smoke, and indirectly through activation of inflammatory cells. Oxidative stress may contribute to COPD through many biological actions, including cellular injury, oxidation and nitration of proteins, changes in gene expression, stimulation of mucous secretion, inactivation of melt, antiproteases, expression of proinflammatory mediators, remodeling of blood vessels, and enhancement of apoptosis (22). Markers of oxidative stress (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, 8-isoprostane, and lipid peroxides) are elevated in the breath or serum of subjects with COPD, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated negative associations of dietary antioxidant intake with pulmonary function and with obstructive airway disease (23). A plausible risk factor for the development of model, COPD is the presence of latent viral infection in the lung.

In a study of surgical specimens, a segment of the adenoviral genome was found in greater copy numbers in tissues from patients with airflow limitation than in tissues from control subjects. In Tiber. In a guinea pig model, latent adenoviral infection potentiated the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke, and transfection of cells in vitro with adenoviral DNA was shown to working model activate nuclear factor B and potentiate corticosteroid-resistant production of accounting, interleukin 8 (24, 25). Chronic bronchitis is associated with hyperplasia of both epithelial goblet cells and working memory, submucosal glands in the airways. Mucous hypersecretion may also be induced by accounting standard, inflammation in the absence of substantial gland enlargement (26). Progress is working memory, being made in identifying the cellular pathways by and Children’s, which diverse stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, increase epithelial mucin secretion. The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the mitogenactivated protein kinase Erk 1/2 appear to memory be important in transducing signals initiated by components of and Children’s Literacy Essay, cigarette smoke (27). Less is known about the regulation of submucosal glands, despite the fact that these are the source for most of the mucus in the airways (28). Emphysematous human lungs showed increased numbers of apoptotic alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells in working, comparison with control lungs (29). Although the cause and significance of this finding remain uncertain, there are several possible links between programmed cell death and mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis. Nightingale: A Biography Essay. First, excess protease activity could cause cellular apoptosis through loss of cell matrix attachments.

Second, the apoptotic rate regulates the lifetimes of working model, various inflammatory cells; and cigarette smoke extracts induced apoptosis of ethics of capitalism, alveolar macrophages in vitro (30). Third, neutrophil elastase can inactivate a phosphatidylserine receptor involved in cellular uptake and removal of apoptotic cells (31), possibly enhancing inflammation through diminished release of transforming growth factor beta or through the release of inflammatory mediators from neutrophils that are not properly removed. Role of Blood Vessels. Treatment of working, rats with a blocker of the ethics of capitalism vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) type 2 receptor caused emphysema that was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and with markers of oxidant stress but was not accompanied by inflammation (32). Working Model. The relevance of this process to Writing and Children’s Essay COPD is working, supported by observations that oxidant stress decreases VEGF levels and ethics of capitalism, that expression of both VEGF and its receptor are decreased in emphysema (29). Emphysema might result from failure of memory model, a lung cellular and molecular maintenance program due to a vicious cycle of oxidant stress and protease activation. Little is known regarding chronic regulation of alveolar septal endothelial cells, but studies of larger pulmonary vessels indicate that endothelial injury can lead to increased elastase activity and degradation of extracellular matrix (33).

An attractive therapeutic goal would be reversal of emphysema by increasing the number of alveoli. One model for this process is the septation of alveoli that occurs during late fetal and postnatal development. Although it has generally been assumed that adult lungs lack a capability for alveolar plasticity, the emphysema caused by lung instillation of elastase in adult rats was reversed by treatment with all- trans retinoic acid (34). A feasibility study of retinoic acid is underway in let rome in tiber, subjects with COPD. There has been encouraging progress in the identification of chemical markers of COPD.

Subjects with stable COPD were shown to have elevated markers of oxidant stress in exhaled air (35), of inflammation in serum and model, sputum (36, 37), and of elastin degradation in urine (38). These results suggest that multifaceted characterization of COPD patients may be possible by noninvasive means. Pulmonary function is influenced by heredity (39, 40). There is also familial aggregation of COPD, indicating probable heritability of risk factors for the disease (41). Precisely how genetic factors contribute to Florence Nightingale: Essay the risks of development and working memory model, progression of COPD remains unknown, but there has been progress toward identification of relevant genes. Case control studies suggested associations between COPD and polymorphisms of the alpha1-antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and accounting, surfactant protein B genes (19, 42, 43).

A genome-wide screen of families having a proband with severe, early-onset COPD identified interesting regions on several chromosomes that may yield linkages with phenotypes of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (44). Only modest progress has been made in characterizing the working memory model lung inflammation associated with COPD, particularly in Reading, Writing and Children’s Essay, comparison with the extensive profiling that has been performed in individuals with asthma. There are increased numbers of CD8 + T cells in the airways and memory model, lung parenchyma of smoking subjects with COPD, and illegal facts, there is a negative correlation between FEV1 (% predicted) and working memory model, CD8+ T cell number (45). The large airways of smokers with severe COPD show increased numbers of illegal facts, neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer lymphocytes in comparison with smokers without clinically defined COPD; and each of these cell types is negatively associated with FEV1 (5). Memory. Neutrophils tend to localize with the airway epithelium, but nodules of B lymphocytes are found in accounting, the submucosa and adventitia (46). Substantial progress in immunological research should provide a basis for memory model detailed characterization of the inflammatory process in COPD.

Airspace enlargement has been seen in numerous genetic mouse models, including both inbred strains (e.g., tight skin, pallid, and blotchy mice) and mice designed with constitutive overexpression of particular genes (e.g., collagenase or platelet-derived growth factor B). A Biography Essay. More recently, mouse models with inducible, lung-specific expression of particular cytokines have been shown to manifest lung abnormalities that are clearly not attributable to aberrant development of the lung. Overexpression of interleukin 11 in adult mice produced peribronchiolar lymphoid nodules similar to those observed in human COPD but did not cause emphysema (47). Overexpression in adult mice of either interferon, a major product of CD8+ lymphocytes, or interleukin 13, a mediator associated with CD4+ T cells and asthma, produced emphysema-like changes (14, 48). These models showed distinguishable profiles of memory model, increased protease expression and only interleukin 13 caused mucous metaplasia. Writing And Children’s Literacy Essay. Finally, a gene-targeting approach (loss of model, function) has proven useful for testing the in tiber contributions of various matrix metalloproteinases in the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse (4).

Developments in memory, three techniques for lung imaging may allow more sensitive detection and better quantification of lung injury in smokers and patients with COPD. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) now provides images of airways as small as 2 mm and indices of parenchymal density that correlate well with diffusing capacity (49). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tracer gases in the lungs can demonstrate ventilation in real time (50) and may provide a measure of alveolar size (51). Positron emission tomography (PET) can potentially be used to malaysia accounting quantify inflammatory cell activity in memory model, the lungs (52). These methods may prove to be of great value for The Different Constraints to Participate characterization of the lung in working memory, COPD with respect to Writing and Children’s localization of disease (e.g., pattern of emphysema by memory model, CT), physiological sequelae (e.g., air trapping by MRI), and in vivo biochemical and cellular analyses (by PET).

Molecular Characterization of Diseased Tissues and malaysia, Cells. The identification of most human genes paves the way for memory characterization of diseased tissues at an unprecedented level of molecular detail. Reading, Writing And Children’s Literacy. The expression levels of a multitude of genes in a tissue can be assayed with microarrays of gene-specific probes, whereas reverse transcription in histological sections can be used to working model show the distribution of expression of of capitalism, a particular gene at high spatial resolution. Development of antibody-based microarrays may allow characterization of the expression of multiple genes at the protein level. Of particular interest to working COPD research, given the Florence Nightingale: A Biography Essay multiplicity of cell types in the lung, are methods such as laser capture microdissection for isolation of RNA from memory, single cells (53) and melt, techniques for working model reverse transcription and The Different Affecting Student's to Participate Activities, cDNA amplification in situ . Coupled with sensitive assays, these developing methods may allow gene expression profiling at the single-cell level (54). Immunoblot analysis of a protein from model, a single cell may also be possible by of capitalism, amplification of a double-stranded DNA label on the secondary antibody (55). Classes of pharmaceuticals of potential usefulness in COPD that are either available now or are anticipated in the near future include long-acting M3-selective muscarinic antagonists, leukotriene B4 inhibitors, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, thromboxane antagonists, endothelin antagonists, adenosine A2a agonists, antioxidants, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitors, adhesion molecule antagonists, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, interleukin 8 antagonists, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, neutrophil elastase inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, tachykinin antagonists, mucolytics, antiapoptotic compounds, and working, enhancers of mucociliary clearance. Even when proof of principle is established, the Florence A Biography ability of any of these agents to alter outcomes in COPD remains speculative because the critical pathogenetic pathways for this disease have not yet been determined. An important limiting factor in development of drug treatments for working model COPD is the lack of efficient and economical means to identify which drugs are most likely to be of value and to test their clinical efficacy.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. There was consensus among members of the Working Group that the following objectives are important to COPD research and are feasible within approximately five years. It was noted that the accomplishment of these goals will require a substantial increase in Writing and Children’s Literacy, COPD research activity, with training and recruitment of additional researchers and enhanced cooperation between universities and the pharmaceutical industry. In many cases, the need has long been recognized, but the opportunity to working model accomplish the research has come about Writing and Children’s Essay as a result of the development of new experimental tools and techniques. Description of the Disease Process. Characterization of working memory, human lung tissues by advanced molecular, biochemical, microbiological, and histopathological methods. Research progress in Student's Decision in Sport, COPD is hampered by a lack of working memory, fundamental knowledge regarding the pathology of this disease, particularly with regard to small airways.

Changes with COPD in downloading, the structure, cellular composition, inflammatory status, and chemical milieu of the lung are poorly defined, as are the working model relationships of these changes to clinical manifestations of the disease. Accounting. There is a need for systematic comparison of lung structural, inflammatory, and biochemical characteristics with clinical history, status, and course. Characterization of lung tissues can now be performed with exquisite detail, using advanced methods of immunology, viral and microbial detection, molecular histopathology, microarray profiling of gene expression, and proteomic analysis. An appropriate source of tissues for working memory such studies may be surgical specimens from Reading, Literacy, individuals with suspected lung cancer, a population that is at substantial risk for COPD. An appropriate mechanism might be a cooperative research program that combines the efforts of model, academic and industrial researchers in characterization of a large number of let rome, subjects and in the establishment of a repository for DNA, tissues, other biological specimens, and clinical data. Biomarkers and working model, intermediate end points. One limitation in COPD research is the lack of readily measurable markers that correlate with disease severity or outcome. Long-term monitoring of declines in FEV1 has been used to identify risk factors and gauge the illegal downloading facts efficacy of putative therapies, but that approach is slow and expensive. Biomarkers of COPD would be of value for investigations of the working memory model natural history and epidemiology of COPD, for phenotyping in genetic studies, and for clarifying the relationships of animal models to human disease.

Validated surrogate markers of COPD might also serve as intermediate end points for evaluations of efficacy and Reading, Writing Literacy Essay, appropriate dosage of potential therapeutic agents in relatively short-term studies. Markers involving noninvasive methods would be of working, particular value. A wide range of possible approaches exists, including ( 1 ) chemicals in breath, sputum, blood, or urine that reflect lung inflammation or injury; ( 2 ) improved noninvasive mechanical tests of lung function; ( 3 ) proteomic and standard, gene expression profiling; and working model, ( 4 ) lung imaging by CT, MRI, or PET. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of well characterized smokers with and without COPD are needed to evaluate the correlation of a broad array of Reading, Literacy Essay, putative markers with COPD susceptibility, severity, exacerbation, and working model, progression. Inflammation. Despite the failure of inhaled corticosteroids to slow the let rome decline of FEV1 in COPD (8), other anti-inflammatory agents might be highly effective.

Studies are needed to better characterize the inflammation of COPD, to working model define what is appropriate immune function in the lung, and to discover pharmacological means for ensuring beneficial, rather than injurious, contributions of lung inflammatory cells. Three lines of investigation may be involved. First, extensive characterization of the in tiber inflammatory status of smokers with and working model, without COPD is needed to define the subtypes of inflammatory cells present, the movement and fate of immune cells recruited to the lung, and the particular cytokines involved. Second, genetic factors governing immune responsiveness should be identified and tested as possible determinants of susceptibility to lung injury. Third, in vitro systems and let rome melt, animal models should be utilized to working memory investigate the effects of tobacco smoke components on inflammatory cells and to study inflammatory cell trafficking and mechanisms of sustained inflammation.

Genetic risk factors. A knowledge of genetic determinants of COPD could lead to Decision to Participate Activities recognition of biochemical pathways that contribute to the disease and allow targeting of working, public health interventions to individuals at greatest risk. Ethics. A program for identification of genes related to COPD should consider several issues: First, simultaneous characterization of working model, multiple phenotypes will be necessary because different genes may be related to different aspects of the disease (e.g., susceptibility, severity, propensity to exacerbation, rate of progression, and chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema). Second, family-based studies involving genome-wide screening by linkage analysis of affected sibling pairs or extended pedigrees should be used because there is a high probability that unsuspected genes are involved. Illegal Facts. Families in isolated populations, rather than outbred populations like the general U.S. population, may be studied more efficiently. Third, animal models are an essential component of a human genetics program because they can be used to identify candidate genes and to study the pathophysiological ramifications of a defined genotype.

Fourth, case-control association studies of particular candidate genes will eventually be needed to memory model test the relevance of results obtained in particular families to the disease in the general population. Selection criteria for ethics candidate genes should include probable biological relevance to known pathophysiology, evidence of involvement with disease in animal models, and data from human studies for gene linkage with COPD. Fifth, although not ideal for genetic studies, clinical trials involving large numbers of well-characterized subjects with COPD should obtain and archive DNA samples whenever possible to allow for later analysis of candidate genes. Causes and consequences of exacerbations. Memory. Although disease exacerbations are a major concern of both patients with COPD and their physicians, an understanding of the origins and development of these episodes is lacking. There is Activities, a need for research directed toward identifying the bases of COPD exacerbations and clarifying the working pathophysiological processes that contribute to worsening of symptoms.

Of particular interest are the roles of infectious agents, other environmental insults, and immune responsiveness in exacerbations and the relationships between exacerbations and melt, the underlying disease process. Mucous metaplasia and excess mucous secretion. Mucous production is troublesome to working many patients with COPD, yet little is known regarding the mechanisms of mucous hypersecretion, the benefits and risks associated with increased mucous production, or the means whereby mucin secretion, mucus composition, and mucociliary clearance might be therapeutically regulated. Constraints Student's Decision In Sport Activities. Research is needed to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mucous metaplasia and excess mucous production. Studies of the submucosal glands of small airways are especially needed because these glands are probably of working memory model, most importance in COPD and have attracted relatively little research interest. Animal models. Downloading Facts. The development of new animal models of memory, COPD is important for hypothesis testing regarding pathogenetic mechanisms of COPD. Topics of special interest include the biochemical basis of lung growth, damage, and repair; the in tiber melt necessity and sufficiency of specific inflammatory and mucous pathways for the development of small airways disease; and the reversibility of lung damage.

Efforts should be made to correlate pulmonary physiological abnormalities, radiographic images, proteomic profiles, and small airway pathology in these animal models. Lung development and alveolar regeneration. Stimulation of alveolar regeneration is an exciting possibility for model disease-modifying therapy of COPD. Fundamental advances in this area are likely to derive from animal studies of alveolar development in the late fetal and postnatal periods. The Different Constraints Affecting Decision To Participate In Sport Activities. Such research might include gene expression and proteomic analyses of the developing lung, studies of the regulation of expression of memory, relevant genes, studies of the coordination of vascularization and lung development and repair, use of transgenic mice to evaluate the role of malaysia, specific growth factors in working memory model, the lung, and investigations of the Florence Nightingale: A Biography mechanisms whereby toxins (e.g., in utero nicotine) impair lung growth. Working. In addition, studies of in tiber, alveolar regeneration in adults of multiple species are needed to deter-mine the capacity of mature lungs for alveolar regrowth and model, the conditions under which alveolar regeneration can occur. Clinical studies.

Although not extensively discussed, Working Group participants recommended controlled studies to validate or revise current clinical practices. Potential areas for such research include, but are not limited to, indications for long-term oxygen therapy, management of sleep disturbance in The Different in Sport, COPD, alleviation of nocturnal hypoxemia, prevention and treatment of exacerbations, and better tools for disease monitoring. Acknowledgment : Participants: Chair John R. Hoidal, M.D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Session Chairs David M. Memory. Center, M.D. (Boston, MA), Donald J. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), Robert M. Senior, M.D. (St. Louis, MO), Steven D. Florence Nightingale: Essay. Shapiro, M.D. (St. Louis, MO), and Edwin K. Working. Silverman, M.D. (Boston, MA); and Carol B. Basbaum, Ph.D. (San Francisco, CA), Linda B. Nightingale: A Biography Essay. Clerch, Ph.D. (Washington, DC), Thomas L. Croxton, Ph.D., M.D. Working Model. (Bethesda, MD), Francis M. Cuss, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James Eberwine, Ph.D. (Philadelphia, PA), Dorothy B. Gail, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Jack A. Ethics Of Capitalism. Elias, M.D. (New Haven, CT), Michael D. Working. Goldman, M.D., Sc.D. (Los Angeles, CA), Douglas Hay, Ph.D. (King of illegal, Prussia, PA), Peter M. Henson, Ph.D. (Denver, CO), Jonathan Jaffe, M.D. (Kenilworth, NJ), James P. Kiley, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Talmadge E. King, M.D. (San Francisco, CA), Barbara Knorr, M.D. (Rahway, NJ), Claude Lenfant, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Gloria D. Massaro, M.D. (Washington, DC), George T. O'Connor, M.D. (Boston, MA), Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D. Working Memory. (Toronto, Canada), Sri Ram, Ph.D. (Bethesda, MD), Garth Rapaport, M.B.Bch., MRCP, FFPM (Greenford, Middlesex, UK), Anuradha Ray, Ph.D. (New Haven, CT), Stephen I. Rennard, M.D. (Omaha, NE), James R. Reading,. Snapper, M.D. (Research Triangle Park, NC), Rubin M. Tuder, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Norbert F. Voelkel, M.D. Working. (Denver, CO), Gail G. Weinmann, M.D. (Bethesda, MD), Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S. Let Rome. (Boston, MA), Robert A. Working Model. Wise, M.D. (Baltimore, MD), Theodore J. Witek, Jr., Dr.P.H. (Ridgefield, CT). 1. Stang P, Lydick E, Silberman C, Kempel A, Keating ET.

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4. Shapiro SD. Animal models for memory COPD. Chest 2000;117:223S -227S. 5. Di Stefano A, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Balbo P, Vecchio C, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Fabbri LM, Donner CF, Saetta M. Severity of airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:1277 -1285. 6. Rutgers SR, Postma DS, ten Hacken NHT, Kauffman HF, van der Mark TW, Koeter GH, Timens W. Ongoing airway inflammation in patients with COPD who do not currently smoke. Thorax 2000;55:12 -18. 7. Jeffery PK. Lymphocytes, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Chadwick D and Goode JA, editors.

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15. Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Tashkin DP. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:381 -390. 16. Hole DJ, Watt GCM, Davey-Smith G, Hart CL, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM. Impaired lung function and mortality risk in men and women: findings from the Renfrew and ethics, Paisley prospective population study. Br Med J 1996;313:711 -715.

17. Gelb AF, Hogg JC, Muller NL, Schein MJ, Kuei J, Tashkin DP, Epstein JD, Kollin J, Green RH, Zamel N, et al. Contribution of emphysema and small airways to COPD. Working. Chest 1996;109:353 -359. 18. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker C, Speizer FE. The natural history of chronic bronchitis and The Different Student's Decision in Sport Activities, emphysema: an eight-year study of working, early chronic obstructive lung disease in Reading, Writing, working men in London. Working Memory. New York: Oxford University Press; 1976.

19. Sandford AJ, Chagani T, Weir TD, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD. Susceptibility genes for rapid decline of The Different in Sport, lung function in the Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:469 -473. 20. Nagai S, Hoshino Y, Hayashi M, Ito I. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000;6:415 -419. 21. Chapman HA, Shi G-P. Protease injury in the development of COPD. Chest 2000;117:295S -298S.

22. MacNee W. Oxidant/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 2000;117:303S -317S. 23. Sargeant LA, Jaeckel A, Wareham NJ. Interaction of vitamin C with the relation between smoking and obstructive airways disease in working, EPIC Norfolk, European Prospective Investigation in of capitalism, Cancer and Nutrition.

Eur Respir J 2000;16:397 -403. 24. Working Memory Model. Retamales I, Elliot WM, Meshi B, Coxson HO, Pare PD, Sciurba FC, Rogers RM, Hayashi S, Hogg JC. Writing And Children’s Essay. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:469 -473. 25. Yamada K, Elliot WM, Hayashi S, Brattsand R, Roberts C, Vitalis TZ, Hogg JC.

Latent adenoviral infection modifies the steroid response in allergic lung inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:844 -851. 26. Saetta M, Turato G, Facchini FM, Corbino L, Lucchini RE, Casoni G, Maestrelli P, Mapp CE, Ciaccia A, Fabbri LM. Inflammatory cells in model, the bronchial glands of facts, smokers with chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;157:1633 -1639. 27. Basbaum C, Lemjabbar H, Longphre M, Li D, Gensch E, McNamara N. Control of mucin transcription by diverse injury-induced signaling pathways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:S44 -S48. 28. Reid L. Measurement of the bronchial mucous gland layer: a diagnostic yardstick in chronic bronchitis.

Thorax 1960;15:132 -141. 29. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Cool CD, Lynch DA, Flores SC, Voelkel NF. Endothelial cell death and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in working model, emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:737 -744. 30. Aoshiba K, Yasui S, Nagai A. Apoptosis of alveolar macrophages by cigarette smoke. Chest 2000;117:320S. 31.

Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM, Pearson A, Ezekewitz RAB, Hen-son PM. A receptor for Reading, Writing and Children’s phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells. Nature 2000;405:85 -90. 32. Kasahara Y, Tuder RM, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Le Cras TD, Abman S, Hirth PK, Waltenberger J, Voelkel NF. Inhibition of VEGF receptors causes lung cell apoptosis and emphysema. J Clin Invest 2000; 106:1311 -1319. 33. Zaidi SHE, You X-M, Ciura S, O'Blenes S, Husain M, Rabinovitch M. Suppressed smooth muscle proliferation and inflammatory cell invasion after arterial injury in elafin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105:1687 -1695. 34.

Massaro GD, Massaro D. Retinoic acid treatment abrogates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in rats. Nat Med 1997;3:675 -677. 35. Model. Montuschi P, Collins JV, Ciabattoni G, Lazzeru N, Corradi M, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Exhaled 8-isoprostane as an in vivo biomarker of lung oxidative stress in patients with COPD and healthy smokers. Of Capitalism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1175 -1177.

36. Fiorini G, Crespi S, Rinaldi M, Oberti E, Vigorelli R, Palmieri G. Serum ECP and MPO are increased during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis with airway obstruction. Biomed Pharmacother 2000;54:274 -278. 37. Keatings VM, Barnes PJ. Granulocyte activation markers in induced sputum: comparison between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:449 -453. 38. Viglio S, Iadarola P, Lupi A, Trisolini R, Tinelli C, Balbi B, Grassi V, Worlitzsch D, Doring G, Meloni F, et al. MEKC of model, desmosine and isodesmosine in urine of chronic destructive lung disease patients.

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41. Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'Donnell WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns S, Mentzer S, et al. Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:1770 -1778. 42. Keatings VM, Cave SJ, Henry MJ, Morgan K, O'Connor CM, FitzGerald MX, Kalsheker N. A polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may predispose to a poor prognosis in COPD. Chest 2000;118:971 -975. 43. Guo X, Lin H-M, Lin Z, Montano M, Sansores R, Wang G, DiAngelo S, Pardo A, Selman M, Floros J. Polymorphisms of surfactant protein gene A, B, D, and working model, of SP-B-linked microsatellite markers in COPD of a Mexican population.

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( Received in original form August 8, 2001; accepted in final form November 26, 2001 ) Sponsored by the Division of ethics of capitalism, Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and working memory, Blood Institute on March 5-6, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland.

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Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for memory a 9th grader trying to Florence Nightingale: Essay apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Working? Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the downloading facts download link for memory model the template pack of of capitalism your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck!

Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Working Memory Model? https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to Reading, Writing go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on memory what job youre applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. Reading,? I understand that some regulations and rules change over working memory the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to Florence Nightingale: A Biography be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Memory Model? Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair!

I recommend you first check out A Biography, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to working memory choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to Affecting to Participate in Sport Activities introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to working memory model help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market.

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See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to Nightingale: Essay unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for memory a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to of capitalism have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and model career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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The Articles of working, Confederations initial intention was to provide a loose confederation or firm league of friendship. Accounting. Thirteen independent states were therefore linked together for joint action in dealing with foreign affairs. Working Memory Model. Despite their fragility, the Articles proved to be a landmark in government, and at that time a model of what a loose confederation should be. The Articles of Confederation had many accomplishments and strengths. It ended the Revolutionary War. The U.S. Affecting Decision In Sport Activities. government could claim some credit for the ultimate victory of Washington's army and for working memory model negotiating favorable terms in the treaty of peace with Britain. Facts. It kept the working memory states unified during the war, and dealt successfully with western lands.

The Land Ordinance of 1785 was set up to pay off debt, distributed land in Reading, Literacy Essay an orderly fashion, and provided land for public education. Model. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787was probably the greatest domestic success of the Articles; stated that 60,000 people was needed to become a state. This would prevent future problems for western colonies, and malaysia it forbade slavery. [Document E] The Articles of Confederation maintained sovereignty and equality among states(each having one vote in Congress,) and had power to working memory respond to foreign affairs, declare war, appoint military officers, and. 1985 DBQ AP United States History Essay. (2006, November 25). In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 23:13, October 05, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/1985-dbq-ap-united-states-history-essay. WriteWork contributors. 1985 DBQ AP United States History Essay WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 25 November, 2006. Web. 05 Oct.

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Introduction Checklist: Key Questions. 1. Is my introduction concise? 2. Does it contain a clear statement of model, my main thesis? 3. Florence Nightingale: A Biography? Does it indicate very briefly my main line of argument? 4. Does it explain the overall structure of my essay? 2. The Offering of working model, Reasons for your View. After setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph, you need to have a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Each reason should be set out in the form of an explicit, step by step argument, so that the reader can see right off both what your assumptions are, and how they are supposed to support your conclusion.

Moreover, if you are offering more than one consideration in support of your thesis, it is ethics, important that different considerations not be mixed together in a single paragraph. Different arguments require at least separate paragraphs - and preferably, separate subsections, each clearly labeled with an appropriate heading. For the latter will not only help the reader to follow your argument: it will help you to think more clearly about the arguments you're offering. How many reasons should you offer in support of your thesis? It is best to memory model confine yourself to either one, or at most two, supporting arguments. Downloading? If you offer more arguments, there is a serious danger both that you will not set out any of the arguments in a sufficiently detailed way, and working memory model, that you will not discriminate between interesting arguments in support of your thesis, and arguments that are at best marginal. In short, choose your best one or two arguments, and develop that argument (or arguments) in accounting, a detailed and memory, circumspect way. Checklist for the Offering of Reasons:

1. Have I set out an argument (or at most two arguments) to provide reasons for The Different Constraints Affecting Student's Decision to Participate, thinking that my thesis is true? 2. Have I made all of my premises clear and working model, explicit? 3. Malaysia Accounting? Have I developed my argument in a full and detailed way, so that all of my reasoning is clear to working memory model the reader? 3. Consideration of Nightingale: A Biography, Objections to your Arguments. After offering reasons for accepting your view, you need to consider objections. The crucial point to note here is that objections come in two forms. First, there are objections that are directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your thesis, and which claim, therefore, either that some of your assumptions are implausible, or that some of your reasoning is unsatisfactory. Secondly, there are objections that are directed against memory your conclusion, and which attempt to provide reasons for thinking that the ethics of capitalism view which you are advancing is false. Objections of the first sort are especially crucial, and your main obligation is to address such objections. Memory Model? The reason is that if all that you do is to rebut objections to downloading facts your thesis, and working model, you fail to consider objections to your argument, then you haven't shown that you have made out a satisfactory positive case in support of your thesis.

How do you arrive at interesting objections to your own arguments? The crucial thing is to Florence Essay look carefully at the assumptions that you have made, and to memory model ask yourself which of Florence A Biography, those are controversial, in the sense that they might well be questioned by an intelligent, thoughtful, and well-informed person. Having located a controversial assumption, you need to consider why a thoughtful person might disagree with it, and then try to respond to that objection. Checklist for Objections to your Arguments: 1. Have I carefully set out the most important objection to working model each of my arguments? 2. Have I then responded, in a careful way, to that objection (or objections)? 4. Consideration of Objections to your Thesis. After you have carefully considered objections to your argument (or arguments), the ethics of capitalism next important task is to consider objections which, rather than being directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your view, are directed instead against your view itself, and memory, which attempt to show that your view is incorrect.

Here you need to set out any such objection (or objections) in a clear, careful, and dispassionate fashion, and then indicate why you think the objection in question is illegal downloading facts, unsound. How many objections to model your thesis should you attempt to Writing and Children’s Literacy consider? Here, as elsewhere, trying to cover too much ground can result in a weak and superficial discussion. Try to memory model find the strongest objection, and address it in a detailed way. Checklist for Objections to your Thesis:

1. Have I considered the most important objection against the thesis that I am defending? 2. Have I responded carefully to that objection? 5. Exposition of Arguments. At the heart of a paper that examines some moral issue in a critical fashion is the Reading, Literacy setting out of arguments - both arguments in support of your positions, and arguments directed either against some of your assumptions, or against your position itself. Whenever one is setting out an argument, one needs to do so in a careful step-by-step fashion, so that it is model, clear to the reader both what assumptions the argument involves, and what the reasoning is - that is, how one is ethics, supposed to get from the assumptions to the conclusion. One thing that it is working, very important to avoid is the setting out of more than one argument in a single paragraph. For this usually results in too brief an Florence Nightingale: exposition of the arguments in question, and often in a muddling together of the two arguments, thereby obscuring the structure of the reasoning.

Checklist for your Exposition of Arguments: 1. Are my arguments carefully and explicitly set out so that both all of my assumptions, and my reasoning, are clear? 2. Have I, at any point, set out more than one argument in a single paragraph? 3. Are objections and responses set out in separate paragraphs? 6. Working? Logical and Perspicuous Structure.

A crucial factor that makes for a good essay is the presence of a logical and perspicuous structure. So it's important to ask how one can both organize one's discussion in a logical fashion, and make that organization perspicuous to the reader. The structure will be clear to the reader if you begin with an introductory paragraph of the sort described above, and then go on, first, to The Different Affecting Decision Activities divide your essay up into sections (and possibly also subsections), and secondly, to use informative headings to mark out those sections (and subsections). The reader will then be able to see at a glance how you have structured your discussion. What makes for logical organization? If you do the things mentioned above, in sections I through IV, in the order discussed, the result will be an essay whose overall logical organization is very strong. That is to say, start by setting out your thesis, and working, outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph. Follow this with a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Then go on to devote two sections to a consideration of objections. In the first, set out, and let rome in tiber, respond to, objections that are directed against any controversial assumptions that you have made in working memory, arguing in support of your own view.

Then, in the second, consider objections that might be directed against your thesis itself. Individual sections also need to be organized in a logical fashion. This is primarily a matter of setting out arguments in a step-by-step fashion, and of discussing different arguments in standard, different subsections, as discussed above in section V. Checklist for Logical and Perspicuous Structure: 1. Is my essay organized into memory, sections in and Children’s Essay, a logical fashion? 2. Are the sections divided into appropriate subsections? 3. Working Memory? Have I made the overall structure of my essay clear by using informative headings for sections and subsections?

7. Dispassionate and malaysia standard, Unemotional Discussion. Another very important feature of working memory, a good essay is that the discussion be dispassionate, and that one avoid formulating either the issue, or relevant arguments, in a biased and/or emotionally charged way. Suppose, for example, that Mary is Constraints in Sport, considering whether there should be a law against working the sale of pornography. There are various ways in which she can formulate this question, some of which will strongly suggest one answer rather than another. Writing Literacy? She might, for working memory, example, ask herself whether people should be allowed to amass fortunes as purveyors of filthy and degrading material that will corrupt people, and malaysia, destroy the moral fiber of society. If this is the model way she puts the issue, it will not be too surprising if she arrives at the conclusion that one certainly needs a law against pornography. Suppose, on the other hand, that what she asks is whether people should be prevented from Reading, Writing having access to important information about something which is not only natural and working memory model, very beautiful, but also a means of expressing feelings of tenderness and love. Malaysia Accounting? When the question is phrased this way, it seems likely that she will arrive a rather different conclusion.

Why are emotionally charged formulations bad? There are two reasons. First, they tend to alienate the reader or listener, thereby making it less likely that others will devote much time to working memory a serious consideration of your arguments. But secondly, such formulations are even more dangerous with respect to one's own thinking, since what they typically do is to make it seem that the right answer is obvious, and Affecting in Sport Activities, this in turn usually prevents one from grappling with the issue in memory, a serious way, and from subjecting one's own view to critical examination. Checklist for Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion: 1. Have I made use of emotively charged language? 2. Is my discussion dispassionate and fair throughout?

8. Overall Clarity and Conciseness. Many people, confronted with an essay that is difficult to Florence Nightingale: Essay understand, but which is written in a style which sounds profound, tend to conclude that the topic must be a difficult one, and the writers ideas unusually deep. The appropriate conclusion, however, will generally be a rather less positive one ­ namely, that the author either has muddy ideas, or lacks the ability to communicate his or her ideas to others in a satisfactory fashion. Memory? Obscurity is not a sign of profundity. I suspect that this point probably needs to be labored a bit, as there are reasons for thinking that many people, in their secondary school education, are encouraged to express their ideas in a fashion which sounds profound. Consider, for let rome in tiber, example, the working memory model following experiment, carried out by two English professors at the University of Chicago. Joseph Williams and Rosemary Hake took a well-written paper, and changed the language to produce two different versions. Both versions involved the same ideas and concepts, but one was written in simplified, straightforward language, while the other was written in verbose, bombastic language, loaded with pedantic terms.

They then submitted the two papers to Writing Essay nine high-school teachers, and found that all nine gave very high marks to the verbose paper, but downgraded the straightforward essay as too simple and shallow. Williams and Hake then repeated the experiment with a group of working model, ninety teachers, and downloading facts, came up with similar results. Three out of four high-school teachers (and two out of three college teachers!) gave higher marks to pompous writing! What should you be aiming at, in terms of clarity, simplicity, and memory model, intelligibility? One way of estimating how successful your essay is in these respects is by in tiber, considering how it would seem to a secondary school student who knew nothing about the topic. Would he or she be able to read it without difficulty? Having read it, would he or she be able to say exactly what view you were defending and how you were supporting that view? If you can confidently answer Yes to both questions, then all is well. But if there is model, any room for doubt, then you need to rewrite your essay so that your ideas are expressed in a simpler and more straightforward way. Checklist for Overall Clarity and Conciseness:

1. To what extent is the writing clear and straightforward? 2. Is the writing concise? 9. A Non-Religious, Philosophical Approach. Many people defend ethical views by let rome in tiber, appealing either to religious or theological assumptions, or to moral principles that are religiously based. Working? Such assumptions or principles are often of a highly controversial sort, and exercises 1, 2, and 3 were intended to illustrate how problematic an appeal either to religious and theological premises, or to moral principles that are religiously based, can be. It is possible of course, that there are religious claims that, although controversial, can be shown to be reasonable. Any such defense, however, is a major undertaking, and in an essay of malaysia accounting standard, this length, the chances of success in doing that are not good. In addition, however, any discussion of religious claims that is likely to working be intellectually satisfactory requires a serious background in philosophy of religion. The Philosophy Department has a number of philosophers who are experts in illegal downloading facts, the area of philosophy of model, religion, and if you are interested in exploring religious issues, you may well want to consider taking one of the philosophy of Florence Nightingale: A Biography Essay, religion courses that the Department offers. This, however, is a course in ethics, and here you need to confine yourself to non-religious, philosophical arguments: religious assumptions, and moral claims based on memory a religious point of view, are almost always going to be very controversial, and ethics, virtually impossible to defend successfully in an essay of the length you are writing here.

Any such claims, then, are to be avoided. In the preceding sections, I have discussed the working model features that make for melt, a good essay that is focusing upon the critical discussion of memory model, a moral issue. In this final section I want to mention briefly what I think is the most helpful idea for producing an essay that has these characteristics - namely, the formulation of an explicit plan, both for the essay as a whole, and for individual sections. To do this, you might proceed as follows. First, on a filing card, or a small sheet of paper, list the main sections into which your discussion will be divided, as discussed above. Secondly, for each of Nightingale: A Biography Essay, those sections, take a filing card, and write down both the main claims that you want to advance in that section, and a brief description of any arguments that you'll be putting forward, or examining. Thirdly, for each of the arguments that you'll be discussing, write down, on working model another filing card, the basic structure of that argument. Finally, re-examine everything that you have written down. Ethics? Can you see a more effective way of working memory model, dividing the discussion up into sections? Is there a better way of organizing the material within a given section? Can any of your arguments be given a better step-by-step formulation?

The plan that you initially draw up is not, of course, set in concrete, and of capitalism, as you do more reading for your essay, or talk to other people about the issue that you're considering, you'll often see a better way of organizing the material, or other arguments or objections that you need to consider, and so on. Model? You can then modify your original plan. A Biography? The crucial thing is always to have at least a tentative plan in model, mind, for even when you're just beginning to think about a topic, that will help you to do so in Reading, and Children’s Essay, a focused way.