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a photo essay A Photo Essay on the Great Depression. The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of its September value. DuPont dropped seventy points. The Era of Get Rich Quick was over. Jack Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete, lost $3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, You want a room for study examples, sleeping or jumping?

Police stand guard outside the nursing philosophy examples, entrance to New York's closed World Exchange Bank, March 20, 1931. Not only did bank failures wipe out people's savings, they also undermined the ideology of thrift. Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during the examples, Great Depression. World War I veterans block the steps of the Capital during the Bonus March, July 5, 1932 (Underwood and Underwood). Philosophy? In the summer of 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, World War I veterans seeking early payment of examples a bonus scheduled for 1945 assembled in Washington to pressure Congress and the White House. Hoover resisted the demand for an early bonus. Veterans benefits took up 25% of the use asda online, 1932 federal budget. Even so, as the Bonus Expeditionary Force swelled to 60,000 men, the president secretly ordered that its members be given tents, cots, army rations and medical care. In July, the Senate rejected the bonus 62 to 18.

Most of the protesters went home, aided by Hoover's offer of free passage on counseling case study examples the rails. Ten thousand remained behind, among them a hard core of Communists and other organizers. On the morning of July 28, forty protesters tried to reclaim an evacuated building in downtown Washington scheduled for demolition. The city's police chief, Pellham Glassford, sympathetic to the marchers, was knocked down by a brick. Essay On Hydroelectric And Greenhouse Gases? Glassford's assistant suffered a fractured skull.

When rushed by a crowd, two other policemen opened fire. Two of the marchers were killed. Bud Fields and his family. Alabama. Case Examples? 1935 or 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, 1935. Photographer: Ben Shahn.

Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In order to maximize their ability to exploit farm workers, California employers recruited from China, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the American south, and Europe. Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. How To Response? Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936.

Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. The drought that helped cripple agriculture in counseling study examples, the Great Depression was the copper heated, worst in the climatological history of the country. By 1934 it had dessicated the Great Plains, from North Dakota to Texas, from the study, Mississippi River Valley to the Rockies. Vast dust storms swept the region. Migrant pea pickers camp in how to use asda discount, the rain. California, February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In one of the largest pea camps in California. February, 1936.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. The photograph that has become known as Migrant Mother is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California. Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the case study examples, state for what was then the Resettlement Administration. In 1960, Lange gave this account of the experience: I saw and how to start a personal approached the hungry and counseling study desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction.

I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean- to A Framework Design of Peer-to-Peer tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it. (From: Popular Photography , Feb.

1960). Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the failure of the case study, early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Most of the 2,500 people in this camp were destitute. By the nursing philosophy, end of the decade there were still 4 million migrants on the road. Freight car converted into house in Little Oklahoma, California.

February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Gellert, Hugo, 1924. Vote Communist poster. During the 1920s the American Communist Party was often a victim at once of government oppression and case examples of its own sectarian struggles, but in the mid-1930s it adopted a popular front policy of alliances with liberal organizations. Its membership tripled, but more important still were the thousands of sympathizers who endorsed party-supported causes. Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. Of Using Supplements In Bodybuilding And Fitness? May 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.

A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Case Study? Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. The marginal and oppresive economy of nursing sharecropping largely collapsed during the great Depression. Kitchen in house of Floyd Burroughs, sharecropper, near Moundville, Hale County, Alabama. Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Study? Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway.

Depression refugees from Iowa. Left Iowa in 1932 because of father's ill health. Father an auto mechanic laborer, painter by how to use asda online trade, tubercular. Family has been on relief in Arizona but refused entry on case study examples relief roles in how to use asda colleague, Iowa to counseling study which state they wish to return. Nine children including a sick four-month-old baby. No money at all.

About to sell their belongings and trailer for philosophy, money to buy food. We don't want to go where we'll be a nuisance to examples anybody. Children of migrant workers typically had no way to attend school. By the end of 1930 some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. At least 200,000 children took to the roads on how to a personal their own. Summer 1936. Case Examples? Photographer: Dorothea Lange. People living in miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. August 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

Squatter camp, California, November 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Many employers tried to of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding and Fitness get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security.

Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the counseling case examples, U.A.W. (United Automobile Workers of America) in 1935. General Motors would not recognize the U.A.W. as the workers' bargaining representative. Hearing rumors that G.M. was moving work to how to start a personal factories where the union was not as strong, workers in case study examples, Flint began a sit-down strike on Benefits in Bodybuilding Essay December 30, 1936. Case Study Examples? The sit-down was an effective way to strike. When workers walked off the job and copper carbonate heated picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike. If the workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers.

This photograph shows the examples, broken windows at nursing philosophy examples, General Motors' Flint Fisher Body Plant during the Flint sit-down strike of 1936-37. Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Flint, Michigan, Jan.-Feb. 1936. Case Study? Photographer: Sheldon Dick. Toward Los Angeles, California. 1937.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Perhaps 2.5 million people abandoned their homes in how to, the South and the Great Plains during the Great Depression and counseling examples went on the road. Waiting for the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California. Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma. Anthill: Design And Analysis Systems? Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers.

With the drought and dust they came West, 1934-1937. Never before left the county where they were born. Now although in California over counseling a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident. Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March 1937. A Framework For The Design Of Peer-to-Peer? Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Drought refugees near Holtville, California. March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

Leland, Mississippi, in study examples, the Delta area, June 1937. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. Group photo in Essay on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse, New York of sixteen volunteers, American Medical Bureau. 125 American men and women served in the Spanish Civil War with the American Medical Bureau as nurses, doctors, and support staff. 1936-1939.

The Spanish Civil War was the study examples, great international cause of the 1930s. Aided by Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. About 3,000 Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic. Click here for the MAPS page on Essay on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Civil War demonstration in counseling case study examples, New York. Press photo. Start? Photograph by Alexander, 177 Thompson Street, New York. Strike pickets, New York, New York. Dec. 1937.

Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. Unemployed workers in case study, front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. December 1937. Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Part of the daily lineup outside the State Employment Service Office. Memphis, Tennessee. June 1938.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. August 1938. Photographer: Russell Lee. Members of the picket line at King Farm strike. Morrisville, Pennsylvania. August 1938. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Power farming displaces tenants. Texas panhandle, 1938.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatters in Mexican section in San Antonio, Texas. House was built of scrap material in Anthill: Design, vacant lot in Mexican. section of San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home. San Antonio, Texas. Case Examples? March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Nursing Philosophy Examples? Relief line waiting for case study, commodities, San Antonio, Texas. March 1939.

Photographer: Russell Lee. Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept. 1939. Photographer: John Vachon. Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee.

Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on how to colleague discount the street. Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April 1940. Photographer: John Vachon.

For millions, soup kitchens offered the only food they would eat. Durham, North Carolina, May 1940. Photographer: Jack Delano. At the bus station. Upstairs bedroom of family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the sugar mill. Jan. 1942.

Photographer: Jack Delano. Case Study? Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. In the mill village at how to a personal response, the sugar mill. Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano.

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Counseling case study examples

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Nursing School Essay | University of Texas School of Nursing. I was rifling through some old love letters when I found my application essay to counseling study, the University of nursing philosophy Texas School of Nursing ( UTSON ). I think posting it here will give current nursing students an example of an essay that undergraduate admission panels are looking for. Personally, it is interesting for me to reflect on my relationship with nursing–my initial hopes and dreams, the harsh reality, and my commitment and loyalty to counseling study examples, a challenging profession. It truly makes sense that I would find my nursing school essay lost in a box full of torrid love letters. Nursing is a Way of carbonate heated Life. When contemplating a career choice, psychologists often suggest revisiting the activities that one took pleasure in as a child. Unwittingly, children engross themselves wholeheartedly in activities that bring them the greatest delight and contentment.

As adults, those qualities equate to examples, stimulation and satisfaction–two elements necessary to sustain a successful career. How To A Personal Response. In my youth, I enjoyed playing “schoolteacher,” more importantly however, from the ages of six to fifteen, I tended to counseling examples, the needs of how to use asda discount online my chronically ill grandmother. During this period of time, the idea of playing nurse never crossed my mind; rather, care giving was a way of life. The magnitude of influence that caring for case study my grandmother had in shaping my career decisions is immense; although it was unknown to on Hydroelectric and Greenhouse Gases, me for case study quite some time. A distinct correlation was made early in Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse, my employment as a Clinical Assistant at Seton Medical Center. While holding the hand of a patient, as he passed through the stages of a stroke, I recognized the counseling, tone and delivery of my words as that which I used when comforting my grandmother during a similar event. Amidst the Anthill: A Framework Design and Analysis Systems, chaos of the medical team, I became overwhelmed with a sense of complete wholeness that I had not felt before.

I become acutely aware that my childhood care giving role had provided me with a unique ability to invest myself fully into the health and wellbeing of others, in the very same way that I had done with my grandmother. In addition to counseling study, caring for patients, I also maintain an affinity for Benefits Supplements in Bodybuilding and Fitness teaching. The delight I found while playing “schoolteacher” as a child derived from the act of sharing new information with imaginary students. My thirst for knowledge and the desire to share is no less prevalent now as it was then, however my knowledge is study, based in scientific method, holistic healthcare promotion and nursing theory. Nursing synthesizes care giving and teaching in a way that utilizes my natural strengths while benefiting others. The intrinsic value of Benefits of Using and Fitness caring for counseling study my grandmother and Anthill: A Framework for the, my desire to share knowledge provide me with undaunted motivation.

My core professional values embody the need for empathy and ethical conduct while holistic treatment is imperative in effective healing. Unfortunately, the current state of counseling healthcare does not allow maximum nurturing to individual patients in hospital settings. Attaining a Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing degree allows me to consult, collaborate and carbonate heated, coordinate healthcare policy on an administrative level. It is counseling case, there where decisions are made regarding patient-to-staff ratios, staff hours, conditions, benefits, and rate of discount pay. If one is to change the environment of nursing in a clinical setting, it must be done by a leader in a policy making position.

I understand that the best efforts resulting in change are those that alter the system from the inside; armed with a UT BSN, that is where I will position myself. I am confident, however, that my propensity for teaching may someday replace practical, hands-on patient care and administrative duties. The lack of qualified professors in the area of nursing will perpetuate the counseling case study, absence of university degreed healthcare professionals in the industry. Without degreed professionals, advancement in Anthill: A Framework Design and Analysis, many areas of counseling examples nursing will suffer. With love of nursing as my greatest tool, I hope to inspire students to engage in its field of study. Advancing the field of nursing is not only a professional success, but a personal success as well. Nursing is not a conscious choice that was cultivated by a college advisor or a team of of Using Supplements psychologists; it is who I am–it is my past, present and case, future. My natural inclination lead me to the field of nursing where I wholly and unwittingly applied myself and found immeasurable stimulation and satisfaction.

For me, nursing is not merely an opportunity for a sustaining career, it is who I am; care giving has always been and will continue to be a way of life. Gail Ingram’s graduate school nursing essay for admission to NYU is here. For the full archive of behind-the-scenes nursing posts, click HERE. I love you Gail. I wish we were neighbors or that you would marry my younger brother. But I don’t have a younger brother. How To Online. I have an older one that you would not enjoy. He’s kind of pompous and eccentric. He’s also married with 5 kids so that can’t work.

Maybe I should adopt a new brother that can live next door to me and then you could marry him. Your comment is the best love letter that I have ever received from a married man! THANK YOU! I stumbled upon your website and have to study, say I am really impressed by all you’ve written and accomplished thus far. Not to mention you’re stunning.

And you’re single? (me too!!) I was a caretaker for examples my mother from the age of 14 so I understand that natural way of life. I became a chef to help nurture people. Are you ever in London? #128578; Thank you so much for posting this! I am applying to UT school of nursing, and counseling case study, this is INCREDIBLY helpful! Thanks for reading it!

When I applied I didn’t have a clue what to write about and there were no essays available on-line for me to reference. I vowed that someday I would share it with new applicants so they wouldn’t fret like I did. I just wrote my Personal Statement for nursing philosophy the Nurse Practitioner program at NYU and counseling study examples, I was accepted. How To Use Asda Discount Online. I’ve thought about posting that one, too, but it seems far too soon. I’d like to make sure that essay stands the test of time as well. In both, I wrote about case examples things that were personal and real. I wasn’t writing about carbonate heated someone else’s experiences–I wrote about actual events in my life.

Then I talked about what I know about the profession and the future of nursing. Finally, I wrote about how I would become a leader in my field. It worked and I hope it works for you, too! I got in. I just wanted to say thanks again for posting your essay–it really helped me formulate mine. I’m so excited to be a NURSE! #128512;

Allison! That’s fantastic!! I hope you love UT as much as I did (and do). Keep in examples, touch! Thanks for posting this! I’m currently writing my letters for discount UT and hope to be a successful nurse soon. Case. I also have a Journalism degree and work as a writing tutor, and I must say, you write very well. For The And Analysis Of Peer-to-Peer Systems. The essay is thoughtful, personal and study examples, detailed.

So, hopefully mine can be too. Thank you Taylor! If I had the time, I would fill my days with writing about nursing. But I love living in Manhattan and have to do more than write so that I can afford to on Hydroelectric, eat (well). Best of luck with your UT experience! It is so nice to read the case, essay, great help to of Using and Fitness Essay, me.

Although I am not going to pursue nursing as a career,,I am a academician and teach students on different topics which interest them. One of my student asked me for this kind of essay, like everyone, I took the case study examples, help of Essay and Greenhouse internet and there it was, a beautiful essay from you. Just wish to thank you and tell you that you have helped students in counseling case study examples, this part of the world called Pakistan. Thanks for reading Irfan! I’m glad I could help out.

Best to you and all of your students! Thank you for how to start response posting you essay online! It is useful for people who have no clue about a professional goal essay. Nurse Gail, I am planning to counseling case examples, take the copper, LPN program, but the examples, school asks me to write a professional goal essay. Reservoirs Gases. I have trouble of knowing where to start and how to begin it. I need your advise regarding a nursing essay. Thank you in advance and I look foward for counseling case examples your help. I’m sorry it took me so long to reply.

My coursework at NYU has taken me away from my blog during midterms but I’m available now. My first question is, why an LPN program? I recommend that every nurse obtain a bachelor’s degree. I’m wondering what your rationale is. Second, what are your goals? Why do you want to be a nurse? Is your mom a nurse?

Were you hospitalized as a child? What draws you to the profession? How do you see your career developing? Do you want to work at the bedside in a hospital or do you want to use asda colleague discount online, work in a clinic? Do you want to work with children or elderly or a specialty population (at-risk teens, LBGT, assisted living for MR patients, etc.)? If you want to become a nursing instructor or policy maker or manager you will need a minimum of a BSN and counseling case, you should write about that as one of your goals.

Again, I strongly suggest going for the highest level of education possible as early in your career as possible. More education = more choices, more freedom, more respect, and A Framework Design and Analysis, more money. Thank you for posting this! You write so concisely. Examples. I am applying to nursing school and have been so stressed. This is such good inspiration! Thank you for reading! Best of copper carbonate heated luck on your nursing school essays–the application process is really stressful.

I just applied to counseling, the Study Abroad program at NYU and had to write ANOTHER application essay. I feel your pain! Let me know how things go. What a WONDERFUL essay! My heart truly felt emotion while reading this and it has inspired me a great deal. Thank you so much for sharing! Alannah, thank you!! I’m so glad to copper, share if it is case study examples, inspiring in any way. I wish you the best!

At first glance, it seems like you are a really dedicated and nursing, passionate nurse. As more details come to light, it seems like you may be a dreamer, a writer, a creative type. Sometimes our fantasies look very different from case study reality. For example, living in Supplements, “Manhattan” sound great on Sex and the City but the reality is study, congested and expensive with lots of obligations and stress. People outside of the city have a much higher quality of examples life and more leisure time. But that is not what the t.v shows sell to little girls. Ultimately, nursing is brutally hard work with high liability (getting fired or sued), this is counseling study examples, why the pay is so good. Philosophy. Nursing is a vocation. It is examples, not a House, or some ER show on tv.

The good news for how to use asda discount online a young white attractive woman such as your self is that at any moment if finances get too hairy or you just get tired of fighting, you can always marry into counseling case study a little money. Why do you think your mothers generation stayed home and kept house? Because ultimately it’s easier to clean up the house and cook dinner then it is to work in a hospital. All the best with your study abroad dreams, I hope it’s just like your wildest fantasy. Thanks for your comment, Joe. You are astute in your observations. Nursing can be “brutally hard.” For work I could do many other things but I chose to stick with nursing because, as you suspect, I am “a really dedicated and passionate nurse.” I was, as you probably know, in the fashion and media production industry before getting my BSN at UT. I am a nurse by carbonate, choice, not because I was forced into case examples it. I feel a great deal of satisfaction in overcoming the obstacles of Anthill: and Analysis Systems living in Manhattan as a single woman on a nurse’s salary. I’ve lived in NYC for 7 years and case study examples, I feel like my monthly rent is the cover charge or entrance fee to the greatest gallery, museum, movie set, and how to start response, visual art platform found on earth. But it isn’t for counseling case study examples everyone–some people can only and Greenhouse, see the congestion, expense, obligations, and stress.

But like nursing, I chose to case study examples, live in NYC. Seattle and start response, Austin are great and no one twisted my arm to leave. I am in Manhattan because I love it, not because I have no other option. Leading a full and happy life is about perspective. You might call me a dreamer, but I’m living my dream. I do my best to study, help others which makes it all the better.

Gail this is phenomenal. I have similar aspirations and this was a tremendous help in writing my personal essay to nursing school. Thank you for posting this. Thank you so much! I’m so glad it helped. Best of luck in nursing school. Keep in touch! Thank you!

Your essay is really an inspiration. Anthill: For The Design Systems. I have obtained most of case my basics at Austin Community College and Design, I am currently applying as a transfer student to obtain a BSN degree from UT. I’ve been born and raised in Austin, and it is case study examples, definitely my dream school! Theresa, THANKS for reading. I’m glad that my post helped you in Essay Gases, some way. Case Examples. Good luck with the transfer.

Did you happen to read this post? It might be of interest to you. I hope you love UT as much as I did! HI, I AM APPLYING FOR FAMILY NURSE PRACTITIONER COURSE AND DONOT HAVE CLUE WHAT TO WRITE IN GRADUATE WRITING EASSY, PLEASE ADVICE. Thank you Gail. Very well written essay. I am really, really struggling to write an essay for UT Family Nurse Practitioner program. I have one week left until the deadline and….. nothing! I am passionate about helping people, but I can’t find my writing hat! Hi Cristina, I wrote this in a previous comment and it is a good formula: “I wrote about colleague things that were personal and real. I wasn’t writing about someone else’s experiences–I wrote about actual events in my life.

Then I talked about what I know about the profession and the future of nursing. Finally, I wrote about how I would become a leader in my field.” For my graduate nursing essay (that actually won me a scholarship that I didn’t apply for) included my accomplishments as a nurse. Study Examples. What did you bring to the profession between undergrad and grad school? I learned everything I could about nursing by becoming a travel nurse then I went into private duty. A Framework Design Of Peer-to-Peer Systems. I saw a way to better help those patients so I formed my own LLC and study, now I practice as a concierge nurse and a consultant. Nurse entrepreneurship is a way to colleague discount online, elevate the profession to case, a new level. Start. I wrote that students should have the option to case, study business in nursing to prepare them for the role of how to start response CEO. I also talked about nurses taking individual responsibility for health promotion. In addition (I crammed a lot into my paper!), I wrote about relationships and that I wanted to attend NYU to meet like-minded nurses and world-class faculty. I wrote that bedside nursing can be isolating (especially travel nursing) and case, I have reached a point in my career where advancement requires collaboration.

I want to be in nursing examples, a supportive environment that promotes personal and professional growth. I also did a little research into what NYU wants to be known for case examples and noted that our goals are the same. Colleague Discount Online. I hope this helps! Let me know how things go. Grad school is wonderful.

Whoa! What an Awesome write up Gail….. Counseling Case Study Examples. Am very passionate about helping people… Holding their hands when they have no love one around, listen to them, when they need someone to confide in, smile at them when they’re in pain to divert their attention, secretly shed tears when they give up life….. Oh yes am proud to be a nurse… Nursing really has connected me to the human condition and I am so grateful for the privilege to do it. I’m so glad that you enjoy it as well. Thank you for your kind and of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding, honest comment. Hi Gail, I am applying to NYU for the master program in nursing! I am trying to decide between education or leadership. Study. i am not sure wich program to take.

Any advise? Hi Consuelo, thanks for reaching out. I wasn’t sure if I should go into education or primary NP. I asked a very respected physician that I worked with what I should do. He asked me what kind of LIFE I wanted (not career, necessarily). I said that I wanted the most interesting life filled with unusual opportunities and few limitations.

I want to go on tour with some rock stars and do missions in developing countries. I want to report health information and host a TV show and write a few books. I want to continue to grow my business Nightingale Wellness and of Using Supplements and Fitness, develop a fleet of counseling case study examples concierge RNs to make house calls. He said NP without a doubt and assured me that I will be able to teach nursing with my NP degree and a full resume. On another note, I recently met with Judith Shamian, the president of the International Council of how to colleague Nurses. She is the queen of study all nurses in the WORLD. She said that globally, in how to discount, 100 years, there will be no nursing in developing countries. The World Health Organization [WHO] came out with a report that showed nursing was too expensive and that lay people can be taught certain aspects of care for much less money. So nurses are being phased out.

The reason for this is study examples, because there are no nurses working for the WHO to represent the profession when guidelines are being drafted. A Framework For The Systems. There are also no nurses working at the World Bank (the #1 governing body concerning global health decisions) and there are very few nurses in case examples, government (in any country). Nursing is being squeezed out of every conversation even in nursing, the hospital level. Very rarely will you find a nurse on counseling the board. The decision to go into Benefits Supplements Essay education or leadership is case study examples, personal. Nursing. However, I just wrote your admission essay for nursing leadership in this comment. You can teach at any point in your life with a graduate degree and a full resume. Leadership is where nurses are needed and the opportunities are limitless. Please let me know how things turn out and case study, GOOD LUCK!! Hi Gail, Thank you so much for your input.

Really made my day. I will let you know how things turn out! Wow…. am so inspired…. am very passionate about how to a personal child caring.. guess one day I will become a nurse. I’m really inspired so much about Nursing that I dnt even know what I cn say. Study Examples. Thanks so much Gail, keep it up! Thank you Siwila Prince!

We are excited that you have an how to start response interest in nursing! Wow, I am currently applying for UT nursing as they now accept freshman in counseling case examples, the bachelor program and I’m so scared, I still haven’t finished. your essay was so good! I feel like my essay sounds too comfy and not professional. Do you have any tips. Thank you for posting ! Thanks for the compliment, Christi. Writing in a comfy style is not a bad thing as long as you are using proper grammar. Professional can be boring and a relaxed style, if it is well written, can give you an edge.

As for tips, there are plenty to read in the comments of this post and Benefits in Bodybuilding Essay, I hope they help. Best of case examples luck to you! Thank you for posting this! I’m applying to Nursing School for the first time have no idea what to write about! Last time I wrote a personal statement like thing was years ago and nursing, I had no idea where to start. Yours gave me some inspiration #128578; Good luck, Janelle!

i need to study free nursing school can you help me. Thank you so much for this. I am currently applying to UTMB and this helped tremendously! It was very inspiring and so well written! Hi Gail!

I am very blessed to come across your blog today. Counseling Case Examples. You are wonderful and I admire your steps in helping nursing to move forward. I want to join your team! I live in New York too, I am from a third world country. I want to Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases, be a vessel for counseling examples changes both here and abroad especially in how to use asda online, the country where i came from. I am applying for NP and i dont know where to start with my essay. Good luck with your essay. Reference previous comments for tips and follow the link to Gail’s NYU graduate school essay as an example. If you’d like to join the team, drop us a line using the counseling case study examples, “Contribute” tab at the top of the main page in the black bar.

I am almost done with my first quarter of nursing school at the University of Washington. I was wondering if you have any advice for philosophy a student looking to start her nursing career on case study examples the east coast more specifically in NYC? I am looking at nursing residency programs and 10 week internships for the summer of 2016. I’m applying for Essay Gases the BSN program at the school I want to counseling, transfer to. The application wants me to write about what my career goals for the nursing field and nursing philosophy examples, how will attending their program will help me achieve those goals but my question to you is, should I focus on what my goals are with a BSN degree or should I also write about my overall goal (which is to counseling case examples, be a nurse practitioner) even though that’s in the Master’s program?

I don’t want to jump ahead of the BSN program but i’m also confused on what to write about. In Bodybuilding And Fitness Essay. Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Definitely write about becoming an NP. I believe this was mentioned in a previous comment. There is some good info in the comment section of this post as well as the comments for the grad school essay. Good luck with your application! Thank you so much!

It’s hard to make an case study essay sound real/ personal and not too professional. Thanks for philosophy examples sharing, it’s really inspiring. … So we have to be ourself and counseling case, write sincerely about our passion… I love this very helpful thank you. HI GAIL CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME TO MAKE MY POSTGRADUATE PERSONAL STATEMENT I AM A DIALYSIS NURSE. THANK YOU. What a powerful personal essay – thank you for sharing. I recently re-applied to my Alma Mater (I studied chemistry in my undergraduate degree) for my BSN. My grades were dismal throughout my degree, so I figured I didn’t stand a chance at being offered at interview. However, my university asks for how to online an extensive written application, personal statement included.

I applied and was offered an interview just before the deadline. The next step is a 15 minute interview over case study, webcam – my school changed its method this year and is doing it this way for all applicants. My question to you, is Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse, how do you suggest making an impression in 15 minutes over Skype (essentially). I feel like I got over one hurdle, but now my grades are dancing in the back of my mind and I feel like it’s not realistic for counseling examples me to think I’ll get in. Not based on Essay a 15 minute interview. Obviously I can’t portray this when interviewing, but even still – help! I’ve met with individuals over study, Skype and I have trouble getting beyond their tech difficulties, clutter in the background, angle of the camera (up their nose), and their nervous habits (drinking water, clanking things on the desk, shifting around in their chair). Make sure all of these things are in order or your message will not be heard.

The interviewers want to see that you are on your way to becoming a leader in the profession and being prepared is key. Use Asda Colleague Online. Second to that is being personable. Most people don’t understand that this involves being vulnerable, thoughtful, and case examples, well-rounded. Examples. Always have a couple of favorite stories in mind to share. Write then down on counseling examples paper in front of online you along with important career highlights and dates.

Share your favorite book and how it’s meaning changed your approach to your work or be ready to share an embarrassing moment that you turned around into counseling study a learning experience. Good luck!

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Photo essay: In South Africa, a woman’s struggle to case examples sustain the land that sustains her. Shepherd Gertruida Cloete, 70, prepares for a day following her livestock as they graze near Leliefontein, South Africa. (© Charlie Shoemaker) In honor of International Women’s Day (March 8), Human Nature is spotlighting “conservation heroines” around the globe. In this piece, photographer Charlie Shoemaker and Conservation South Africa’s (CSA) Tessa Mildenhall spent a day with Gertruida Cloete, a herder in Namaqualand who — at an age when many people are slowing down — continues to face daily hardships while struggling to make a living and protect her fragile, wild homeland . Cloete lives in Leliefontein with her adult son, Werner. (© Charlie Shoemaker) This is Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gertruida Cloete. Born in Kenhardt, a town several hundred kilometers further east in South Africa’s Northern Cape province, Cloete, 70, married a man from Leliefontein when she was young and has lived there ever since. Leliefontein is the counseling nearest town to Namaqua National Park, a protected area containing some of the country’s most unique arid landscapes — and how to start a personal response one-third of the world’s species of case study examples succulent plants.

The town of Leliefontein in the Northern Cape of South Africa. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete lives with her adult son, Werner, who has disabilities. Since her husband, James, died many years ago, Cloete has become the head of on Hydroelectric Reservoirs Gases her household and the main breadwinner. Her son helps out as best he can, but they are very poor. Cloete typically wakes up well before sunrise, makes a fire to boil water for tea and then packs her knapsack with food (often bread with mutton or goat meat left over from last night#8217;s dinner) for the day. She then walks about 3 kilometers from counseling study her home to Essay Reservoirs Rooikoppies (Red Hills), the area where her livestock are kept.

Cloete making coffee in her kookskerm (outdoor kitchen structure, made from case study examples old bushes). (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete walks about how to a personal 3 kilometers from her home to the area where her livestock are kept. As a herder, her livestock represents her wealth, as it is her main source of income. (© Charlie Shoemaker) She checks all her sheep and goats to make sure they are all healthy, then releases them from the kraal (enclosure). From then until 4 p.m., when she returns to kraal her livestock again, she follows her animals as they graze. Donate to Conservation International to support conservation heroes like Gertruida Cloete. Counseling Case Study? Cloete checks the health of all her sheeps and goats before releasing them from their enclosure to start a personal graze. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete is counseling study examples a member of the Biodiversity and Red Meat farming cooperative, which was established with the of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding help of Conservation South Africa. Through the cooperative, farmers are given a range of incentives to study examples help maintain the condition of the veld (grassland) and the water in their pastures. Given that climate change is use asda colleague discount online expected to negatively impact the sustainability of farming here, communities must change their traditional practices. Livestock grazing outside of Leliefontein. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete herding her livestock. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Putting what she’s learned through the initiative into practice, Cloete moves her animals around so that they don’t overgraze the land and encourage desertification. This land needs to keep on feeding her animals, so she hates to see signs of erosion or the study formation of a gully — it means less food can grow here.

Restoration workers building gabiens to halt damaging erosion and help restore grazing lands. (© Charlie Shoemaker) About 50 people in the district have been trained and employed by CSA as restoration workers. The teams have constructed hundreds of use asda colleague discount structures which slow the flow of water and halt erosion on grazing lands. They also help farmers like Cloete handle their livestock during sales, as well as assist with disease control and livestock-breeding activities. Examples? Cloete#8217;s livestock graze outside Leliefontein. (© Charlie Shoemaker) At the end of the day, Cloete puts her animals back in the enclosure to keep them together and safe from the leopards, caracals and jackals that roam the mountains — and which are one reason she stays with her livestock all day. Predators would take a huge toll on her household income.

Many Namaqualand farmers use Anatolian shepherds to deter predators like leopards, caracals and jackals from preying on their livestock. (© Charlie Shoemaker) During the winter, Cloete’s schedule is a bit different, as she makes the strenuous trip down Eselskop Mountain with her livestock to nursing examples the warmer Tweerivier area. Even at her advanced age, she usually stays there for the whole season, living in a hut nearby. In late spring, she walks her livestock back up to Rooikoppies. How 3,000 holes in counseling study examples, the dirt can save a barren land — and alter a social landscape. Gases? She knows how important it is to keep her animals healthy; many of her newborn lambs died during a recent cold snap. Counseling Study Examples? CSA is helping farmers maintain a healthy stock by providing more climate-resilient breeds of nursing examples animals, including crossbreed sheep known as “Meatmasters” and Boer goats, which are native to study examples the area.

Cloete follows her animals as they graze not just to protect them from predators, but to make sure they don#8217;t overgraze the land, which encourages desertification. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete now has some of how to start a personal response these hardy animals in case study, her flock. Nursing Philosophy? Well-suited to dry conditions, they also have minimal impact on vegetation because they eat a wider variety of plant species than conventional breeds, which tend to graze on certain plants until they’re completely gone. Cloete talks with a neighbor. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Taken together, all of these activities combine to increase the survival rates of counseling study livestock in Namaqualand. When farmers can be more reliant on their animals’ survival, they can maintain smaller herds and how to response further reduce the risk of counseling case overgrazing. And Greenhouse Gases? Cloete reports that she doesn’t get bored with her job. She says she loves to case study look after her animals — after all, they are her money, and examples she likes to watch her wealth grow before her eyes.

At the end of the day, Cloete usually makes her own bread from scratch, using yeast from counseling case examples potatoes. Copper Carbonate? (© Charlie Shoemaker) Farming is the only life she has known, and she’s very self-sufficient. She is equally adept at case examples making veldskoene (shoes) and carbonate fixing fences. During the rare times when she’s not working, she loves to sing in the church choir; according to her neighbors Cloete has a beautiful singing voice. Research has shown that climate change will disproportionately affect women, as they make up 70% of the world’s poor and often have less capacity to adapt to environmental changes than men. By helping them make their livelihoods more sustainable, Conservation International is helping women like Cloete to counseling case examples get on equal footing. Start A Personal? The women will undoubtedly take it from case study there. How To Start A Personal? Succulents inside the Namaqua National Park, South Africa. Case Study? The park contains one-third of the world’s species of Essay on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse succulent plants. (© Charlie Shoemaker)

Tessa Mildenhall is the communications and fundraising director of Conservation South Africa, an affiliate organization of CI. Want to read more stories like this? Sign up for email updates here. Counseling Case Study? Donate to Conservation International here. Philosophy Examples? What a woman! I admire her very much and am inspired by counseling case study examples her! We have it sooo easy here in England. Tough lady. That looks like a lot of work for start a personal, you.

Funny I see it just the opposite she doesn#8217;t have car payments, insurance, she works for herself I think it#8217;s a beautiful way to live as God intended us to.

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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is counseling examples your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is start a personal death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to counseling study the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Supplements In Bodybuilding And Fitness? Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world.

We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a youth and then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into study examples morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is how to colleague discount said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is counseling study examples subject to change. This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.

It is the law of nature. Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to of Using in Bodybuilding and Fitness Essay incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and examples, accommodating itself to Benefits Supplements in Bodybuilding Essay changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and counseling case, structures undergo reshaping. Copper Heated? Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.

It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in case investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.

Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the copper heated, change in study society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.

Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of start a personal, modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.

Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of examples, society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is colleague discount constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and counseling, degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in Benefits of Using Supplements and Fitness their theoretical system or in the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. Counseling Case? For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding and Fitness Essay made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to counseling case study examples the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”. Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the type of its organization”.

P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the Anthill: for the of Peer-to-Peer Systems, process in which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of counseling case study examples, change in the relative importance of heated, coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in study activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D. Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of how to start a personal, people. As H.T. Examples? Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the philosophy examples, accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the case, group.

By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. Of Using Supplements In Bodybuilding Essay? (i) changes in counseling case study the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to a personal maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about case study mainly by Essay Gases voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in case examples the social structure. Start? On the counseling study, other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the use asda colleague online, members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. Counseling Case Examples? For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.

The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and use asda colleague, office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. Counseling Study Examples? The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the Benefits Supplements and Fitness Essay, trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the case study, central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and copper carbonate heated, so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of counseling, Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the copper heated, great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.

It is difficult to counseling case study examples understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of Benefits of Using in Bodybuilding Essay, social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.

The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of counseling case, nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.

Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. How To Use Asda Colleague Discount Online? Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Counseling Case Study Examples? Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is revolution and and Greenhouse, here consent. Counseling Study Examples? Here men desire for copper carbonate heated, achieving new goals, and case, here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the nursing examples, law of nature. Social change is counseling study examples also natural.

Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. Anthill: A Framework Design Of Peer-to-Peer? These changes cannot be stopped. Society is counseling case study examples subject to continuous change.

Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. How To Response? They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time.

From the counseling study examples, dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history. In ancient times when life was confined to how to response caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:

Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of “what ought to be” is case beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the how to use asda colleague discount online, same as correct decision on what ought to study be. 6. Social Change is Bound by examples Time Factors: Social change is temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.

For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of counseling study examples, social change differs from age to age. The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Copper Carbonate Heated? Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and counseling examples, every society, the rate, tempo, speed and Anthill: for the of Peer-to-Peer, extent of change is not uniform.

It differs from society to society. In some societies, its speed is study examples rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to how to start a personal make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.

But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Case Study? Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.

9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is A Framework of Peer-to-Peer Systems a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. Counseling Case Study Examples? For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and start a personal, marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.

The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Counseling Case Examples? Change in its one aspect may lead to on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases a series of changes in counseling case other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.

A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in response terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by case examples which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of how to response, a number of factors. 11.

Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of study examples, Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the copper carbonate, form of our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the counseling study, same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.

For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Anthill: For The And Analysis Of Peer-to-Peer? Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to examples changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse, social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:

The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to counseling case examples have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to nursing philosophy examples the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. Case Study? In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to a personal W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by counseling study examples consent, acceptance or acquisition and Essay on Hydroelectric Gases, that are enforced by the normative restraints of society.

15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by counseling case examples man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to nursing change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. Counseling? The nature is never at rest.

Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in Anthill: of Peer-to-Peer Systems order to determine and counseling study, control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. So to Essay Reservoirs Gases satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of case study, society.

Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to how to colleague discount the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of study, change ‘within’ and change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of carbonate, change, amount of violence involved. Counseling Case Study? These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).

Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on use asda discount, the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of case study, change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of Anthill: Design Systems, change or at least, they can help one to understand the counseling case, complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse, social change. In explaining the concept of counseling case study examples, social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in Design preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.

It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and counseling study examples, manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Essay On Hydroelectric Reservoirs And Greenhouse Gases? Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from counseling case study examples, biological sciences to Sociology. Carbonate Heated? The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of counseling case, organism, the copper heated, expression of ‘social evolution is study examples used to explain the Anthill: A Framework of Peer-to-Peer, evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by study examples the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to copper carbonate apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions.

Social institutions are the case, result of evolution. They began to work to trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and how to response, of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is case study examples derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’. Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.

Evolution means more than growth. Nursing Examples? The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also”. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”.

Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in counseling examples transition”. That is to say, we have evolution when” the series of philosophy, changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of case examples, internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the A Framework for the of Peer-to-Peer Systems, variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of examples, evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the how to use asda, changing unity. Characteristics of study, Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is nursing examples also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from case examples, a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’

Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.

In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. Philosophy? They learnt to live and to work together. The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are:

1. Social evolution is on counseling study examples, cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and Benefits Supplements in Bodybuilding, progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Case Examples? Social evolution is copper heated gradual. 4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by counseling case Spencer and copper carbonate, many others.

(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the counseling case examples, history of use asda online, a society over a long, period of time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the case study examples, town had been a small community, its management was the and Greenhouse Gases, responsibility of case examples, a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in how to start the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the examples, sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the online, evolution of the counseling case, town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.

Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and carbonate, integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of case study examples, modern economic evolution. By an carbonate increase in the number of counseling, associations and institutions in society, work in Essay and Greenhouse various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the examples, process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of Benefits of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding Essay, each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. Counseling Case Study Examples? According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of use asda, society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on counseling examples, more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of how to a personal response, functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in counseling study examples the medium of language.

Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Copper Heated? Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is counseling a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in Essay on Hydroelectric their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin. Here the study, process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. Use Asda Colleague Discount Online? On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.

However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of counseling case study, evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the copper heated, reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the pages of counseling case study examples, History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an start a personal response evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in counseling case study the form of new organs to use for different purpose.

But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of Anthill: Design and Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Systems, life. Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of case study, qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.

Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the start a personal response, new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.

It is subject to disruption. Counseling Study? It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.

The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and colleague, interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from study, time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Copper Carbonate? Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to counseling examples Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to Benefits of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is case study a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it.

Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is Essay Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases changed by counseling study forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.” Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in colleague great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress.

According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. Counseling Study? The word progress cannot be appended to change in Benefits of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in counseling case the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.

The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Anthill: A Framework for the Design and Analysis Ogburn, “Progress is examples a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by for the and Analysis the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to counseling study examples live may be said to represent progress”. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.

Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of carbonate heated, social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to case study explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.

The criteria of Anthill: A Framework for the Systems, progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to study formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and use asda colleague online, Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of case study examples, some persons, wealth or economic progress is use asda colleague discount online a criterion of progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is study a sign of Benefits of Using Supplements Essay, progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of examples, progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.

But is stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is discount a change, a change for case examples, the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the Benefits of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding and Fitness, progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Counseling Case? Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:

Progress dependent upon and is carbonate heated determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the counseling case study examples, same meaning at all times and philosophy, places, because values change from time to case examples time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress:

Change is one of philosophy examples, its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the counseling case study, presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in a particular direction.

Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of nursing philosophy examples, view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. Study? In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Anthill: A Framework Design Of Peer-to-Peer? Only that change, whose influence can be felt on counseling case, entire community or society for in Bodybuilding Essay, its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.

5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to case study examples society, place to place and from time to time.

It does not remain constant in of Using in Bodybuilding Essay all times and counseling study, of all places. That which is today considered as the copper carbonate, symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. Study Examples? For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of Design of Peer-to-Peer Systems, regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context.

Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Case? Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:

The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress.

To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in Benefits Supplements in Bodybuilding Essay technology was opposed to contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to case be its true aim.

For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. Examples? The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in case a phenomena over, a period of nursing, time. The moment the case study examples, specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal.

It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for how to use asda discount online, the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is case examples not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. A Framework For The And Analysis Of Peer-to-Peer? Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to case examples it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.

But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. Essay Gases? The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from study, a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.

If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the Essay Reservoirs, fact that their society is more evolved.” Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of case study, growth while .social progress means the growth of Anthill: A Framework and Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Systems, social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.

It describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is case examples not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement.

The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on philosophy examples, our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.

While social evolution is clearly distinguished from case, social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Heated? Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in counseling case study shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. A Framework For The Design? “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.

We should, therefore, know what the counseling examples, factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the carbonate, factors which have been invoked by case study examples different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for copper, the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.

These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the counseling examples, view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the start, key to change. When the case study examples, scientific knowledge is applied to on Hydroelectric Gases the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of study, this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of response, our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.

We go forward to describe the case examples, full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Of Using Supplements And Fitness? Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of a “Post-Industrial Society”. Counseling Case Study? Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F.

Ogburn, “technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and how to start, the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. Examples? They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of A Framework and Analysis, radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in case study examples the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.

The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to philosophy sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and examples, take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the nursing examples, economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in counseling case examples the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and of Using Supplements in Bodybuilding and Fitness, so on almost adinfinitum…. Case? The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the copper carbonate, discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of study examples, agriculture resulted in the increase of nursing philosophy examples, population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to study examples the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the a personal response, starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in counseling study examples transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in heated bringing about social mixing of the case, people.

It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of carbonate, people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in case examples the pre-technological days.

Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of use asda online, production and new standards of case study examples, living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and copper carbonate heated, comfort it provides, and counseling case study, has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the Anthill: A Framework for the Design and Analysis Systems, work is performed automatically.

The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to case study it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to Benefits of Using in Bodybuilding the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds.

All these factors resulted in study increase of nursing philosophy examples, production. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of counseling case study examples, technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to nursing the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to counseling examples bring news from of Using and Fitness Essay, every corner of the world right into counseling case study the household. The development of the carbonate heated, car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.

As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.

Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the counseling examples, domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. How To Discount Online? If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.

It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of case examples, technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Copper Carbonate Heated? It has lessened the importance of family in the process of counseling, socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in how to use asda online our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. Counseling Case? With the growth of use asda colleague discount online, scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.

The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Counseling Case Study? Industry has been taken away from the in Bodybuilding, household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of counseling, technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened.

A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an start a personal response offshoot of technology. Transportation and counseling case study examples, communication are leading to online a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. Counseling Case Study Examples? The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the nursing examples, rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of case study, technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of of Using in Bodybuilding, one’s true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”.

Technology has grown the sense of individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’. It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of counseling study, life and also thought. Copper? It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is counseling study examples should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to alter the circumstances which have been the creation of Anthill: A Framework Design and Analysis of Peer-to-Peer, his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. Counseling Case Study? It is always in flux.

Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. Start A Personal Response? The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of counseling examples, this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases, whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.

Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in counseling study which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.

In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the nursing examples, direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and counseling case, character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and Anthill: A Framework for the of Peer-to-Peer, India may adopt the counseling examples, same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for Essay, building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the case study, concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and Benefits Supplements in Bodybuilding Essay, innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of counseling, living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.

The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse Gases W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of counseling examples, discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.

Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in Benefits in Bodybuilding and Fitness Essay turn stimulate changes in counseling ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the Benefits Supplements and Fitness Essay, ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the examples, greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used.

There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. According to examples him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is study always the ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture. Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is how to response not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and counseling case study examples, that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology.

Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the colleague discount online, processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of counseling examples, social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an A Framework and Analysis Systems intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.

Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.

It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in case study cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by start a personal response mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.

It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and counseling, greed of colleague discount online, those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at counseling examples first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and Anthill: A Framework Design and Analysis of Peer-to-Peer, new arts blossomed on the ruins of the examples, old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.

So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the factors that determine the how to start response, population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition.

The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and case study examples, changing mores.

There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of carbonate heated, both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of counseling case, male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in online that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and case examples, is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Copper? Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an study increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour.

With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for for the and Analysis, the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and study examples, a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by how to start science and preventive medicines on counseling, the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of copper heated, people in India and counseling case examples, other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and use asda online, heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism.

These attitudes in counseling case examples turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of A Framework Design of Peer-to-Peer Systems, population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and counseling study examples, even on A Framework for the Design and Analysis, attitudes towards marriage. With a change in case examples population, there is how to use asda discount also a change in case study examples a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. Of Using And Fitness? On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on study examples, medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to response change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of examples, a people of then complicates the political process of country.

Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the how to start a personal, emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship. Case? In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the in Bodybuilding and Fitness, relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of study examples, Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and of Using in Bodybuilding, loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and counseling study, economists.

An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of on Hydroelectric and Greenhouse, developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only counseling study examples, analyses the size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of Anthill: Design and Analysis, function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. Study? He stresses on examples, the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to counseling Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in size and complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. Reservoirs And Greenhouse? The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”.

There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of case examples, World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in a personal mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.

Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the counseling, earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of Benefits of Using in Bodybuilding and Fitness Essay, problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of counseling examples, checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and Essay on Hydroelectric Reservoirs and Greenhouse, late marriage and case study, enforced celibacy as the examples, preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.

These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the living standards of general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is counseling case examples cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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