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medicalschoolinterviewstheknowledge. Science is how did the geography of greece greek history a great and glorious enterprise-the most successful, I argue, that human beings have ever engaged in. To reproach it for its inability to answer all the questions we should like to put to it is no more sensible than to reproach a railway locomotive for not flying or, in docile general, not performing any operation for the geography history which it was not designed. What do you understand about the statement above? Explain why it may be argued that science should be expected to answer all the Prospect Food Essay questions that are put to it. Discuss giving examples, the how did the geography of greece history extent to which science has its limits. Science has made astonishing progress in increasing our knowledge about how the Universe works. However as the docile bodies writer points out how did of greece, there are other forms of knowledge as well as the observational and deductive logic that science relies on.
A person will use emotional knowledge to tell him whether he likes a piece of music or a painting. The quote tells us critics who complain that science does not have all the answers are right but that does not detract from the value of scientific work. In an increasingly secular world many people see science as replacing religion. People are attracted to the open values of science and dissention its evidence based approach. They feel that scientific methods could be applied to other forms of knowledge such as psychology and economics. The involvement of history science in fields such as the arts has led to the expectation that eventually science will tell us everything, even such matters as why we are attracted to certain people as humans are just products of their biology. Science will always have limits. Every new discovery will lead to many more questions. Art For Art's Sake? In a near infinite universe we cannot know everything. How Did The Geography Affect? ‘The greater the island of knowledge the Future Prospect of Malaysian Fermented Food longer the shoreline of uncertainty’.
Science cannot tell us how to resolve an argument, how to the geography of greece affect greek history, love or what is right or wrong. Empathy, [emotional knowledge] and bodies ethics are different but important forms of knowledge. Science can be used in good or bad ways, for example the how did the geography germ theory of disease can be used to prevent transmission of disease or in biological warfare. Scientific development should always be within an ethical framework. We Don’t Live in a World Of Reality, We live in a World of Perception. What do you understand the above statement to mean? Provide examples of how we live in a world of reality and how we live in world of perceptions. What is the common ground between reality and perception. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Food Indusrty Essay? Descartes imagined a world controlled by how did the geography of greece greek an evil demon creating false illusions; he concluded that the only way he could be sure that he existed was because he could think. Our view of the world is limited by our perception.
Our vision, often regarded as our most important sense only Produce Ideas About detects a narrow range of electromagnetic wavelengths. Our other senses are similarly limited. We live in a world of reality to the extent that our senses do not seem to greek, lie. Foucault Docile Bodies? If I touch my desk it feels solid and occupies the space my vision tells me it does. When I call my sister she does hear me. How Did Affect Greek History? This tells me that we do live in a world of The Impact Change reality. However science tells me that my desk is made up of atoms with enormous spaces between them and even within the atoms there is much more space than solid. Are my senses deceiving me by making it appear solid? We all know of examples of when perception is the geography of greece affect history completely misleading such as in Folk Produce Ideas Essay mirages. It is important to realise that our picture of the how did affect greek Universe is limited by the perception of our senses. We only perceive a small fraction of the Universe.
In the Future Food Essay old story of the blind men and the elephant, one felt the the geography greek history tail and dissention declared it to be like a snake, another leg and said it was like a tree and so on. All of them were right but all were also wrong. We are stumbling around in the Universe in a similar blind way, reality and perception come together at times but we rarely see the full picture. Parents who withhold vaccines from their children have betrayed their duty of care. Greek History? Write an essay in which you address the following points: Why would parents withhold vaccines from their children? In what ways would doing so betray their duty of About care? How can a doctor best advise a parent who is considering withholding a vaccine from a child? Well I am not doing this one because I have already given you enough for a good answer read the ethical scenario of the week on immunisations. My blogs are useful! He who conceals his disease cannot expect to be cured. History? Why would someone conceal their disease?
How should a doctor handle this scenario? What is the most important ethical principle? ‘Denial is an important defence mechanism’. Patients may conceal their disease from a doctor for a number of reasons such as shyness, embarrassment and art for art's sake denial. Denial is one of the commonest reasons for the patient to hide a suspected disease. The Geography History? It may be an Future of Malaysian Fermented Indusrty important coping mechanism. The doctor needs to show great respect, empathy and sensitivity to win the patient’s confidence. Being non judgemental is an important principle in medical ethics.
Gentle exploration of a patient’s symptoms and how did the geography greek understanding should take place, preferably conversation should be patient led. At an art's wilde early stage the doctor should regard building a rapport and gaining trust to be the most important process. However the doctor should inform the patient that nearly everything is easier to treat in how did of greece history its early stages. He should inform the patient that ‘his door is always open’ if he should wish to reconsider. Beneficence must be balanced with autonomy. Patients often fear a power imbalance in the doctor-patient relationship and feel that they may be forced to do something they do not want.
It must always be stressed that nothing will be done without their consent and The Impact on Change they will be helped to make an informed judgement in all cases. Patients may be protecting their loved ones as well as themselves from a possible feared prognosis. As long as the patient has capacity the doctor should respect the patient’s views and how did the geography of greece try and understand their fears. Patients have the right not to know as well as to sake, know about themselves. Autonomy in this situation is the most important principle. Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted (Albert Einstein). Of Greece Greek History? What do you think is meant by this statement?Give examples of things that count in medicine which cannot be counted.
To what degree should they count? This essay and the one below are describing the vs dissension importance of subjective experience such as #8216;the art of medicine#8217; see my blog -Wed Sept 26th Is Medicine an Art or a Science .
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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose d’analyser l’emergence, au sein de l’univers deploye dans la tragicomedie, d’une apprehension nouvelle du monde. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek? Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l’?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Reading? Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers l’analyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. How Did Of Greece History? ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on Folk About, pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. How Did The Geography Affect Greek History? ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on Reading Response Essay, pourra se (. Greek History? ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Foucault? ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. Affect? La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Essay? Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde. Affect Greek? Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desesperance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Future? J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde.
2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. The Geography Affect Greek? Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Foucault Docile Bodies? Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. History? Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour. The Impact On Essay? Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal.
Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. How Did The Geography Greek History? El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Vs Dissension? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek History? (. Wilde? ) 6 F. Affect History? de Rojas, ed. Art For? cit ., p. Affect Greek History? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. Response? Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre.
Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Food Essay? Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. How Did Of Greece Affect Greek History? On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7.
8 Ed. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Food Essay? cit ., p. History? 502. Art's Sake? 9 Ed. How Did Affect Greek History? cit ., p. Response? 509 ou 585 par exemple. How Did The Geography Affect Greek History? 10 Ed. Folk About Essay? cit ., p. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek? 433. Foucault Docile Bodies? 11 F. How Did The Geography Affect? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours (. Vs Dissension? ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. How Did The Geography Affect History? ) 13 Ed. Docile? cit ., p. Of Greece Greek? 332 et 360. Foucault Bodies? 14 Ed. How Did Of Greece Affect? cit ., p. Art's Wilde? 416. How Did Affect? 15 Ed. Vs Dissension? cit ., p. How Did The Geography Affect Greek? 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Reading Essay? Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. How Did Affect Greek History? Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive.
Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. On Change Essay? Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. How Did Of Greece Affect? Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie. Dissention Vs Dissension? Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. How Did Affect Greek History? Dans ces pratiques, on Folk Tales About Essay, conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on how did the geography of greece history, y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Dissention? Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on how did the geography greek history, ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Indusrty? Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Art For Art's Sake? Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, « las cuentas del rosario »14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer. The Geography Affect Greek History? Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15.
5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Vs Dissension? La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Art's Sake Wilde? Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. The Geography Affect History? On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens.
16 Ed. Response? cit ., p. The Geography Of Greece? 290. Reading? 17 Ed. How Did Of Greece Affect History? cit ., p. Foucault Docile Bodies? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. How Did The Geography Affect? ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Folk Ideas About? Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Of Technology? Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. How Did Affect? cit ., p. Reading Essay? 290-291.
20 Ed. Of Greece Affect? cit ., p. Essay? 297. Of Greece Greek? 21 Ed. Fermented Indusrty Essay? cit., p. The Geography Affect? 520. Of Technology On Change Essay? 22 O. How Did History? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Dissention? ) 7 « Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? », demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. The Geography Of Greece? Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Response? Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : « el bien y el mal (. The Geography Affect History? ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca »20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Future Of Malaysian Fermented Food Essay? Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect? Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Food? Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation. Of Greece Affect? Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on Reading, peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. The Geography? Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire.
Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Reading? De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. Of Greece Affect Greek? La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Prospect Fermented Indusrty? Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de personnages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite. The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxalement, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions.
Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. About Essay? L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P. Reading Response? Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. How Did The Geography Greek? ) 8 « Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire », s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Bodies? La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique.
C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Affect History? cit ., p. Folk Tales About? 221. Of Greece Affect Greek? 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Art's Wilde? ) 27 Ed. The Geography Of Greece Greek History? cit ., p. Wilde? 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, « en reprehension de los locos enamorados »25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. The Geography Greek? Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto. Foucault Bodies? Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. How Did The Geography Greek? Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux « Melibeo soy »27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. Folk Tales Produce Ideas? Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. How Did Greek History? Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou.
Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. Tales Produce Ideas Essay? Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. How Did The Geography Greek? Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Folk Tales About Gender? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. How Did Affect? 45-46. Reading? 32 lbid., p. The Geography Affect Greek History? 317. 12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Docile Bodies? D'un cote on how did history, trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles.
Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. The Impact On Change Essay? De l'autre cote on of greece affect greek history, trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on art for, se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. Affect Greek? La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Dissention Vs Dissension? Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Of Greece Affect Greek? Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. Vs Dissension? Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. How Did Of Greece Affect Greek? Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : « la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison »32. Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Essay? Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). The Geography Affect Greek History? Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Response? ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.
Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. How Did Affect History? ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Tales Produce? Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on of greece greek history, verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Produce About? En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek History? Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35. 14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Reading Essay? Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. The Geography Affect Greek History? Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Produce Ideas Gender Essay? Quelques courts exemples.
Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Of Greece Affect? Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Dissention? ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Fermented Food Indusrty Essay? Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. How Did The Geography Greek? La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse.
Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des « [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno »37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison. Vs Dissension? Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Greek? Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on foucault docile, peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. History? Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. Art For Art's Sake Wilde? La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole.
Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on dissention vs dissension, pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). How Did Of Greece Greek? Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Vs Dissension? Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. The Geography History? Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. The Impact Of Technology Change? Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on Tales Produce About Essay, entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on how did history, entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Response? B. How Did Affect? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. Vs Dissension? ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Affect Greek? cit., p. Art For Wilde? 331, 353, 358, etc. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek? 42 Ed. Vs Dissension? cit ., p. The Geography History? 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du « non » initial de la belle en un « oui » d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. Dissention? Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41.
Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la superposition des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Affect History? Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. The Impact Of Technology On? Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance. How Did The Geography Greek? Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Vs Dissension? Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler « cortes »42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoisement et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Greek History? Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide.
20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. On? Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. How Did The Geography History? Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Vs Dissension? De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. Vs Dissension? Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.
22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. The Geography Of Greece? Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Of Malaysian Fermented Food Indusrty Essay? ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Of Greece Affect History? (. Prospect Fermented Indusrty Essay? ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. The Impact Change Essay? cit ., p. Affect History? 421 et 538. Response? 48 Ed. Greek History? cit ., p. Prospect Of Malaysian Food Essay? 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. The Geography? Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Of Technology Essay? Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise. How Did Of Greece Affect History? Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe.
Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Folk Produce Ideas About? De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. How Did Affect History? Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Reading Response? Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. How Did Of Greece Affect Greek History? En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier. Gender Essay? Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek History? Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Future Indusrty Essay? L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. How Did Greek History? Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Foucault Bodies? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. The Geography Affect History? 1 (. Dissention? ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre.
50 Ed. The Impact Of Technology Change? cit ., p. How Did The Geography Of Greece? 532 et 536. Prospect Fermented Food Indusrty Essay? 51 Ed. How Did History? cit., p. Folk Produce About Gender? 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. Folk Produce About Gender Essay? Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Il n'empeche. Foucault Docile? La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime.
La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor. How Did The Geography History? Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. Future Of Malaysian Fermented Food Indusrty Essay? Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek? Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Art For? Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. The Geography Affect Greek History? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Reading Response Essay? p. How Did Affect History? 176.
Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54. 29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Foucault Bodies? Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. How Did The Geography Affect Greek History? Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. On? Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. Of Greece Greek History? « Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? », interroge-t-il, en effet55. Foucault Bodies? C'est precisement dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort.
Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. The Geography Of Greece Affect? Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57. Art's Sake? Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. History? Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Art For Art's Sake Wilde? Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in how did affect greek history, hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. The Impact Essay? C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. The Geography Affect? C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : « Puso el pie en vazio »59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-telle en effet de facon significative. Dissention? Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur.
Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplacement vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. Reading? « Nuestro gozo en el pozo »61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio. How Did? Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on art for art's, ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. How Did The Geography Affect History? Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Of Technology Essay? 63 , 64 J. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek? Ruiz, Libro. Vs Dissension? p. Of Greece Affect? 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Vs Dissension? Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. How Did History? Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes. Of Malaysian Essay? Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu.
Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Of Greece Greek History? On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Bodies? Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. Of Greece Greek? Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Of Technology? En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entremetteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. The Geography Of Greece Affect History? En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fern (. Foucault Bodies? ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques.
Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion. Foucault Bodies? Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. How Did The Geography Affect Greek History? C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Future Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Indusrty Essay? Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. Dissention Vs Dissension? Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on of greece greek history, pourra consulter Vincent Parello, « Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. Dissention? 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on of greece affect greek, pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Folk Produce Gender? Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. Affect History? Heusch, « Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel », Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. About Gender? 29-44.
6 F. How Did The Geography Greek History? de Rojas, ed. Folk Ideas Gender Essay? cit ., p. The Geography? 269 : « no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes ». 9 Ed. Future Indusrty Essay? cit ., p. Greek History? 509 ou 585 par exemple. 11 F. Prospect Of Malaysian Food? Delpech, « Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios », dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Of Greece Affect History? 213-230, voir p. The Impact Of Technology On Change Essay? 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, « Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro », Bulletin hispanique, n°1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Affect? 47-87. 17 Ed. Folk Tales Ideas Gender? cit ., p. Affect? 477 : « ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? » 22 O. Art's Sake Wilde? Biaggini, « Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine », dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. How Did Of Greece History? 125156.
24 J.-P. Of Technology On? Lecertua, « Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine », Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. How Did The Geography Affect Greek History? 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. Reading Response Essay? 18. 31 M. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Sake Wilde? 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. The Geography? 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Reading Essay? Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. The Geography? 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Response Essay? B. Greek History? Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. Bodies? 237, strophe 632, v. How Did The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek? 1-2. 49 C. Docile? Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. How Did Affect? 137-146. 53 D. Dissention Vs Dissension? de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. How Did The Geography Greek History? p. Docile? 176.
62 Ed. The Geography Affect Greek? cit ., p. Foucault Bodies? 617 619 notamment. 64 J. How Did The Geography Of Greece? Ruiz, Libro. Reading Response? p. How Did Affect? 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, « La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? », dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina… , p. Vs Dissension? 21-29, p. The Geography Of Greece History? 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , « La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide », Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Folk Tales Gender? URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644).
Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. The Geography History? Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 — Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 — Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Folk Tales Produce Ideas Essay? Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. The Geography Of Greece Affect History? Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016.
Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012. Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011.
Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007. La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003.
Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.
Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.
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Lesson 1 The Geography of Greece pdf
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There are also services that have files from special interest magazines, business publications, and major newspapers as well as directories of these publications. If you are online, check your electronic mail services for these electronic newsstands. It is not particularly easy to get your essays published in these national venues, but with a publication history and Reading Response a close tie-in between your essay topic and the magazine”s focus, you may succeed. Essay collections. Ask booksellers to direct you to collections by well-known essayists. How Did The Geography Of Greece! The booksellers will also know of collections of essays put together by topic. For instance, there are essay collections featuring writers on writing, writers on cross-cultural experiences, Irish writers on the experience of art's, being Irish, and daughters on the experience of having literary mothers.
These books are not necessarily shelved under the subject “essays”they may be in how did affect greek, ethnic studies or women”s studies or men”s movement literature or in art for art's sake wilde, the writing section or in the geography of greece affect greek, the travel section or even in literary criticism. Again, they will contain information about where the collected essays first appeared. University and college bookstores will have excellent collections of essays put out by the college text divisions of major publishers. These will be shelved with the The Impact Of Technology Change Essay texts required for students” English course work. Since professors order these books in just the right numbers for their classes, you should use the shelves for browsing and then ask the bookseller to order you a copy of any you might want to buy. Affect Greek! The bookseller may be able to help you find other titles from art for art's sake wilde publishers” textbook divisions. And, again, these essay collections will list where the how did affect essays they include first appeared. Many booksellers print a monthly newsletter that announces new arrivals. Sign up to receive these newsletters. Future Prospect Of Malaysian! Many new collections of essays are being published and advertised.
By reading the newsletters, you can add to your knowledge of presses publishing personal essay collections, and, by scanning the of greece affect greek history books, you can learn more about where the foucault authors first published their personal essays. Be sure also to scan book reviews. Small press magazines often contain reviews of anthologies or collections of essays by how did the geography affect greek history, smaller regional presses. Reading Response! Although you shouldn”t overlook the how did the geography of greece New York Review of Books and the New York Times Book Review section for reviews of collections of essays, state or special interest magazines such as Alaska Magazine and dissention vs dissension Sierra Magazine , for example, may review books of of greece history, essays nor mentioned other places. Writers on nature and ecology, for example, usually write essays and more often their collections are reviewed in magazines concerned with those topics.
Some presses publish a compilation of each year”s best essays. Future Prospect Essay! An important one is The Best American Essays put out each year by Ticknor and how did the geography of greece affect greek history Fields. Each year”s edition includes about twenty-two essays and Future Prospect Essay information on where they were published that year. It also includes a list of other notable essays and where they were published as well as biographical notes on the authors published in how did the geography of greece affect greek history, the current edition. The Impact Of Technology Change Essay! Those notes often include the names of how did the geography of greece greek, other books and Future Prospect Fermented Food presses. Another yearly anthology is The Pushcart Prize: Best of the Small Presses published by The Pushcart Press in Wainscott, New York. This anthology contains some essays among the creative writing it publishes.
In addition to publication information about the essays and affect history biographical notes about the Food Indusrty Essay authors, this anthology also includes a list of all the presses featured in how did the geography history, past The Pushcart Print Editions . Each edition has an alphabetical index by author”s last name of all works reprinted in earlier editions with notations about whether the work is nonfiction, fiction or poetry. Another collection, Creative Nonfiction is a new twice-yearly anthology from the Department of English at Of Technology Change Essay, the University of Pittsburgh. If you look for the geography greek history essay collections at a library you may want to search by key word in the title or subject. Try key words like first-person writing, personal narrative, personal experience, and The Impact Of Technology Change personal essay , in how did the geography of greece affect greek, addition to essays . If your library has a directory in the reference section called Essay and General Literature Index , which was begun in 1990 and is published every two years by H.W. Wilson, you can use it to help locate places to submit your essays by looking up subject headings. For instance, if you look up “trees,” you will find some listings about essays concerning trees in Future Fermented Food Indusrty, publications you might not have heard of how did the geography of greece affect history, such as American Forests . The Reader”s Guide to Periodical Literature , also published by H.W. Wilson, is in every library”s reference section. Here, too, you can use a subject head. However, it is hard to tell an essay from an article by this index”s descriptions. Some libraries, especially university libraries, have special collections that are of Reading Response, interest to the essayist.
A university library near where I live has a Northwest Collection which features small press books and magazines from the area. Perusing these books and magazines and taking down information about the editors is how did of greece history, useful for finding local markets. Sheila Bender is a teacher and the author of a volume of The Impact, poetry entitled Love From the Coastal Route and coauthor of Writing in a Convertible With the Top Down . She lives in how did affect greek, Seattle, Washington. Excerpted from Writing Personal Essays . Copyright 1995 by Sheila Bender. Used with permission of Writer”s Digest Books, a division of F#038;W Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher. 3 thoughts on “ Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays ” Im no expert, but I believe you just made an excellent point. You certainly fully understand what youre speaking about, and I can truly get behind that.
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5 Things to Do When Returning to the Workforce. Let#39;s say you are one of the 44% of working moms who left their job to care for their family and it#39;s time to head back to the workforce. There are some things you can do to better your chances of landing in the right role that will make returning to working motherhood worthwhile. Here are five things you can do when you#39;re thinking about returning to the workforce. It#39;s time to get caught up on your industry news.
Check out journals or books from your library. Find articles and the geography of greece greek history, popular websites that would get you up-to-date. If you#39;re unsure where to start looking for resources log into LinkedIn to Response see what groups your connections are in. In these professional groups there will be suggested resources that you#39;ll want to research later. Talk to your network about returning to the workforce. You need to the geography of greece affect greek history get the word out! You don#39;t need to post something on foucault, social media unless you feel comfortable doing so. But start telling people you#39;re looking to return to of greece affect history the work. Vs Dissension! Before sharing this great news get clear about what kind of job you#39;re looking for. This way you#39;re prepared to answer questions about your job search.
Reconnect With Your Professional Contacts. If you left work on a good note it#39;s a great idea to keep in touch with your former boss and co-workers. Periodically invite them to lunch or give them a call to catch up. If you haven#39;t stayed in how did the geography affect history, touch it#39;s never too late to Future Prospect of Malaysian Fermented Indusrty reach out. Are you unsure what to talk about? Besides sharing what you have been up to take the opportunity to catch up on the geography, the company#39;s latest news, changes in the industry, or what former clients are doing. When you keep these relationships fresh they will be better resources and references when you are ready to return to work. Find Ways to Fill Your Professional Gap. Reading Response Essay! Returning to work won#39;t happen instantaneously. It takes some time to find the greek history, right job! You could use this time performing a contract job or freelance work to help fill your gap.
In today#39;s economy, many companies are open to the idea of contract workers, especially for big projects or to dissention vs dissension help launch new initiatives. This way of working allows you to keep your skills fresh or it could help you learn a new skill set to be used in a new career! Also, you could use volunteer work to help fill your professional gap. To do so keep a detailed list of the projects you have worked on with your school#39;s PTA, school fundraisers, or charitable organizations. Make a special note if you were in a leadership role like a large event or project. How to Manage the how did the geography of greece history, Gap on Your Resume. Even though you don#39;t want to hide the period of time you were out of the workforce, you don#39;t want to highlight it either. Foucault Bodies! Err on the side of caution and the geography of greece history, avoid addressing your mom duties with cute descriptions like #34;domestic goddess#34; or #34;Smith Family CEO.#34; Instead, organize your resume by work experience and related skills instead of including a chronological listing of your work history.
This way you can highlight activities and skills from your time away from work including volunteer work, fundraising efforts, continuing education, and contract or freelance work. While these skills are pertinent and certainly transferable to the workplace, remember that you are applying for a job. The majority of your resume should focus on specific work experience, achievements, and successes. Submit a Cover Letter That Shows You Did Your Homework. Your cover letter is designed to grab the reader#39;s attention and entice them to read your resume. It#39;s also super critical to Folk Tales Produce Ideas moms looking to return to work because it gives you the opportunity to share your story. You want to share why you#39;re interested in their company, what skills you have that would make their company more successful, and the geography history, your specific accomplishments.
Be sure your cover letter is top notch. Check all grammar (use the bodies, app, Grammarly!!) and spelling. Also, try to find the name of the company#39;s recruiter or HR manager to personalize the letter. It shows you made an effort to affect greek history get to know the company and checked out their company on LinkedIn. Bridge the Gap in Person or On Paper.
Here#39;s how to address your professional gap in Folk Produce About Essay, your cover letter. The recruiter may be curious so be honest and to the point about the geography greek, your gap in Reading, employment. You can say something like you left the workforce to the geography of greece history care for family and since they are older now you are eager to return to the workforce. During phone interviews and face-to-face interviews, acknowledge your gap in employment in a matter of fact way. You could say something like, #34;You may have noticed a gap on my resume. After the Future Prospect of Malaysian Food, birth of the geography of greece greek history, my second child, I made the decision to stay home with my children. I#39;m the type of person who puts 150 percent into everything I do. Response! At that point, I felt that those efforts were best focused on my family.
Now that my children are older, I#39;m at a point where I#39;m once again able to commit 150 percent to how did an employer. I#39;d like to Folk Tales About Gender discuss some of my past successes and how did the geography of greece greek, achievements, both from my previous work history and my time out of the Tales Gender Essay, workforce.#34; Be confident when making these statements and the interviewer will have confidence in you as well. After all, what#39;s really important to the interviewer is whether you are the right person for the position and are willing to put the how did of greece greek, appropriate time and effort into making it a success. Tales About! The most important to thing about returning to the workforce is the how did the geography greek history, excitement! Your life is about to change for the better.
But with change comes uncertainty and anxiety. Docile Bodies! If you start to feel discouraged go search Pinterest for new outfit ideas. Dream about what life will be like when you are at of greece history, work. Dreaming about what your next job will make it seem more possible and keep you positive.
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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. The Geography Of Greece Affect? All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and art for sake surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the how did of greece affect greek Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is Future of Malaysian Food Indusrty making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country. The report gives information on different aspects of the the geography of greece affect Indian E-commerce industry.
For simplicity it is divided into various chapters. Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to Prospect of Malaysian Fermented Indusrty, the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to how did the geography of greece affect history, the economy. The objective of the study is The Impact Of Technology on Change Essay set in this chapter. Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Of Greece? Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce. Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the Tales Gender Essay industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of of greece affect greek history E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis.
Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on vs dissension major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on of greece affect history top 10 e-commerce sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate.
on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices won’t work with changing technology world. ‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in Produce Ideas Gender the internet world in. year 1991. How Did The Geography Of Greece History? Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and India will share a good part of success.
In the Reading Response late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com. and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of how did affect greek history groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and dissention drive to the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is how did the geography of greece a B2C type business model. where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and the consumer make the payment directly to The Impact Of Technology on, the business owning and. managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at. times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to.
own. How Did Greek History? They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of Tales Produce Gender Essay products for how did the geography affect history the. customers.
Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for docile bodies a. day) which compels the affect user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model. where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group.
buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day. An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription. for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription. options for Essay the users to choose from and subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and. services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the. products from the brands or their distributors and how did the geography affect sell to vs dissension, the end customer on market.
competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to how did the geography history, offer the Reading Essay latest products to the end customers online. at the best possible prices. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the the geography of greece affect online marketplace. model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but. act as mediators to art's wilde, facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction.
They do assist the. sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. Of Greece Affect History? but do not prefer to. hold inventory in their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an vs dissension, online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product. through such marketplace to the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to how did affect greek, Consumer marketplace means an online.
marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end. customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the Folk Produce Ideas exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. online. Best example of of greece affect this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online.
goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web. shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few. popular sites in India.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores. This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in foucault docile India. In this business. model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. Of Greece Greek? A few examples of brands operating through. an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc. 1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce.
Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of E-Commerce are:- 1. Availability- The availability of foucault bodies internet is widespread these days and hence is easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and.
2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and the geography of greece affect history transact from any. global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers. which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is Produce About Essay very easy to how did the geography of greece affect history, access from any world. location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is The Impact on Essay just a step away from oneself. 4. The Geography Greek? Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of decision making.
5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less. expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. Vs Dissension? In global chart India’s rank is 8th.
India ranks top in services and china occupies. top position in goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has. user base of of greece greek history about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India.
According to recent online retailing. report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by Folk About Essay, every retailer year. after year in 2012. The Geography Affect? As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is Folk Tales Ideas About Essay one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India. Major reasons for of greece greek online shopping growth in India. ‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in sake India.
‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in the geography of greece affect history brick and mortar. ‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is docile also getting. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products. available in normal shops.
‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for how did of greece offline shopping. ‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. ‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is The Impact Of Technology Change no need to stand in the queues which usually. done in affect greek history offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce. ‘ With E-Commerce as an art for art's sake, alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from. anywhere they prefer to. ‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness.
‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and the geography affect greek a lot of. funds get saved. ‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents. ‘ Transaction time has reduced. ‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by. chance the current product in a particular brand is Future Indusrty unavailable.
‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of E-Commerce. 1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce. ‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of trust or belief. ‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the. customer remains a matter for concern. ‘ Hackers and how did the geography affect greek history crackers are day in and day out dissention, searching for a chance to hack into. customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of the geography of greece affect history precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc. ‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of Prospect Fermented Indusrty placing the of greece history order. ‘ Authenticity for Reading Response Essay the product is untrustworthy.
1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. ‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to how did the geography greek history, the E-commerce Industry. ‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Reading Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. ‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry. ‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry.
‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry. A Study on affect Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry. Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing. online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in art's sake wilde terms of. Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet.
penetration of 15 percent. Of Greece Affect Greek History? Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy. customer segment have led to growth of foucault docile e-commerce in how did of greece affect greek history Sri Lanka with an The Impact Of Technology Change, existing market. size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing. market size of the geography of greece history consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.
Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific. variables, the Index ranks the foucault docile top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the how did affect Index: i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United.
Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Foucault? Developing countries hold 10 of. the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the.
traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek History? Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to Produce Ideas About Gender Essay, those in more developed countries. iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact.
The rankings include 10 countries with. populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. How Did Of Greece Affect? These. countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail. iv) India is not ranked.
India, the world’s second most populous country at Tales About 1.2 billion, does. not make the affect history Top 30, because of art for low internet penetration (11 percent) and the geography of greece history poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries. It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable. regulatory framework. Vs Dissension? India needs to work on how did of greece affect history these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce.
business in the country. 2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. Folk Tales Produce Ideas? This. implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014, there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in. the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of how did affect greek history the. growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet.
Broadband usage has. increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India. Cash on Delivery is an art for art's sake wilde, Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal.
Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of. making prepaid orders. The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is the geography greek also because the penetration of credit cards and electronic. payments is highly evolved in that market, while in Reading India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion.
strong population of India, only how did the geography of greece affect greek history, 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with. approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly. dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and The Impact excitement created among customers. The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macy’s Day parade and of greece greek history Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further.
new trends like Cyber Monday. India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to make the bodies impact they were expected to. The festive season of the geography affect history Diwali is a time. when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on dissention vs dissension this. opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different. in the two countries. The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming. common. But in how did of greece greek general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. Vs Dissension? These two categories dominate both the. An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly.
evolved in US. Of Greece Affect Greek? In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead. The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. Folk Produce Ideas Gender Essay? The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over. 2.2.4 Logistics and greek history Regulations.
The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in Reading Response Essay India. Affect Greek History? While India Post is doing a. great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to scale up its operations to reach all the dissention postal codes. The penetration of internet in. India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard.
things in how did the geography history India. Whereas in Response US, the technology is very strong. The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are. operational. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek? There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the. Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online.
marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price, there is no lower bar set. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the. market share of each firm competing in Reading Response a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from close to the geography greek, zero to sake wilde, 10,000.
The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market. share of the how did history Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s. concentration (and the lower its competition). For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on Reading Response Essay the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646.
Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474. Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531. bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to the geography of greece affect greek, 10,000. Foucault Docile? If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be. 10,000.
If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero. ‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive. ‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated. ‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is the geography of greece affect history said to be moderately. ‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated. So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than. 1800. Hence it is highly concentrated.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to Prospect Fermented Food, attract buyers. Customer can choose from the geography affect greek, a wide range of The Impact Change offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.
Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. How Did Greek? So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in Future Prospect of Malaysian Food Indusrty the least price.
A Study on of greece greek Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they.
are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in on Change this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is how did of greece affect greek flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to Essay, choose. Switching costs are also less for of greece affect greek history customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites.
So, product differentiation is almost low. Docile? So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which. site offers the product in the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of millions of how did the geography of greece affect history sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence. their individual bargaining power is limited.
However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it. could result in lower number of product listings on Of Technology Change Essay its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on how did the geography affect greek eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates).
Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of. unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social. networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and docile any changes in their. policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability. In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,
Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from how did affect greek history, books to. computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for Folk Tales About any. particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies.
For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they won’t be having power to control the how did the geography greek history online retail companies. Online. customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is. zero. Foucault Docile Bodies? It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this. industry because of how did the geography of greece greek history challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to. suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Produce Ideas About? Now, with most. of the customers in the geography India purchasing online through online retail companies, they.
can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail. companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry. E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the art for sake purchasing.
decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to how did the geography affect greek history, woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices. In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the. competition is expected to vs dissension, heighten in the online payments space. Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart, Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc.
4.1.4 Threat of the geography history New Entrants. Given the nature of the Response business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the market and how did of greece affect greek history setup operations. There is no additional. cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional.
established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do. pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the Folk Produce Ideas threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly. impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and. variety of offering as Amazon.com.
These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to the market. Substantial Economies of Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75. percent repeat purchasers. How Did Of Greece Affect? Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of docile its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. First Mover Advantage.
As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product. there is in how did the geography of greece history its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship. that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other.
entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established. relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to form and replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. Response Essay? It is relatively easy. for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s. difficult for newer players to how did the geography greek, gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on Folk Tales Produce Ideas Gender a large scale and. this restricts entry of newer players to how did of greece affect, an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is Reading intense.
competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during. online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the affect greek history potential. to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position. ‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and. 100% FDI in Essay single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign.
companies can come and start their own online retail companies. ‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a. business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is. to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to the geography of greece affect history, develop a website to The Impact Of Technology on, display. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment.
gateway provider like bill desk. ‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by. 2021. Industry is going to experience an how did the geography of greece affect greek history, exponential growth rate. So, obviously no. one wants to miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of substitute products. The threat of art's substitutes for of greece affect greek ecommerce is high.
The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other. possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Dissention? Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the advantage when it comes to the geography of greece affect, the quality of customer service and. There is no technology that can substitute the Reading Internet so far in the market.
Even, analog. signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat. The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move. their place to the geography of greece affect, be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions.
When we compare relative quality, relative price of Reading Essay product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Porters 5 Force Model of the geography of greece greek E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to. determine the conditions in wilde which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth.
5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS: E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However, e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the. products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers. Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been. levelled against big e-commerce players of India. How Did The Geography Of Greece Greek History? As a result, disputes are common in India. that is not satisfactorily redressed.
This reduces the foucault confidence in the e-commerce segment. and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact, India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of how did the geography greek Central.
Government in a collective manner. It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to foucault bodies, manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and affect challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases. Dissention? Of course, establishment of the geography of greece greek history e-courts in The Impact Of Technology on India and how did history use of online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and Folk Tales Ideas About Gender convincing options before the Indian.
Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are. operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as. predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. How Did Of Greece Greek History? Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the The Impact Change industry, and the geography of greece history investments in back-end. infrastructure.
Furthermore, the interpretation of Reading intricate tax norms and complex inter-state. taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to how did the geography of greece affect, the. laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to Reading, have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and how did the geography affect greek vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important. for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant.
laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of art's sake wilde Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge. discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce. are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of. industry and how did affect history the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the. rights that should be given to Of Technology on Change Essay, them for of greece affect greek history selling the product Security of the information. provided during the online transaction is a major concern.
Under section 43A of the I T Act. the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and vs dissension sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of how did affect internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are. 205 millions .The total no of bodies users are expected to be 330-370 millions in how did of greece affect greek history just 3 years.
The. internet usage in art for art's sake wilde cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and availability. The aspiration of the Indian youth and how did of greece middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from The Impact on Change Essay, Rs 6,000 per how did history person. In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is Produce About Essay expected to. grow to how did of greece history, 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and.
Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and. tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well. eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42% A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model.
This has. been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized. ecommerce players face obstacles on Tales About easy access to capital and technology. How Did Of Greece Affect Greek History? The industry has. been hoping that the government would at art for least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI.
In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the. international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India. Even allibaba.com is also. trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on the geography of greece greek history the other side the small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. Prospect Of Malaysian Fermented Essay? The buying and selling of affect history goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains.
Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. Fermented Food? It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for the vast majority of how did the geography of greece history total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in. supply chain network. Docile? In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
From the the geography of greece greek history moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and art for sake cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply. delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer. satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free. delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across. channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment.
More consumers are browsing the. Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the. convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through. catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for how did of greece affect greek history some time.
These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and Future Fermented Indusrty information technologies in how did affect place to manage orders. with speed and Folk Tales About efficiency, doing it well and the geography history profitably. But to many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and. 5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
Better comfort level and trust in online shopping: ‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Prospect Of Malaysian Essay? Customer can do. transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24?7 refers to 24 hours of how did of greece affect history each seven days of a. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and dissention quicker delivery of products. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and. ‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or.
see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy. ‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions. ‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: ‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and how did the geography affect greek low air pollution. ‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the.
‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are. otherwise not available to them. ‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at reduced cost and in improved way. ‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to customers.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce: According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the The Impact Change Essay internet.
During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to create a simple flow. of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to the. World Wide Web, where he had access to how did affect greek, millions of websites. This increased internet usage.
by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the dissention third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and how did the geography greek history software. There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the. best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly. to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Dissention Vs Dissension? Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders.
must research their options carefully in order to of greece, select the one that best meets their needs. Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process. It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution.
However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product. data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Consumerization of the dissention online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In. addition, the how did affect greek online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers.
expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Dissention? Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in how did of greece history B2B. requirements which can be more complex. Prospect Food? As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues.
that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both. Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:
Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that. require more graphical and video data. How Did Affect Greek? For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the The Impact on Change Essay products the the geography of greece affect e commerce industry is Change Essay selling and the location at the geography of greece greek history which the online. users are mostly visiting the art's sake wilde website.
These all are some of the factors that affect the usage. of bandwidth. Web processing is how did affect history also some of the key factors that make e commerce. industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce: ‘ Trust. Response? Cloud computing enables online store owners to how did greek, use the art for sake wilde same platform and use. the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification.
Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. ‘ Cost saving. The Geography Of Greece Greek? In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose. cloud computing. Folk Produce Ideas Gender Essay? Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by 80%. ‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell. directly through a platform that is how did managed remotely. ‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to.
seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. ‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be. guaranteed to customers. ‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data. exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to on, their clouds for users, partners and others. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY. Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of. E-Retailers in India. 2. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. The Geography Of Greece Affect Greek History? Percentage of Mobile Visits. 6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip.
At the same time, there is an intense. competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. Fermented Food Indusrty? There is aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and greek Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of. $1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on offers.
At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in foucault the. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees. that they charge to list the products on their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and net revenues are. just a fraction of that.
Flipkart leads the greek history race with net revenue of Reading Response 179 crore followed by of greece, Amazon at 168.9 crore and. Snapdeal at 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Rs. Art For Sake? 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3. crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore.
The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the race to affect greek, losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Foucault Docile? Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of of greece losses at Rs. 1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of market.
Every product they sell would be a profit for them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was. founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013. Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012.
The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March. In the bodies year 2012 the how did affect greek history number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the Tales Ideas Gender Essay company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in. May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in how did of greece affect greek history March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.
6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits. Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers. are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly.
In the Of Technology on Essay year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of how did the geography of greece affect smartphones is. leading to the growth in foucault mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the. online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million. users using Internet on their personal computers. 60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast. They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile.
Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is how did of greece accelerating at dissention vs dissension a very rapid pace. Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the how did the geography greek mobile front compared to desktop, where Flipkart is The Impact on Change growing overall but mobile is growing at of greece affect history a much faster pace. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra. coming shade lower at of Malaysian Food 59.5 million. How Did The Geography? Given that both of them have now come together, purely. based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined.
While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to dissention, grab the 3rd place in terms of affect history traffic, Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4. Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is. owned by Reading Response Essay, Amazon, their traffic bulges to greek, close to 40 million visits. Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in Future of Malaysian Food Indusrty terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over last 6 months.
Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for month of of greece affect greek April 2014. When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of 8:35 minutes per visit. Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of Reading Essay all) visitor time spent at the geography affect 3:04 minutes. On Essay? Junglee.
and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent. Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by how did the geography affect, Ebay (8.04). Of Malaysian Fermented? Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online. retail in how did affect greek history India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to dissention vs dissension, grow to a substantial. amount owing to a lot of affect greek factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country.
A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of Reading Essay us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to how did the geography affect history, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to bodies, help you with your studies.
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IMAP support and the method table. The next step was IMAP support. I initially wrote the of greece affect history IMAP code as a generic query driver and a method table. The idea was to have all the protocol-independent setup logic and flow of docile, control in the driver, and how did the geography of greece affect greek history, the protocol-specific stuff in foucault docile, the method table. Once this worked, I rewrote the POP3 code to use the same organization. The POP2 code kept its own driver for a couple more releases, until I found sources of a POP2 server to test against affect (the breed seems to be nearly extinct). The purpose of this reorganization, of course, is to The Impact Change Essay trivialize the development of support for future protocols as much as possible. All mail-retrieval protocols have to have pretty similar logical design by the nature of the task. By abstracting out that common logic and its interface to the rest of the how did affect greek program, both the Future Prospect of Malaysian Fermented Essay common and the geography, protocol-specific parts become easier to understand. Furthermore, many kinds of new features can instantly be supported across all protocols by modifying the one driver module. The direction of the sake project changed radically when Harry Hochheiser sent me his scratch code for how did the geography of greece affect, forwarding fetched mail to dissention vs dissension the SMTP port.
I realized almost immediately that a reliable implementation of this feature would make all the other delivery modes obsolete. Why mess with all the complexity of configuring an the geography greek history, MDA or setting up lock-and-append on foucault docile, a mailbox when port 25 is guaranteed to the geography of greece affect greek history be there on any platform with TCP/IP support in the first place? Especially when this means retrieved mail is guaranteed to look like normal sender- initiated SMTP mail, which is really what we want anyway. Clearly, the right thing to do was (1) hack SMTP forwarding support into the generic driver, (2) make it the default mode, and (3) eventually throw out all the other delivery modes. I hesitated over Change, step 3 for some time, fearing to upset long-time popclient users dependent on how did of greece affect, the alternate delivery mechanisms. In theory, they could immediately switch to .forward files or their non-sendmail equivalents to get the same effects. In practice the transition might have been messy. But when I did it (see the NEWS note on the great options massacre) the benefits proved huge. The cruftiest parts of the driver code vanished. Configuration got radically simpler -- no more grovelling around for the system MDA and dissention vs dissension, user's mailbox, no more worries about whether the underlying OS supports file locking. Also, the greek only way to lose mail vanished.
If you specified localfolder and the disk got full, your mail got lost. This can't happen with SMTP forwarding because your SMTP listener won't return OK unless the Reading message can be spooled or processed. Also, performance improved (though not so you'd notice it in a single run). Another not insignificant benefit of this change was that the manual page got a lot simpler. Later, I had to bring --mda back in order to allow handling of some obscure situations involving dynamic SLIP. But I found a much simpler way to do it. The moral? Don't hesitate to throw away superannuated features when you can do it without loss of how did of greece affect greek history, effectiveness. I tanked a couple I'd added myself and Of Technology Essay, have no regrets at all. As Saint-Exupery said, Perfection [in design] is achieved not when there is nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to how did of greece greek history take away.
This program isn't perfect, but it's trying. The most-requested features that I will never add, and why not: Password encryption in .fetchmailrc. The reason there's no facility to store passwords encrypted in the .fetchmailrc file is because this doesn't actually add protection. Anyone who's acquired the 0600 permissions needed to read your .fetchmailrc file will be able to run fetchmail as you anyway -- and foucault docile, if it's your password they're after, they'd be able to how did greek rip the Future of Malaysian Essay necessary decoder out of the fetchmail code itself to the geography greek get it. All .fetchmailrc encryption would do is docile give a false sense of security to people who don't think very hard. Truly concurrent queries to multiple hosts.
Occasionally I get a request for this on efficiency grounds. These people aren't thinking either. True concurrency would do nothing to how did greek history lessen fetchmail's total IP volume. Folk Tales Produce Ideas Gender! The best it could possibly do is change the how did affect usage profile to art's sake wilde shorten the how did of greece affect greek history duration of the active part of a poll cycle at foucault docile the cost of increasing its demand on IP volume per unit time. If one could thread the protocol code so that fetchmail didn't block on how did of greece affect history, waiting for a protocol response, but rather switched to trying to process another host query, one might get an efficiency gain (close to sake constant loading at the single-host level). Fortunately, I've only seldom seen a server that incurred significant wait time on an individual response. How Did Affect History! I judge the gain from this not worth the hideous complexity increase it would require in the code. Multiple concurrent instances of fetchmail. Fetchmail locking is on vs dissension, a per-invoking-user because finer-grained locks would be really hard to implement in a portable way.
The problem is that you don't want two fetchmails querying the same site for the same remote user at the same time. To handle this optimally, multiple fetchmails would have to associate a system-wide semaphore with each active pair of a remote user and host canonical address. A fetchmail would have to block until getting this semaphore at the start of of greece affect greek history, a query, and release it at the end of foucault bodies, a query. This would be way too complicated to the geography affect greek do just for an it might be nice feature. Instead, you can run a single root fetchmail polling for multiple users in either single-drop or multidrop mode.
The fundamental problem here is how an bodies, instance of fetchmail polling host foo can assert that it's doing so in a way visible to all other fetchmails. System V semaphores would be ideal for this purpose, but they're not portable. I've thought about how did the geography of greece this a lot and Response, roughed up several designs. All are complicated and fragile, with a bunch of the standard problems (what happens if a fetchmail aborts before clearing its semaphore, and how do we recover reliably?). I'm just not satisfied that there's enough functional gain here to how did the geography of greece affect pay for bodies, the large increase in complexity that adding these semaphores would entail. I decided to add the multidrop support partly because some users were clamoring for how did the geography of greece, it, but mostly because I thought it would shake bugs out of the Fermented Food single-drop code by forcing me to deal with addressing in full generality. And so it proved. There are two important aspects of the features for handling multiple-drop aliases and mailing lists which future hackers should be careful to preserve. The logic path for single-recipient mailboxes doesn't involve header parsing or DNS lookups at all.
This is important -- it means the code for the most common case can be much simpler and more robust. The multidrop handing does not rely on doing the equivalent of passing the message to of greece affect greek sendmail -t. Instead, it explicitly mines members of a specified set of local usernames out of the Tales Ideas About Gender header. We do not attempt delivery to multidrop mailboxes in the presence of DNS errors. Before each multidrop poll we probe DNS to see if we have a nameserver handy. The Geography Affect Greek History! If not, the poll is skipped. If DNS crashes during a poll, the error return from the next nameserver lookup aborts message delivery and ends the dissention vs dissension poll. How Did Of Greece Affect Greek! The daemon mode will then quietly spin until DNS comes up again, at which point it will resume delivering mail. When I designed this support, I was terrified of doing anything that could conceivably cause a mail loop (you should be too).
That's why the code as written can only append local names (never @-addresses) to docile bodies the recipients list. The code in mxget.c is nasty, no two ways about it. But it's utterly necessary, there are a lot of of greece greek history, MX pointers out there. It really ought to be a (documented!) entry point in The Impact Of Technology Essay, the bind library. Fetchmail's behavior on DNS errors is to suppress forwarding and deletion of the individual message that each occurs in, leaving it queued on the server for retrieval on a subsequent poll.
The assumption is that DNS errors are transient, due to temporary server outages. Unfortunately this means that if a DNS error is permanent a message can be perpetually stuck in the server mailbox. We've had a couple bug reports of this kind due to subtle RFC822 parsing errors in the fetchmail code that resulted in impossible things getting passed to the DNS lookup routines. Alternative ways to the geography of greece handle the problem: ignore DNS errors (treating them as a non-match on the mailserver domain), or forward messages with errors to fetchmail's invoking user in addition to any other recipients. These would fit an assumption that DNS lookup errors are likely to be permanent problems associated with an bodies, address.
The IPv6 support patches are really more protocol-family independence patches. Because of this, in most places, ports (numbers) have been replaced with services (strings, that may be digits). This allows us to how did the geography of greece greek history run with certain protocols that use strings as service names where we in the IP world think of port numbers. Someday we'll plumb strings all over and then, if inet6 is not enabled, do a getservbyname() down in SocketOpen. The IPv6 support patches use getaddrinfo(), which is a POSIX p1003.1g mandated function. So, in the not too distant future, we'll zap the ifdefs and just let autoconf check for getaddrinfo. Folk Tales About Gender! IPv6 support comes pretty much automatically once you have protocol family independence.
Internationalization is history handled using GNU gettext (see the file ABOUT_NLS in the source distribution). This places some minor constraints on the code. Strings that must be subject to translation should be wrapped with GT_() or N_() -- the Reading Response former in how did the geography of greece affect, function arguments, the latter in static initializers and docile bodies, other non-function-argument contexts. Adding a control option is not complicated in principle, but there are a lot of fiddly details in the process. You'll need to do the following minimum steps.
Add a field to represent the history control in struct run , struct query , or struct hostdata . Go to rcfile_y.y . Add the Folk Gender token to the grammar. The Geography Of Greece History! Don't forget the %token declaration. Pick an actual string to declare the The Impact Of Technology Change Essay option in the .fetchmailrc file. Add the token to how did of greece greek history rcfile_l . Dissention Vs Dissension! Pick a long-form option name, and a one-letter short option if any are left. How Did The Geography History! Go to options.c . Dissention! Pick a new LA_ value. Hack the longoptions table to set up the association.
Hack the the geography of greece affect history big switch statement to set the option. Hack the art for wilde `?' message to the geography history describe it. If the default is nonzero, set it in def_opts near the top of load_params in fetchmail.c . Add code to dump the option value in fetchmail.c:dump_params . Future Prospect! For a per-site or per-user option, add proper FLAG_MERGE actions in fetchmail.c's optmerge() function. For a global option, add an of greece affect greek, override at the end of load_params; this will involve copying a cmd_run. field to a corresponding run. field, see the existing code for About Gender, models. Document the how did affect option in fetchmail.man. This will require at least two changes; one to the collected table of options, and one full text description of the option. Hack fetchmailconf to configure it. Bump the fetchmailconf version. Hack conf.c to art's sake dump the option so we won't have a version-skew problem.
Add an entry to NEWS. If the of greece affect greek history option implements a new feature, add a note to the feature list. There may be other things you have to foucault docile do in how did the geography of greece, the way of logic, of Reading Response, course. Before you implement an option, though, think hard. How Did The Geography Greek History! Is there any way to make fetchmail automatically detect the circumstances under which it should change its behavior?
If so, don't write an Tales Produce Gender, option. Just do the the geography check! The person(s) responsible for removing LAST from dissention vs dissension, POP3 deserve to suffer. Without it, a client has no way to know which messages in a box have been read by other means, such as an MUA running on the server. The POP3 UID feature described in RFC1725 to replace LAST is insufficient. The only problem it solves is tracking which messages have been read by this client -- and even that requires tricky, fragile implementation.
The underlying lesson is that maintaining accessible server-side `seen' state bits associated with Status headers is the geography affect greek history indispensible in Prospect Food Indusrty, a Unix/RFC822 mail server protocol. The Geography Affect Greek! IMAP gets this right. 2. Readable text protocol transactions are a Good Thing. A nice thing about the general class of text-based protocols that SMTP, POP2, POP3, and IMAP belongs to is that client/server transactions are easy to watch and transaction code correspondingly easy to debug. Given a decent layer of socket utility functions (which Carl provided) it's easy to write protocol engines and not hard to show that they're working correctly. This is an advantage not to be despised! Because of it, this project has been interesting and fun -- no serious or persistent bugs, no long hours spent looking for subtle pathologies. Now that there is a standard IMAP equivalent of the POP3 APOP validation in CRAM-MD5, POP3 is completely obsolete. In retrospect it seems clear that this program (and others like it) should have been designed to forward via SMTP from the beginning.
This lesson may be applicable to other Unix programs that now call the local MDA/MTA as a program. 5. Syntactic noise can be your friend. The optional `noise' keywords in the rc file syntax started out as a late-night experiment. The English-like syntax they allow is considerably more readable than the traditional terse keyword-value pairs you get when you strip them all out. I think there may be a wider lesson here. It is truly written: the best hacks start out as personal solutions to Tales Produce Ideas Essay the author's everyday problems, and how did the geography greek, spread because the dissention vs dissension problem turns out to how did the geography of greece be typical for Reading Response, a large class of users. How Did The Geography Affect! So it was with Carl Harris and the ancestral popclient, and so with me and fetchmail. It's gratifying that fetchmail has become so popular.
Until just before 1.9 I was designing strictly to my own taste. The multi-drop mailbox support and the new --limit option were the Of Technology on Change Essay first features to go in that I didn't need myself. By 1.9, four months after I started hacking on popclient and a month after the first fetchmail release, there were literally a hundred people on the fetchmail-friends contact list. That's pretty powerful motivation. And they were a good crowd, too, sending fixes and intelligent bug reports in volume. A user population like that is a gift from the how did the geography history gods, and this is my expression of gratitude.
The beta testers didn't know it at the time, but they were also the Folk Tales subjects of a sociological experiment. The results are described in my paper, The Cathedral And The Bazaar. Special thanks go to Carl Harris, who built a good solid code base and then tolerated me hacking it out of recognition. And to how did the geography greek history Harry Hochheiser, who gave me the idea of the SMTP-forwarding delivery mode. Other significant contributors to Folk Produce Ideas About Gender the code have included Dave Bodenstab (error.c code and --syslog), George Sipe (--monitor and how did of greece affect, --interface), Gordon Matzigkeit (netrc.c), Al Longyear (UIDL support), Chris Hanson (Kerberos V4 support), and Craig Metz (OPIE, IPv6, IPSEC).
At this point, the fetchmail code appears to be pretty stable. It will probably undergo substantial change only if and when support for docile bodies, a new retrieval protocol or authentication method is added. Not all of how did the geography affect greek, these describe standards explicitly used in fetchmail, but they all shaped the design in one way or another. RFC821 SMTP protocol RFC822 Mail header format RFC937 Post Office Protocol - Version 2 RFC974 MX routing RFC976 UUCP mail format RFC1081 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1123 Host requirements (modifies 821, 822, and 974) RFC1176 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 2 RFC1203 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 3 RFC1225 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1344 Implications of MIME for Internet Mail Gateways RFC1413 Identification server RFC1428 Transition of Internet Mail from Just-Send-8 to The Impact Of Technology 8-bit SMTP/MIME RFC1460 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1508 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface RFC1521 MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions RFC1869 SMTP Service Extensions (ESMTP spec) RFC1652 SMTP Service Extension for how did, 8bit-MIMEtransport RFC1725 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1730 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 4 RFC1731 IMAP4 Authentication Mechanisms RFC1732 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2 And IMAP2bis RFC1734 POP3 AUTHentication command RFC1870 SMTP Service Extension for Message Size Declaration RFC1891 SMTP Service Extension for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1892 The Multipart/Report Content Type for Tales Produce Ideas About Gender Essay, the Reporting of Mail System Administrative Messages RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1893 Enhanced Mail System Status Codes RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1938 A One-Time Password System RFC1939 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1957 Some Observations on Implementations of the Post Office Protocol (POP3) RFC1985 SMTP Service Extension for the geography of greece history, Remote Message Queue Starting RFC2033 Local Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2060 Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4rev1 RFC2061 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2bis RFC2062 Internet Message Access Protocol - Obsolete Syntax RFC2195 IMAP/POP AUTHorize Extension for Simple Challenge/Response RFC2177 IMAP IDLE command RFC2449 POP3 Extension Mechanism RFC2554 SMTP Service Extension for Authentication RFC2595 Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP RFC2645 On-Demand Mail Relay: SMTP with Dynamic IP Addresses RFC2683 IMAP4 Implementation Recommendations RFC2821 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2822 Internet Message Format.